Topic - Over 1060 links in this table to a topic in a topic folder or page within that folder of this website
Case Studies
...Drive Foundations
Ryegrass and turf kills plants within Roadstone and in Topsoil due to it starving and dehydrating them.
CEDAdrive creates stable drive surface and drains rain into your ground, rather than onto the public road.
8 problems caused by building house on clay or with house-wall attached to clay.
Pre-building work on polluted soil.

Companion Planting
A ,B ,C ,D ,E ,
F ,G ,H ,I ,J ,K ,
L ,M ,N ,O ,P ,Q ,
R ,S ,T ,U ,V ,W ,
X, Y, Z
...Pest Control
...using Plants
to provide a Companion Plant to aid your selected plant or deter its pests


with ground drains
Garden Design
...How to Use the Colour Wheel Concepts for Selection of Flowers, Foliage and Flower Shape
...RHS Mixed

......Bedding Plants
......Her Perennials
......Other Plants
......Camera photos of Plant supports

Glossary with a tomato teaching cauliflowers
Library of over 1000 books
Offbeat Glossary with DuLally Bird in its flower clock.

...Groundcover A,
B, C, D, E, F, G, H,
I, J, K, L, M, N, O,
P, Q, R, S, T, U, V,
W, XYZ with 14 Special Situations. Chalk (Alkaline) Soil A-F1, A-F2,
A-F3, G-L, M-R,
M-R Roses, S-Z Heavy Clay Soil A-F, G-L, M-R, S-Z Lime-Free (Acid) Soil A-F, G-L, M-R,
S-Z Light Sand Soil
A-F, G-L, M-R, S-Z.
...Poisonous Plants.
...Extra Plant Pages
with its 6 Plant Selection Levels

Interaction between 2 Quartz Sand Grains to make soil
How roots of plants are in control in the soil
Without replacing Soil Nutrients, the soil will break up to only clay, sand or silt
Subsidence caused by water in Clay
Use water ring for trees/shrubs for first 2 years.

Tool Shed with 3 kneeling pads
Useful Data with benefits of Seaweed

Topic -
Plant Photo Galleries
with Plant Botanical Index

...A, B, C, D, E,
...F, G, H, I, J, K,
...L, M, N, O, P, Q,
...R, S, T, U, V, W,
...X, Y, Z

If the plant type below has flowers, then the first gallery will include the flower thumbnail in each month of 1 of 6 or 7 flower colour comparison pages of each plant in its subsidiary galleries, as a low-level Plant Selection Process
Bedding Flower Shape

Bulb Index
A1, 2, 3, B, C1, 2,
D, E, F, G, Glad,
H, I, J, K, L1, 2,
M, N, O, P, Q, R,
S, T, U, V, W, XYZ
...Allium/ Anemone
...Colchicum/ Crocus
...Gladiolus with its 40 Flower Colours
......European A-E
......European F-M
......European N-Z
......Eur Non-classified
......American A
......American B
......American C
......American D
......American E
......American F
......American G
......American H
......American I
......American J
......American K
......American L
......American M
......American N
......American O
......American P
......American Q
......American R
......American S
......American T
......American U
......American V
......American W
......American XYZ
......Ame Non-classified
......Australia - empty
...Hippeastrum/ Lily
...Late Summer
...Each of the above ...Bulb Galleries has its own set of Flower Colour Pages
...Flower Shape
...Bulb Form

...Bulb Use

...Bulb in Soil

Further details on bulbs from the Infill Galleries:-
Hardy Bulbs



...Forcing Lily of the Valley



...Hyacinths in Pots


...Lilium in Pots
...Narcissi in Pots



Half-Hardy Bulbs



Uses of Bulbs:-
...for Bedding Windowboxes Border
...naturalized in Grass Bulb Frame Woodland Garden Rock Garden Bowls Alpine House
...Bulbs in Greenhouse or Stove:-




...Plant Bedding in

...Bulb houseplants flowering inside House during:-
...Bulbs and other types of plant flowering during:-
...Selection of the smaller and choicer plants for the Smallest of Gardens with plant flowering during the same 6 periods as in the previous selection

Climber in
3 Sector Vertical Plant System
Deciduous Shrub
...Shrubs - Decid
Deciduous Tree
...Trees - Decid
Evergreen Perennial
...P-Evergreen A-L
...P-Evergreen M-Z
...Flower Shape
Evergreen Shrub
...Shrubs - Evergreen
...Heather Shrub
...Heather Index
......Erica: Carnea
......Erica: Cinerea
......Erica: Others
Evergreen Tree
...Trees - Evergreen

...Diascia Photo Album,
...UK Peony Index

...P -Herbaceous
...Flower Shape
...RHS Wisley
......Mixed Border
......Other Borders
Odds and Sods

...RHS Wisley A-F
...RHS Wisley G-R
...RHS Wisley S-Z
...Rose Use - page links in row 6. Rose, RHS Wisley and Other Roses rose indices on each Rose Use page
...Other Roses A-F
...Other Roses G-R
...Other Roses S-Z
Pruning Methods
Photo Index
R 1, 2, 3
Peter Beales Roses
RV Roger

Soft Fruit
Top Fruit

Wild Flower and
Butterfly page links are in next row

Topic -
Butterflies in the UK mostly use native UK wildflowers.

Butterfly Species.

Egg, Caterpillar, Chrysalis and Butterfly Usage
of Plants.

Plant Usage by
Egg, Caterpillar, Chrysalis and Butterfly.

