Site Map for Direct Link to Plant Description Page from their Petal Colour being nearest Colour to Colour in a Colour Wheel Page


Small size plant in Flower Colours
Miniature size plant in Flower Colours
Small Size plant flower in Month
Miniature Size plant flower in Month


Dark Tone or Shades
(Colours mixed with Black)
(Colours mixed with Grey)
Pure Hue
(the Primary, Secondary or Tertiary Colour named)
(Colours mixed with White)

(o)Rock Plant: A
(o)Rock Plant: B
(o)Rock Plant: C
(o)Rock Plant: D
(o)Rock Plant: E
(o)Rock Plant: F *
(o)Rock Plant: G
(o)Rock Plant: H
(o)Rock Plant: I
(o)Rock Plant: J
(o)Rock Plant: K
(o)Rock Plant: L
(o)Rock Plant: M
(o)Rock Plant: NO
(o)Rock Plant: PQ
(o)Rock Plant: R
(o)Rock Plant: S
(o)Rock Plant: T
(o)Rock Plant: UVWXYZ

Website Structure Explanation and User Guidelines

Ivydene Gardens Rock Garden Plants Suitable for Small Gardens in Colour Wheel Gallery:
Rock Garden Plant Index: F

Botanical Plant Name



Height and Spread in Inches


Position and Pro-tection

Flower Colour / Nearest Colour Wheel - Flowers Colour

Months of Flowering















1 x 10








"Name derived from the Latin word fritillus, which means a "dice box". This genus is widely distributed yet limited to the Northern Hemisphere. There are over 80 species. Many are found in Europe, especially round the Mediterranean, eastward to China and Japan, while others are found in North America, particularly along the western coastal states of the United States. Fritillaria are related to the genera Lilium, Notholiron and Tulipa, with their bell-shaped flowers, but the flowers are not so brilliantly colored. The plants are very graceful, however, and the checkering found on many of the flowers is most attractive.
The stems are unbranched and leafy. Depending on the species, the leaves are arranged sometimes in whorls and sometimes in pairs. Not infrequently basal leaves are produced, which are broader and longer than the stem leaves. These are seen most often in younger bulbs, prior to sending up the flower spike. The flowers are made up of 6 segments, which are equal or nearly so. Each petal has a nectary at the base, which often is very conspicuous. The 'Crown Imperial' is the only one of the genus with the flowers grouped on top of a strong stem, topped by a tuft of leaves. All others have flowers up the stem, in a variety of sizes. Some even have been mistaken for dwarf lilies. The fruit is a capsule with numerous seeds. The bulbs of all fritillaria are very fragile and must be handled with care. The fleshy bulbs will dry out in a short space of time. It is therefore, important that they be protected and, if shipped, wrapped so that little or no moisture is lost. The European and Asiatic species have somewhat larger bulbs than the American species, and are composed of fleshy scales, generally no more than 3 or 4. The American species have more numerous scales, and on the outside of the bulb can be found numerous fleshy, smaller scales which detach easily and can be grown on to flowering size.

Varies with each species but hot, dry conditions are not ideal for any fritillaria. Like abundant moisture in spring and early summer. Allow to dry out after flowering. Moisture must be present throughout life of leaves.
Plant bulbs some 3 inches (7.5 cms) deep and about 6-8 inches (15-20 cms) apart, with exception of Fritillaria imperialis and its cultivars which should be spaced 14-18 inches (35-45 cms) apart. Set out in fall (autumn) as soon as bulbs available. Hardiness of some species questionable, especially in areas where spring frosts common. High-organic-content soil an advantage; give weak feeding of organic fertiliser when bulbs emerge if soil rather poor. Good drainage essential (put handfull of sand below bulb in clay soil when planting to provide drainage - the sand will be mixed with the clay to create porous soil by the organisms in that clay soil), so avoid waterlogged soil. Planting in neighbourhood of shrubs is good to protect from full sun; Fritillaria imperialis can stand full sun, except in very hot locations where high shade should be given. Leave bulbs in position for a number of years.

Seed produced, but raising plants from seed to flowering is slow process, often taking 5 years or more. Seed can be sown when ripe in late summer or saved and sown in spring. Use sandy soil mix, barely covering seeds. Place in cool spot and keep moist. Germination may take at least 6 months, perhaps more. Leave in original container for 1 complete season before transplanting. In some species seedlings send out "sinker" roots and newly formed, little bulb will be found deep in container. Transplant to individual pots; grow on for at least 1 more season before planting out. Will generally flower in third or fourth season.
Bulbs that are fleshy will produce many offsets. Separate these from parent and line out in rows in garden or place in container at depth of 0.5 inches (1.25 cms). Do not plant in full, hot sun outdoors. Less moisture needed in late summer but do not allow to dry out completely. This method will save at least 2 seasons over planting of seedlings.
Scales also can be propagated. Number of scales taken from each bulb must be limited in order not to weaken small parent bulb.

Excellent for both woodland and container. Can be grown in protection of cold frame, getting them into flower a little earlier and so brought indoors to be enjoyed longer." from Bulbs Volume I, A-H by John E. Bryan (ISBN 0-7470-0231-2).



The Fritillaria Group is a special interest group within the Alpine Garden Society:-

  • Fritillaries are beautiful and rewarding plants to grow. Browsing through our Fritillaria picture galleries will reveal the many attractive species and forms that could entice you to try growing some yourself.
  • From articles on Fritillaria to notes on individual species, browse our site to discover a wealth of cultivation information to help you grow Fritillaria successfully.
  • Membership benefits include a twice-yearly colourful journal, opportunity to attend meetings and a fantastic seed exchange scheme. See Fritillaria Group membership details.



"Who are the Alpine Garden Society?
The Alpine Garden Society was founded in 1929 with the aim of promoting an interest in all aspects of alpine plants, rock gardening and rock garden plants, in fact any small hardy plants and bulbs, their cultivation in rock gardens and plant conservation in their natural habitats. We are one of the largest specialist garden societies in the world. Our membership includes amateur gardeners, plant enthusiasts, professional growers, botanists, naturalists, photographers and artists, as well as those who are just beginning to discover the fascination of alpines.

