Topic
Case Studies
...Drive
...Foundations

Companion Planting
...A, B, C, D, E,
...F, G, H, I, J, K,
...L, M, N, O, P, Q,
...R, S, T, U, V, W,
...X, Y, Z
...Pest Control
...using Plants

Garden Construction
Garden Design
...How to Use the Colour Wheel Concepts for Selection of Flowers, Foliage and Flower Shape
...RHS Mixed Borders
......Bedding Plants
......Her Perennials
......Other Plants
Garden Maintenance
Glossary
Home
Library
Offbeat Glossary
Plants
...in Chalk (Alkaline) Soil
......A-F1, A-F2,
......A-F3, G-L, M-R,
......M-R Roses, S-Z
...in Heavy Clay Soil
......A-F, G-L, M-R,
......S-Z
...in Lime-Free (Acid) Soil
......A-F, G-L, M-R,
......S-Z
...in Light Sand Soil
......A-F, G-L, M-R,
......S-Z
...Poisonous Plants
Soil
...Soil Nutrients
Tool Shed
Useful Data

Topic - Plant Photo Galleries
Plant with Photo Index of Ivydene Gardens
A 1, Photos
B 1, Photos
C 1, Photos
D 1, Photos
E 1, Photos
F 1, Photos
G 1, Photos
H 1, Photos
I 1, Photos
J 1, Photos
K 1, Photos
L 1, Photos
M 1, Photos
N 1, Photos
O 1, Photos
P 1, Photos
Q 1, Photos
R 1, Photos
S 1, Photos
T 1, Photos
U 1, Photos
V 1, Photos
W 1, Photos
X 1 Photos
Y 1, Photos
Z 1 Photos
Articles/Items in Ivydene Gardens
Flower Shape and Plant Use of
Bedding
Bulb
Evergreen Perennial
Herbaceous Perennial
Rose


Aquatic
Bamboo
Bedding
...by Flower Shape

Bulb with its 7 Flower Colours per Month Comparison Pages
...Allium/ Anemone
...Autumn
...Colchicum/ Crocus
...Dahlia

...Gladiolus
......European A-E
......European F-M
......European N-Z
......Eur Non-classified
......American A
......American B
......American C
......American D
......American E
......American F
......American G
......American H
......American I
......American J
......American K
......American L
......American M
......American N
......American O
......American P
......American Q
......American R
......American S
......American T
......American U
......American V
......American W
......American XYZ
......Ame Non-classified
......Australia - empty
......India

......Lithuania

...Hippeastrum/ Lily
...Late Summer
...Narcissus
...Spring
...Tulip
...Winter
...Each of the above ...Bulb Galleries has its own set of Flower Colour Pages
...Flower Shape
...Bulb Form

...Bulb Use

...Bulb in Soil



Further details on bulbs from the Infill Galleries:-
Hardy Bulbs
...Aconitum
...Allium
...Alstroemeria
...Anemone

...Amaryllis
...Anthericum
...Antholyzas
...Apios
...Arisaema
...Arum
...Asphodeline

...Asphodelus
...Belamcanda
...Bloomeria
...Brodiaea
...Bulbocodium

...Calochorti
...Cyclobothrias
...Camassia
...Colchicum
...Convallaria 
...Forcing Lily of the Valley
...Corydalis
...Crinum
...Crosmia
...Montbretia
...Crocus

...Cyclamen
...Dicentra
...Dierama
...Eranthis
...Eremurus
...Erythrnium
...Eucomis

...Fritillaria
...Funkia
...Galanthus
...Galtonia
...Gladiolus
...Hemerocallis

...Hyacinth
...Hyacinths in Pots
...Scilla
...Puschkinia
...Chionodoxa
...Chionoscilla
...Muscari

...Iris
...Kniphofia
...Lapeyrousia
...Leucojum

...Lilium
...Lilium in Pots
...Malvastrum
...Merendera
...Milla
...Narcissus
...Narcissi in Pots

...Ornithogalum
...Oxalis
...Paeonia
...Ranunculus
...Romulea
...Sanguinaria
...Sternbergia
...Schizostylis
...Tecophilaea
...Trillium

...Tulip
...Zephyranthus

Half-Hardy Bulbs
...Acidanthera
...Albuca
...Alstroemeri
...Andro-stephium
...Bassers
...Boussing-aultias
...Bravoas
...Cypellas
...Dahlias
...Galaxis,
...Geissorhizas
...Hesperanthas

...Gladioli
...Ixias
...Sparaxises
...Babianas
...Morphixias
...Tritonias

...Ixiolirions
...Moraeas
...Ornithogalums
...Oxalises
...Phaedra-nassas
...Pancratiums
...Tigridias
...Zephyranthes
...Cooperias


Uses of Bulbs:-
...for Bedding
...in Windowboxes
...in Border
...naturalized in Grass
...in Bulb Frame
...in Woodland Garden
...in Rock Garden
...in Bowls
...in Alpine House
...Bulbs in Greenhouse or Stove:-
...Achimenes
...Alocasias
...Amorpho-phalluses
...Arisaemas
...Arums
...Begonias
...Bomareas
...Caladiums

...Clivias
...Colocasias
...Crinums
...Cyclamens
...Cyrtanthuses
...Eucharises
...Urceocharis
...Eurycles

...Freesias
...Gloxinias
...Haemanthus
...Hippeastrums

...Lachenalias
...Nerines
...Lycorises
...Pencratiums
...Hymenocallises
...Richardias
...Sprekelias
...Tuberoses
...Vallotas
...Watsonias
...Zephyranthes

...Plant Bedding in
......Spring

......Summer
...Bulb houseplants flowering inside House during:-
......January
......February
......March
......April
......May
......June
......July
......August
......September
......October
......November
......December
...Bulbs and other types of plant flowering during:-
......Dec-Jan
......Feb-Mar
......Apr-May
......Jun-Aug
......Sep-Oct
......Nov-Dec
...Selection of the smaller and choicer plants for the Smallest of Gardens with plant flowering during the same 6 periods as in the previous selection

Climber
...Clematis
...Climbers
Conifer
Deciduous Shrub
...Shrubs - Decid
Deciduous Tree

...Trees - Decid
Evergreen Perennial
...P-Evergreen A-L
...P-Evergreen M-Z
...Flower Shape
Evergreen Shrub
...Shrubs - Evgr
...Shrub Heathers
Evergreen Tree
...Trees - Evgr

Fern *

Grass
Hedging
Herbaceous Perennial
...P -Herbaceous
...RHS Wisley
...Flower Shape
Herb
Odds and Sods
Rhododendron
Rose
...RHS Wisley A-F
...RHS Wisley G-R
...RHS Wisley S-Z
...Rose Use
...Other Roses A-F
...Other Roses G-R
...Other Roses S-Z
Soft Fruit
Top Fruit
...Apple

...Cherry
...Pear
Vegetable

Wild Flower
with its
flower colour page,
space,
Site Map page in its flower colour
NOTE Gallery
...Blue Note
...Brown Note
...Cream Note
...Green Note
...Mauve Note
...Multi-Cols Note
...Orange Note
...Pink A-G Note
...Pink H-Z Note
...Purple Note
...Red Note
...White A-D Note
...White E-P Note
...White Q-Z Note
...Yellow A-G Note
...Yellow H-Z Note
...Shrub/Tree Note
Poisonous
Wildflower Plants

Topic - Flower/Foliage Colour
Colour Wheel Galleries

Following your choice using Garden Style then that changes your Plant Selection Process
Garden Style
...Infill Plants
...12 Bloom Colours per Month Index
...12 Foliage Colours per Month Index
...All Plants Index
...Cultivation, Position, Use Index
...Shape, Form
Index

or
you could use these Flower Colour Wheels with number of colours
All Flowers 53

All Flowers per Month 12
with its
Explanation of
Structure of this Website with

...User Guidelines
All Bee-Pollinated Flowers per Month 12
...Index
Rock Garden and Alpine Flower Colour Wheel with number of colours
Rock Plant Flowers 53

...Rock Plant Photos

or
these Foliage Colour Wheels structures, which I have done but until I can take the photos and I am certain of the plant label's validity, these may not progress much further
All Foliage 212

All Spring Foliage 212
All Summer Foliage 212
All Autumn Foliage 212
All Winter Foliage 212

or
Flower Colour Wheel without photos, but with links to photos
12 Bloom Colours per Month Index
...All Plants Index

Topic - Wildlife on Plant Photo Gallery
Butterfly
Usage of Plants
by Egg, Caterpillar, Chrysalis and Butterfly

Egg, Caterpillar, Chrysalis and Butterfly usage of
Plant A-C
Plant C-M
Plant N-W
Butterfly usage of Plant

followed by all the Wild Flower Family Pages:-

There are 180 families in the Wildflowers of the UK and they have been split up into 22 Galleries to allow space for up to 100 plants per gallery.

Each plant named in each of the Wildflower Family Pages may have a link to:-

its Plant Description Page in its Common Name in one of those Wildflower Plant Galleries and will have links

to external sites to purchase the plant or seed in its Botanical Name,

to see photos in its Flowering Months and

to read habitat details in its Habitat Column.