Wild Flower
...Flower Shape and Landscape Uses

with its
flower colour page,
Site Map page in its flower colour NOTE Gallery
...Blue Note
...Brown Botanical Names
...Cream Common Names
...Green Note
...Mauve Note
...Multi-Cols Note
...Orange Note
...Pink A-G Note
...Pink H-Z Note
...Purple Note
...Red Note
...White A-D Note
...White E-P Note
...White Q-Z Note
...Yellow A-G Note
...Yellow H-Z Note
...Shrub/Tree Note

Wildflower Plants.

You know its name, use
Wild Flower Plant Index a-h, i-p, q-z.
You know which habitat it lives in, use
Acid Soil,
(Chalk) Soil
Marine Soil,
Neutral Soil,
is a
is a
is a
Rush, or
is a
You have seen its flower, use Comparison Pages containing Wild Flower Plants and Cultivated Plants in the
Colour Wheel Gallery.

Each plant named in each of the 180 Wildflower Family Pages within their 23 Galleries may have a link to:-
1) its Plant Description Page in its Common Name column in one of those Wildflower Plant Galleries and will have links,
2) to external sites to purchase the plant or seed in its Botanical Name column,
3) to see photos in its Flowering Months column and
4) to read habitat details in its Habitat Column.

(o)Adder's Tongue
(o)Bog Myrtle
(o)Cornel (Dogwood)
(o)Crucifer (Cabbage/Mustard) 1
(o)Crucifer (Cabbage/Mustard) 2
(o)Daisy Cudweeds
(o)Daisy Chamomiles
(o)Daisy Thistle
(o)Daisy Catsears (o)Daisy Hawkweeds
(o)Daisy Hawksbeards
(o)Dock Bistorts
(o)Dock Sorrels
(o)Filmy Fern
(o)Royal Fern
(o)Figwort - Mulleins
(o)Figwort - Speedwells
(o)Grass 1
(o)Grass 2
(o)Grass 3
(o)Grass Soft
Bromes 1

(o)Grass Soft
Bromes 2

(o)Grass Soft
Bromes 3

(o)Jacobs Ladder
(o)Lily Garlic
(o)Marsh Pennywort
(o)Melon (Gourd/Cucumber)
(o)Orchid 1
(o)Orchid 2
(o)Orchid 3
(o)Orchid 4
Clover 1

Clover 2

Clover 3

(o)Peaflower Vetches/Peas
(o)Pink 1
(o)Pink 2
Rannock Rush
(o)Rose 1
(o)Rose 2
(o)Rose 3
(o)Rose 4
(o)Rush Woodrushes
(o)Saint Johns Wort
Saltmarsh Grasses
(o)Sea Lavender
(o)Sedge Rush-like
(o)Sedges Carex 1
(o)Sedges Carex 2
(o)Sedges Carex 3
(o)Sedges Carex 4
Tassel Pondweed
(o)Thyme 1
(o)Thyme 2
(o)Umbellifer 1
(o)Umbellifer 2
(o)Water Fern
(o)Water Milfoil
(o)Water Plantain
(o)Water Starwort

Topic -
The following is a complete hierarchical Plant Selection Process

dependent on the Garden Style chosen
Garden Style
...Infill Plants
...12 Bloom Colours per Month Index
...12 Foliage Colours per Month Index
...All Plants Index
...Cultivation, Position, Use Index
...Shape, Form

Topic -
Flower/Foliage Colour Wheel Galleries with number of colours as a high-level Plant Selection Process

All Flowers 53 with
...Use of Plant and
Flower Shape
- page links in bottom row

All Foliage 53
instead of redundant
...(All Foliage 212)

All Flowers
per Month 12

Bee instead of wind pollinated plants for hay-fever sufferers
All Bee-Pollinated Flowers
per Month

Rock Garden and Alpine Flowers
Rock Plant Flowers 53
A, B, C, D, E, F,
G, H, I, J, K, L,
M, NO, PQ, R, S,
...Rock Plant Photos

Flower Colour Wheel without photos, but with links to photos
12 Bloom Colours
per Month Index

...All Plants Index

Topic -
Use of Plant in your Plant Selection Process

Plant Colour Wheel Uses
1. Perfect general use soil is composed of 8.3% lime, 16.6% humus, 25% clay and 50% sand, and
2. Why you are continually losing the SOIL STRUCTURE so your soil - will revert to clay, chalk, sand or silt.
Uses of Plant and Flower Shape:-
...Foliage Only
...Other than Green Foliage
...Trees in Lawn
...Trees in Small Gardens
...Wildflower Garden
...Attract Bird
...Attract Butterfly
, 2
...Climber on House Wall
...Climber not on House Wall
...Climber in Tree
...Pollution Barrier
...Part Shade
...Full Shade
...Single Flower provides Pollen for Bees
, 2, 3
...Covering Banks
...Patio Pot
...Edging Borders
...Back of Border
...Adjacent to Water
...Bog Garden
...Tolerant of Poor Soil
...Not Fragrant
...Standard Plant is 'Ball on Stick'
...Upright Branches or Sword-shaped leaves
...Plant to Prevent Entry to Human or Animal
...Coastal Conditions
...Tolerant on North-facing Wall
...Cut Flower
...Potted Veg Outdoors
...Potted Veg Indoors
...Raised Bed Outdoors Veg
...Grow in Alkaline Soil A-F, G-L, M-R,
...Grow in Acidic Soil
...Grow in Any Soil
...Grow in Rock Garden
...Grow Bulbs Indoors