Whatever your interest in alpine and rock garden plants we believe our Society has something to offer everyone." from the Alpine Garden Society.

latifolia nobilis



3 x 4



Mottled purle




pudica ***



6 x 2










12 x 3



Mottled brownish-green















Bulbs may be used to make

  • a brilliant show in beds containing 1 colour only, or
  • devoted to special colour schemes.
  • They may be grown in borders,
    • again by themselves, or
    • intermingled with other flowering plants.
  • They may be used as a carpet for taller growing herbaceous plants,
  • as an embellishment to rock gardens, and lastly
  • they may be naturalised in parks and meadows.

Many people who love their gardens and are particularly fond of spring flowering bulbs, are deterred from growing them in a conspicuous part of their grounds by the fear that the necessity for their early removal before the plants are fully ripened will result in permanent detriment to the constitution of the bulbs, and a consequent loss of perhaps a considerable sum of money. As a matter of fact, this fear is quite unfounded, provided the bulbs are carefully lifted from their flowering quarters, and at once removed to reserve beds, where they are laid along the sides of narrow trenches and quickly covered again with soil, growth will hardly be checked, and the bulbs may be allowed to ripen at leisure, their place in the beds being at once taken by material to give a continuance of bloom.

Every kind of bulb or bulbous plant may, of course, be grown in beds either by themselves or in conjunction with other plants. Here of course, I am confining myself to spring flowering bulbs of the well-known varieties such as

  • Hyacinths,
  • Daffodils,
  • Tulips,
  • Crocus,
  • etc.

Colour schemes of every design can, of course, be worked out by the skilled gardener, but the amateur would, I think, do well to confine himself to bulbs of 1 particular species of Daffodil or Hyacinth, at any rate, when planning his beds. An exception may be made to this rule in the case of Tulips. Provided the bed is planted entirely with

  • Cottage,
  • May Flowering,
  • or
  • Darwin Tulips,

whether the colours be mixed or not, the result will be sure to be a perfect harmony. Nature has been especially kind to the Tulip in this respecy; no matte how many hundreds or thousands of these flowers are planted together, their colours never seem to clash. I once grew a border of mixed May Flowering Tulips containing 80,000 bulbs.

People came for miles to see the spectacle these presented when in bloom.

One form of spring bulb, which is popular for bedding purposes, but against which which I am inclined to warn the beginner, is the Hyacinth.

True its perfume is delightful, and when planted in close masses it produces a very fine effect, but it is a bulb which is liable to cause many disappointments. Should the situation be in the least exposed, the very slightest breeze will, with the assistance of the heavy trusses, cause the stems to break, leaving many unsightly gaps in the bed or border.

Again, the Hyacinth, unlike nearly every other bulb grown in this country (UK), instead of improving with kind treatment, deteriates year by year until, in a very short time, there is nothing left except a sort of attenuated blue-bell.

For these reasons I would recommend the amateur if he feels that he must grow Hyacinths as bedding plants, to cofine himself to the unnamed bedding varieties, which give an excellent effect.

Very beautiful bedding effects can be easily and cheaply achieved by the carpeting of the beds with some low-growing flowering plant and planting bulbs to show themselves between:-

  • A ground work of low growing Forget-Me-Not, pierced at intervals of 12 inches (30 cms) by tall yellow Tulips gives a lovely effect.
  • Again, a carpet of White Arabis with scarlet Tulips peeping through is a sight which will be remembered.

Coming to a later period of the year, Gladioli are especially benefited by this "carpeting" treatment.

I experimented very largely in this direction a few years ago with huge beds entirely composed of medium-sized Antirrhinums of 1 colour, with Gladioli of a complementary colour planted throughout the bed 18 inches (45 cms) apart.

For example, I had a bed of Antirrhunum Primrose Queen, a bright Yellow, with that deep blue Gladiolus Baron Joseph Hulot, at intervals throughout. Picture it.

Again a ground work of white Antirrhinums with scarlet Gladioli, scarlet Antirrhinums and white Gladioli, and so on.

Both Gladioli and Antirrhinums were vastly improved by this system; the Gladioli by having their long uninteresting stems hidden, and by the Antirrhinums by having the level monotony broken by the flower spikes towering above them.

Borders composed entirely of bulbs, either in mixed varieties, 1 variety, or interspersed with other spring flowering plants such as the Polyanthus, Violas, etc, provide a beautiful feature in any garden. I think one of the finest bulb borders I have ever seen was some years ago in a place on the outskirts of Dublin. This border, which was quite half a mile long and some ten feet - 120 inches (300 cms) wide, was composed entirely of Tulips, so carefully arranged with early flowering, mid, and late flowering varieties, that it presented a blaze of colour from the beginning of spring until the commencement of June. Of course, a border such as this would cost a very large sum indeed to start going; but there is no reason why it should not be carried out in a more modified manner. Clumps of bulbs again of any kind, whether Tulips, Daffodils, Narcissi, or corms such as Gladioli or Monbretia, used with discretion in the herbaceous border, give a cheery, aspect to this part of the garden at a period when it would otherwise be very dull. Some people object to the mixing of bulbs in the herbaceous border on the ground that their decaying foliage is unsightly in that position at a time of the year when everything else is in full glory. This is where discretion comes in. If they are planted near some broad-leaved or heavy "foliaged" subject, they will fulfill their object at the proper period without disclosing their presence later.


Many people who possess a rock garden consider that the addition of certain low growing bulbs, tubers, and bulbous plants are a great addition to the real inhabitants. Personally I hated to grow anything on my rock gardens except what were strictly speaking rock plants. I always felt that a rock garden should be retained for the cultivation of Alpine and other mountain plants alone.

However, I will admit having seen very attractive effects on the rock gardens of those who do not hold the same views as myself. For the benefit of such I will mention here a few bulbous plants which are particlarly suitable for this purpose.

The Chionodoxas, Puschkinias, alliums, Bravoas, Brodaeas, Calochorti, Colchicums, Crocuses, Erythroniums, Fritillarias, Galanthuses, some of the smaller Irises, Muscaris, some of the smaller Daffodils and Narcissi, such as Minimus, Bulbocodium, Hymenocallis, etc., and lastly the Cyclamen, some varieties of which are really rock or bog plants in every sense of the word.


