Case Studies

Companion Planting
...A, B, C, D, E,
...F, G, H, I, J, K,
...L, M, N, O, P, Q,
...R, S, T, U, V, W,
...X, Y, Z
...Pest Control
...using Plants

Garden Construction
Garden Design
...How to Use the Colour Wheel Concepts for Selection of Flowers, Foliage and Flower Shape
...RHS Mixed Borders
......Bedding Plants
......Her Perennials
......Other Plants
Garden Maintenance
Offbeat Glossary
Plants Chalk (Alkaline) Soil
......A-F1, A-F2,
......A-F3, G-L, M-R,
......M-R Roses, S-Z Heavy Clay Soil
......A-F, G-L, M-R,
......S-Z Lime-Free (Acid) Soil
......A-F, G-L, M-R,
......S-Z Light Sand Soil
......A-F, G-L, M-R,
...Poisonous Plants
...Soil Nutrients
Tool Shed
Useful Data

Topic - Plant Photo Galleries
Plant with Photo Index of Ivydene Gardens
A 1, Photos
B 1, Photos
C 1, Photos
D 1, Photos
E 1, Photos
F 1, Photos
G 1, Photos
H 1, Photos
I 1, Photos
J 1, Photos
K 1, Photos
L 1, Photos
M 1, Photos
N 1, Photos
O 1, Photos
P 1, Photos
Q 1, Photos
R 1, Photos
S 1, Photos
T 1, Photos
U 1, Photos
V 1, Photos
W 1, Photos
X 1 Photos
Y 1, Photos
Z 1 Photos
Articles/Items in Ivydene Gardens
Flower Shape and Plant Use of
Evergreen Perennial
Herbaceous Perennial

Bedding Flower Shape

Bulb with its 7 Flower Colours per Month Comparison Pages
...Allium/ Anemone
...Colchicum/ Crocus

......European A-E
......European F-M
......European N-Z
......Eur Non-classified
......American A
......American B
......American C
......American D
......American E
......American F
......American G
......American H
......American I
......American J
......American K
......American L
......American M
......American N
......American O
......American P
......American Q
......American R
......American S
......American T
......American U
......American V
......American W
......American XYZ
......Ame Non-classified
......Australia - empty


...Hippeastrum/ Lily
...Late Summer
...Each of the above ...Bulb Galleries has its own set of Flower Colour Pages
...Flower Shape
...Bulb Form

...Bulb Use

...Bulb in Soil

Further details on bulbs from the Infill Galleries:-
Hardy Bulbs



...Forcing Lily of the Valley



...Hyacinths in Pots


...Lilium in Pots
...Narcissi in Pots



Half-Hardy Bulbs



Uses of Bulbs:-
...for Bedding Windowboxes Border
...naturalized in Grass Bulb Frame Woodland Garden Rock Garden Bowls Alpine House
...Bulbs in Greenhouse or Stove:-




...Plant Bedding in

...Bulb houseplants flowering inside House during:-
...Bulbs and other types of plant flowering during:-
...Selection of the smaller and choicer plants for the Smallest of Gardens with plant flowering during the same 6 periods as in the previous selection

Deciduous Shrub
...Shrubs - Decid
Deciduous Tree

...Trees - Decid
Evergreen Perennial
...P-Evergreen A-L
...P-Evergreen M-Z
...Flower Shape
Evergreen Shrub
...Shrubs - Evgr
...Shrub Heathers
Evergreen Tree
...Trees - Evgr

Fern *

Herbaceous Perennial
...P -Herbaceous
...RHS Wisley
...Flower Shape
Odds and Sods
...RHS Wisley A-F
...RHS Wisley G-R
...RHS Wisley S-Z
...Rose Use
...Other Roses A-F
...Other Roses G-R
...Other Roses S-Z
Soft Fruit
Top Fruit


Wild Flower
with its
flower colour page,
Site Map page in its flower colour
NOTE Gallery
...Blue Note
...Brown Note
...Cream Note
...Green Note
...Mauve Note
...Multi-Cols Note
...Orange Note
...Pink A-G Note
...Pink H-Z Note
...Purple Note
...Red Note
...White A-D Note
...White E-P Note
...White Q-Z Note
...Yellow A-G Note
...Yellow H-Z Note
...Shrub/Tree Note
Wildflower Plants

Topic - Flower/Foliage Colour
Colour Wheel Galleries

Following your choice using Garden Style then that changes your Plant Selection Process
Garden Style
...Infill Plants
...12 Bloom Colours per Month Index
...12 Foliage Colours per Month Index
...All Plants Index
...Cultivation, Position, Use Index
...Shape, Form

you could use these Flower Colour Wheels with number of colours
All Flowers 53

All Flowers per Month 12
with its
Explanation of
Structure of this Website with

...User Guidelines
All Bee-Pollinated Flowers per Month 12
Rock Garden and Alpine Flower Colour Wheel with number of colours
Rock Plant Flowers 53

...Rock Plant Photos

these Foliage Colour Wheels structures, which I have done but until I can take the photos and I am certain of the plant label's validity, these may not progress much further
All Foliage 212

All Spring Foliage 212
All Summer Foliage 212
All Autumn Foliage 212
All Winter Foliage 212

Flower Colour Wheel without photos, but with links to photos
12 Bloom Colours per Month Index
...All Plants Index

Topic - Wildlife on Plant Photo Gallery
Usage of Plants
by Egg, Caterpillar, Chrysalis and Butterfly

Egg, Caterpillar, Chrysalis and Butterfly usage of
Plant A-C
Plant C-M
Plant N-W
Butterfly usage of Plant

followed by all the Wild Flower Family Pages:-

There are 180 families in the Wildflowers of the UK and they have been split up into 22 Galleries to allow space for up to 100 plants per gallery.

Each plant named in each of the Wildflower Family Pages may have a link to:-

its Plant Description Page in its Common Name in one of those Wildflower Plant Galleries and will have links

to external sites to purchase the plant or seed in its Botanical Name,

to see photos in its Flowering Months and

to read habitat details in its Habitat Column.



(o)Adder's Tongue
(o)Bog Myrtle
(o)Cornel (Dogwood)
(o)Crucifer (Cabbage/Mustard) 1
(o)Crucifer (Cabbage/Mustard) 2
(o)Daisy Cudweeds
(o)Daisy Chamomiles
(o)Daisy Thistle
(o)Daisy Catsears (o)Daisy Hawkweeds
(o)Daisy Hawksbeards
(o)Dock Bistorts
(o)Dock Sorrels


(o)Filmy Fern
(o)Royal Fern
(o)Figwort - Mulleins
(o)Figwort - Speedwells
(o)Grass 1
(o)Grass 2
(o)Grass 3
(o)Grass Soft Bromes 1
(o)Grass Soft Bromes 2
(o)Grass Soft Bromes 3 (o)Hazel
(o)Jacobs Ladder
(o)Lily Garlic
(o)Marsh Pennywort
(o)Melon (Gourd/Cucumber)


(o)Orchid 1
(o)Orchid 2
(o)Orchid 3
(o)Orchid 4
(o)Peaflower Clover 1
(o)Peaflower Clover 2
(o)Peaflower Clover 3
(o)Peaflower Vetches/Peas
(o)Pink 1
(o)Pink 2
Rannock Rush
(o)Rose 1
(o)Rose 2
(o)Rose 3
(o)Rose 4
(o)Rush Woodrushes
(o)Saint Johns Wort
Saltmarsh Grasses


(o)Sea Lavender
(o)Sedge Rush-like
(o)Sedges Carex 1
(o)Sedges Carex 2
(o)Sedges Carex 3
(o)Sedges Carex 4
Tassel Pondweed
(o)Thyme 1
(o)Thyme 2
(o)Umbellifer 1
(o)Umbellifer 2
(o)Water Fern
(o)Water Milfoil
(o)Water Plantain
(o)Water Starwort


It is worth remembering that especially with roses that the colour of the petals of the flower may change - The following photos are of Rosa 'Lincolnshire Poacher' which I took on the same day in R.V. Roger's Nursery Field:-


Closed Bud


Opening Bud


Juvenile Flower


Older Juvenile Flower


Middle-aged Flower - Flower Colour in Season in its
Rose Description Page is
"Buff Yellow, with a very slight pink tint at the edges in May-October."