Uses of Bedding
...Bedding Out
...Filling In
...Pots and Troughs
...Window Boxes
...Hanging Baskets
...Spring Bedding
...Summer Bedding
...Winter Bedding
...Foliage instead of Flower
...Coleus Bedding Photos for use in Public Domain 1

Uses of Bulb
...Other than Only Green Foliage
...Bedding or Mass Planting
...Tolerant of Shade
...In Woodland Areas
...Tolerant of Poor Soil
...Covering Banks
...In Water
...Beside Stream or Water Garden
...Coastal Conditions
...Edging Borders
...Back of Border or Back-ground Plant
...Fragrant Flowers
...Not Fragrant Flowers

...Grow in a Patio Pot
...Grow in an Alpine Trough
...Grow in an Alpine House
...Grow in Rock Garden
...Speciman Plant
...Into Native Plant Garden
...Naturalize in Grass
...Grow in Hanging Basket
...Grow in Window-box
...Grow in Green-house
...Grow in Scree
...Naturalized Plant Area
...Grow in Cottage Garden
...Attracts Butterflies
...Attracts Bees
...Resistant to Wildlife
...Bulb in Soil:-
......Lime-Free (Acid)

Uses of Rose
Rose Index

...Bedding 1, 2
...Climber /Pillar
...Cut-Flower 1, 2
...Exhibition, Speciman
...Grow In A Container 1, 2
...Hedge 1, 2
...Climber in Tree
...Edging Borders
...Tolerant of Poor Soil 1, 2
...Tolerant of Shade
...Back of Border
...Adjacent to Water

Topic -
Camera Photo Galleries showing all 4000 x 3000 pixels of each photo on your screen that you can then click and drag it to your desktop as part of a Plant Selection Process:-

RHS Garden at Wisley

Plant Supports -
When supporting plants in a bed, it is found that not only do those plants grow upwards, but also they expand their roots and footpad sideways each year. Pages
, 2, 3, 8, 11,
12, 13,
Plants 4, 7, 10,
Bedding Plants 5,
Plant Supports for Unknown Plants 5
Clematis Climbers 6,
the RHS does not appear to either follow it's own pruning advice or advice from The Pruning of Trees, Shrubs and Conifers by George E. Brown.
ISBN 0-571-11084-3 with the plants in Pages 1-7 of this folder. You can see from looking at both these resources as to whether the pruning carried out on the remainder of the plants in Pages 7-15 was correct.

Narcissus (Daffodil) 9,
Phlox Plant Supports 14, 15

Coleus Bedding Foliage Trial - Pages
1, 2, 3, 4, 5,
6, 7, 8, 9, 10,
11, 12, 13, 14, 15,
16, 17, 18, 19, 20,
21, 22, 23, 24, 25,
26, 27, 28, 29, 30,
31, 32, Index

National Trust Garden at Sissinghurst Castle
Plant Supports -
Pages for Gallery 1

with Plant Supports
1, 5, 10
2, 3, 4, 6, 7, 8, 9,
11, 12
Recommended Rose Pruning Methods 13
Pages for Gallery 2
with Plant Supports
Plants 1, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7

Dry Garden of
RHS Garden at
Hyde Hall

Plants - Pages
without Plant Supports
Plants 1
, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9

Nursery of
Peter Beales Roses
Display Garden

Roses Pages
1, 2, 3, 4, 5,
6, 7, 8, 9, 10,
11, 12, 13

Nursery of
RV Roger

Roses - Pages
V76,Z77, 78,

Damage by Plants in Chilham Village - Pages
1, 2, 3, 4

Pavements of Funchal, Madeira
Damage to Trees - Pages
1, 2, 3, 4, 5,
6, 7, 8, 9, 10,
11, 12, 13
for trees 1-54,
14, 15,
16, 17, 18, 19, 20,
21, 22, 23, 24, 25,
for trees 55-95,
26, 27, 28, 29, 30,
31, 32, 33, 34, 35,
36, 37,
for trees 95-133,
38, 39, 40,
41, 42, 43, 44, 45,
for trees 133-166

Chris Garnons-Williams
Work Done - Pages
1, 2, 3, 4, 5,
6, 7, 8, 9, 10,
11, 12, 13

Identity of Plants
Label Problems - Pages
1, 2, 3, 4, 5,
6, 7, 8, 9, 10,

Ron and Christine Foord - 1036 photos only inserted so far - Garden Flowers - Start Page of each Gallery
AB1 ,AN14,BA27,

Plant with Photo Index of Ivydene Gardens - 1187
A 1, 2, Photos - 43
B 1, Photos - 13
C 1, Photos - 35
D 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7,
Photos - 411
with Plants causing damage to buildings in Chilham Village and Damage to Trees in Pavements of Funchal
E 1, Photos - 21
F 1, Photos - 1
G 1, Photos - 5
H 1, Photos - 21
I 1, Photos - 8
J 1, Photos - 1
K 1, Photos - 1
L 1, Photos - 85
with Label Problems
M 1, Photos - 9
N 1, Photos - 12
O 1, Photos - 5
P 1, Photos - 54
Q 1, Photos -
R 1, 2, 3,
Photos - 229
S 1, Photos - 111
T 1, Photos - 13
U 1, Photos - 5
V 1, Photos - 4
W 1, Photos - 100
with Work Done by Chris Garnons-Williams
X 1 Photos -
Y 1, Photos -
Z 1 Photos -
Articles/Items in Ivydene Gardens - 88
Flower Colour, Num of Petals, Shape and
Plant Use of:-
Rock Garden
within linked page