Nowhere, I think, do bulbs and tubers look better than growing in the grass of parks and woodlands, and I fancy that this fact is gradually coming to be recognised. The chief thing to remember in the planting of bulbs in grass land is that under no circumstances must the grass be mown until the foliage has completely died down. If this rule is neglected, there will be precious little flowering the second year after planting, and none at all in a couple of seasons.

Bulbs will do just as well under trees as in the open. At the time of the year when they are in bloom, the trees have not yet put forth their foliage, and later on the shade is, if anything, a benefit.

The following varieties will do well cultivated in this manner: Crocuses, Frittillarias, Colchicums, chionodoxas, Muscari (Heavenly blue). All Daffodils and Narcissi, Ornithogalums (Star of Bethlehem), Tulips, and even Paeonies, at any rate of the old-fashioned rubust cottage sort. I grew these year after year in this manner with complete success, though I have never tried it with the more modern and delicate varieties.

Once the initial expense of the purchase of the bulbs and the planting has been undertaken, they will require no further attention when naturalised in grass for many years. Then, should they become so crowded that the flowering deteriorates, it will be necessary to lift them, divide, and replant again.

Do not forget that bulbs grown in this manner are greatly benefited by an autumn application of well-rotted farmyard manure or artificials. In fact it is, I consider, more necessary for them than for bulbs grown in cultivated ground, for in the case of the former the soil has not only to find sustenance for the bulbs themselves, but for the plants which Nature has already bestowed on it.

" from The Culture of Bulbs - Bulbous Plants and Tubers Made Plain by Sir J.L. Cotter. Published by Hutchinson & Co in London in 1925.

Rock Plant Colour Wheel - Flowers Link Map

Click on Number in Colour Wheel or Black sections below:-



Some abbreviations have been used in compiling the list of Rock Plants for small gardens in order to make it possible to provide all the required information at a glance in a condensed form.


First is the name of the genus to which the plant belongs which is given in capitals. Under the generic name the names of the species and varieties are recorded.

Link to photos, cultivation details or mail-order business that sells it.

Link in *** to Rock Garden Colour Wheel Page with photo of the plant at bottom of page. Then, More Photos Page links to further photos / description in its Rock Plant Photos Gallery Page.


Details of which container to grow the plant in:-


Abbreviated to:-

  • B for Bulb
  • H for Herb - any non-woody plant that is not a tree or shrub
  • HP for Herbaceous Perennial
  • S for Shrub
  • SS for Sub-shrub

followed by

  • E for Evergreen
  • D for Deciduous

Height and Spread

The approximate height is given first in inches, followed by the approximate spread, when mature. 1 inch (") = 25.4 millimetres (mm)


The figures A, B, C and D denote that the plant in question requires one of the following soil mixtures:-

  • A. Equal parts of loam, leafmould and sand. This is a suitable mixture for plants which require a light, open, porous soil with good drainage. A good mixture for troughs in a sheltered position in part shade. All bulbs and conifers do well in this medium.
  • B. Equal parts of loam, leafmould, peat and sand. This is more retentive of water but is well-drained and will grow all the plants in this Rock Plant List which are suitable for full sun, and it is ideal for woodland plants in part shade.
  • C. Four parts leafmould and one part each of loam and sand. A soil for growing dwarf rhododendrons and other ericaceous plants in the raised bed type of trough and peat beds.
  • D. Three parts Cornish silver sand and one part flaked leafmould. For all difficult and rare high alpines, including most of the cushion type. The trough containing this mixture is best situated in part shade.

which may be followed by

  • N for when a neutral pH medium is required.
  • L for when a limey pH medum is required.

Where no additional letter is given, the plant will thrive under either condition.

Position and Protection

The following terms and abbreviations used singly or in combination will minimize the risk of planting in an unsuitable spot:-

  • C --- This means that the plant will do well planted on its side in a crevice built up on the rocks for preference.
  • P --- This plant requires a pane of glass suspended over it in winter, generally from October to the end of March.
  • PS -- A part-shady spot or facing west with protection from the south by a shadow cast by either a rock or shrub.
  • SA -- Shady position either facing north or protected by a rock.
  • Sun - This means that the plant will require a normal amount of direct sunlight.
  • W --- The plant will do well planted in a vertical position in the side of a trough or scree frame.

Flower Colour, Nearest Colour Wheel - Flowers Colour and Months of Flowering

These 3 columns are self-explanatory;
for example, Orange June, means that

  • the flowers are orange (if the plant has a Plant Description Page in this website then the link from here will be to that Plant Description Page otherwise to a Plant Description found on the Internet),
  • orange3 in the Colour Wheel - Flowers is the nearest colour for the majority of the flower petal (either from a flower image in this website or an image found on the Internet), with link to the Colour Wheel - Flowers Colour and
  • the flowering month is June with link to the flower photo on the Internet.

A double entry such as
Orange August
Red October
means that the plant has orange flowers in August and red fruits or berries in October.


A general idea to the best method of increasing the stock:-

  • C ---- Half-ripened wood at the end of July.
  • D ----- Division.
  • GC ---- Green Cuttings in late spring.
  • L ------ Layering.
  • Leaf C - The plant is best propagated by leaf cuttings.
  • RC ----- Fully ripened wood at the end of September.
  • Root C - The plant is best propagated by cutting the thick root thongs at the end of September.
  • S ------- The best method is by seed.

may be followed by

  • H - Where this letter is placed after any of the above abbreviations, it means that bottom heat is essential to obtain a fair percentage of strikes.
    The omission of this letter does not mean that bottom heat cannot be employed; in fact, its use will certainly save an appreciable amount of time taken to increase the stock.

A combination of the above will denote that the plant can be increased by all the methods which those abbreviated letters stand for.

Propagation Seed Composts

"I am giving 3 types of composts which will be numbered 1, 2 and 3 so that they will not be confused with the potting mixtures. The number of the compost will be noted under the heading of propagation in the list of plants. These are not offered as the only types in which seedlings may be grown, but they have proved their worth over many years. As it will only be on rare occasions that a bushel of compost of any one of the seed mixtures will be required, I will give the size of the box which can be constructed easily to hold a quarter of a bushel, an amount more in keeping with the average amateur's need. The inside measurements of the box, which is best made of wood are 10 by 10 x 5.5 inches deep (25 by 25 x 13.25 cms). By doubling the depth a half bushel measure is available.