Mature Flower


Juvenile Flower and Dying Flower


Form of Rose Bush

There are 720 roses in the Rose Galleries. So one might avoid disappointment if you look at all the photos of the roses in the respective Rose Description Page!!!!

Site Map for pages with photo content (o)

Fern Culture
from Sections 1-10 of Ferns and Fern Culture by J. Birkenhead, F.R.H.S.
Published by John Heywood in Manchester in
May, 1892 with
Rules for Fern Culture
followed by
1 Modes of Growth
2 Compost
3 Compost for various Genera, growing in pots, pans or baskets
4 Various Habits of Ferns
5 Various Modes of Cultivation
6 Light
7 Temperature
8 Ferns in Dwelling-Houses
9 Propagation (in Use in Brackish Water in Coastal District Page)

10 Selection of Ferns


British Ferns and their Allies comprising the Ferns, Club-mosses, Pepperworts and Horsetails by Thomas Moore, F.L.S, F.H.S., Etc. London George Routledge and Sons, Broadway, Ludgate Hill. Hardcover published in 1861 provides details on British Ferns

....Boston/ Fishbone/
Lace/ Sword

....Filmy and Crepe
....Lacy Ground
(o)Primitive/ Oddities
....Scrambling/ Umbrella/ Coral/ Pouch
(o)Shield/ Buckler/ Holly
....Squirrel/ Rabbit/ Hare's Foot

....Staghorn/ Elkhorn/ Epiphyte
....Tassel, Clubmoss
....The Brakes
....The Polypodies
(o)The Spleenworts
....The Tree Ferns
....Water/ Hard/ Rasp/ Chain



Where to see

San Antonio Botanical Garden.
San Diego Botanic Garden.
San Francisco Botanical Garden at Strybing Arboretum.
Sarah P. Duke Gardens.
Tyringham Cobble.
UNC at Charlotte Botanical Gardens.
University of California Botanical Garden at Berkeley.
USCS Arboretum.
Whitehall Historic Home and Garden.
Wild Gardens of Acadia.
Zilker Botanical Garden.

Aberglasney Gardens.
Dewstow Gardens.
Dyffryn Gardens.

(o)From Lime-hating Soil
(o)From Limestone Soil
(o)Hanging Basket
(o)Indoor Decoration
(o)Outdoor Pot
(o)Wet Soils
(o)Ground Cover
(o)Pendulous Fronds


Where to see

Adelaide Botanic Garden.
Brisbane Botanic Garden.
Mount Lofty Botanic Garden.
Royal Botanic Garden, Melbourne.
Royal Botanic Garden, Sydney.

Le Jardin Botanique de Montreal.
Les Jardins de Metis.
Van Dusen Botanical Garden.

Biddulph Grange Garden.
Brodsworth Hall and Gardens.
Cambridge University Botanic Gardens.
Chelsea Physic Garden.
Harlow Carr Botanic Gardens.
RHS Garden Wisley.
Royal Botanic Gardens Kew.
Savill Gardens.
Sizergh Castle and Garden.
Southport Botanic Gardens.
Tatton Park.
Tremenheere Sculpture Gardens.
University of Oxford Botanic Garden.

Jardin Botanique de Lyon.
Parc Phoenix-Nice.

Arktisch-Alpiner Garten.
Botanischer Garten und Museum.
Flora und Botanischer Garten Koln.

Caher Bridge Garden.
Kells Bay Gardens.

Hortus Botanicus Leiden.



Where to see

Franz Fernery at the Auckland Domain Park.
Pukeiti Rhododendron Trust Garden.
Pukekura Park.

Arduaine Garden.
Ascog Hall Gardens and Victorian Fernery.
Attadale Gardens.
Benmore Botanic Garden.
Glasgow Botanic Garden.
Inverewe Garden and Estate.
Linn Botanic Gardens.
Royal Botanic Garden Edinburgh.

Atlanta Botanical Garden.
Balboa Park.
Barnes Foundation Arboretum.
Bartholomew's Cobble.
Bellevue Botanical Garden.
Berkshire Botanical Garden.
Bloedal Reserve.
Bok Tower Gardens.
Botanical Gardens at Asheville.
Bowman's Hill Wildflower Preserve.
Brooklyn Botanic Garden.
Cailfornia State Unversity at Sacramento.
Cary Institute of Ecosystem Studies.
Chicago Botanic Garden.
Coastal Maine Botanical Gardens.
Crystal Springs Rhododendron Garden.
Dallas Arboretum and Botanical Garden.
Denver Botanic Gardens.
Elandan Gardens.
Elisabeth Carey Miller Botanical Garden.
Fairchild Tropical Botanical Garden.
Fern Canyon.
Ferndell Canyon in Griffith Park.
Fort Worth Botanic Garden.
Frelinghuysen Arboretum.
Garden in the Woods.
Garvan Woodland Gardens.
Ganna Walska Lotusland.
Georgeson Botanical Garden.
Georgia Perimeter College Botanical Gardens

Hardy Fern Foundation members have unlimited access to our spore exchange and can choose from a wide variety of ferns. Our resource pages include publications and books about ferns as well as
useful websites.

A Natural History of Britain's Ferns by Christopher N. Page. Published by William Collins Sons & Co. Ltd in 1988. ISBN 0 00 219382 5 (limpback edition) provides details of Coastal, Man-made Landscapes, Woodland, Wetland, Grassland and Rock Outcrops, Heath and Moorland, Lower Mountain Habitats, Upper Mountain Habitats and Atlantic Fringe Ferns.
I have provided a brief summary in the Ferns in Coastal District with associated plants and Ferns for Man-Made Landscapes with associated plants pages and provided you with the Chapter number for the others, since the information within this book is so comprehensive, that it would need to be completely copied to be of most use.

Tree Ferns by Mark F. Large & John E. Braggins. Published by Timber Press in 2004. ISBN 978-1-60469-176-4 is a scientifically accurate book dealing with Tree Fern species cultivated in the United States and the Pacific, but little known and rare tree ferns are also included.

The Observer's Book of Ferns, revised by Francis Rose, previous editions compiled by W.J.Stokoe. Published by Frederick Warne & Co. Ltd in 1965 provides a comprehensive guide to 45 British species of Ferns. It provides details of habitat and how to use those ferns.

The Plant Lover's Guide to Ferns by Richard Steffen & Sue Olsen. Published in 2015 by Timber Press, Inc. ISBN 978-1-60469-
474-1. It provides details on designing with ferns and details on 140 ferns for the garden in the USA.