 

WILD FLOWER FAMILY
PAGE MENU 1

(o)Adder's Tongue
Amaranth
(o)Arrow-Grass
(o)Arum
(o)Balsam
Bamboo
(o)Barberry
(o)Bedstraw
(o)Beech
(o)Bellflower
(o)Bindweed
(o)Birch
(o)Birds-Nest
(o)Birthwort
(o)Bogbean
(o)Bog Myrtle
(o)Borage
(o)Box
(o)Broomrape
(o)Buckthorn
(o)Buddleia
(o)Bur-reed
(o)Buttercup
(o)Butterwort
(o)Cornel (Dogwood)
(o)Crowberry
(o)Crucifer (Cabbage/Mustard) 1
(o)Crucifer (Cabbage/Mustard) 2
Cypress
(o)Daffodil
(o)Daisy
(o)Daisy Cudweeds
(o)Daisy Chamomiles
(o)Daisy Thistle
(o)Daisy Catsears (o)Daisy Hawkweeds
(o)Daisy Hawksbeards
(o)Daphne
(o)Diapensia
(o)Dock Bistorts
(o)Dock Sorrels

WILD FLOWER FAMILY
PAGE MENU 2


(o)Clubmoss
(o)Duckweed
(o)Eel-Grass
(o)Elm
(o)Filmy Fern
(o)Horsetail
(o)Polypody
Quillwort
(o)Royal Fern
(o)Figwort - Mulleins
(o)Figwort - Speedwells
(o)Flax
(o)Flowering-Rush
(o)Frog-bit
(o)Fumitory
(o)Gentian
(o)Geranium
(o)Glassworts
(o)Gooseberry
(o)Goosefoot
(o)Grass 1
(o)Grass 2
(o)Grass 3
(o)Grass Soft Bromes 1
(o)Grass Soft Bromes 2
(o)Grass Soft Bromes 3 (o)Hazel
(o)Heath
(o)Hemp
(o)Herb-Paris
(o)Holly
(o)Honeysuckle
(o)Horned-Pondweed
(o)Hornwort
(o)Iris
(o)Ivy
(o)Jacobs Ladder
(o)Lily
(o)Lily Garlic
(o)Lime
(o)Lobelia
(o)Loosestrife
(o)Mallow
(o)Maple
(o)Mares-tail
(o)Marsh Pennywort
(o)Melon (Gourd/Cucumber)
 

WILD FLOWER FAMILY
PAGE MENU 3


(o)Mesem-bryanthemum
(o)Mignonette
(o)Milkwort
(o)Mistletoe
(o)Moschatel
Naiad
(o)Nettle
(o)Nightshade
(o)Oleaster
(o)Olive
(o)Orchid 1
(o)Orchid 2
(o)Orchid 3
(o)Orchid 4
(o)Parnassus-Grass
(o)Peaflower
(o)Peaflower Clover 1
(o)Peaflower Clover 2
(o)Peaflower Clover 3
(o)Peaflower Vetches/Peas
Peony
(o)Periwinkle
Pillwort
Pine
(o)Pink 1
(o)Pink 2
Pipewort
(o)Pitcher-Plant
(o)Plantain
(o)Pondweed
(o)Poppy
(o)Primrose
(o)Purslane
Rannock Rush
(o)Reedmace
(o)Rockrose
(o)Rose 1
(o)Rose 2
(o)Rose 3
(o)Rose 4
(o)Rush
(o)Rush Woodrushes
(o)Saint Johns Wort
Saltmarsh Grasses
(o)Sandalwood
(o)Saxifrage
 

WILD FLOWER FAMILY
PAGE MENU 4


Seaheath
(o)Sea Lavender
(o)Sedge Rush-like
(o)Sedges Carex 1
(o)Sedges Carex 2
(o)Sedges Carex 3
(o)Sedges Carex 4
(o)Spindle-Tree
(o)Spurge
(o)Stonecrop
(o)Sundew
(o)Tamarisk
Tassel Pondweed
(o)Teasel
(o)Thyme 1
(o)Thyme 2
(o)Umbellifer 1
(o)Umbellifer 2
(o)Valerian
(o)Verbena
(o)Violet
(o)Water Fern
(o)Waterlily
(o)Water Milfoil
(o)Water Plantain
(o)Water Starwort
Waterwort
(o)Willow
(o)Willow-Herb
(o)Wintergreen
(o)Wood-Sorrel
(o)Yam
(o)Yew

 

It is worth remembering that especially with roses that the colour of the petals of the flower may change - The following photos are of Rosa 'Lincolnshire Poacher' which I took on the same day in R.V. Roger's Nursery Field:-

rosalincolnshirepoacherflot91a1a1a1a1a1a

Closed Bud

rosalincolnshirepoacherflot92a1a1a1a1a1a

Opening Bud

rosalincolnshirepoacherflot93a1a1a1a1a1a

Juvenile Flower

rosalincolnshirepoacherflot94a1a1a1a1a1a

Older Juvenile Flower

rosalincolnshirepoacherflot95a1a1a1a1a1a

Middle-aged Flower - Flower Colour in Season in its
Rose Description Page is
"Buff Yellow, with a very slight pink tint at the edges in May-October."

rosalincolnshirepoacherflot96a1a1a1a1a1a

Mature Flower

rosalincolnshirepoacherflot97a1a1a1a1a1a

Juvenile Flower and Dying Flower

rosalincolnshirepoacherflot98a1a1a1a1a1a

Form of Rose Bush

There are 720 roses in the Rose Galleries. So one might avoid disappointment if you look at all the photos of the roses in the respective Rose Description Page!!!!

FERN PLANTS GALLERY PAGES
Site Map for pages with photo content (o)

Fern Culture
from Sections 1-10 of Ferns and Fern Culture by J. Birkenhead, F.R.H.S.
Published by John Heywood in Manchester in
May, 1892 with
Rules for Fern Culture
followed by
Sections
1 Modes of Growth
2 Compost
3 Compost for various Genera, growing in pots, pans or baskets
4 Various Habits of Ferns
5 Various Modes of Cultivation
6 Light
7 Temperature
8 Ferns in Dwelling-Houses
9 Propagation (in Use in Brackish Water in Coastal District Page)

10 Selection of Ferns

with

British Ferns and their Allies comprising the Ferns, Club-mosses, Pepperworts and Horsetails by Thomas Moore, F.L.S, F.H.S., Etc. London George Routledge and Sons, Broadway, Ludgate Hill. Hardcover published in 1861 provides details on British Ferns

TYPE OF FERN TO GROW
....Aquatic
....Boston/ Fishbone/
Lace/ Sword

....Cloak/Lip/Hand
....Filmy and Crepe
....Lacy Ground
(o)Lady
....Maidenhair
(o)Miscellaneous
(o)Primitive/ Oddities
....Scrambling/ Umbrella/ Coral/ Pouch
....Selaginellas
(o)Shield/ Buckler/ Holly
....Squirrel/ Rabbit/ Hare's Foot

....Staghorn/ Elkhorn/ Epiphyte
....Tassel, Clubmoss
....The Brakes
....The Polypodies
(o)The Spleenworts
....The Tree Ferns
....Water/ Hard/ Rasp/ Chain

 

 

Where to see

UNITED STATES
San Antonio Botanical Garden.
San Diego Botanic Garden.
San Francisco Botanical Garden at Strybing Arboretum.
Sarah P. Duke Gardens.
Tyringham Cobble.
UNC at Charlotte Botanical Gardens.
University of California Botanical Garden at Berkeley.
USCS Arboretum.
Whitehall Historic Home and Garden.
Wild Gardens of Acadia.
Zilker Botanical Garden.

WALES
Aberglasney Gardens.
Dewstow Gardens.
Dyffryn Gardens.

USE OF FERN
(o)Cold-hardy
(o)From Lime-hating Soil
(o)From Limestone Soil
(o)Hanging Basket
(o)Indoor Decoration
(o)Outdoor Pot
(o)Terrariums
(o)Wet Soils
(o)Ground Cover
(o)Pendulous Fronds

 

Where to see

AUSTRALIA
Adelaide Botanic Garden.
Brisbane Botanic Garden.
Mount Lofty Botanic Garden.
Royal Botanic Garden, Melbourne.
Royal Botanic Garden, Sydney.

CANADA
Le Jardin Botanique de Montreal.
Les Jardins de Metis.
Van Dusen Botanical Garden.

ENGLAND
Biddulph Grange Garden.
Brodsworth Hall and Gardens.
Cambridge University Botanic Gardens.
Chelsea Physic Garden.
Harlow Carr Botanic Gardens.
RHS Garden Wisley.
Royal Botanic Gardens Kew.
Savill Gardens.
Sizergh Castle and Garden.
Southport Botanic Gardens.
Tatton Park.
Tremenheere Sculpture Gardens.
University of Oxford Botanic Garden.

FRANCE
Jardin Botanique de Lyon.
Parc Phoenix-Nice.

GERMANY
Arktisch-Alpiner Garten.
Botanischer Garten und Museum.
Flora und Botanischer Garten Koln.

IRELAND
Caher Bridge Garden.
Kells Bay Gardens.

NETHERLANDS
Hortus Botanicus Leiden.

SPORE COLOUR
Spore

BED PICTURES
Garden
 

Where to see

NEW ZEALAND
Franz Fernery at the Auckland Domain Park.
Pukeiti Rhododendron Trust Garden.
Pukekura Park.