Compost 1
A mixture that has been found suitable for all the ordinary and easy types of alpine seed is the John Innes seed compost.
It can of course be mixed at home as required. Only the amount needed at the time should be made for its lasting qualities are strictly limited. All the following ingredients are mixed by bulk, not weight, and are best used dry after mixing, storing the compost for a day or 2 before use.

  • Take 2 parts of medium-heavy sterilised loam from a reliable source, full of rotted grass roots. The soil should be rubbed down between the hands into a light granular texture. All fibrous material must be retained and if large; cut into small pieces with scissors and mixed into the loam. On no account should the loam be sieved. This will spoil the texture of the finished compost and cause it to pack readily, a state of affairs to be avoided, for it is essential that the soil be open and granular in texture.
  • Add 1 part of sieved peat,
  • 1 part of Cornish sand

and well mix the whole together dry. Afterwards to this is added

  • 1.5 ounces of superphosphate of lime and
  • 0.75 ounces of chalk

to each bushel of compost. If this mixture is to be used for plants which are lime haters, the chalk should be omitted.


Compost 2
The more difficult and rare plants need a light, open soil in which to germinate and the following has been tried and found suitable. Equal parts by bulk of medium heavy fibrous loam and leaf-mould. Both the loam and leaf-mould should be sterilised and then rubbed down to a fine granular texture. The particles are better if small, but should not be sieved. To this is added 2 parts of Cornish sand, after sieving through a 1/16 inch sieve (2 mm) as the larger particles are not needed.


Compost 3
Shade-loving dwarf rhododendrons and other ericaceous and woodland plants like a more spongy yet still open medium. This consists of equal parts leaf-mould, peat and Cornish sand. The leaf-mould must be sterilised and rubbed down fine, the peat and sand should be sieved though a 1/16 inch (2 mm) sieve, and the wole well mixed together.


Both composts 2 and 3 need a very fine sprinkling of superphosphate of lime, just under 0.5 ounce for a quarter of a bushel of mixture or to be more precise 3/8 of an ounce. The superphosphate is needed by the seedlings in their early growth. In fact it is essential as a plant food as soon as the seed starts to germinate, so it must be mixed with the composts, not applied afterwards. " from Collector's Alpines by Royton E. Heath published in 1964 by Collingridge Limited.



Site design and content copyright ©October 2010. Page structure amended November 2012. Rock Plant Photos Gallery added August 2013. Topic Menu amended July 2015. Chris Garnons-Williams.

DISCLAIMER: Links to external sites are provided as a courtesy to visitors. Ivydene Horticultural Services are not responsible for the content and/or quality of external web sites linked from this site.  

Ivydene Horticultural Services logo with I design, construct and maintain private gardens. I also advise and teach you in your own garden. 01634 389677



Vancouver Island Rock and Alpine Garden Society is a club of plant lovers living near Victoria, British Columbia, Canada, who visit, study, photograph, draw and grow alpine plants, bog dwellers and woodlanders, whether native or exotic. We encourage the propagation and distribution of plants.


List of Desirable Plants (from Vancouver Island Rock
and Alpine Garden Society)

Asterisks following entries in the list denote plants known to the author from local gardens. Double asterisks indicate species which have done particularly well in the author's rock garden which is located mostly on south-facing slopes. No, or only short-term experience is available for the unmarked species, but they are expected to perform well and should be tried wherever obtainable.