Success with Indoor Ferns, edited by Lesley Young. Reprinted 1998. ISBN 1 85391 554 8. It details the care of indoor ferns with their position, choice and fern care.

Ferns in Britain and Ireland
or the

British Pteridological Society
for further details and photos.

Mail Order UK Fern Nursery
Shady Plants has ferns for
Vertical Fern Gardens and Companion Plants for growing with Ferns.


Where to see

Harry P. Leu Gardens.
Hawaii Tropical Botanical Garden.
Holden Arboretum.
Honolulu Botanical Gardens.
Huntington Botanical Gardens.
Huntsville-Madison County Botanical Garden.
Inniswood Metro Gardens.
Kruckeberg Botanic Garden.
Lakewold Gardens.
Leach Botanical Garden.
Leonard J. Buck Garden.
Lewis Ginter Botanical Garden.
Longwood Gardens.
Lyndhurst Gardens.
Marie Selby Botanical Gardens.
Matthaei Botanical Gardens.
Memphis Botanic Garden.
Mendocino Coast Botanical Gardens.
Mercer Arboretum and Botanic Gardens.
Michigan State University.
Missouri Botanical Garden.
Morris Arboretum of the University of Pennsylvania.
Mount Pisgah Arboretum.
Mt. Cuba Center.
National Tropical Botanical Garden.
New Jersey State Botanical Garden at Skyland.
New York Botanical Garden.
Norfolk Botanical Garden.
North Carolina Botanical Garden.
Olbrich Botanical Garden.
Phipps Conservatory and Botanical Gardens.
Planting Fields Arboretum State Historic Park.
Rancho Santa Ana Botanic Garden.
Rhododendron Species Botanical Garden.
Rotary Gardens.






Section 8 - Ferns in Dwelling-Houses
The condition of atmosphere and the lack of light in dwelling-houses are such that few Ferns can grow satifactorily.


Wardian Cases and Fern Stands
A large number of Ferns may be cultivated in a dwelling-house when they are planted in Wardian cases. The glass keeps off the dust, and pevents the access of impure air; it also keeps the atmosphere quiet and damp. This is a great advantage, enabling many Ferns to grow beautifully which could not possibly live if not so protected.
Fern stands usually consist of an earthenware bottom, with a glass shade fitting inside the rim. These are suitable for a small number of plants, but the Wardian cases may be made to hold any number.
The larger cases are often made with a door at each end, but a better plan is for one side to open, as this allows freer access to every part. Every stand and case must have provision for drainage and for the escape of all surplus water. The terra-cotta stands usually have a hole at the sides, which may be closed by a cork when the surplus water has escaped. The wooden cases should be lined with zinc, and have a small tap by which to draw off water drained to the bottom. A layer of broken pots, cinders, or gravel should be put at the bottom, about 1 inch (2.5 cms) thick. On this should be placed moss or leaves, then very rough compost, with finer at the top.( for kind of compost see under Wardian Cases of Section 3 - Compost for various Genera, growing in pots, pans or baskets in the Fern Culture Page).
It is well for the soil to be a little higher in the centre than at the sides; it should be pressed down moderately firmly, to prevent its sinking afterwards (for Ferns suitable for cases see
Ferns suitable for wardian or fern cases in Section 10 - Selections of Ferns Page). After being planted, the Ferns should be well watered, Filmy Ferns overhead, other kinds only at the roots. Tepid water should akways be given.
The case should be placed as near the window as possible. Facing north is the best aspect and facing south the worst. The Ferns must have all the light possible, but must b shaded from the hot sun. After a thorough watering, little attention will be required for some time. They should be exmined every 2 or 3 weeks, and as soon as they appear to be getting dry they should be well watered. Care must be excersised not to over-water them, as fungus or muld will make its appearance, and the fronds will damp off. When too wet, a green slimy growth sometimes comes on the soil, and spreads to the Ferns. This should be removed; and to prevent its reappearance a little ventilation should be given until the excessive moisture is gone. The same should be done when the Ferns become muldy or damp off. If the drainage is right, and the soil not too wet, ventilation is not required. The moisture thrown off by the plants, and that rising from the soil, condenses on the glass, and runs back to the soil. Sometimes this obscures the glass so much that the Ferns cannot clearly be seen. Thismay be obviated by opening the doors a little for a short time, allowing the moisture to escape; then the atmosphere in the case will become drier, and by degrees the glass will become clear. The drier atmosphere is ot congenial to the Ferns, and frequent opening of the case will necessitate more frequent watering.
After a little experience, the management of a case becomes easy, and the results seen in the luxuriant growth of its beautiful inmates produce a great amount of pleasure. Small stands will require re-planting every spring, larger cases every 2 or 3 years. By that time, however, some of the plants will have become so large that it will be advisable to have a general rearrangeent, and a supply of new compost.


Window Boxes
Windows may be greatly improved in appearance by boxes of more or less ornamental character placed upon the sills, and filled with plants. The position of some windows is not at all suitable for flowering plants, but shade-loving Ferns would grow there vey nicely. The boxes, if made of wood, should be as wide and deep as the position will allow, and be covered with virgin cork, so that the ordinary wood is entirely hidden from all points of view, inside and out. They should have holes burnt through the bottom to allow the water to drain away. They should be raised about an inch (2.5 cms) from the sill, to allow a circulation of air underneath, which will add to their durabilty.
A layer of crocks at the bottom, a covering of moss or leaves, and the same kind of compost recommended for outdoor ferneries, will be all that is necessary. A list of suitable Ferns in Section 10 - Selections of Ferns Page . When the Ferns are planted they should be well watered. They will require this frequently, as the body of soil not being large will soon become dry, especially in hot weather . Very pretty window gardens may easily be prepared in this manner, and maintain an attractive appearance.


Window Cases
These are made on the principle of the window boxes, with glass all round and above, thus enclosing and protecting the plants from winds, storms, dust, and other adverse influences to which those in simple window boxes are exposed. The cases being built against the window, access is obtained by lifting the sash. This may be raised the greater part of the day, but closed when necessary to prevent dust settling upon the plants; also when the room becomes hot from the burning of gas or from other cause.
During severe weather, if the sash be raised, the warmth of the room will help to keep the plants free from frost. The Ferns may either be planted in soil or kept in pots. When in the latter they will need water more frequently than when planted out, as the soil in a pot dries more quickly than a larger body filling the bottom of the case. If exposed to the sun the case must be shaded at all times when there is risk of the Ferns being scorched.