SCOTLAND
Arduaine Garden.
Ascog Hall Gardens and Victorian Fernery.
Attadale Gardens.
Benmore Botanic Garden.
Glasgow Botanic Garden.
Inverewe Garden and Estate.
Linn Botanic Gardens.
Royal Botanic Garden Edinburgh.

UNITED STATES
Atlanta Botanical Garden.
Balboa Park.
Barnes Foundation Arboretum.
Bartholomew's Cobble.
Bellevue Botanical Garden.
Berkshire Botanical Garden.
Bloedal Reserve.
Bok Tower Gardens.
Botanical Gardens at Asheville.
Bowman's Hill Wildflower Preserve.
Brooklyn Botanic Garden.
Cailfornia State Unversity at Sacramento.
Cary Institute of Ecosystem Studies.
Chanticleer.
Chicago Botanic Garden.
Coastal Maine Botanical Gardens.
Crystal Springs Rhododendron Garden.
Dallas Arboretum and Botanical Garden.
Denver Botanic Gardens.
Elandan Gardens.
Elisabeth Carey Miller Botanical Garden.
Fairchild Tropical Botanical Garden.
Fern Canyon.
Ferndell Canyon in Griffith Park.
Fort Worth Botanic Garden.
Frelinghuysen Arboretum.
Garden in the Woods.
Garvan Woodland Gardens.
Ganna Walska Lotusland.
Georgeson Botanical Garden.
Georgia Perimeter College Botanical Gardens


All
Hardy Fern Foundation members have unlimited access to our spore exchange and can choose from a wide variety of ferns. Our resource pages include publications and books about ferns as well as
useful websites.

A Natural History of Britain's Ferns by Christopher N. Page. Published by William Collins Sons & Co. Ltd in 1988. ISBN 0 00 219382 5 (limpback edition) provides details of Coastal, Man-made Landscapes, Woodland, Wetland, Grassland and Rock Outcrops, Heath and Moorland, Lower Mountain Habitats, Upper Mountain Habitats and Atlantic Fringe Ferns.
I have provided a brief summary in the Ferns in Coastal District with associated plants and Ferns for Man-Made Landscapes with associated plants pages and provided you with the Chapter number for the others, since the information within this book is so comprehensive, that it would need to be completely copied to be of most use.

Tree Ferns by Mark F. Large & John E. Braggins. Published by Timber Press in 2004. ISBN 978-1-60469-176-4 is a scientifically accurate book dealing with Tree Fern species cultivated in the United States and the Pacific, but little known and rare tree ferns are also included.

The Observer's Book of Ferns, revised by Francis Rose, previous editions compiled by W.J.Stokoe. Published by Frederick Warne & Co. Ltd in 1965 provides a comprehensive guide to 45 British species of Ferns. It provides details of habitat and how to use those ferns.

The Plant Lover's Guide to Ferns by Richard Steffen & Sue Olsen. Published in 2015 by Timber Press, Inc. ISBN 978-1-60469-
474-1. It provides details on designing with ferns and details on 140 ferns for the garden in the USA.

Success with Indoor Ferns, edited by Lesley Young. Reprinted 1998. ISBN 1 85391 554 8. It details the care of indoor ferns with their position, choice and fern care.


See
Ferns in Britain and Ireland
or the

British Pteridological Society
for further details and photos.

Mail Order UK Fern Nursery
Shady Plants has ferns for
Vertical Fern Gardens and Companion Plants for growing with Ferns.

 

Where to see

UNITED STATES
Harry P. Leu Gardens.
Hawaii Tropical Botanical Garden.
Holden Arboretum.
Honolulu Botanical Gardens.
Huntington Botanical Gardens.
Huntsville-Madison County Botanical Garden.
Inniswood Metro Gardens.
Kruckeberg Botanic Garden.
Lakewold Gardens.
Leach Botanical Garden.
Leonard J. Buck Garden.
Lewis Ginter Botanical Garden.
Longwood Gardens.
Lyndhurst Gardens.
Marie Selby Botanical Gardens.
Matthaei Botanical Gardens.
Memphis Botanic Garden.
Mendocino Coast Botanical Gardens.
Mercer Arboretum and Botanic Gardens.
Michigan State University.
Missouri Botanical Garden.
Morris Arboretum of the University of Pennsylvania.
Mount Pisgah Arboretum.
Mt. Cuba Center.
National Tropical Botanical Garden.
New Jersey State Botanical Garden at Skyland.
New York Botanical Garden.
Norfolk Botanical Garden.
North Carolina Botanical Garden.
Olbrich Botanical Garden.
Phipps Conservatory and Botanical Gardens.
Planting Fields Arboretum State Historic Park.
Rancho Santa Ana Botanic Garden.
Rhododendron Species Botanical Garden.
Rotary Gardens.

 

 

 


USE OF FERN - Grow in Woodlands Page 1 of 4

USE OF FERN as Ferns for Woodland in the UK from Ferns for Home and Garden Flowers & Plants. Published by Magna Books in 1995. ISBN 1 85422 888 9. Design and text of plan, planting plan, flowering and colour scheme: Bureau Willemien Dijkshoorn BNT, Amsterdam:-

  • Dropteris
  • Matteuccia
  • Phyllitis
  • Polypodium
  • Pteridium
  • Thelypteris
     

Fern

Foliage Colour and
Shape/ Division

Height x Spread in inches (cms)
(1 inch =
2.5 cms,
12 inches =
1 foot
12 inches =
30 cms,
24 inches =
2 feet,
3 feet =
1 yard,
40 inches = 100 cms)
 

Type of Fern to Grow

Use of Fern

Comments

Frond

Credit
is usually for Denver Botanic Gardens,
Wikimedia Commons,
Dana Kelley Bressette of Nativeplants PNW.com
or
Chris Garnons-Williams

Form

Adiantum pedatum
American Maidenhair, five-finger fern

Hardy to -37 degrees Centigrade (-35 degrees Fahrenheit),
Zone 3

Grows in North America, Central and Eastern United States, Canada, Alaska, North India, Japan and eastern Asia.

"Zones 3-8 native to North America and East Asia, the 8-20 forked pinnate leaf segments are in a horse-shape arrangemen from the central stalk" from University of Vermont

Dainty, bright green fronds are held aloft on shiny black stems. The fronds are in clusters from the clump-forming rhizome.

12-24 x 12-18
(30-60 x 30-45)

Spacing 10 (25)

Dainty, bright green fronds are held aloft on shiny black stems, creating a light, airy texture in the woodland garden. In rich soil and bright shade it will spread by shallow rhizomes to form a dense groundcover. Found in the humus-rich woodlands and moist woods of Eastern North America. Easy to grow as long as the soil is loose and rich.
In time, good moist compost and filtered light this will form a lush clump gradually spreading its welcome wands of foliage. Brighter light will reduce the size of the fronds but full sun does not make for a happy plant! It is content in gardens from Zone 2 (where it is clearly one of the most ornamental options) to Zone 9

Maidenhair Ferns (Adiantum)

Hardy Species Fern of the Stove, greenhouse and hardy fern types.
Culture: Compost, 2 parts peat, 1 part loam, silver sand, charcoal. Pot, March. Water moderately Sep-Mar, freely afterwards. Position, shady at all times. Plant hardy species in April in equal parts peat and loam, in shady position. Temperature, stove species, Sep-Mar 60-70 degrees Fahrenheit (15-21 degrees Centigrade), Mar-Sep 70-80 degrees Fahrenheit (21-27 degrees Centigrade); greenhouse species, Sep-Mar 50-55 degrees Fahrenheit (10-13 degrees Centigrade), Mar-Sep 55-65 degrees Fahrenheit (13-18 degrees Centigrade). Propagation: By spores sown on fine sandy peat, kept moist and shaded under bell-glass.

Suitable for

Border and Foundation Ferns

Cold-hardy Ferns

Ground Cover

Lime-hating Ferns

Shade-Tolerant Ferns

Clump-forming. Deciduous Fern. In Part Shade and Full Shade.

It can be found in humus-rich woodlands and moist woods in acidic to neutral, moist, well-drained soils. Does not tolerate clay. Happier in cooler climates and can take more sun in northern zones. Spreads by shallow rhizomes. Propagate by dividing rhizomes in spring. Best used as a groundcover in the woodland or rock garden or as an edge or border in the shaded garden.

A hardy fern which thrives in cold districts, but which is very difficult to grow in areas with a warm to hot climate. Plants may be deciduous in cold regions.It likes shady conditions and plenty of moisture and are best grown in the ground as they dislike being pot-bound. Acid organically-rich loams are very suitable and the plants appreciate applications of surface mulches.

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Frond from Image 3 from Adiantum pedatum of Denver Botanic Gardens.

Form from Image 2 from Adiantum pedatum of Denver Botanic Gardens.

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Deparia acrostichoides
(Athyrium thelypteroides, Diplazium acrostichoides, Lunathyrium thelypterioides)

Silver Glade Fern, Silvery Spleenwort - The name silvery comes from the fact that the indusia on the underside of the leaf have a silver color when the sori are close to ripening.

Very Hardy.
Zone 3(4)

Grows in North America, North India and China

Leaves (fronds) are once compound, lance-elliptic in outline, widest near the middle, narrowed at the base with a long taper at the tip end, 18 to 40 inches long, 5 to 10 inches wide, with 20 to 25 pairs of leaflets (pinnae) alternately attached along the stem.

Young fronds are yellow-green in color.