Acantholimon, various spp. - still being tested; more information wanted*
• Achillea ageratifolia [= Anthemis aizoon] (Greece)**
Achillea chrysocoma (Balkans, Asia Minor)**
• Achillea umbellata (Greece)
Aethionema, all spp. (SE Europe, Asia Minor)**
• Allium flavum, A. moly, A. neapolitanum (S Europe)*
• Allium insubricum (Lago di Garda, L.d.Como, Italy)
• Allium moschatum (Mediterr.) white
• Allium narcissiflorum (SE Europe)
• Allium ostrovskianum (Central Asia)*
• Allium triquetrum (E Mediterranean), and many others
• Alyssum argenteum (SE Europe)
• Alyssum armenum (Turkey)
• Alyssum atlanticum (W Mediterranean, Morocco)
• Alyssum cuneifolium (Mediterr.) - very low cushions
• Alyssum doerfleri (Balkans)
• Alyssum lycaonicum (Turkey)
Alyssum montanum (Mediterranean, Eurasia)*
• Alyssum olympicum (Greece)
Alyssum saxatile (Europe and Balkans)*
• Alyssum serpyllifolium (W Mediterranean)
• Anacyclus depressus (N Africa)*
• Anagallis linifolia (S Europe to N Africa)**
• Androsace armeniaca var macrantha (Turkey) - monocarpic*
Androsace villosa (Asia Minor) sun-loving, lime
• Andryala aghardii (S.Spain) silvery-leaved subshrub*
• Anemone appennina (S Europe)
Anemone blanda, A. coronaria, A. fulgens, A. hortensis,
A. pavonina (all in Greece, Asia M)*
• Anthemis biebersteiniana (Asia Minor)
• Anthemis cretica and subspecies (Asia M.)*
• Aphyllanthes monspeliensis (S France)*
• Aquilegia discolor (Spain)**
• Arabis caucasica (SE Europe to Iran)*
• Arabis procurrens (SE Europe)*
Arenaria balearica (Sardinia, Corsica, Balearic Islands)*
• Arenaria montana and form 'Grandiflora` (S Alps, Pyrenees)*
• Arenaria purpurascens (Spain)*
Arenaria tetraquetra (Italy, Spain) sun-loving
Armeria caespitosa (Pyrenees)**
• Asarina procumbens (Spain)*
• Asperula boissierii (Greece) - v. short, cushion-forming, pink-fl.
• Asperula gussonii (Sicilian mtns.) less compact than boissierii
Asperula lilaciflora (Mediterranean)
• Asperula nitida (Greece, Turkey)*
• Asperula sintenisii (Turkey) glaucous
• Asperula suberosa (Greece, Bulgaria) white hairy - no winter wetness
• Asphodeline lutea, A. liburnica (Mediterr.)*
• Asphodeline taurica (Taurus M.) - inflorescence w. silvery bracts
• Asteriscus maritimus (Mediterr.) - subshrubby, tender*
• Astragalus angustifolius (Balkans, Asia Minor)
• Astragalus sempervirens (Pyrenees, S Alps, Balkans)
• Aubrieta, all spp. and cultivars (E Mediterranean)**
• Buxus sempervirens (Mediterranean, S Europe, W Asia),
only the dwarf form 'Suffruticosa`
• Campanula andrewsii (Peloponnese)
• Campanula arvatica (N. Spain) - only 5 cm
• Campanula elatines (NW Italy) hot cliffs
• Campanula fragilis (S. Italy) - like turbinata; coastal limestone rocks
• Campanula garganica (SE Italy, Greece)*
• Campanula isophylla (N. Italy)*
• Campanula oreades (E Greece) among rocks, crevices*
• Campanula portenschlagiana (Dalmatia).**
• Campanula poscharskyana (W Yugoslavia) stony places*
• Campanula rupicola (Greece, Mt.Parnassus) limestone cliffs
• Campanula saxatilis (Aegean Islands) limestone crevices*
• Catananche caespitosa (Atlas)
• Cerastium tomentosum (Italy) - may be invasive*
• Chionodoxa gigantea, C. luciliae (Asia Minor)*
• Chrysanthemum hosmariense (Atlas Mts.)**
• Chrysanthemum pallidum ssp. spathulifolium (SE Spain)
• Chrysanthemum radicans (SE Spain) soft yellow
• Chrysanthemum tomentosum (Corsica)
• Cistus: With age, some of the species are too expansive
for small rock gardens
• Cistus albanicus (Albania) white, low
• Cistus clusii (S Spain, S Italy) white, low
• Cistus ladaniferus [frost hardiness marginal] (W Mediterr.)*
• Cistus salviaefolius (Mediterranean)*
• Colchicum, all spp., except C. autumnale (Europe, Mediterranean,
to Central Asia)*
• Convolvulus boissieri (Spain to Greece) - lime
• Convolvulus cneorum (W Mediterr.) - small shrub**
• Convolvulus compactus (Turkey)
• Crepis incana (Greece)
• Crocus, the vast majority of all spp., except C. vernus and
some of its hybrids. (S Europe,
• Mediterranean, to C Asia)*
• Cyclamen, all hardy spp., except Cyclamen purpurascens
(Mediterranean to W Asia)*
• Cytisus ardoinii (SW Alps)
• Cytisus decumbens (S Europe)*
• Cytisus demissus (Greece)*
• Cytisus pulchellus (Albania)
• Daphne blagayana (SE Europe) creamy white, limestone
• Daphne collina (S Italy)
• Daphne jasminea (Greece, N Africa) evergreen,
wh.-fld., purplish buds, borderline
• Daphne oleoides (S Europe and Asia Minor)
• Daphne sericea (Crete) - similar to collina**
• Dianthus, the following and others, except
those from high elevations in Alps.
• Dianthus brevicaulis (Turkey) - lime*
• Dianthus deltoides (Europe, Asia)**
• Dianthus erinaceus (Asia Minor)
• Dianthus gratianopolitanus (Europe)**
• Dianthus haematocalyx and
ssp. pindicola (Yugoslavia to Greece)**
• Dianthus microlepis (Bulgaria) no lime
• Dianthus monspessulanus (S Europe)*
• Dianthus spiculifolius (Balkans, Carpathians)**
• Dictamnus albus (N Mediterr.) limestone
• Doronicum columnae (Alps to Asia Minor)*
• Draba acaulis (Turkey, Ala Dag)
• Draba bruniifolia (Asia Minor)**
• Draba dedeana (Spain) white-fl.*
• Draba elegans (Cilician Taurus)
• Draba hispanica (E and S Spain)
• Draba rigida (Armenia)*
• Draba rosularis (Turkey)*
• Echinospartium horridum (Spain, Portugal)
• Edraianthus dalmaticus (Dalmatia)*
• Edrainathus graminifolius (Italy and Greece)**
• Edraianthus dinaricus, E. pumilio**, E. serpyllifolius (Dalmatia)
• Epimedium perralderianum (Algeria) yellow*
• Eranthis cilicica (Asia Minor)*
• Eranthis hiemalis (S Europe)*
• Erinacea anthyllis (Spain and N Africa)*
• Erodium absinthoides (Asia Minor)
• Erodium cazorlanum (Spain)
• Erodium chamaedrioides (Majorca)
• Erodium corsicum (Corsica)*
• Erodium supracanum (Pyrenees) grey finely divided foliage
• Erysimum sp., known mistakenly
as E."kotschyanum" in local gardens - low**
• Erysimum wilczeckianum (N Africa) - low, large pale yellow flowers*
• Euphorbia capitulata (Greece) - lime*
• Euphorbia myrsinites (Mediterranean)**
• Fritillaria, virtually all old-world spp., except F. meleagris*
• Galanthus, all spp., except G. nivalis
(SE Europe to W Asia); G. elwesii most suitable.*
• Genista dalmatica (Balkans) low
• Genista lydia (Balkans, Asia Minor)*
• Genista hispanica (SW Europe) spiny, lower than radiata
• Gentiana: Most spp. demand summer moisture
• Gentiana dinarica, some acaulis-group hybrids
after the roots have reached depth*
• Gentiana olivieri (Turkey to Central Asia) summer-dormant
• Gentiana septemfida (Asia Minor) when well established*
• Geranium cazorlense (Spain) very low
• Geranium cinereum and forms (Spain to Caucasus)*
• Geranium dalmaticum (Dalmatia)**
• Geranium incanum (S Africa)
• Globularia cordifolia (Europe and N Mediterranean)**
• Globularia nudicaulis (Alps to Yugoslavia)*
• Gypsophila repens (Alps and N Mediterranean Mts.)*
• Gypsophila petraea (Carpathians)*
• Haberlea rhodopensis (Balkans) - some shade**
• Halimiocistus ingwersonii - generic hybrid - (Portugal)*
• Halimium lasianthum (Portugal, Spain)*
• Helianthemum appenninum (N Mediterranean to Asia Minor)*
• Helianthemum lunulatum (S Europe)*
• Helianthemum nummularium and
ssp. grandiflorum (Europe, Asia M.)