Section 9 - Propagation
Ferns may be propagated from buds produced on the fronds, from tubers and buds on their roots, from bulbils formed on their creeping sarmentum, by division of their crowns and rhizomes, and from spores:-

  • Terminal Buds - Adiantum caudatum, Adiantum ciliatum, Adiantum dolabriforme, Adiantum lunulatum, many of the Aspleniums, Fadyenia prolifera, Goniopteris reptans, Polstichum lentum, Polystichum proliferum, Polystichum lepidocaulon, Polystichum viviparum, and a few others, produce terminal buds.
    If the fronds are bent and pegged down so that the buds touch the soil, they will emit roots, and soon be sufficiently rooted to support themselves. At this stage they may be severed from the plant, and the frond allowed to resume its original position. The young plants will now require the same treatment as their parents, and will soon make nice specimens.
  • Young plants produced on each frond - Phegopteris effusus, Woodwardia radicans and its varieties, produce several young plants on each frond.
    These may either be pegged down or taken off. If put into small pots in a frame, or covered by a glass to keep them close, they will soon have an abundance of roots, and send up young fronds.
  • Tiny bulbils produced on upper surface of their fronds - Many Aspleniums, Lastrea prolifica, and Woodwardia orientalis, produce on the upper surface of their fronds a large number of tiny bulbils.
    These may be taken off when large enough to handle. They should then be pricked into pans of nice light compost, with a thin layer of silver sand on the top. After being carefully watered, so as to wash them out of their places, they should be put in a frame or under a propagating glass, where they soon make nice little plants.
  • Buds produced on different parts of their fronds - Doryopteris palmata, Goniopteris vivipara, Hemionitis palmata, Hemionitis cordata, Stenosemia aurita, and a few others which produce buds on different parts of their fronds,
    should be pegged down to the surface of the soil, and the young plants will soon be ready to take off and to commence an independent existence.
  • Buds on the roots - Adiantum amabile (Adiantum mooreii) and Adiantum diaphanum (Adiantum setulosum) produce numberless little plants on their plants, both of them from buds formed there, the latter from tiny tubers as well.
  • Underground rhizomes - Adiantum aethiopicum, Adiantum assimile, Adiantum formosum, Adiantum palmatum, Asplenium planicaule, Hypolepis bergeniana, Struthiopteris germanica, Struthiopteris pennsylvanica, and others, with underground rhizomes,
    may be propagated by carefully pulling them to pieces before they have commenced their new growth. Every piece of rhizome should have a growing point and as many roots as possible.
  • Tubers are produced on roots - Nephrolepis bauseii, Nephrolepis philippinensis, Nephrolepis pluma and Nephrolepis, produce tubers like small potatoes on their roots.
    When the plants are potted, the tubers should be collected and placed in a pot by themselves. In a short time they will begin to grow and develop into nice little plants.
  • Small buds on roots - Most of the Platyceriums form small buds on their roots.
    These, if left until they have produced several barren fronds or shields, may then be taken off and planted by themselves.
  • These ferns send out creeping stems (sarmentum), which produce bulbils at intervals.
    The Nephrolepis send out a number of creeping stems (sarmentum), which produce bulbils at intervals. When on a damp surface these will emit roots, and soon become plants, which may be severed from the parent without injury. Several of the Blechnums and Aspleniums produce young plants in the same manner, though not to so great an extent.In all such cases the plants may be propagated readily by severing the creeping stems as soon as the young plants are sufficiently rooted.
  • Rhizomes creeping above ground - Those species with rhizomes creeping above ground are easily propagated. This section comprises the Davallias, commonly called Hare's Foot and Squirrel's Foot Ferns, the Anapeltis, Drynarias, and many others.
    If the rhizomes be kept pegged close to the soil they root as they grow, and may be separated from the parent plant by first cutting through the rhizome and then carefully taking it up with all its roots attached, and 2 or 3 fronds. When planted they should be pegged and made secure, and they will soon become established. If the rhizomes have extended over the sides of the pot they will be destitute of roots. It will be useless to cut and plant these unless the rhizome is traced back a sufficient distance to take up with a number of roots attached. If this is not done the part which has grown over the side should be bent back, pegged on the soil, and left until it has produced roots, when it may be separated with little risk; or a pot containing soil might be placed under it, the rhizome pegged on, and left thus until rooted. There are many different species amenable to this mode of propagation, but in every case there must be a growing point to the rhizome, besides fibrous roots, and, when possible, several fronds.
  • Division in a glass frame or under propagating glasses - Filmy Ferns, Hymenophyllae and Trichomanes, may be propagated in this manner, but they must afterwards be kept very close and damp, where there is no evaporation to affect them.
    They should be in a glass frame, or under propagating glasses, until well rooted. All Ferns after being divided, are better placed in a close frame for awhile. Although many do not actually require it, they do not feel the disturbance so much, and they recover from the check much more quickly when so treated.
  • Division of younger part of the rhizomes with fibrous roots - Gleichenias are the most difficult subjects to deal with by division.
    Large plants can rarely be divided successfully. It is only by securing the younger part of the rhizomes with fibrous roots and growing points that success is possible. The old portion of the rhizomes is valueless, only so far as its roots may help to support the whole. They seldom, if ever, break out again; hence, young, vigorous plants may be much more successfully manipulated.
  • Pulling the crowns apart - Species such as Adiantum cuneatum and Adiantum farleyense, which form clusters of crowns, may be propagated by carefully pulling the crowns apart, retaining to each one every root possible.
    To facilitate the operation the soil should be gently shaken or washed away; the crowns must then be separated, the roots disentangled, and the plants potted at once to prevent their becoming dry. They should be kept close and shaded for a few days to prevent undue evaporation and loss of vigour. The plan of cutting through the crowns and ball of roots is a very bad one. It severs many roots from the crowns to which they belong, and this materially reduces the ability of the plants to survive. It is far better to take a little more trouble and separate the crowns, carefully retaining the roots as intact as possible.

    The best time for propagation by division in the various ways already described is February and March. The plants are then either entirely at rest or only just beginning to grow, and therefore do not suffer as they would when in full growth ( a point to remember is that since 1892, that we have got climate change, where the world temperature has increased by more than 1 degree Centigrade and the climate in southern England is now approaching the climate in the middle of France, which is both hotter and drier with more summertime and less winter time as the growing season has increased by more than 10 days). Those with rhizomes may be divided when growing as well as when dormant, and they will not feel any ill effects if the instructions here given are followed.
  • Tree Ferns are not amenable to increase by division - Ferns, which grow by means of an upright caudex, as the Tree Ferns, and others which do not rise above the soil but keep to one crown, are not amenable to increase by division, but must be propagated from spores. Nearly every species produces spores, though some of them very sparingly, and a few varieties are quite sterile. There is a marked difference in the freedom of germination of some species and varieties as compared with others. There appears to be a law operating among them which in some mysterious manner restricts the production from spores of those kinds readily propagated by bulbils or by division of their rhizomes; while, on the other hand, those which can only be increased sparingly by division, may be raised in thousands from spores.


Propagation by spores is the most interesting of all means of increasing the stock of plants, and it is very wnderful from first to last.


Collecting the Spores
The spores are contained in small sacs, rranged in clusters or lines at the back of the fronds; sometimes in large patches on certain parts of the fronds; at other times spread all over the surface; and in some species they are arranged along the edges. Some of the clusters are covered by a thin membrane, which lifts up as the spores approach maturity, rolls back, and sometimes falls off or shrivels up. In many species the clusters are not covered at all. When first formed the spore cases are colourless, then pale green, and as growth advances some become black, others green, and many of various shades of brown. When the covering (indusium) begins to lift, it is a sign that the spores are nearly ripe. The spore cases themselves swell, and when the spores in them are matured the cases burst and scatter their contents in the form of minute dust. Spores are of many colours - black, dark brown, light brown, golden yellow, and green. When ripe, the fronds, or that portion bearing the spores, should be cut off, wrapped in paper (white is the best), and put in a warm dry place. On the following day the fronds will be shrivelled; but lying on the paper there will be a dust-like substance, which proves to be innumerable spores. With these there will always be a multitude of spore-cases which have detached themselves from the frond in the act of bursting. A casual observer might take the whole to be spores, but an examination of the mass through a lens will soon reveal the difference. This is important, as those who are not acquainted with the difference often take care of the useless cases and neglect the finer substance, which is the only valuable part.
Spores should be sown as soon after collection as possible. If they are to be kept a long time they should be put into bottles and tightly corked, when some of them will retain their vitality for years.