Topic -
Fragrant Plants as a Plant Selection Process for your sense of smell:-

Sense of Fragrance from Roy Genders

Fragrant Plants:-
Trees and Shrubs with Scented Flowers
, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6
Shrubs bearing Scented Flowers for an Acid Soil
, 2, 3, 4
Shrubs bearing Scented Flowers for a
Chalky or Limestone Soil
, 2, 3, 4
Shrubs bearing Scented leaves for a
Sandy Soil
, 2, 3
Herbaceous Plants with Scented Flowers
, 2, 3
Annual and Biennial Plants with Scented Flowers or Leaves
, 2
Bulbs and Corms with Scented Flowers
, 2, 3, 4, 5
Scented Plants of Climbing and Trailing Habit
, 2, 3
Winter-flowering Plants with Scented Flowers
, 2
Night-scented Flowering Plants
, 2

Topic -
Website User Guidelines

My Gas Service Engineer found Flow and Return pipes incorrectly positioned on gas boilers and customers had refused to have positioning corrected in 2020.

Ivydene Gardens Evergreen Perennial Flower Shape Gallery:
List of Perennials by Landscape Site - The Beds
from Landscaping with Perennials by Emily Brown. 5th printing 1989 by Timber Press. ISBN 0-88192-063-0 Emily Brown has been a member of the National Committee of the Garden Club of America as well as a founding member of the Filoli Gardens and an ardent supporter of the Srybing Arboretum in San Francisco. She is writing about perennials for use in America.



Take a garden where a plot can be established which will be the home specifically of perennials. The plot may be a geometrc shape, round, oval, square, rectangle, triangle."Island bed" - an oval with curves on sides as well as corners - like an island. Technically this bed is surrounded by grass. "Serpentine" is a good description for a bed with a curving edge. "Flower garden" is a good name for any bed or border with some plants incorporated.

Bed Shape:-

  • Square - Suppose we considered first a measured shape which has a rather strong tendency to be formal. This is the shape resulting from a square which is dissected from all sides with paths. 4 beds have been formed, each a square except that usually the inner corner of each has been bitten off. There may be a circle in the middle, large enough to hold some planting or small enough to merely make a place for a seat, a birdbath or a weather vane (See the Central Climbing Support at Sissinghurst Castle Gardens photo on the right where the paths are old bricks used as pavers). If the circle is reserved for a specimen tree, a trimming with perennials is usually redundant. The tree could be a flowering fruit (See Top Fruit Page for the form of different top fruit that could be used); in a smaller situation the centrepiece could be a standard shrub like a Hydrangea. In either case, the circle of soil in which the plant is growing is best covered with bark, gravel or rock. The center might be just planted like the 4 squares and without a special feature but it is really too tempting to use it as a focal point. If roses were used in the square beds, the center could have a standard rose (the centre of the squares in Sissinghurst is used to support climbing roses). Have you decided to pave the paths? You have to choose between grass, cement, aggregate, gravel, bark; this cover will be 1 element which helps to set the stage for the type of planting (the paths used old bricks because of the 200,000 visitors who frequented the Sissinghurst Castle Gardens in 2017).

    But the character of the whole composition is affected most strongly by the choice of edging for the 4 beds. As mentioned, the form lends itself to a formal treatment; the plant selected for the boundaries of the beds should conform to the following requirements:-
    • It must be naturally neat or easy to keep neat;
    • It must be naturally small;
    • It must grow at a predictable rate so that its height and width will be more or less even;
    • It must have an inherent vigour. It should probably be evergreen - surely not herbaceous, at least in a temperate climate.
    • Besides Common Boxwood (Buxus sempervirens), which is the most common formal edging, there are a few dwarf shrubs which have a fair chance of success:-
      • Red Barberry, a species which loses its leaves for a while,
      • Euonymus, a dwarf;
      • A Privet, the small, rare species - see a photo of a privet hedge bench on the right;
      • A Heather; or
      • "Baby" roses, like Rosa 'Baby Katie'.
      • If you are crazy about Ivy, you can make a rounded frame and train a dwarf kind over every wire and keep it trimmed.
      • You could do the same with Ficus (Fig Tree) - See a photo of a fig tree on the right. You could also use a Step-over Fruit Tree, where the horizontal tree branch is only a few inches above the ground (See Top Fruit Page for that form of different top fruit shape that could be used).
      • Another possibility is a subshrub which takes to clipping. And you will think of Lavender, which gets too big for most sites with this divided pattern; if you have a strong liking for Lavender, you will find one of the most dwarf cultivars like Lavandula angustifolia 'Hidcote' - See photo on right hand side. To make and keep a Parterre or Knot Garden is a chore beyond the scope of most gardeners, due to the time spent in clipping the hedging.
      • This search will also be relevant in selecting a Pelargonium.
      • What about Lavender-cotton? Santolina chamaecyparissus has grey foliage - see photo in next table on the right - and Santolina virens provides a green edging.
  • Triangle - A less patterned square might develop between natural boundaries such as buildings or hedges. Sometimes a path disects this plot usually at an angle. The result will be 2, more or less, equal triangles the hypoteneuse being the front edge of the beds. If the path is straight, or with geometric angles, the edge of the beds will perhaps have a semi-formal treatment less stiff perhaps than the pattern of the 4-square bed above. If the path curves, the edge will be wavy in which case the edging plant may be less erect and less neat. When this square is small, it is often fully paved; the manner of paving may leave spaces between stones, slate, brick, and wood blocks. The kind of ground cover to plant between paving of any kind is to be found by looking at the descriptions in the ground covering pages for sun and shade as well as the plants in Alpines and Paving Page of Infill2 Plants Index Gallery.