• Helichrysum frigidum (Corsica)
• Hypericum athoum (Greece)*
• Hypericum balearicum (Balearic Islands) - 50 cm shrub**
• Hypericum empetrifolium (Greece)**
• Hypericum olympicum, H. polyphyllum (Asia Minor)**
• Hypericum repens (Asia Minor)
• Iberis gibraltarica (Spain)
• Iberis saxatilis (S Europe)**
• Iberis sempervirens (S Europe to Asia Minor)**
• Iberis tauricum (Turkey)*
• Iris attica (Yugoslavia to Turkey)
• Iris lutescens [=chamaeiris] (W Spain and Portugal)**
• Iris melitta [=suaveolens] (Bulgaria to Turkey)**
• Iris pumila (Austria and E)**
• Iris reichenbachii (Balkans)
• Iris reticulata -section, most spp.*
• Leucojum autumnale (Portugal, N Africa)
• Leucojum roseum (Corsica, Sardinia)
• Leucojum trichophyllum (Spain, Portugal, N Africa)
• Lilium candidum (S Mediterranean) lime
• Lilium chalcedonicum ? (Greece)
• Lilium croceum (S Alps)
• Lilium pomponium (N Mediterranean)
• Linaria pallida (Italy)
• Linum campanulatum (Spain, Italy) yellow
• Linum capitatum (E Mediterr., S Europe) y.,
woody base, better than compactum*
• Linum "Gemmel's Hybrid", mound-forming
• Linum leucanthum (Greece) white; very short cushion
• Linum punctatum (C and E Mediterr) mat-forming, blue
• Linum suffruticosum (W Meditterr.) pale pink;
'Salsoloides` and 'Prostratum`
• Linum tauricum (Greece +?) yellow, v.delicate,
narrow lvs and branches, short
• Lithodora diffusa (S Europe)*
• Matricaria oreades (Asia Minor)
• Moltkia petraea (Greece)
• Moltkia suffruticosa (N Italy)
• Morina persica (Greece to Iran)
• Morisia monantha (Corsica, Sardinia)*
• Muscari, all spp. (S Europe, Mediterranean, Asia Minor)*
• Narcissus, all dwarf spp. (Portugal to N Africa)
and most others, except some derived from N.
• pseudonarcissus, N. cyclamineus, and N. jonquilla*
• Onosma albo-roseum (Turkey, Iraq, Syria)*
• Onosma frutescens (Greece)
• Onosma nanum (Turkey)
• Onosma polyphyllum (Crimea)
• Onosma stellulatum (W Yugoslavia)
• Onosma tauricum (SE Europe to Turkey)*
• Origanum amanum (Anatolia)
• Origanum dictamnus (E Mediterr.)
• Origanum scabrum v. pulchrum (S Greece)
• Ornithogalum nutans (SE Europe)**
• Ornithogalum sibthorpii (Balkan to Crete)
• Paeonia cambessedessii (Balearic Islands, Corsica)*
• Paeonia clusii (Crete) white, smallest
• Paeonia tenuifolia (SE Europe, Asia Minor)
• Paraquilegia grandiflora (from Afghanistan E)
• Pelargonium endlicherianum (Turkey)*
• Polygala chamaebuxus (Alps)*
• Polygala microphylla (W Spain, Portugal)
• Polygala nicaensis (S Europe to Russia)
• Polygala stocksiana (Turkey to Transcaucasia)
• Primula fedtschenkoi (C Asia) summer-dormant
• Primula juliae (SE Caucasus)*
• Primula kaufmanniana (C Asia) summer-dormant
• Primula palinurii (S Italy) summer-dormant
• Primula vulgaris (W and S Europe, to Asia Minor, Armenia)**
• Primula vulgaris var. rubra [= P. abchasica] (E Mediterranean)
• Primula vulgaris ssp. sibthorpii (Balkans)*
• Prunus prostrata (Mediterranean)
• Pterocephalus parnassii (Greece)**
• Pterocephalus pinardii (Turkey)*
• Pterocephalus spathulatus (SE Spain)
• Ptilotrichum purpureum(SE Spain)
• Ptilotrichum spinosum (N Spain)**
• Puschkinia hyacinthoides, P. libanotica (Asia Minor)*
• Ramonda myconii (Pyrenees) [Note: Ramondas need shade]*
• Ramonda nathaliae (Macedonia, Albania)
• Ranunculus abnormis (Spain, Portugal) yellow
• Ranunculus calandrinioides (N Africa)**
• Ranunculus gramineus (Mediterranean)**
• Ranunculus kochii (from Turkey S and E) ficaria-type
• Ranunculus millefoliatus (Mediterr)
• Ranunculus millefolius (from Turkey S)
• Ranunculus parnassifolius (Pyrenees)
• Ranunculus rupestris (W Mediterr)
• Rosmarinus officinalis 'Prostratus` (Mediterranean)*
• Rosularia aizoon, R. pallida , others (Asia Minor)*
• Salvia albimaculata (Turkey)
• Salvia blepharochlaena (Turkey)
• Salvia caespitosa (Turkey)*
• Salvia eriophora (Turkey)
• Santolina chamaecyparissus 'Corsica`,
also known as S. incana nana (Mediterranean)*
• Saponaria caespitosa (Spain)*
• Saponaria ocymoides (SW Europe)**
• Saponaria x olivana [infertile cross S. caespitosa x S. pumilio]**
• Saponaria pulvinaris (Asia Minor)
• Saponaria pumilio (SE Europe to Lebanon)
• Satureja croatica (Balkans)
• Satureja montana (Mediterranean to S Russia)*
• Saxifraga canaliculata (Spain)*
• Saxifraga lingulata [=callosa] var. australis (Italy)*
• Saxifraga lingulata var. catalaunica (Spain)
• Saxifraga longifolia (E Spain)
• Saxifraga trifurcata (N Spain)
• Scabiosa graminifolia (Pyrenees to Dalmatia)*
• Scilla hispanica (Spain, Portugal)*
• Scilla sibirica (Balkans, Asia M., to S Russia)*
• Scutellaria orientalis (Balkans,
Asia Minor) [needs scree conditions]*
• Sedum acre (N Africa to N Asia)*
• Sedum album (N Africa to N Asia)**
• Sedum atlanticum (Atlas)
• Sedum brevifolium (Spain)
• Sedum caeruleum (Corsica to N Africa)
• Sedum dasyphyllum (Europe, N Africa)*
• Sedum gypsicolum (Spain to Atlas)
• Sedum idaeum (Crete)
• Sedum jaccardianum (Atlas)
• Sedum laconicum (Greece)
• Sedum lagascae (Iberia)
• Sedum magellense (Mediterr)
• Sedum sediforme (S Europe, N Africa, Asia Minor)
• Sedum sempervivoides (Turkey)
• Sedum tenuifolium (Mediterr)
• Sedum tristriatum (Greece)
• Sedum urvillei (Balkans)
• Sempervivum, all spp. (Mediterranean,
S Europe, Asia Minor)*
• Silene boryi (S Spain)
• Silene caryophylloides (Turkey)
• Silene parnassica (E Mediterr.)
• Silene pindicola (N Greece)
• Silene schafta (E Caucasus, N Iran)**
• Silene vallesiaca (S France to Greece)
• Stachys amanica (Turkey)
• Stachys candida (Greece)
• Stachys chrysantha (Greece)
• Stachys citrina (Turkey)
• Stachys lavandulifolia (Turkey, Iran, Iraq)
• Stachys spruneri (SE Greece)
• Sternbergia clusiana, S. lutea (Mediterranean)*
• Tanacetum pallidum (Spain)
• Tanacetum pulverulentum (N Spain, Portugal)
• Teucrium aroanicum (Greece)
• Teucrium pyrenaicum (Pyrenees, W France)*
• Teucrium polium aureum (Turkey)**
• Thalictrum orientale (Greece, Asia Minor)
• Thalictrum tuberosum (Spain) as above
• Thlaspi nevadense (Spain)
• Thlaspi sintenisii (Turkey)
• Thlaspi stylosum (Appenines)
• Thymus caespititius (Portugal)
• Thymus capitatus (Portugal) small shrub
• Thymus cilicicus (Asia Minor)
• Thymus longiflorus (Spain)
• Tulipa (Mediterranean to Central Asia): Almost
all species tulips are ideal for our conditions.
• Recommended are: T. bakeri**, T. batalinii**,
T. chrysantha, T. clusiana, T. humilis**, T.
• linifolia**, T. pulchella, T. saxatilis**,
T. sprengeri, T. tarda**, T. urumiensis.**
• Verbascum acaule (S Greece)
• Verbascum arcturus (Crete)
• Verbascum dumulosum (Asia Minor) and hybrid 'Letitia`**
• Verbascum pestalozzae (Turkey)
• Veronica armena, V. cinerea (Asia Minor)
• Veronica bombycina (Turkey)
• Veronica caespitosa (Lebanon, Turkey)
• Veronica pontica (Balkans)
• Veronica prostrata (Europe, Asia Minor, Siberia)*
• Veronica saturejoides (Dalmatia)*
• Veronica whittallii (Asia Minor)**
• Viola bertolonii and ssp. corsica (Italy, Balkans)*
• Viola cazorlensis (S Spain) shrubby, beautiful
• Viola crassiuscula (S Spain)
• Viola doerfleri (Yugoslavia)
• Viola eugeniae (Italy)
• Viola eximia (Balkans)
• Viola graeca (Greece, Italy)
• Viola gracilis (Balkans, Asia Minor)*