Sowing the Spores:-

  • Pots 4 or 5 inches (10 or 12.5 cms) in diameter are a convenient size in which to sow spores. They should have an inch (2.5 cms) of drainage at the bottom, 2 or 3 inches (5 or 7.5 cms) of bog broken small, a layer of compost like that used for the generality of Ferns, and on this a layer of soil which has been scalded or burned to destroy all germs of vegetable life which might be in it. As some spores germinate better on one substance than another it is well to vary the surface layer. In one pot it may be compost as mentioned above; in another, bits of brick or sandstone brokem small; in another, small pieces of peat; and in another, loam in little lumps the size of a pea. Those who are not successful with oe medium should tr others for special kinds. The last layer should be about an inch (2.5 cms) from the top of the pot, and when this is in place the whole should be well watered. The spores must then be scattered thinly over the surface. The sowing should be done in a perfectly still atmosphere, as the slightest draught will send the spores flying about the place.
  • The pots should have pieces of glass put over them as soon as each one is sown. These should be kept on continually to prevent the spores of other kinds getting in, and also to keep a close moist atmosphere about the spores. This helps them to germinate and grow more freely afterwards. A dry atmosphere retards growth and sometimes prevents it altogether.
  • The pots should be placed in saucers containg water. This will rise up the compost and keep it damp. Should it be necessary at any time t give water in any other way, it should be done by holding the pot in a pail of water, so that it may soak up and saturate the whole. The spores must not be watered overhead, as they would be disturbed and washed out of their places.
  • The pots containing spores of Exotic Ferns should be placed in a light position and in a temperature of 70F (21C). Many will germinate in a considerably lower temperature, but they will be longer in developing.
  • Hardy Ferns may be sown in ordinary greenhouse temperature or in a frame, but in the latter they are slower in developing than when in a higher temperature.
  • Spores vary greatly in the time they take to commence growth. Some germinate in a day or two, others are months before there is any sign of progress. Even those taken from one frond will vary, some of them developing weeks before others sown at the same time and in the same pot.
  • The first indication of growth is a faint colouring of green on the soil. This increases until the surface is covered by a flate vegetable growth resembling liverwort in appearance. At this stage the mass should be separated into little patches, and planted in other pots filled with ordinary Fern compost. They may now be watered overhead with a very fine rose, covered again with glasses, and placed where they will recieve plenty of light. They will require to be kept damp. In a short time tiny fronds will make their appearance. They will soon need further division, and eventually, when large enough to handle, they may be potted singly, to go on their Fern-life, developing beaurty day by day, and soon bearing upon their own fronds the germs of another generation.
  • The process of development is full of interest and wonder. Not the least mysterious thing connected with occurence for a totally different kind to make its aoppearance in a pot from that sown in it. The stranger is sometimes in almost exclusive possession, while that which was expected is conspicuous by its absence. Even with the greatest care in sowing, many different kinds will afterwards be found in one pot, so that it is impossible to be sure of the species of the crop until the fonds are developed. Many wonderful and unaccountable facts might be referred to in connection with this subject, but it may be left with a warning to the sower not to be discouraged when matters do not turn out as expected, but to try again, when possibly an unexpected treasure may some day come up in the form of an entirey new variety.


USE OF FERN - in Coastal District (Hard Rock Cliffs, Soft Rock Cliffs, Clay Coasts, Coastal Sand-Dunes in the UK)
"Britain and Ireland enjoy particularly extensive coastlines - 6000 miles (over 9,600 km) of coast, for example, around Britain alone.

Ferns on Hard Rock Cliffs:-
Habitats on hard rock cliffs vary widely and amongst these, the following small and ecologogically unusual groups of ferns present a characteristic zonation of their cliff-face distribution:-

  • Sea Spleenwort Communities - Asplenium marinum (Sea Spleenwort) seldom occurs far beyond the immediate spray zone of the sea, where it is confined to rock faces which receive appreciable wave break and where spray drift is strongest. It occurs higher on cliffs only where their topography and the prevailing wind directions combine to regularly funnel ocean spray to higher elevations. Where sea caves penetrate higher and deeper, away from the most regularly sea-secured levels of the cliffs, other ferns may occasionally appear. In dark recesses of caves, there may be Athyrium filix-femina (Lady Fern), Dryopteris dilatata (Broad Buckler Fern) and Dryopteris filix-mas (Common Male Fern).
  • Lanceolate Spleenwort Communities - Moving above the sea-cave zone of hard cliff faces, and to elsewhere in Britain, higher up on the cliff faces themseves, Asplenium billotii (Lanceolate Spleenwort) may be present in deep narrow fissures.

    Near to Asplenium marinum (Sea Spleenwort) may occur Crithmum maritimum (Rock Samphire), Spergularia rupicola (Cliff Sand-spurry), Plantago coronopus (Buck's-horn Plantain) and Cochlearia danica (Sea Scurvy-grass), whilst in the slightly higher cliff zone which Asplenium billotii (Lanceolate Spleenwort) usually typifies, additional species frequently include Plantago maritima (Sea Plantain), Armeria maritima (Sea Thrift), Silene maritima (Sea Campion) and Umbilicus rupestris (Wall Pennywort).
  • Cliff-face Royal Fern Communities - The steep faces of sea cliffs from place to place intersect the seaward drainage from the land, and here water discharging from surface streams may form small cascading waterfalls, whilst that arising from natural fissures, geological fractures, or from the water tables within the rock faces themselves, form moist and sometimes dripping seepage lines. In both cases the water is moving and often well-oxygenated, and may be relatively permanent through the seasons. Especially where such sites are on shaded cliff aspects, the locally enhanced moisture can form suitable habitats for 2 other local cliff-face ferns. These are Osmunda regalis, if the water is peaty and acidic, and Adiantum capillus-veneris, if the water is particularly lime-rich. Where the spread of run-off water creates fairly large areas of permanently damp rock, quite dense colonies of Osmunda with numerous plants may occur, giving patches of a vivid green hue to the early summer vegetation of the cliffs.
  • Cliff-face Maidenhair Fern Communities - Adiantum capillus-veneris (Maidenhair Fern) grows on inaccessible patches of high cliff-faces, where there is particularly active accumulatin of tufa rock. Plants spread locally over such wet, tufaceous surfaces by horizontal growth of their thin creeping rhizomes as well as by spore re-establishment from the numerous fertile fronds.

Ferns on Soft Rock Cliffs:-
The extensive outcrop in sea-cliffs of softer geological strata which tend to crumble substantially on erosion, is usually marked by the formation of long, semi-mobile screes. This is especially true of the outcrops of such readily-cleaved rocks as shales or slates:-

  • Black Spleenwort-Western Polypody Communities - The habitats of tumbled rocky screes differ from those of coastal valleys in being generally drier and more exposed. Asplenium adiantum-nigrum (Black Spleenwort) is characteristic of warm, well-lit, dark-coloured, coastal shale or slate screes with a general westerly or southerly aspect - rock types often poor in such elements as calcium and magnesium, but high in others such as aluminium and silica. The plant itself seems tolerant of considerable summer dessication and baking from direct exposure to full sun. In some shale screes, it sometimes co-dominates with a second, numerous fern Polypodium interjectum (Western Polypody).