    Planting effect within the Square and Triangle shaped beds:-
    • A small square whether or not bisected may be planted fully with a low perennial; probably a more satisfying effect can be achieved with just 1 species; its height can be considerably greater than that of a species to be used just between stones.
      Above all, the species chosen must possess:-
      • good foliage, that is with leaves of attractive texture and colour;
      • and with a habit of growth on the stems which is regular and dense.
        In all probability, you are aiming to create a restful carpet. Emily Brown thinks of 2 examples: for a shady space, Asarum (Ginger), and for a sunny site Rubus calycinoides, or the best kind of Strawberry. It is sometimes reasonable to fill the space with a herbaceous perennial such as Convallaria - like Convallaria majalis (Lily of the Valley) and Forcing Lily of the Valley.
    • If the square is large or larger, the planting may be more mixed, since in a free standing rectangle, perennials with at least medium height can be incorporated. When the square is raised, the proportions don't change but less height is needed. For example, a solid mass of Veronica can be edged with Lantana. Combining 2 perennials works in raised oblongs, also.
    • If the square has a more or less formal feeling, accent perennials may be placed in the corners or in the centres - all the same kind in a regular fashion; this perennial could be a subshrub or it could be an evergreen mound; in any case, it should be a neat grower. Choose one which does not have to replaced every year because it grows too fast and soon becomes out-of-scale.
      Members of the daisy group have this tendency. The so-called Paris Daisy (Argyranthemum frutescens) is quick to become woody and together with all daisies has to be constantly dead-headed. The best daisy, if you want yellow, is probably Euryops pectinata. The plant becomes 36 x 36 inches (90 x 90 cms). The second best is Chrysanthemum anethifolium if you want white. The foliage is small as are the daisies. Both of these last longer in good condition if constantly clipped and groomed.
      Certain Pelargonium are manageable - some restrained growers of the fragrant foliage group. There are handsome variegated ones if you like variegation.
  • Circle - A circle is very seldom put into a landscape plan as an artistic design for its own sake.
    A circle may develop around a tree or at the convergence of paths; a round bend may be situated on an artificial platform for the purpose perhaps of breaking a seemingly boring line, or of providing a special spot for "flowers", in an otherwise severe or starkly green part of a picture. A secondary reason for such a raised bed could be the need of a screen; it might be a decorative addition to partially block off the garage entrance from the house entrance court. The fewer the kinds of perennials in this bed the better. Concentric circles of plant material certainly look contrived. This circle has a tendency to resemble a cake; when the cake is solid white in the centre, it may look like a meringue pie. It takes a lot of effort and care to get 2 or more perennials to come to bloom solidly and in unison (How about using bedding in Summer or Winter to get this? or use Bulbs for Bedding?).
    Is there another treatment for a free standing circle? Certainly not a casual mixture; inevitable bare places would mar any sense of an integrated whole displayed within a frame. Probably the most successful treatment is a planting of just 1 kind - maybe a trailer when the circle is raised; Emily Brown has seen Rosemary or Trachelospermum used to good effect in a large circle and Helianthemum (See Helianthemum 'Henfield Brilliant') in a small circle. Maybe an upright perennial, say to 18 inches (45 cms), can be planted as a solid bed. She has 3 or 4 suggestions:-
    • good old Agapanthus (See Agapanthus africanus) but no doubt one of its dwarf cultivars;
    • Pelargonium (Geraniums - See Geraniums in this list), either the flowering or the foliage type;
    • daisies or Daylilies (Hemerocallis citrina);
    • or something more stylish, for instance, Gerbera. A special bed is advantageous for Gerbera, first because the site may be made just right as to drainage and richness, and second because this colourful flower needs its own stage for display.
    • or Begonias - any kind of Begonia may be featured in a circular bed in a solid mass - or in any bed of any shape - squares, or rectangles or strips. The modern bedding Begonias have been improved in breeding. See Begonia hybida pendula.
  • Now if there is a tree in the middle of the circle, that is another matter.
    The tree should dominate the scene and any other planting should be subservient to it (Narcissus round base of tree). If by chance the species is one which dislikes wet feet, like an evergreen oak, it can only be accompanied by some plant which does not need constant water. If the tree is deciduous, there will be 2 seasons, one of sun and one of shade, so you must choose a companion tolerant of various exposures. With a tree of regular watering, there are a few ground covers which are appropriate. How about Ajuga? - quite pleasing foliage together with a season of strong blue in its flower spikes (Ajuga genevensis, Ajuga reptans 'Atropurpurea', Ajuga reptans variegata and Ajuga tenorii). Hybrid Primrose - or species Primroses - may be tried especially if their colours go with the colour of the spring flowers of the tree (see wild Primroses from the Primrose Wildflower Family). Probably all 1 colour will be more pleasing than several. Now, if the circle is in a shady area, Epimedium or Helleborus foetidus - see Helleborus foetidus 'Setterwort' - are very decorative in a mass planting - with or without a feature of tree or shrub. Pachysandra has the requisite qualities; when healthy it is dense and lush.