There are other pages on Plants which bloom in each month of the year in this website:-





Explanation of Structure of this Website with User Guidelines Page for those photo galleries with Photos
(of either ones I have taken myself or others which have been loaned only for use on this website from external sources)




when I do not have my own or ones from mail-order nursery photos , then from March 2016, if you want to start from the uppermost design levels through to your choice of cultivated and wildflower plants to change your Plant Selection Process then use the following galleries:-

  • Create and input all plants known by Amateur Gardening inserted into their Sanders' Encyclopaedia from their edition published in 1960 (originally published by them in 1895) into these
    • Stage 1 - Garden Style Index Gallery,
    • Stage 2 - Infill Plants Index Gallery being the only gallery from these 7 with photos (from Wikimedia Commons) ,
    • Stage 3 - All Plants Index Gallery with each plant species in its own Plant Type Page followed by choice from Stage 4a, 4b, 4c and/or 4d REMEMBERING THE CONSTRAINTS ON THE SELECTION FROM THE CHOICES MADE IN STAGES 1 AND 2
    • Stage 4a - 12 Bloom Colours per Month Index Gallery,
    • Stage 4b - 12 Foliage Colours per Month Index Gallery with
    • Stage 4c - Cultivation, Position, Use Index Gallery and
    • Stage 4d - Shape, Form Index Gallery
    • Unfortunately, if you want to have 100's of choices on selection of plants from 1000's of 1200 pixels wide by up to 16,300 pixels in length webpages, which you can jump to from almost any of the pages in these 7 galleries above, you have to put up with those links to those choices being on
      • the left topic menu table,
      • the header of the middle data table and on
      • the page/index menu table on the right of every page of those galleries.



I hope that you find that the information in this website is useful to you:-

I like reading and that is shown by the index in my Library, where I provide lists of books to take you between designing, maintaining or building a garden and the hierarchy of books on plants taking you from

There are these systems for choosing plants as shown in

  • Plants topic
  • Garden Style Index Gallery
  • Colour Wheel of All Flowers 53 flower colours
  • Colour Wheel of All Flowers per Month 53 flower colours
  • Flower Shape
  • This All Bee-Pollinated Flowers gallery compares 13 flower colour photos per month for many plants from the other Galleries, by clicking on the 1 in the relevant Flower per month Colour in the Colour Wheel down on the right,
  • the Bee-pollinated Index Gallery provides the tabular index of another 264 plants with the relevant colour in that respective month:-
    • 51 ANNUALS
    • 11 BIENNIALS
    • 4 CLIMBERS
    • 2 GRASSES which cause hayfever

82 rock garden plants (with photos) suitable for small garden areas; split into:-

3 BULBS - Spring Catalogue. For planting in February/ May
2 BULBS - Late Summer Catalogue. For planting in July/ September
7 BULBS - Autumn Catalogue. For planting in September/ November
2 Bulbs - Winter Catalogue. For planting in November/ March
in the Rock Plant Flowers Gallery.
All the remaining rock garden plants detailed in the Rock Garden Plant Index pages in the Rock Plant Flowers are waiting to receive photos, before they can be added to the 1 of the 52 Rockgarden Colour Wheel - Flowers Pages and then the above list.