    Associates of these 2 in these coastal scree habitats include very frequent patches of Thymus drucei (Wild Thyme) and Sedum anglicum (English Stonecrop), with occasional ground-trailing Hedera helix (Ivy) and Rubus saxatilis (Stone Bramble), small plants of Ulex europeus (Gorse) and scattered plants of Teucrium scorodonia (Wood Sage), Lotus corniculatus (Birdsfoot-trefoil), Galium verum (Lady's Bedstraw), Spergularia rupicola (Rock Sea-spurrey), Silene maritima (Sea Campion), Hieracium species (Hawkweeds), Festuca rubra (Red Fescue), Aira praecox (Early Hair-grass, cushions of mosses such as Hypnum cupressiforme and Dicranum scoparium, and often abundant Xanthoria parietina and Ramalina siliquosa lichens. Armeria maritina (Sea Thrift) and Critmum maritimum (Rock Samphire) are often present on more stable slopes nearby. At the feet of such screes, where they merge on to well-vegetated, sandy foreshores or on to the plateaux of former raised-beach levels, large scattered clumps of Polypodium interjectum can sometimes be found amongst densely grass-covered swards.
  • Rocky Coastal Valley Communities - Along the flanks of coastal valleys, scattered plants of Black Spleenwort may mix in tumbled boulder slopes with Dryopteris filix-mas (Common Male Fern), Polystichum setiferum (Soft Shield-fern) and Phyllitis scolopendrium (Hart's Tongue Fern), especially on less acidic rocks on western coasts, whilst on rocks of different types, all 3 species of Polypodium may occur over boulders. Asplenium billotii (Lanceolate Spleenwort) can be present amongst softer and well-fissured rock outcrops. Asplenium x sarniense (Guernsey Spleenwort) may grow in the Channel Islands. In shaded, more acidic and sheltered spots, especially where there is some tree overgrowth, Athyrium filix-femina (Lady Fern) and Broad Buckler-fern replace several of the above, whilst in usually shaded, moist and cool, highly Atlantic situations, drought-sensitive, acid-loving species, including Dryopteris aemula (Hay-scented Buckler-fern), Dryopteris expansa (Northern Buckler-fern), Hymenophyllum tunbrigense (Tunbridge Filmy-fern)and Hymenophyllum wilsonii (Wilson's Filmy-fern), and occasionall clumps of Blechnum spicant (Hard Fern), add considerably to the diversity. Where small stream-carrying valleys intersect the cliffs and splashing water is present, Osmunda regalis (Royal Fern) can sometimes occur on western coasts, especially if the water is peaty and acidic, and in a few, rare, well-sheltered sites, Trichomanes speciosum (Killarney Fern) is known.

    Where such water is less acidic, Equisetum telmateia (Great Horsetail) and Equisetum hyemale (Dutch Rush) can occur, whilst in sites where streams tumble on to and eventually cross the upper parts of pebbly foreshores, Equisetum x litorale (Shore Horsetail) can occur in communities with Iris pseudacorus (Yellow Flag), Filipendula ulmaria (Meadowsweet), Eupatorium cannabinum (Hemp Agrimony), Oenanthe crocata (Hemlock Water Dropwort) and Lythrum salicaria (Purple Loostrife). Quite frequently, Equisetum arvense (Common Horsetail) are also to be found in neighbouring rough grass slopes or cliff-top ledges, and Equisetum fluviatile (Water Horsetail) in standing water, where this ponds from flowing streams behind pebble-banked foreshores. Here, such a diversity of species can be brought into close proximity with cool, moist, sea-sprayed rocks, bearing colonies of Asplenium marinum (Sea Spleenwort).

Ferns on Clay Coasts:-
Rates of clay coast erosion are often at their greatest during winter, when the slippery and plastic water-saturated clays readily slump, opening new bare surfaces and numerous small chasms and moist crevices within the seaward slopes. After each new erosional phase, the ferns and horsetails are able to colonise and utilise before further slippage or encroachment by other plants occur:-

  • Clay Coast Fern Communities - The base-retaining capacity of clays often enables base-loving species to be present on the most recently-exposed mineral slopes, whilst more acid-loving ones can occur nearby where small pockets of raw plant humus have accumulated. Thus, most characteristic basic clay sites, especially on milder, Atlantic, coasts, are Polystichum setiferum (Soft Shield-Fern) and Phyllitis scolopendrium (Hart's-Tongue), whilst in more acidic spots there may be nearby Dryopteris filix-mas (Male Fern), Dryopteris affinis subsp. borreri (Common Golden-scaled Male Fern), and in moist patches, Dryopteris dilatata (Broad Buckler Fern) and Athyrium filix-femina (Lady Fern). In many cases, the densest stands of these ferns are in moist, recessed niches, especially near to small streams, where they are often accompanied by low shrub growth.

    The most common associates noted in sites in which Hart's Tongue and Soft Shield-fern are particularly characteristic, include mainly trailing stems of Ivy (Hedera helix) with Slender False-Brome (Brachypodium sylvaticum) and sometimes Red Campion (Silene dioica). These associations can be promoted by the absence of larger grazing animals.
  • Clay Coast Horsetail Communities - More extensive on clay coasts than are ferns, are sometimes horsetails, which usually occur in local stands on more rapidly eroding and more exposed slopes, which they regularly and continuously reinvade. The most widely spread horsetail in these sites is the Common Horsetail (Equisetum arvense), which is particularly characteristic of the shoulders of the banks. It is very deep-seated and extensive creeping rhizome system provides a network which continuously feeds from deeper, moister layers below.

    Its associates vary from a dense, grassy sward marking its more stable habitats, to a small number of scattered herbs in its more mobile ones. These commonly include a range of sub-maritime plants and ones of grassland or disturbed ground, such as Coltsfoot (Tussilago farfara), Buck's-horn Plantain (Platago coronopus), Birdsfoot-trefoil (Lotus corniculatus), Silverweed (Potentilla anserina), Yarrow (Achillea millefollium), Tufted Vetch (Vicia cracca), Ragwort (Senecio jacobaea), Scarlet Pimpernel (Anagallis arvensis), Common Mouse-ear Chickweed (Cerastium holosteoides) and Oat-grass (Arrhenatherum elatius).

    Great Horsetail (Equisetum telmateia) colonies typically mark spring lines along which out-cropping rock aquifers discharge a steady seepage of base-rich moisture through slumping clay banks. By midsummer, its vegetative shoots are regularly 48-72 inches (120-180 cms) in height.

    Although it is vegetationally the dominant plant, a range of other species occur with and around it in many of its coastal sites and often includes scattered plants of Meadowseet (Filipendula ulmaria), Wild Angelica (Angelica sylvestris), Cow Parsnip (Heracleum spondylium), Marsh Thistle (Cirsium palustre), Marsh Bedstraw (Galium palustre), Marsh Marigold (Caltha palustris), Water-pepper (Polygonum hydropiper), Great Hairy Willow-herb (Epilobium hirstutum), Hemp Agrimony (Eupatorum cannabinum), Fleabane (Pulicaria dysenterica), Hard Rush (Juncus inflexus), Remote and Great Pond Sedges (Carex remota and Carex riparia). Along their upper margins, Great Horsetail mingles with abundant Ribwort Plantain (Plantago lanceolata), Restharrow (Ononis repens) and tall grasses such as Oat-grass (Arrhenatherum elatius), Yorkshire Fog (Holcus lanatus), Cock's-foot (Dactylis glomerata) and Tall Brome (Festuca gigantea); these usually marking the beginnings of more stable slopes.