18-40 x 12
(45-100 x 30)

Lady Ferns and Their Allies

Hardy Fern Type. Culture of Stove and Greenhouse species: Compost, equal parts peat, loam, leaf-mould and sand. Pot Mar. Water freely in summer, moderately in winter. Temperature
stove species, Sep-Mar 60-70 degrees Fahrenheit (15-21 degrees Centigrade) Mar-Sep 70-80 degrees Fahrenheit (21-26 degrees Centigrade). Greenhouse, Sep-Mar 50-55 degrees Fahrenheit (10-13 degrees Centigrade), Mar-Sep 55-65 degrees Fahrenheit (13-18 degrees Centigrade).
Culture of Hardy Species: Compost, equal parts peat, loam, leaf-mould, sand and old mortar rubble. Position, old walls, rock gardens, moist shady borders for Lady Ferns.
Propagation: Stove and greenhouse species by spores sown in sandy peat at any time. Hardy species by spores when ripe, and division in April.

Suitable for
Cold-Hardy Ferns.

Lime-hating Ferns.

Outdoor Containers.

Shade Tolerant.

Deciduous Fern.

An easy fern to grow which is well suited to temperate regions, but which sheds its fronds with the onset of cold weather in the winter. Plants form a neat tussock and favour organically-rich, loamy soil in a shady situation. New growth in the spring is particularly decorative.

Grows well under medium light in moist soil or potting mix.

Grow in Part Shade, Full Shade, with moist soil in deciduous forest, wooded bluffs, slopes and ravines

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Deparia acrostichoides fronds taken in bucks county Pa.
By Wasp32 via Wikimedia Commons.

 

 

Deparia acrostichoides form taken in bucks county Pa.
By Wasp32 via Wikimedia Commons.

 

 

 

Deparia acrostichoides macro of leaflets.
By Wasp32 via Wikimedia Commons.

 

 

Deparia acrostichoides sori at Cataloochee, Smokies, North Carolina, 20131014.
By Wasp32 via Wikimedia Commons.

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Dryopteris marginalis (Aspidium marginale, Nephrodium marginale, Polypodium marginale)

Eastern Wood Fern, marginal shield fern, marginal wood fern.
Very hardy.
Zone 2(3)

The species is native to northeastern North America, where it grows on or among rocks.

Fronds are dark blue-green and are carried in a tussock.
Marginal wood fern's name derives from the fact that the sori are located on the margins, or edges of the leaflets.
Evergreen fronds provide good interest to the winter landscape.

18-24 x 18-24
(45-60 x 45-60)

Shielder Ferns, Buckler Ferns, Holly Ferns and their Relatives

Hardy Fern Type.
Culture of Hardy species: Soil, ordinary, light, rich. Position, shady borders or rock gardens. Plant, April. Water freely in dry weather May-Sep. Top-dress annually with leaf-mould or well-decayed manure. Protect in severe weather with bracken or litter. Do not remove dead fronds until April.
Propagation: Hardy species by spores sown on surface of sandy soil in shady cold frame; division in April.

Suitable for
Accent Fern

Cold-hardy ferns.

Lime-hating Ferns.

Rock Garden and Wall Ferns.

Shade-tolerant Fern.

 

Grow in shady areas of the woodland, rock, native plant or wild garden. Mixes well with spring wildflowers, purple-leafed heucheras and hostas. Excellent as a specimen or in groups.

Evergreen Fern.
In nature this fern occurs in shady woodland, and is sometimes known as the Leather Woodfern. Plants grow easily in shade in a loamy soil.
It is found in damp shady areas throughout eastern North America. It favors moderately acid to circumneutral soils in cooler areas, but is fairly drought-resistant once established. In the warmer parts of its range, it is most likely to be found on north-facing non-calcareous rock faces. It is common in many altitudes throughout its range, from high ledges to rocky slopes and stream banks.

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Frond of Dryopteris marginalis (L.) Gray, dryoptère à sores marginaux, dryoptéride marginale. By David J. Stang via Wikimedia Commons

 

Dryopteris marginalis sori, Tom Dorman State Nature Preserve Garrard County, Kentucky. By Masebrock at English Wikipedia via Wikimedia Commons

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Matteuccia struthiopteris
(Syn. Matteuccia pennsylvanica, Pteretis struthiopteris, Pteretis nodulosa, Struthiopteris pennsylvanica)

Ostrich Fern, Shuttlecock Fern

Very hardy.
Zone 2

Mid Green pinnate fronds taper at both ends and grow in a vase-like cluster around the robust rootstock.
Each cluster eventually develops a small trunk.

A vigorous fern which spreads by underground rhizomes, producng clusters of new fronds at intervals Flushes of new fronds are most decorative. Requires acid, loamy soil.

The sterile leaves are deciduous, but the fertile ones persist throughout the winter and shed their spores in early spring, sometimes over snow. Usually 1 or 2 new plants are produced each year from the stolons.

66 x 36
(165 x 90)

Spacing 24-30 (60-75)

Shielder Ferns, Buckler Ferns, Holly Ferns and their Relatives

Large hardy deciduous fern. Outdoor Culture: Soil, 2 parts good loam, 1 part leaf-mould. Position, semi-shaded, cool, moist border or margin of pond. Plant, April.
Pot Culture: Compost, 2 parts fibrous loam, 1 part leaf-mould, 1 part sand. Position, well-drained pots in shady, cold frame or greenhouse. Pot, Mar or Apr. Water copiously Apr-Sep, moderately Sep-Nov, keep nearly dry Nov-Mar. Repot annually.
Propagation: By spores gathered just before the cases burst and sown on surface of well-drained pan of sandy peat and leaf-mould, cover with glass and keep moderately moist in a shady position in cold frame or greenhouse; division of plants Mar-Apr.

Suitable for

Fern for Acid Soils

Cold-hardy Ferns.

Border and Foundation Ferns.

Ground Cover Ferns.

Outdoor Containers.

Ferns for Wet Soils

Grow in moist shade in a woodland garden, a damp border or at the edge of a pond.
Great at the front of the border, in containers or as ground cover under deciduous trees.
Used as a foundation planting around houses.

Mass in moist, shady woodland areas, wild gardens or wet areas near streams or ponds. Combines well with astilbes or hostas. Plant in conjunction with early spring wildflowers (e.g., trilliums, bloodroot, trout lilies or Dutchman's breeches) which will be well on the way toward dormancy by the time this fern reaches full size.

It will grow in full sun with constant moisture.

Clump-forming fern to grow in Part Shade and Full Shade in Medium to Wet soil.

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Matteuccia struthiopteris, young plant, Hurum, Buskerud (Norway). By Bjoertvedt via Wikimedia Commons.

 

English: Matteuccia Struthiopteris in Ypäjä, Tavastia Proper, Finland
Suomi: Kotkansiiven pysty kasvutapa. Kuva Ypäjältä 29.5.2011.
By Urjanhai via Wikimedia Commons

 

 

Русский: Страусник обыкновенный. Спорофиллы и вайи. Россия, Савинский район Ивановской области.
English: Matteuccia struthiopteris. Fertile and sterile fronds. Savinsky district, Ivanovo Oblast, Russia
By Borealis55 via Wikimedia Commons

 

Matteuccia struthiopteris
Deutsch: Junge Farne im Zeitzgrund bei Stadtroda (Thüringen).
By Michael Sander via Wikimedia Commons

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Onoclea
sensibilis Temperate-Tropical

Sensitive Fern, Bead Fern, Sympathy Fern

Native to North America, Canada and North Asia.

Onoclea comes from the Greek onos, vessel, and klein, to close, referring to the pinnules of the fertile leaf, which roll up into bead-like segments to enclose the sori.

A member of the Woodsiaceae Cliff Fern Family.

Zone 4

 

Available in USA from
Edge of the Woods Native Plant Nursery - Orefield, PA

ArcheWild Native Nurseries - Quakertown, PA

Toadshade Wildflower Farm - Frenchtown, NJ

Prairie Nursery - Westfield, WI

Yellow Springs Farm Native Plant Nursery - Chester Springs , PA

Upright, then arching, lance-shaped or triangular, pinnate, pale green sterile fronds.

The bead-like appearance of the fertile fronds accounts for this genus's common name of bead fern. Some say that the name sensitive fern originates from the frond's sensitivity to frost (they wither after the first subfreezing temperatures).

Winter survival will be enhanced if the dried fronds are left on the plant through the winter.

36-48 x 36-48
(90-120 x 90-120)
 

Miscellaneous Ferns

Hardy deciduous ferns. Fronds, barren ones, broad, once-divided, green; fertile ones, narrow, contracted, once-divided, brown.
Outdoor Culture: Soil, 2 parts good loam, 1 part leaf-mould. Position, semi-shaded, cool, moist border or margins of ponds. Plant, April.
Pot Culture: Compost, 2 parts fibrous loam, 1 part leaf-mould, 1 part sand. Position, well-drained pots in shady cold frame or greenhouse. Pot, March or April. Water copiously April-Sep, moderately Sep-Nov, keep nearly dry Nov-Mar. Repot annually.
Propagation: By spores sown on surface of well-drained pan of sandy peat and leaf-mould covered with square of glass, and kept moderately moist in shady position in cold frame or greenhouse; division of plants, March or April.

Suitable for
Indoor Decoration.

Ferns for Acid Soils.

Evergreen and
Deciduous Ferns.