I am taking photos of rock garden plants suitable for small gardens and if they do not have their own Plant Description Page in this website, then each photo of each plant will be located at the bottom of the relevant 1 of 52 Rockgarden Flower Colour Wheel pages. Usually a link in *** to that page of 35 will be included in the Name field of the respective Index Page, for:-

Then a link using More Photos Page links to the Rock Plant Photos Gallery for each of the above 35 Rock Garden Plants


Case Studies
Companion Planting
Garden Construction Garden Design
...RHS Mixed Borders
......Bedding Plants
......Her Perennials
......Other Plants Garden Maintenance
Offbeat Glossary
Tool Shed
Useful Data


Topic - Plant Photo Galleries
Bedding Flower Shape

...Allium/ Anemone
...Colchicum/ Crocus
...Hippeastrum/ Lily
...Late Summer
Deciduous Shrub
...Shrubs - Decid
Deciduous Tree
...Trees - Decid
Evergreen Perennial
...P-Evergreen A-L
...P-Evergreen M-Z
...Flower Shape
Evergreen Shrub
...Shrubs - Evgr
...Heather Shrub
Evergreen Tree
...Trees - Evgr
Herbaceous Perennial
...P -Herbaceous
...RHS Wisley
...Flower Shape
Odds and Sods
...RHS Wisley A-F
...RHS Wisley G-R
...RHS Wisley S-Z
...Rose Use
...Other Roses A-F
...Other Roses G-R
...Other Roses S-Z
Soft Fruit
Top Fruit


Wild Flower
with its
flower colour page,
Site Map page in its flower colour
NOTE Gallery
...Blue Note
...Brown Note
...Cream Note
...Green Note
...Mauve Note
...Multi-Cols Note
...Orange Note
...Pink A-G Note
...Pink H-Z Note
...Purple Note
...Red Note
...White A-D Note
...White E-P Note
...White Q-Z Note
...Yellow A-G Note
...Yellow H-Z Note
...Shrub/Tree Note


Topic - Flower/Foliage Colour Colour Wheel Galleries
Following your choice using Garden Style then that changes your Plant Selection Process
Garden Style
...Infill Plants
...12 Bloom Colours per Month Index
...12 Foliage Colours per Month Index
...All Plants Index
...Cultivation, Position, Use Index
...Shape, Form

you could use these Flower Colour Wheels with number of colours

All Flowers 53

All Flowers per Month 12
All Bee-Pollinated Flowers per Month 12


Rock Garden and Alpine Flower Colour Wheel with number of colours
Rock Plant Flowers 53
...Rock Plant Photos

Further details on Alpine plants for Rock Gardens from the Infill galleries:-
...for other uses
...Meadow 1, 2 , 3
...Lime dislikers
...For Walls 1, 2, 3
...Between Paving Troughs
...Grow on Walls
Other Websites:-

......Green walls: How to grow a garden vertically from The Telegraph
......Green Walls by Royal Horticultural Society
......What you can grow in
shady spaces
Other Galleries:-
...Alpine List
...Evergreen Pers
...Herb Pers
...Plants used by the Egg, Caterpillar, Chrysalis and Butterfly
...Wildflowers including those for Old Buildings and Walls



these Foliage Colour Wheels structures, which have done but until I can take the photos and I am certain of the plant label's validity, these may not progress much further

All Foliage 212

All Spring Foliage 212
All Summer Foliage 212
All Autumn Foliage 212
All Winter Foliage 212

Flower Colour Wheel without photos, but with links to photos
12 Bloom Colours per Month Index
...All Plants Index


Topic - Wildlife on Plant Photo Gallery
Usage of Plants
by Egg, Caterpillar, Chrysalis and Butterfly

Egg, Caterpillar, Chrysalis and Butterfly usage of
Plant A-C
Plant C-M
Plant N-W
Butterfly usage of Plant




Fragrant Plants adds the use of another of your 5 senses in your garden:-
Sense of Fragrance from Roy Genders

Fragrant Plants:-
Trees and Shrubs with Scented Flowers.

Trees and Shrubs with Scented Leaves.

Trees and Shrubs with Aromatic Bark.

Shrubs bearing Scented Flowers for an
Acid Soil

Shrubs bearing Scented Flowers for a
Chalky or Limestone Soil

Shrubs bearing Scented leaves for a
Sandy Soil

Herbaceous Plants with Scented Flowers.

Herbaceous Plants with Scented Leaves.

Annual and Biennial Plants with Scented Flowers or Leaves.

Bulbs and Corms with Scented Flowers.

Scented Plants of Climbing and Trailing Habit.

Winter-flowering Plants with Scented Flowers.

Night-scented Flowering Plants.

Scented Aquatic Plants.

Plants with Scented Fruits.

Plants with Scented Roots.

Trees and Shrubs with Scented Wood.

Trees and Shrubs with Scented Gums.

Scented Cacti and Succulents.

Plants bearing Flowers or Leaves of Unpleasant Smell.

Flower Perfume Group:-

Indoloid Group.

Aminoid Group with scent - Hawthorn.

Heavy Group with scents -
Jonquil and

Aromatic Group with scents - Almond,
Aniseed, Balsamic,
Carnation, Cinnamon, Clove,
Spicy and

Violet Group.

Rose Group.

Lemon Group with scent -

Fruit-scented Group with scents -
Green Apple,
Orange, Pineapple,
Ripe Apple , Ripe Banana and
Ripe Plum.

Animal-scented Group with scents -
Human Perspiration,
Ripe Apple and
Tom Cat.

Honey Group.

Unpleasant Smell Group with scents -
Stale Lint,
Sulphur and

Miscellaneous Group with scents -
Damask Rose, Daphne,
Heliotrope, Honeysuckle,
Incense-like, Jasmine,
Lily of the Valley, Meadowsweet, Mignonette,
Newly Mown Hay, Nutmeg,
Resinous, Sandalwood, Sassafras,
Treacle and
Very Sweet.


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