    In its typical, wet, slumping, sites of well-irrigated, soft clay substrates, Great Horsetail probably gains an essential combination of both adequate bases and adequate soluble silcates to satisfy the massive annual mineral demand of this species. Its clay sites are thus ones which are often surface-wet and soft and slippery even in summer, and in high or steep terrain, should be explored only with appropriate caution.

Ferns on Coastal Sand-dunes:-
Wind is the transporting agent in sand-dune building. Coastal sand dunes are formed gradually inland from marine sites where there is an abundant sand supply from offshore sand flats, and where these are regularly exposed at a sufficiently high level at each low tide for their surface grains to dry and to be picked up and transported landward by the prevailing wind. The sand removed from the foreshore is continually replenished there from more permanently submerged tidal zones during each period of regular tidal submergence. Growth of the sand-dunes thus occurs in a predominantly seaward direction as a series of ridges parallel to the coast and separated by a system of valleys - the sand-dune 'slacks'. Furthest from the sea, the oldest parts of the sand-dune system usually develop into the more stable, level or undulating, well-grassed, fixed dune-pasture - widely referred to as sand-dune 'links'. The sand may be derived from marine erosion of nearby coastal rocks or from fluvial deposits arriving by longshore drift, with or without the addition of a component from local organic sources in the form of broken fragments from a myriad of marine molluscan shells. Such 'shell sand' is by no means uncommon around the shores of Briatin and Ireland, and can result in a calcium carbonate component amounting to 5% of the sand.

  • Dune Ridges and Gulleys - The dryness of most dune ridges usually limits plants to occasional horsetails (Equisetum). In some sites, especially in high rainfall, calcareous dune systems, shoots of several horsetails may be present in such sites. The most frequent of these are Common Horsetail (Equisetum arvense) and Marsh Horsetail (Equisetum palustre), the former sometimes extending short distance into the drier parts of adjacent dunes. Other horsetails may be present in the vicinity of streams and small rivers crossing sand-dune ridges, including especially Shore Horsetail (Equisetum x litorale).
  • Dune Slacks - Adjacent to the dune ridges, the slacks are usually broad and flat-bottomed, their base levels marking where their sand surface remains more or less permanently damp through close contact with the regular water-table within the whole sand-dune system. These slacks frequently become flooded to depths of several inches in winter. The irrigation of the slacks is derived mostly from rainfall, but the water table itself frequently floats on a deeper layer of infiltrated seawater, and the resulting water of the slacks may thus be partly brackish. The most typical horsetail of dune slack habitats, but mostly confined to highly calcareous ones, is Variegated Horsetail (Equisetum variegatum). It typically thrives around the edges of moist slacks, avoiding those areas which are most permanently flooded in winter as well as those which dry out too excessively in summer.

    In many of its more northern sand dune slacks, Variegated Horsetail is associated with small, diffuse patches of Lesser Clubmoss (Selaginella selaginoides). Common Adder's-tongue (Ophioglossum vulgatum) is widespread in calcareous dune slacks, especially in hollows which regularly become flooded to depths of several centimetres during the winter months. Other associated calcareous dune slack plants include the leaves of the Marsh Pennywort (Hydrocotyle vulgaris), Common Spotted Orchid (Dachylorhiza fuchsii), Northern Fen Orchid (Dactylorhiza purpurella), Meadow Orchid (Dactylorhiza incarnata), Fen Orchid (Dactylorhiza praetermissa), Coral-root (Corallorhiza trifida), Autumn Lady's Tresses (Spiranthes spiralis) and Marsh and Dune Helleborine (Epipactis palustris and Epipactis dunensis).
  • Fixed Dunes and Sand Dune Pasture - Progressing inwards from the sea, the older parts of the dunes become more stable. Upon these is eventually established a denser, more continuous vegetation forming fixed dune 'links' or sand-dune pasture, and beneath its vegetation mantle, the sand surface is sufficiently stabilised for a shallow humus layer to being to build up. All the species of fern already seen in the sand-dune slacks are often able to persist in this vegetation for shorter or longer periods, whilst some others may make their first appearance at this point. Of the species which enter the natural succession here usually for the first time, an additional member of the community of the grassy links is Moonwort (Botrychium lunaria). Moonwort usually occupies only the better-drained hummocks and knolls, whilst Adder's-tongue only occupies the nearby damper hollows.

    Associates of Moonwort in sand-dune slack vegetation can be many, but frequently include patches of low-growing Wild Thyme (Thymus drucei), Clovers (Trifolium spp), Lady's Bedstraw (Galium verum), and Birdsfoot-trefoil (Lotus corniculatus), in a dense and species-rich turf. A not uncommon invader of the inland edge of the fixed dune pasture are low-canopied, harsh-fronded forms of Bracken (Pteridium aquilinum), with their rhizomes penetrating sometimes deeply through the sandy substrate.


" from Chapter 5 Coastal Pteridophytes of A natural History of Britain's Ferns by Christopher N. Page. Published by William Collins Sons & Co. Ltd in 1988. ISBN 0 00 219382 5 (limpback edition).










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Fern Grower's Manual by Barbara Joe Hoshizaki & Robbin C. Moran. Revised and Expanded Edition. Published in 2001 by Timber Press, Inc. Reprinted 2002, 2006. ISBN-13:978-0-88192-495-4.
"This book is mainly written for people seriously interested in growing ferns, knowing their names and what makes them similar or different, and appreciating their diversity. It is not a coffee-table book, nor a chatty type of garden book meant for light reading. Beginning fern amateurs may find more information than they need, but they will also find information useful at their level. Although this book primarily is a reference, it is also for browsing and gleaning bits of information not readily found elsewhere.
The core information in this book will be particularly helpful to plant people who want to grow or identify different ferns and fern allies." from the Preface to the above book.



using information from Fern Grower's Manual by Barbara Joe Hoshizaki & Robbin C. Moran and
The Encyclopaedia of Ferns An Introduction to Ferns, their Structure, Biology, Economic Importance, Cultivation and Propagation by David L. Jones ISBN 0 88192 054 1

Outdoor Use in
Northeastern United States
Zones 3-6
Southeastern United States Zones 6-8
Southern Florida and Hawaii Zones 10-11
Central United States Zones 3-6
Northwestern United States Zones 5-8 with some Zone 9
Southwestern United States Zones 6-9
Coastal Central and Southern California Zones 9-10

Aquatic 1, 2

Basket 1,
Ferns for Hanging Baskets 2, 3, 4, 5, 6
Ferns for Hanging Baskets with Pendulous Fronds or weeping Growth Habit 7, 8

Bog or Wet-Soil 1,
Ferns for Wet Soils 2, 3
Border and Foundation 1, 2
Grow in Coastal Region
Cold-hardy Ferns 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6
Colour in Fern Fronds 1, 2, 3, 4
Conservatory (Stove House) or Heated Greenhouse 1, 2, 3, 4, 5
Drier Soil 1, 2, 3, 4
Grows on Rock (epilithic) 1, 2
Borne on Leaf (epiphyllous) 1, 2
Grows on another Plant (epiphyte) 1, 2
Evergreen and Deciduous
Fronds in Floral Decorations

Ferns for Acid Soil 1,
Lime-hating (Calcifluges) 2, 3, 4, 5

Ferns for Basic or Limestone Soil 1,
Ferns Found on Limestone or Basic Soils (Calciphiles) 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10