    An annual instead? Excellent for a special reason - Primula malacoides or Nemesia for spring and Impatiens (Impatiens cristata and Impatiens glanullifera) or Cinerarias for the fall. (Cinnerarias are classed as perennial but are best planted fresh every year); Alyssum (the annual) is stylish only when fresh; Larkspur may fall over. A mixture of low growers? If one tries to plant a carpet - to neglect - it will look moth-eaten very soon.
    Of course you have realized that no particular shape of bed demands specific plants exclusively; many of the suggestions made for one shape will equally well suit another. But let us touch upon some variations:-
  • The Strip - The strip, the long and narrow bed is detailed in The Strip page. A bed which curves along its edge making an uneven outline can be called "free-form". The modified geometric shape is presently in 1986 more in vogue than the strictly plain shape whether circle, panel or rectangle. Beds must fit into their surroundings and into the landscape; they may be carved out of an expanse of grass, or the pavement or the floor of a patio.
    From my design pages, I would like to point out that straight lines lead you out of the garden whereas curves can lead you round your own garden, so that you look at your own garden rather than ignore it :-
    Landscaping Proportion - In general, you should aim for the sections of hard landscaping, lawns and beds to be about a third each of the total area, so that hard landscaping never exceeds soft landscaping.
    Mystery is absolutely vital - No-one should be able to see all the garden from any one vantage point or from the house, otherwise there is no incentive to venture into the garden to explore it.
    This determines part of the shaping of the three sections: it will influence the planting scheme, and may make it desirable to introduce a change in level of the ground. See the way that I have created the mystery as well as the inducement to look at the garden beds by the curved areas of lawn in C
    ase 4b - Garden Uses Separated Planting.
    Area Shape - Circular shapes are static and induce a wish to remain within that area, whilst rectangles cause restlessness and the wish to move on. This will influence the shape of all three sections in each area of the garden."
  • The Panel - It is longer than a strip; it is shorter than a border; it is wider than a strip; more or less the same width as the average border. Its lines are geometric although they can be modified with curves along the sides or by bites taken out of the corners. It can have similar plant material to that in any other bed except probably fewer kinds. In a formal garden, the treatment of a panel would probably be traditional with a clipped edging and regularly spaced accents. It might be a solid bed of bedding; the planting being changed 2 or 3 times a year.
  • The "Island Bed" - Start with an elongated oval, make indentations at will; the contours should be more uneven than even. You are trying to make an imitation of a natural island.
    " "Perennials in Island Beds," written by Alan Bloom and published in 1977, is practically a dinosaur amongst garden books. It has no color photos inside, just a middle section of 16 black-and-white photos. It's a very short book of fewer than 100 pages -- and small pages at that, barely larger than a trade paperback.
    But it was fascinating to read, and I suspect it will one day be of value to garden historians. Alan Bloom (1906-2005), the son of a market gardener, was a leading nurseryman in eastern England from 1926 until his death. He bought a small Georgian house and estate named Bressingham after the second world war, where he (and his son, Adrian Bloom) continued his work in developing hardy perennials. His company eventually became known as Blooms of Bressingham, and was responsible for introducing many well-known cultivars including Achillea ‘Moonshine’, Crocosmia ‘Lucifer’, Phlox ‘Eva Cullum’ and Geranium ‘Rozanne’.
    He also may have discovered (and certainly popularized) the idea of planting perennials in island-shaped garden beds, in England and here in the US. This book tells the story of how he came to think of planting in this way: Tiring of staking so many of his perennial flowers in his borders, he noticed that the plants that he grew in open nursery beds didn't grow as tall as in borders and had sturdier stems, requiring far less staking, and he theorized that a wall, hedge or fence backing a border provided protection from wind that resulted in floppier, taller stems.
    In 1953, he designed some experimental and ornamental demonstration beds in his grass yard at Bressingham. These worked so well that a few years later he made more island beds in an adjacent 6-acre field, called "The Dell," for a total of 50 beds containing more than 5,000 plant species. Son Adrian Bloom added another area in 1967 named "Foggy Bottom," showcasing conifers, heathers, trees and shrubs. There are now more than 8,000 species in the gardens." from Garden Fancy.
    The island may have a path all the way around it but the path is not authentic. The British version sits within a lawn. The small, low plants go all the way around; the heights mount from the edge to the higher central plants. Of course the graduation is not exact. To see the other side, you must go round the corner when you may find a different scheme not visible from your first view. Each composition can be unique.