Ferns suitable for Outdoor Containers

Ferns for Wet Soils

Cold-Hardy Ferns

Shade-Tolerant Fern

The fertile fronds are often used in dried flower arrangements.

Best in wet woodland gardens and moist locations alongside streams and ponds. Can grow in very wet soils as long as there is adequate oxygen. It cannot tolerate sour clay or stagnant water. Also, does not tolerate freezing well, turns black even in light frost.

Shelters salamanders and frogs

Open swamps, thickets, marshes, or low woods, in sunny or shaded locations, often forming thick stands from sea level to elevations of 1500 metres.
A coarse weedy fern commonly found in wet soils where it may form spreading colonies. Plants grow very easily in a pot or moist garden situation. In wet soils, the plants will stand considerable exposure to sun.
Thrives at the edge of water or in a damp shady border.

It grows best in a shaded or partially shaded area in a moist soil. The plant can tolerate dryer conditions in shade, and will tolerate wet soils and so occurs in soggy ground or at the very edge of water in shade or sun. Sensitive ferns spread to form colonies and are often the first species to inhabit disturbed areas. They can become weedy if not sited properly.

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Rodgersia and Onoclea. 25 April 2014, 16:50. By peganum from Henfield, England via Wikimedia Commons

 

日本語: Onoclea sensibilis:コウヤワラビ
2003/06/15
新潟県:Niigata Pref. Japan. By Keisotyo via Wikimedia Commons.

 

 

 

 

Juvenile Onoclea sensibilis sterile fronds in pots. By Coblands.

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Osmunda claytoniana

Interrupted Fern, Flowering Fern

Very hardy,
Zone (2),3

Native to northeastern North America, India and Asia.

The unusual common name for this fern arises because on the fertile fronds the fertile segments are carried in between sets of normal barren segments, giving the appearance of a gap in the frond. Young fronds are covered with wooly, pinkish hairs.

The leaves grow from a rhizome growing at or below the ground.

Forming a lovely spreading vase habit, this low-maintenance native fern makes a distinctive addition to the shade border or woodland garden.

24-36 x 24-36
(60-90 x 60-90)

Primitive Ferns and Fern Oddities

Hardy deciduous fern.
Culture of Hardy Species: Soil, 1 part each loam, laf-mould and sand, 2 parts peat. Position, bases of sheltered, moist rock gardens or margins of ponds in shade or part shade. Plant, April. Top-dress annually in April with compost of peat, leaf-mould and loam. Remove dead fronds in March. Water plants growing elsewhere than on the margins of ponds copiously in dry weather.
Propagation: By spores sown on surface of sandy peat or hand-light in shady part of cool greenhouse at any time; offsets from established plants in April.

Suitable for

Accent Fern.

Ferns for Acid Soils.

Evergreen and Deciduous Ferns.

Ferns for Wet Soils.

Cold-hardy Ferns.

Rock Garden and Wall Ferns.

Shade-Tolerant Fern.

 

Grows well with hostas in shaded woodland or wild gardens. Also effective along ponds or streams. Interesting accent for the shaded border.

This clump-forming fern has erect rhizomes that form occasional offshoots and grows in moist-wet to wet, acidic garden soil. The plants have deciduous fronds and do poorly in the Gulf States and subtropical climates.

Habitat in forests, shores of rivers or lakes, swamps, wetland margins (edges of wetlands).

Easily grown in medium to wet soils in part shade to full shade. Prefers moist, rich, humusy, acidic soils, but adapts to lesser conditions.

Deer resistant.

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Osmunda claytoniana.
By Kurt Stueber via Wikimedia Commons

 

 

 

Interrupted fern, Osmunda claytoniana, in Lac-Mégantic, Quebec.
By ‪Circeus‪ ‬ via Wikimedia Commons.

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Polystichum acrostichoides
(Nephrodium acrostichoides)

Christmas Fern, Dagger Fern

Very Hardy Species in Zone 3

Christmas fern grows in a circular form with all the leaves arising from a single point on the ground. It can form colonies but frequently grows singly or in twos or threes. The fronds grow from 30–80 cm long and 5–12 cm broad, divided into 20-35 pairs of leaflets or pinnae. Each pinna is typically 4 cm long and has a finely serrulate or spiny edge and is oblong to falcate in shape.

12-18 x 12-18
(30-45 x 30-45)

Spacing 12 (30)

Often used in Christmas floral arrangements because it is still attractive in December. It is a wonderful companion for spring blooming bulbs. Found in acidic to neutral soils on shaded slopes and well drained flats. The plant height varies from 1 to 2 feet (12-24 inches, 30-60 cms), and will gradually colonize an area even in poor soil. Christmas Fern is a top choice for gardens in Zones 3 through 9.

Shield Ferns, Buckler Ferns, Holly Ferns and their Relatives

The shield ferns of the genus Polystichum are small- to medium-sized terrestrial ferns commonly grown in temperate gardens. Many of the species are particularly attractive for their dark green, glossy, evergreen foliage. The plants are used in rock gardens, borders, or pots, and the larger species can be used as foundation plants or for background foliage. They are often slow to grow from spores.
 

Ferns suitable for

Border and Foundation Ferns

Cold-hardy Fern

Evergreen and Deciduous Ferns

Shade-Tolerant Fern

Cut Foliage

Drought Tolerant in dry or moist shade

Stove greenhouse and hardy ferns. Heights vary from 12-36 inches (30-90cms).
Culture of stove and greenhouse species: Compost, 2 parts peat, 1 part loam, silver sand and charcoal. Pot in March. Water freely in summer, moderately in winter. Shade from sun. Temperature for stove species, Sep-Mar 60-70 degrees Fahrenheit (15-21 degrees Centigrade), Mar-Sep 55-65 degrees Fahrenheit (13-18 degrees Centigrade).

Grow in well-drained soil, in shade it can tolerate dry conditions. Clump-forming. Grow in Part Shade and Full Shade.

It is found in moist and shady habitats in woodlands, rocky slopes, and stream banks.

The fern can conserve soil and allay erosion of steep slopes. The fronds are semi-erect until the first hard frost, after which they recline to be prostrate and effectively hold in place abscised foliage of the duff layer of the sylvan floor, which enables the gradual decomposition of the abscised foliage into humus, which in turn further conserves soil.

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Frond of Photograph of the Christmas Fern (Polystichum acrostichoides). Photo taken at the Tyler Arboretum where it was identified.
By Photo (c)2006 Derek Ramsey (Ram-Man) via Wikimedia Commons.

 

Form of Photograph of the Christmas Fern (Polystichum acrostichoides). Photo taken at the Tyler Arboretum where it was identified. By Photo (c)2006 Derek Ramsey (Ram-Man) via Wikimedia Commons.

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Polystichum aculeatum (Polystichum lobatum, Polypodium aculeatum, Aspidium aculeatum)
Hard Shield Fern

Very Hardy Species in Zone 4.
Is okay in Zones 5,6,7,8

Native to Europe. It is most abundant in upland regions of the British Isles and western France, where it benefits from the combination of mild winters and moist summers.

Stiff, leathery, glossy, dark green evergreen leaves. Young fronds may be light green and provide a pleasant contrast to the mature rosette. Plants are very hardy in a shady, moist situation and may benefit from the addition of lime to the soil.

24-36 x 20-40
(60-90 x 50-100) with time to ultimate height of 2-5 years.

Remove dead fronds before new ones unfurl in the spring.

Shield Ferns, Buckler Ferns, Holly Ferns and their Relatives

Propagation: Hardy species by division of crowns in April, also by spores sown on sterilised loam in Julyat 15-16°C (59-61°F) and kept close under glass cover.

Ferns suitable for

Hedge.
Cold-Hardy.
Basic or Limestone Soil.
Outdoor Containers.
Rock Garden and Walls.

Hardy Polystichum fern. Heights vary from 12-36 inches (30-90cms).
Culture of hardy species: Compost, equal parts loam, peat, leaf-mould and coarse silver sand. Position, full sun spots. Plant in March. Water freely in dry weather.

Grow in cool, sheltered spot in rock garden

This free-growing Fern is found in hedge-banks.

It occurs in shady situations frequently in mountainous regions and often on limestone rocks.

It grows on steep slopes in deciduous woodlands. It is found in mountain limestone screes in the Jura and the alps, and on alpine and subalpine limestone cliffs.

Underplant roses and deciduous shrubs with this fern.

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Nederlands: Stijve naaldvaren sori
English: Polystichum aculeatum sori.
By Rasbak via Wikimedia Commons

English: Polystichum aculeatum, Allenbanks, Northumberland, UK; 04 May 2006. By MPF via Wikimedia Commons

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Polystichum andersonii
Anderson's Holly Fern, Anderson's sword fern

Hardy Species in Zone 5(6)

Native to North America, Pacific Northwest. Found growing in the mountains from Alaska south to Oregon and east to Montana. In Zones 6-9.

Ascending to erect rhizomes and evergreen, bud-bearing leaves - see Section 9 - Propagation

It likes cool and drained soils, acidic and humusy, in the shade.

Over
36 x 36
(90 x 90)
in height by spread in 5 years

It occurs where vegetation is dense, such as moist spruce-fir forests, avalanche chutes, along streams, and shrub thickets.

Shield Ferns, Buckler Ferns, Holly Ferns and their Relatives

Propagation: Hardy species by division of crowns in April, also by spores sown on sterilised loam and kept close under glass cover.