Ferns for Ground Cover 1,
Ground Cover Ferns 2, 3, 4, 5
Ferns of the Atlantic Fringe with associated plants (1 - Atlantic Cliff-top Grassland, Ledges and Rough Slopes; 2 - Clay Coasts and Dunes of South-East Ireland; 3 - Limestones of Western Atlantic Coasts; 4 - Hebridean Machair; 5 - Horsetail Flushes, Ditches and Stream Margins; 6 - Water Margin Osmunda Habitats; 7 - Western, Low-lying, Wet, Acid Woodlands; 8 - Western, Oak and Oak-Birch Woodlands and Ravines, in the UK and Ireland)
Ferns in Coastal District with associated plants
(Hard Rock Cliffs, Soft Rock Cliffs, Clay Coasts, or Coastal Sand-Dunes in the UK)
Ferns of Grasslands and Rock Outcrops (Grasslands; Rocks, Quarries and Mines in the UK)
Ferns of Heath and Moorland with associated plants (1 - Bracken Heath; 2 - Ferns of Moist Heathland Slopes and Margins of Rills and Streams; 3 - Heathland Horsetails, 4 - Heathland Clubmosses, in the UK)
Ferns of Lower Mountain Habitats with associated plants (1 - Upland Slopes and Screes; 2 - Base-rich, Upland Springs and Flushes; 3 - Base-rich, Upland, Streamside Sands and Gravels; 4 - Juniper Shrub Woodland, in the UK)
Ferns for Man-Made Landscapes with associated plants (South-western Hedgebanks, Hedgerows and Ditches, Walls and Stonework, Water Mills and Wells, Lime Kilns and abandoned Lime-Workings, Pit heaps and Shale Bings, Canals, Railways and Their Environs in the UK)
Ferns of Upper Mountain Habitats with associated plants (1 - High Mountain, Basic Cliffs and Ledges; 2 - High, Cliff Gullies; 3 - High Mountain Corries, Snow Patches and Fern beds; 4 - Ridges, Plateaux and High Summits, in the UK)
Ferns for Wetlands with associated plants (1- Ponds, Flooded Mineral Workings and Wet Heathland Hollows; 2 - Lakes and Reservoirs; 3 - Fens; 4 - Ferns of the Norfolk Broads' Fens; 5 - Willow Epiphytes in the UK)
Ferns in Woodland with associated plants (1 - Dry, Lowland, Deciduous Woodland; 2 - Inland, Limestone, Valley Woodland; 3 - Base-rich Clay, Valley Woodland; 4 - Basic, Spring-fed Woodland; 5 - Ravine Woodland on Mixed Rock-types; 6 - Native Pine Forest in the UK)

Ferns in Hedges or Hedgebanks

Outdoor Containers 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7

Rapidly Growing Fern 1, 2
Resurrection Fern
Rock Garden and Wall Ferns 1, 2, 3, 4, 5
Shade Tolerant 1, 2, 3, 4
Slowly Growing Fern
Sun Tolerant 1, 2, 3, 4
House Fern in Trough Garden 1,
Fern Suitable for
Indoor Decoration 2
, 3, 4, 5, 6
House Fern in Terrarium, Wardian Case or
Bottle Garden 1,

Ferns suitable for Terrariums, Wardian Cases 2, 3, 4,
5, 6

Grow in Woodlands 1, 2, 3, 4

using information from
Fern Grower's Manual by Barbara Joe Hoshizaki & Robbin C. Moran and
The Encyclopaedia of Ferns An Introduction to Ferns, their Structure, Biology, Economic Importance, Cultivation and Propagation by David L. Jones ISBN 0 88192 054 1

Aquatic Ferns (Azolla, Ceratopteris, Marsilea, Pilularia, Regnellidium, Salvinia)

Boston ferns (Nephrolepis exaltata), Fishbone ferns (Nephrolepis cordifolia), Lace ferns and Sword ferns

Cloak, Lip, Hand Ferns and their Hardy Relatives (Bommeria, Cheilanthes, Doryopteris, Gymnopteris, Hemionitis, Notholaena, Paraceterach, Pellae, Pleurosorus, Quercifilix) 1,
2, 3

Davallia Ferns (Araiostegia, Davallia, Davallodes, Gymno-grammitis, Humata, Leucostegia, Scyphularia, Trogostolon) 1, 2

Fern Allies (Psilotums or Whisk Ferns, Lycopodiums or Ground Pines, Selaginellas or Spike Mosses, and Equisetums, Horsetails or Scouring Rushes) 1, 2

Filmy and Crepe Ferns (Hymenophyllum, Trichomanes, Leptopteris) 1, 2

Lacy Ground Ferns (Culcita, Dennstaedtia, Histiopteris, Hypolepis, Leptolepia, Microlepia, Paesia, Pteridium) 1, 2

Lady Ferns and Their Allies (Allantodia, Athyrium, Diplazium, Lunathyrium, Pseudo-cystopteris, Callipteris, Cornopteris, Cystopteris) 1, 2

Maidenhair Ferns (Adiantum) 1, 2

Miscellaneous Ferns (Acrostichum, Actiniopteris, Anemia, Anogramma, Anopteris, Blotiella, Bolbitis, Christella, Coniogramma, Cryptogramma, Ctenitis, Cyclosorus, Didymochlaena, Dipteris, Elaphoglossum, Equisetum, Gymnocarpium, Llavea, Lonchitis, Lygodium, Macrothelypteris, Oeontrichia, Oleandra, Onoclea, Onychium, Oreopteris, Parathelypteris, Phegopteris, Photinopteris, Pityrogramma, Pneumatopteris, Psilotum, Stenochlaena, Thelypteris, Vittaria)
, 2, 3, 4 including Fern Allies of Equisetum and Psilotum or Whisk Ferns

Polypodium Ferns and Relatives (Anarthropteris, Belvisia, Campyloneurum, Colysis, Crypsinus, Dictymia, Gonphlebium, Lecanopteris, Lemmaphyllum, Lexogramme, Microgramma, Microsorum, Niphidium, Phlebodium, Phymatosurus, Pleopeltis, Polypodium, Pyrrosia, Selliguea) 1, 2, 3

Primitive Ferns and Fern Oddities (Angiopteris, Botrychium, Christensenia, Danaea, Helminthostachys, Marattia, Ophioglossum, Osmunda and Todea)

Scrambling, Umbrella, Coral and Pouch Ferns (Dicranopteris, Diploptergium, Gleichenia, Sticherus)

Shield, Buckler, Holly Ferns and their Relatives (Arachniodes, Cyrtomium, Dryopteris, Lastreopsis, Matteuccia, Polystichum, Rumohra, Tectaria and Woodsia) 1, 2, 3, 4

Spleenworts Ferns (Asplenium) 1, 2, 3

Staghorns, Elkhorns and other large epiphytes (Aglaomorpha, Drynaria, Merinthosorus, Platycerium, Pseudodrynaria) 1, 2

Fern Allies - Tassel Ferns and Clubmosses (Lycopodium)

The Brakes (Pteris) 1, 2

Tree Fern
s (Cibotium, Cnemidaria, Cyathea, Dicksonia, Nephelea and Trichipteris) 1, 2

Water, Hard, Rasp and Chain Ferns (Blechnum, Doodia, Woodwardia, Sadleria) 1, 2

Xerophytic Ferns (Actinopteris, Astrolepis, Cheilanthes, Doryopteris, Notholaena, Pellaea, Pityrogramma) 1, 2