Evergreen Perennial Name.

Alpine Evergreen Perennial if Text Background is Blue

Flower Colour

Flower Thumb-nail

Flowering Months

/ Form

Height x Spread in inches (cms)
(1 inch = 2.5 cms,
12 inches = 1 foot
12 inches = 30 cms,
24 inches = 2 feet,
3 feet = 1 yard,
40 inches = 100 cms)

Foliage Colour



List of Perennials by Landscape Site - The Beds

with Plant Type, Evergreen or Herbaceous or Deciduous, Sun Aspect and Listed Species





















































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































(o)Other Colours

(o)Variegated White
Variegated Yellow
Autumn Colour
4 Season Colour





Site Map of pages with content (o)



scabiosashapecolumbaria1a1a1Pincushions - The pincushions of plants such as scabious (Scabiosa columbaria from BritishFlora) are in reality compound flowerheads, with a dome of central florets surrounded by larger florets.



7 Flower Colours per Month in Colour Wheel below in this EVERGREEN PERENNIAL Gallery.

Click on Black or White box in Colour of Month.




Evergreen Perennials Height from Text Border in this Gallery


Brown =
0-12 inches (0-30 cms)

Blue =
12-24 inches
(30-60 cms)

Green =
24-36 inches
(60-90 cms)

Red =
36-72 inches
(90-180 cms)

Black =
72+ inches
(180+ cms)


Evergreen Perennials Soil Moisture from Text Background in this Gallery



Wet Soil

Moist Soil

Dry Soil


The Plant Height Border in this Gallery has changed from :-
Blue = 0-2 feet (0-24 inches), Green = 2-6 feet (24-72 inches), Red = 6+ feet (72+ inches) to

  • Brown = 0-12 inches (0-30 cms)
  • Blue = 12-24 inches (30-60 cms)
  • Green = 24-36 inches (60-90 cms)
  • Red = 36-72 inches (90-180 cms)
  • Black = 72+ inches (180+ cms)


Flowering months range abreviates month to its first 3 letters (Apr-Jun is April, May and June).
Click on thumbnail to change this comparison page to the Plant Description Page of the Evergreen Perennial named in the Text box below that photo.

The Comments Row of that Evergreen Perennial Description Page details where that Evergreen Perennial is available from.




Ivydene Gardens Evergreen Perennial Flower Shape Gallery:
List of Perennials by Landscape Site - The Beds
from Landscaping with Perennials by Emily Brown. 5th printing 1989 by Timber Press. ISBN 0-88192-063-0
Her ideas about Perennials (a plant that lasts for more than 2 growing seasons) include Herbaceous Perennials and Evergreen Perennials, and most of the other plant types except Annuals and Biennials:-


Evergreen Perennial Name.

Alpine Evergreen Perennial if Text Background is Blue

Flower Colour

Flower Thumb-nail

Flowering Months

/ Form

Height x Spread in inches (cms)
(1 inch = 2.5 cms,
12 inches = 1 foot
12 inches = 30 cms,
24 inches = 2 feet,
3 feet = 1 yard,
40 inches = 100 cms)

Foliage Colour



List of Perennials by Landscape Site - The Beds

with Plant Type, Evergreen or Herbaceous or Deciduous, Sun Aspect and Listed Species



This is the central climbing support in the White Garden at Sissinghurst Castle Gardens in Kent;
showing you a square shape of bed system:-


with the full size digital photo below.



This is a fig tree (Ficus carica) at Fountains Abbey taken in June 1981 by Chris Garnons-Williams;
showing you what edging as a hedge in a square shape of bed system:-


with the full size digital photo below.



This is a Privet Hedge Bench in the White Garden at Sissinghurst Castle Gardens in Kent;
taken by Chris Garnons-Williams on Sunday 21 April 2013.


with the full size digital photo below.



This is a Lavandula angustifolia 'Hidcote'; in a nursery within Cornwall
taken by Chris Garnons-Williams on 4 August 2013.



with the full size digital photo below.



This is Cotton Lavender (Santolina chamaecyparissus); in St Kitts Herberry in Cornwall,
taken by Chris Garnons-Williams on 27 September 2018.



with the full size digital photo below.


























































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































Ivydene Horticultural Services logo with I design, construct and maintain private gardens. I also advise and teach you in your own garden. 01634 389677


Site design and content copyright ©July 2009.
Page structure amended December 2012.
Colour Wheel clarified January 2013.
Feet changed to inches (cms) July 2015.
Thumbnail and Comments added October 2015. Flower, Form and Foliage Thumbnails and Comments added to Index May 2017.
Evergreen Perennial Name Index and Use Pages added February 2021.
Landscaping with Perennials List Pages added February 2021.
Chris Garnons-Williams.

DISCLAIMER: Links to external sites are provided as a courtesy to visitors. Ivydene Horticultural Services are not responsible for the content and/or quality of external web sites linked from this site.  




Ivydene Gardens Evergreen Perennial Flower Shape Gallery:
Page Title in Table below




Click on Text link




Number of Flower Petals

















Above 5








Flower Shape - Simple













Cups and Saucers


Goblets and Chalices






























Flower Shape - Elab--orated











Tubes, Lips and Straps

Slippers, Spurs and Lockets

Hats, Hoods and Helmets

Stan-dards, Wings and Keels

Discs and Florets






























Natural Arrange--ments











Bunches, Posies and Sprays

Columns, Spikes and Spires

Whorls, Tiers and Candle-labra

Plumes and Tails

Chains and Tassels

Clouds, Garlands and Cascades

Spheres, Domes and Plates


STAGE 2 INFILL PLANT INDEX GALLERIES 1, 2, 3 with its Cultivation Requirements is a part of:-

The following is a complete hierarchical Plant Selection Process
dependent on the Garden Style chosen
Garden Style
...Infill Plants
...12 Bloom Colours per Month Index
...12 Foliage Colours per Month Index
...All Plants Index
...Cultivation, Position, Use Index
...Shape, Form



Evergreen Perennial Name Index

Herbaceous Perennial Name Index <---



































Landscaping with Perennials by Emily Brown. 5th printing 1989 by Timber Press. ISBN 0-88192-063-0
for planting sites for perennials, which include most plant types except Annuals and Biennials.

Perennials & Ephemerals chapter of Plants for Dry Gardens by Jane Taylor. Published by Frances Lincoln Limited in 1993. ISBN 0-7112-0772-0 for plants that are drought tolerant.


Woodland Site

Shady Places

Garden in Sun
In Shade Site.