Ferns suitable for

Cold-Hardy.
Ferns for Acid Soils

Hardy Polystichum fern. Heights vary from 12-36 inches (30-90cms).
Culture of hardy species: Compost, equal parts loam, peat, leaf-mould and coarse silver sand. Position, shady or partially shady spots. Plant in October or April. Water freely in dry weather.

It is found in deep woods in the mountains.  Fronds grow to 100 cms (40 inches).   It has a conspicuously chaffy fiddlehead and leaf stalk.  Pinnae are deeply cut making it appear doubly pinnate.  Bulblets form at the base of pinnae near the tip and may grow into a new plant when the frond touches the ground!

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English: Polystichum andersonii in Arboretum Rogow, Poland
By Krzysztof Ziarnek, Kenraiz via Wikimedia Commons.

English: Polystichum andersonii in Arboretum Rogow, Poland
By Krzysztof Ziarnek, Kenraiz via Wikimedia Commons.

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Polystichum munitum
Western Sword Fern, Common Sword Fern

Hardy in Zone 7

Polystichum means many rows, referring to the arrangement of the spore cases on the undersides of the fronds.  Munitum means armed with teeth, referring to its toothed fronds.  Western Sword Fern is also known as Sword Holly Fern, Giant Holly Fern, Christmas Fern, Pineland Sword Fern, or Chamisso’s Shield Fern.

Ascending to erect rhizomes and evergreen fronds.This species does best in moist, cool climates and does not grow well in the eastern of Southeastern United States.

The species is native to the western United States, Canada, Alaska (Yukon), and Mexico (Guadalupe Island); it is naturalized in Europe.

35-47 x 23-47
(90-120 x 60-120)

The dark green fronds of this fern grow in a tight clump spreading out radially from a round base. Individual fronds live for 1.5 to 2.5 years and remain attached to the rhizome after withering.

Trim off dead fronds in early spring before new growth begins.

Shield Ferns, Buckler Ferns, Holly Ferns and their Relatives

Propagation: Hardy species by division of crowns in April, also by spores sown on sterilised loam and kept close under glass cover.
In cultivation, it also responds well to regular, light fertilizations. While this fern is a favored horticultural subject in western North America, it has proved difficult or impossible to cultivate satisfactorily in the eastern part of the continent.

Ferns suitable for

Cold-Hardy.
Shade Tolerant.
Fronds in Floral Decorations.
Woodland.
Acid Soil.
Ground Cover. Outdoor Containers.
Accent.

Hardy Polystichum ferns. Heights vary from 12-36 inches (30-90cms).
Culture of hardy species: Compost, equal parts loam, peat, leaf-mould and coarse silver sand. Position, shady or partially shady spots. Plant in October or April. Water freely in dry weather.

The fronds are used by florists to include in vases.

Hardy fern for a shady, moist situation in the garden or fernery. Plants are quite cold tolerant.

The preferred habitat of this fern is the understory of moist coniferous woodlands at low elevations. It grows best in well-drained acidic soil of rich humus and small stones. It is very resilient and survives occasional droughts, but flourishes only with consistent moisture and light sunlight, and it prefers cool weather.

polystichummunitumfiddleheaddanakelleybressette1

Phenology: Fronds partially unroll their “fiddleheads” by late May; by late July the spores are near maturity.
Fiddleheads and

 

 

Form of
Polystichum munitum, Western Sword Fern. Photos courtesy of Dana Kelley Bressette, Nativeplants PNW.com

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Polystichum braunii
Braun's Holly Fern, Prickly Shield Fern

Very Hardy in Zone 3(4)

Suitable for Zones 4-9

Clump-forming rhizomes and dark green, shiny, evergreen fronds. The plants do best if placed in a cool site. The fiddleheads are particularly attractive because they are densely covered by silvery scales, which turn light brown with age.

Consider planting rhizome at an angle to help combat potential crown rot problems which most often occur in poorly drained soils.

12-29 x 12-23 (30-75 x 30-60)

Stalks or stems are covered in golden-brown scales that contrast nicely against the leaflets. Dense, upright and arching habit, the fronds arising from a single point, giving a formal appearance. Easy and reliable.

Shield Ferns, Buckler Ferns, Holly Ferns and their Relatives

Propagation: Hardy species by division of crowns in April, also by spores sown on sterilised loam and kept close under glass cover.

Ferns suitable for

Cold-Hardy.
Accent Fern.
Fronds in Floral Decorations.
Ground Cover.
Woodland.
Outdoor Container.
Border and Foundation.

Hardy Polystichum fern. Heights vary from 12-36 inches (30-90cms).
Culture of hardy species: Compost, equal parts loam, peat, leaf-mould and coarse silver sand. Position, shady or partially shady spots. Plant in October or April. Water freely in dry weather.

It grows in moist woodlands.  (Native to British Columbia, southern Alaska, the Idaho panhandle—Listed as threatened or endangered in several eastern U.S. states).

Excellent selection for shaded areas in the landscape, including borders, woodland gardens and wild gardens.

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Polski: Polystichum braunii.
By Jerzy Opioła via Wikimedia Commons

Polski: Polystichum braunii
By Jerzy Opioła via Wikimedia Commons

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Polystichum polyblepharum Bristle Fern, Japanese Sword Fern, Japanese Tassel fern

Hardy in Zone 5 (6)

Suitable for Zones 5-9

Erect rhizomes and dark green, glossy, evergreen fronds. This species is easy to grow.

This species is native to Japan, southern Korea, and eastern China.

It performs well in moist shady conditions. Plants form a tidy clump of arching dark green fronds with a glossy finish. Foliage remains evergreen in mild winter regions, but old fronds may be trimmed back in the spring. Well-behaved and not invasive.

Shuttlecocks of spreading lance-shaped 2-pinnate shiny dark green fronds covered with golden hairs when they unfurl.

12-23 x 18-23
(30-60 x 45-60)

Plants in Combination: "It demonstrates another good solid principle of planting design: foliage can be just as exciting as flowers, and it lasts a lot longer. 3 varieties of ferns and a groundcover serve as underplantings for a cutleaf, weeping Japanese maple. In the foreground is Japanese tassel fern, Polystichum polyblepharum. In the middle a Japanese painted fern, Athyrium niponicum var. pictum grows out of a groundcover of bugleweed, Ajuga reptans ‘Catlin’s Giant’. The large background planting is Japanese shield fern, Dryopteris erythrosora. All of these plantings thrive in soil that has been enriched with peat moss to a depth of about 12 inches and is kept lightly moist."

Shield Ferns, Buckler Ferns, Holly Ferns and their Relatives

Propagation: Hardy species by division of crowns in April, also by spores sown on sterilised loam and kept close under glass cover.

Ferns suitable for

Cold-Hardy.
Sun Tolerant.
Woodland.
Accent Plant.
Border and Foundation.
Outdoor Containers.
Fronds in Floral Decorations.
Ground Cover

Hardy Polystichum fern. Heights vary from 12-36 inches (30-90cms).
Culture of hardy species: Compost, equal parts loam, peat, leaf-mould and coarse silver sand. Position, shady or partially shady spots. Plant in October or April. Water freely in dry weather.

This is a beautiful low to medium-sized fern - Excellent for a woodland edging.

A most striking fern as one of selected perennials for Oklahoma Gardens.

Grow in a Rock Garden or well-drained border in the shade.
Newly emerging croziers are covered in scales and, as they develop, the tips fold backwards to make the 'tassels' of the Tassel Fern. As the fronds age they turn a glossy deep green and are beautifully presented in a slightly recurved rosette, like a soft light-reflecting mirror in a shady spot. Given a deep, rich and moist soil this can grow to enormous proportions - exceptionally to 120cm. New growth is early so protect from late frosts.

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Sori of Polystichum polyblepharum in botanical garden in Batumi.
By Krzysztof Ziarnek, Kenraiz via Wikimedia Commons

Emerging fronds of Japanese Tassel Fern Polystichum Polyblepharum.
By Harum via Wikimedia Commons

 

イノデ. Mature Japanese tassel fern (Polystichum polyblepharum) No.1.
By harum.koh from Kobe city, Japan via Wikimedia Commons

 

イノデ. www.inaturalist.
org/calendar/harumkoh/2015/4/4. Juvenile Japanese tassel fern (Polystichum polyblepharum)
By harum.koh from Kobe city, Japan via Wikimedia Commons

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Polystichum imbricans (Polystichum munitum var. imbricans) Dwarf Western Sword Fern, Imbricate Sword Fern, Narrowleaf Sword Fern

Hardy in Zone 6.

It is native to western North America from British Columbia to Southern California

Ascending to erect rhizomes.
This fern produces several erect linear or lance-shaped leaves up to 80 centimeters long. Each leaf is made up of many narrow, overlapping, sometimes twisting leaflets each 2 to 4 centimeters long. The leaflets have toothed edges.

Photos

15 x
(37.5 x )

Shield Ferns, Buckler Ferns, Holly Ferns and their Relatives

Propagation: Hardy species by division of crowns in April, also by spores sown on sterilised loam and kept close under glass cover.

Propagate by spores.

Ferns suitable for

Rock Garden and Wall.
Woodland.