Planting on a Sloping Site

Bog Site

Large Perennial Site

Cut Flower Site

Outdoor Room


Alpines for Rock Garden (See Rock Garden Plant Flowers)


Plans for Beds and Borders


Borders Site




Long Bloomers


Alpine Shrubs and Conifers

The Alpine Meadow
Page 1
Page 2
Page 3

White Flower Colour

Blue or Almost Blue Flower Colour

Lavender Flower Colour

Lavender, called Blue Flower Colour

Yellow Flower Colour

Orange Flower Colour

Pink Flower Colour

Red & Scarlet Flower Colour


The Alpine Border
, 2

Maroon Flower Colour

Flowering Stem between 24-48 inches (60-120 cms)

Flowering Stem over 48 inches (120 cms)

Bloom by Season

Bloom by Season


Bloom by Season

Bloom by Season

Bloom by Season


The Alpines that Dislike Lime 1, 2

Alpines and Walls
Dry Sunny Walls 1a, b
Tops of Walls 2a, b
Dry Shady and Conifers 3a, b


Foliage Grey-Green

Foliage Grey

Foliage Varie-gated


Foliage Height
1-7 inches (2.5-17.5 cms)

Foliage Height
8-23 inches (20-57.5 cms)

Foliage Height
24- inches
(60 and over cms)


Alpines and
, 2


Foliage Finely Cut, Delicate or Compound
Finely Cut

Foliage Aromatic


Perennials for Ground Covering in the Full Sun
1, 2

Perennials for Ground Covering in Shade

and 3


Long Lived


Sink and Trough gardens
, 2


Bulbs to Combine with Perennials including Corms

Grasses to Grow with Perennials

Subshrubs to Grow with Perennials

Annuals to Use with Perennials

Herbs for Decoration as well as Culinary


Annuals, Biennials and Perennials to grow Annually

Perennials which Self Sow


The variety of plants that can be used in alpine gardening is obviously very large and very bewildering at first approach. With a view to easing the task of selection here are lists of alpines most likely to thrive and flourish under certain easily defined conditions and for special purposes, which may be considered first choices, from Gardening with Alpines by Stanley B. Whitehead. Garden Book Club. Published in 1962.

Alpine Plants for a Purpose:-

Beginner's Choice for an All-the-year-round-show in SPRING, SUMMER, AUTUMN, WINTER.

Plants of Foliage Beauty.

Alpines for Full Sun, Hot, Dry Positions.

Alpines tolerant of Shade.

Alpines for Dry Shade.

Alpines tolerant of Lime or Chalk.

Alpines readily raised from seed.

Alpines for the damper places.

Alpines for planting between Paving Stones.

Scree Plants.

Neat Growers - Good for Beds


Perennials which prefer Moisture

Perennials which do best on Margins of Water

Perennials which are Drought Tolerant

Perennials which tolerate Dense Shade

Perennials for Poor Soil, Full Sun

Tough Perennials (or easy Maint-enance)


Alpines without a Garden by Lawrence D. Hills. Published by Faber and Faber Limited in 1953 for cultivation of alpines in pans, troughs and window-boxes, particularly in towns, for gardeners who have only windw-sills or verandas, or flat roof spaces.

Colour All The Year in My Garden by C.H. Middleton. Published by Ward, Lock & Co. for culture.

Perennials The Gardener's Reference by Susan Carter, Carrie Becker and Bob Lilly. Published by Timber Press in 2007 for plants for Special Gardens. It also gives details of species and cultivars for each genus.


Evergreen Perennial Form


Prostrate or Trailing.


Cushion or Mound-forming

Spreading or Creeping


Stemless. Sword-shaped Leaves

Erect or Upright.



Evergreen Perennial Use

Other than Only Green Foliage +
1, 2

Bedding or Mass Planting


In Water

Coastal Conditions

Speciman Plant



Indoor House-plant

Grow in an Alpine House

Grow in Hanging Basket +

Grow in Window-box

Grow in Green-house

Fragrant Flowers

Not Fragrant Flowers


Attracts Butter-flies
+ Butterfly Usage
of Plants

Attracts Bees +
1, 2, 3
and Forage Calendar

Grow in Scree

Grow in a Patio Pot

Grow in an Alpine Trough +

Rock Plant

Edging Borders

Back of Border or Back-ground Plant


Into Native Plant Garden

Naturalize in Grass

Natural-ized Plant Area

Resistant to Wildlife


Early Spring Border Special Garden

Spring Epheme-rals Special Garden


Summer Border Special Garden

Cottage Garden Special Garden

Late Summer Border Special Garden

Autumn Border Special Garden

Shade Border and Woodland Garden Special Garden

Back of Border, Alley, and Too Tall for Words Special Garden

Meadow Garden Special Garden


Evergreen Perennial in Soil

Chalk +
A-F, A-F,
A-F, G-L,
M-R, S-Z

Clay +

A-F, G-L,
M-R, S-Z

Sand +
A-F, A-F,
A-F, G-L,
M-R, S-Z

Lime-Free (Acid) +
A-F, A-F,
A-F, G-L,
M-R, S-Z

Peat +

A-F, G-L,
M-R, S-Z

Any +

A-F, G-L, M-R, S-Z

+ Evergreen Perennials in Pages in Plants




Peony Use
of Peonies in

UK Peony Index

Fragrant Flowers

Flower Arrangers


Growing Tree Peonies in Pots

Front of Border

Rest of Border

Not Green Foliage

Rock Garden

Seaside / Coastal





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