Hardy Polystichum fern. Heights vary from 12-36 inches (30-90cms).
Culture of hardy species: Compost, equal parts loam, peat, leaf-mould and coarse silver sand. Position, shady or partially shady spots. Plant in October or April. Water freely in dry weather.

It is a hardy fern for a shady, moist position.
It grows in dry rocky habitat in coastal and inland mountain ranges and foothills.

Transplants well and lends a look of lushness to the woodland garden. Looks best planted in groups or drifts in part shade.

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If you grow and sell ferns in any country, please tell me so that I can put them on this website and inform others where they can be bought online via mail-order.

If you would provide photos and fern details to be only used by me on this website, they would be gratefully received, since I could assume that the photo was a valid one in regard to its name of fern in its filename to that fern in the photo.

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Polystichum lentum (Aspidium lentum, Aspidium auriculatum var. lentum, Polystichum auriculatum var. lentum) Himalayan Holly Fern

Semi-hardy in Zone 7

Native to Tibet, China and Burma

This is the most inclusive list of possible species in the genus Polystichum; there are currently 343 names on the list, all of which have been recognized in at least one floristic or systematic work.

It forms an attractive sprawling rosette of slender, dark green fronds which are proliferous on the tip.
Evergreen. Fronds are 16-40 (40-100) long.

 

Temperate - Subtropical

Bright

spreading habit

?

Shield Ferns, Buckler Ferns, Holly Ferns and their Relatives

Propagation: Greenhouse species by spores sown in sandy peat any time; division in March.

Ferns suitable for

Hanging Basket.
Indoor Decoration. Rock Garden and Walls.
Woodland.

Greenhouse Polystichum fern. Heights vary from 12-36 inches (30-90cms).
Culture of stove and greenhouse species: Compost, 2 parts peat, 1 part loam, silver sand and charcoal. Pot in March. Water freely in summer, moderately in winter. Shade from sun. Temperature for stove species, Sep-Mar 60-70 degrees Fahrenheit (15-21 degrees Centigrade), Mar-Sep 55-65 degrees Fahrenheit (13-18 degrees Centigrade).

It is common in the Himalayas growing on shady, humus-rich, rocky slopes. Grows easily in a variety of soils but likes shade.

On rocks in montane broad-leaved evergreen forests

item1d7a1a

If you grow and sell ferns in any country, please tell me so that I can put them on this website and inform others where they can be bought online via mail-order.

If you would provide photos and fern details to be only used by me on this website, they would be gratefully received, since I could assume that the photo was a valid one in regard to its name of fern in its filename to that fern in the photo.

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Polystichum lonchitis (Polypodium lonchitis, Aspidium lonchitis, Dryopteris lonchitis)
Northern Holly Fern, The Holly Fern, Holly Fern

Very Hardy in Zone 3

Native to northern North America and Greenland.
It is native to much of the Northern Hemisphere from Eurasia to Alaska to Greenland and south into mountainous central North America.

Lonchitis is from the Greek logch meaning spear, referring to its spear-shaped leaves.

Ascending to erect rhizomes and dark green, evergreen fronds.
The plants are difficult to grow even in cool climates. It is seldom seen thriving under artificial treatment.

This is a true rock-Fern, occuring on the bleak mountains of Scotland and in the milder climate of Ireland, as well, rarely, in the north of England and Wales in 1929.

This fern produces several erect linear leaves up to 60 centimetres (24 in) long. Each leaf is made up of many lance-shaped to oblong leaflets up to 3 or 4 centimetres (1.2 or 1.6 in) long. The leaflets have toothed and often spiny edges.

10-24 x
(25-60 x )

 

This evergreen species is a calcicole, growing in well-drained, cool and moist positions at the base of cliffs, on rocky ledges, and particularly in stabilised boulder-scree. It also grows in deep grikes of limestone pavements.

Shield Ferns, Buckler Ferns, Holly Ferns and their Relatives

Propagation: Hardy species by division of crowns in April, also by spores sown on sterilised loam in July and kept close under glass cover. Sporelings establish easily in a loamy soil to which lime has been added.

Ferns suitable for

Cold-Hardy.
Limestone or Basic Soils.
Rock Garden and Walls in scree slopes.
Woodland in coniferous woods

Hardy Polystichum ferns. Heights vary from 12-36 inches (30-90cms).
Culture of hardy species: Compost, equal parts loam, peat, leaf-mould and coarse silver sand. Position, full sun or partially shady spots. Plant in April. Water freely in dry weather.

Grow on High and dry slopes. Plant in April

A rarely grown fern confined to mountainous regions. Plants resent moving and are very slow to establish following such disturbance.

They like shady, moist conditions and are very cold-hardy.

It grows in mountains, often in rock crevices, throughout much of the northern hemisphere.

It grows in moist, shady, rocky mountain habitat.

polystichumlonchitispsoriwikimediacommons

Sori of Northern hollyfern (Polystichum lonchitis), Wood Fern family (Dryo-pteridaceae). Rocky slope between the Upper and Lower Red Pine Lakes. Red Pine Fork of the Little Cottonwood Canyon, Utah.
By Andrey Zharkikh from Salt Lake City, USA via Wikimedia Commons

English: Form of Polystichum lonchitis, Grandes Rousses, Vaujany, Dauphiné, French Alps
Français : Polystic en lance
By Meneerke bloem via Wikimedia Commons

More Photos

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Polystichum longipaleatum (Aspidium aculeatum var. setosum, Polystichum aculeatum var. setosum)

In Eastern Asiatic Region

Broad-leaved forests, coniferous forests, bamboo forests, shrubs; 1100-2600 m. Guangxi (Damiao Shan, Longsheng), Guizhou, Hunan (Xinning), Sichuan, Xizang (Dinggyê, Mêdog), Yunnan [Bhutan, India, Nepal].

Zone 6-8

This is described in Ornamental Ferns of China
观赏蕨类
by Shi Lei. Hardcover published in 2002-01

A large fern of mountainous areas, prized for its spectacular flush of densely scaly fronds. The underside of the fronds is also covered with fine hair-like scales. Requires moist loamy soil and shady conditions.

Evergreen.

Fronds 50-120 cm (20-48 inch).

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Polystichum longipaleatum (long scales), synonym Polystichum seto-sum, joins an illustrious group of shiny foliaged, showy evergreens that are garden worthy even as their botanical classification changes periodically. This Asian from China and the Himalayas has golden scaled, 6-in. (15-cm) stipes bearing bipinnate, broadly lanceolate, hairy 18-in. (45-cm) blades crowded with 40 pairs of linear pinnae. Introduce it to shade and rich soil in Zone 6 to 8 gardens, where it is well worthy of experimentation.

Shield Ferns, Buckler Ferns, Holly Ferns and their Relatives

Propagation: Stove and greenhouse species by spores sown in sandy peat any time; division in March. Hardy species by division of crowns in April, also by spores sown on sterilised loam and kept close under glass cover.

Ferns suitable for

Woodland.
Border and Foundation Ferns among deciduous shrubs.

Stove greenhouse and hardy Polystichum ferns. Heights vary from 12-36 inches (30-90cms).
Culture of stove and greenhouse species: Compost, 2 parts peat, 1 part loam, silver sand and charcoal. Pot in March. Water freely in summer, moderately in winter. Shade from sun. Temperature for stove species, Sep-Mar 60-70 degrees Fahrenheit (15-21 degrees Centigrade), Mar-Sep 55-65 degrees Fahrenheit (13-18 degrees Centigrade).
Culture of hardy species: Compost, equal parts loam, peat, leaf-mould and coarse silver sand. Position, shady or partially shady spots. Plant in October or April. Water freely in dry weather.

Habitat in Broad-leaved forests, coniferous forests, bamboo forests, shrubs.

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If you grow and sell ferns in any country, please tell me so that I can put them on this website and inform others where they can be bought online via mail-order.

If you would provide photos and fern details to be only used by me on this website, they would be gratefully received, since I could assume that the photo was a valid one in regard to its name of fern in its filename to that fern in the photo.

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Polystichum proliferum
Mother Shield Fern

Hardy in Zone 5

This species is native to Australia - New South Wales, Victoria, Australian Capital Territory and Tasmania.

Polystichum - from Greek poly, many and stichos, rows, referring to rows of sori.
proliferum - from Latin proli, offspring, fer – bearing, referring to the proliferous buds.

Erect rhizomes and dark green fronds that are evergreen in warmer climates. This species is easy to grow and can be propagated from the bulbils on the fronds - see Section 9 - Propagation

The rhizome and frond bases are covered in persistent scales which are glossy brown with pale edges. Fronds can reach up to 100 cm in length and 30 cm wide, are dark green when mature but lighter and paler when young.

52 x 36
(130 x 90)

It will occur in amongst boulders and at lower altitudes - in wet forests. The species typically favours gullies and creeks as well as the cooler/moister, southern and eastern facing aspects. Polystichum proliferum will however, occur in drier vegetation types such as coastal scrub and dry schelorphyll, due to its hardy characteristics such as the ability to tolerate salt-laden winds and poor soil quality.

Shield Ferns, Buckler Ferns, Holly Ferns and their Relatives

Propagation: Hardy species by division of crowns in April, also by spores sown on sterilised loam and kept close under glass cover.

Vegetative reproduction occurs when bulbils develop at end of the larger fronds grows into small plant. As the weight of the bulbil increases, the frond sags until the bulbil can take root in the soil underneath. It can then become the dominant ground cover

Ferns suitable for

Cold-Hardy. Outdoor Containers.
Woodland.
Rock Garden and Walls.
Ground Cover.
Accent.
Border and Foundation.

Hardy Polystichum fern. Heights vary from 12-36 inches (30-90cms).
Culture of hardy species: Compost, equal parts loam, peat, leaf-mould and coarse silver sand. Position, shady or partially shady spots. Plant in October or April. Water freely in dry weather.

An attractive shield fern which grows in colonies, the fronds characteristically developing plantlets near the end which take root while still attached. Flushes of new fronds are covered with brown scales and are eye-catching.
Plants grow easily in a shady, moist situation and are also useful in a large pot.

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Fronds of Polystichum proliferum from Barrington Tops, photographed at the Royal Botanic Gardens, Sydney. By Poyt448 Peter Woodard via Wikimedia Commons

Photographed at the Royal Botanic Gardens Sydney (Australia) in January. This photo is from Gardenology.org and is available under CC-BY-SA 3.0 license via Wikimedia Commons

polystichumproliferumpforwikimediacommons

Polystichum retroso-paleaceum
Japanese Sword Fern, Narrow Tassel Fern

Zones 5-8

retroso-paleaceum Epithet means "twisted back scales."

An attractive shield fern which grows in colonies, the fronds characteristically developing plantlets near the end which take root while still attached - see Section 9 - Propagation . Flushes of new fronds are scaly and interesting.

This species is native to Japan and Korea

Photos

40-80 x 40-80
(100-200 x 100-200)

Rounded, overlapping pinnules give this fern a certain stoutness, which is complimented by its extremely furry golden scales running up the stipe and rachis.  They very reliably form a nice regular vase shape with their fronds gently arching outward.  Mature specimens are quite impressive when placed where they can be easily viewed from above, such as below a porch or balcony.

Shield Ferns, Buckler Ferns, Holly Ferns and their Relatives

Propagation: Stove and greenhouse species by spores sown in sandy peat any time; division in March. Hardy species by division of crowns in April, also by spores sown on sterilised loam and kept close under glass cover.

Ferns suitable for

Cold-Hardy. Outdoor Containers.
Woodland.

Hardy Polystichum fern. Heights vary from 12-36 inches (30-90cms).
Culture of hardy species: Compost, equal parts loam, peat, leaf-mould and coarse silver sand. Position, shady or partially shady spots. Plant in October or April. Water freely in dry weather.

Evergreen plants are easily grown in a shady, moist garden position and are also ideal for a tub or large container.

Large populations grow in rich soil throughout forests in Korea and especially Japan.

New growth emerges early spring a bright green. Plant in afternoon to full shade in well drained moist soil.

item1d5a1a

If you grow and sell ferns in any country, please tell me so that I can put them on this website and inform others where they can be bought online via mail-order.

If you would provide photos and fern details to be only used by me on this website, they would be gratefully received, since I could assume that the photo was a valid one in regard to its name of fern in its filename to that fern in the photo.

item1a2e1a1

Polystichum richardii
Richard's Holly Fern, Black Shield Fern, Common Shield Fern, Pikopiko

Semi-hardy in Zone 7

Zones 8 (with protection) and 9 - it is only borderline hardy in Zone 8. For best results it needs serious protection or a life as an indoor plant.

Erect rhizomes and evergreen fronds that vary from dark bluish green to olive green.

The size of the fronds can be up to 50 by 25 centimetres (20 x 10 inches).

The species is native to New Zealand

12-24 x 20
(30-60 x 50)

 

A question I get asked many times is what flowering plants are suited for growing with ferns. There are a few choice plants, with elegant flowers with subtle shades that compliment ferns and grow well in shade. Here is a collection of plants that, in my opinion, go very well with ferns:-

Cyclamen

Dracunculus

Epimedium

Equisetum

Fritillaria

Omphaloides

Uvularia

Shield Ferns, Buckler Ferns, Holly Ferns and their Relatives

Propagation: Stove and greenhouse species by spores sown in sandy peat any time; division in March. Hardy species by division of crowns in April, also by spores sown on sterilised loam and kept close under glass cover.

Ferns suitable for

Cold-Hardy.
Rock Garden and Walls.
Conservatory or Heated Greenhouse.
Woodland.

Stove greenhouse and hardy Polystichum ferns. Heights vary from 12-36 inches (30-90cms).
Culture of stove and greenhouse species: Compost, 2 parts peat, 1 part loam, silver sand and charcoal. Pot in March. Water freely in summer, moderately in winter. Shade from sun. Temperature for stove species, Sep-Mar 60-70 degrees Fahrenheit (15-21 degrees Centigrade), Mar-Sep 55-65 degrees Fahrenheit (13-18 degrees Centigrade).
Culture of hardy species: Compost, equal parts loam, peat, leaf-mould and coarse silver sand. Position, shady or partially shady spots. Plant in October or April. Water freely in dry weather.

Easily grown in a shady or partial sun aspect in loamy soil. Looks particularly attractive when planted among rocks.

The common shield fern is found in dry places from the coast to lowland forest areas.

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Polystichum richardii in Te Reinga Falls, Hawkes's Bay (New Zealand).
By Krzysztof Ziarnek, Kenraiz via Wikimedia Commons

 

Polystichum richardii in Eastwoodhill Arboretum (New Zealand).
By Krzysztof Ziarnek, Kenraiz via Wikimedia Commons

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Polystichum setiferum (Polystichum angulare, Polypodium angulare, Aspidium angulare)
Soft Shield Fern, Soft Prickly Shield Fern, Angular-lobed Shield Fern

Hardy in Zone 6

This is one of the most graceful of all British native species.

Erect rhizomes and fronds that are evergreen in warmer climates. Many variants of this species from buds along the rachis - see Section 9 - Propagation . The plants do not like very high humidity.

This species is native to Europe. This forms a medium-sized clump of very soft-textured fronds, dark green in colour with a glossy finish. Plants perform best in soils that remain evenly moist, and slightly on the acidic side.

Height and Spread of
23-27 x 23-27
(60-70 x 60-70)

 

Graceful arching green fronds that droop at the tips as they unfurl showing lighter coloured undersides.

Shield Ferns, Buckler Ferns, Holly Ferns and their Relatives

Propagation: Hardy species by division of crowns in April, also by spores sown on sterilised loam and kept close under glass cover.

Ferns suitable for

Hedge.
Acid Soil.
Accent Fern.
Ground Cover.
Cold-Hardy.
Evergreen.
Shade Tolerant. Outdoor Containers.
Rock Garden and Walls.
Ferns for Wet Soils.
Woodland.

Hardy Polystichum fern. Heights vary from 12-36 inches (30-90cms).
Culture of hardy species: Compost, equal parts loam, peat, leaf-mould and coarse silver sand. Position, shady or partially shady spots. Plant in October or April. Water freely in dry weather.

It grows in hedge-banks and in lowland woods, preferring, like most of the larger Ferns, the presence of plenty of free (not stagnant) water.
It is also grows in pots and rock garden.

Remains evergreen in mild winter regions. Attractive as a specimen, massed, or in containers.

Grow in a rock garden or well-drained border.
It is perfect for semi-shade in good soil that doesn't become waterlogged yet still stays moist. These are ideal conditions for most evergreen ferns.

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Buds along the rachis of American Plant Food Company, 7405 River Road, Bethesda MD. Polystichum setiferum .
By David J. Stang. First published at ZipcodeZoo.com via Wikimedia Commons

Polystichum setiferum in botanical garden in Batumi
By Krzysztof Ziarnek, Kenraiz via Wikimedia Commons

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Polystichum tsus-simense
Tsus-sima Holly Fern, Korean Rock Fern

Hardy in
Zones (5)6

A neat fern valued for its compact, spreading rosette. The fronds are fairly stiff and leathery and an interesting dark, purplish colour when young.

Native to China, Japan and Korea.

It forms a low mound of dark green fronds with black stems and delicate dark veining through the leaflets. New leaves have a purplish cast. Clumps may be divided after 4 to 5 years, in early spring. Trim off any tired looking fronds in spring, and they will soon be replaced by new ones. Tolerates summer heat and humidity.

6-12 x 12-16
(15-30 x 30-40)

Shield Ferns, Buckler Ferns, Holly Ferns and their Relatives

Propagation: Hardy species by division of crowns in April, also by spores sown on sterilised loam and kept close under glass cover.

Ferns suitable for

Cold-Hardy.
Evergreen.
Rock Garden and Wall.
Terrarium or Bottle Garden.
Outdoor Containers.
Woodland.
Fronds in Floral Decorations.

Hardy Polystichum fern. Heights vary from 12-36 inches (30-90cms).
Culture of hardy species: Compost, equal parts loam, peat, leaf-mould and coarse silver sand. Position, shady or partially shady spots. Plant in October or April. Water freely in dry weather.

Makes an excellent pot plant and can also be grown in a shady position among rocks.

In cold regions this may be grown in a container and wintered indoors. Excellent for edging in the woodland, or in the shady rock garden.

Polystichum tsus-simense of eastern Asia, is commonly offered as a houseplant.

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Frond of Polystichum tsus-simense in Wellington Botanical Garden. By Krzysztof Ziarnek, Kenraiz via Wikimedia Commons

Form of Polystichum tsus-simense. Specimen in the Atlanta Botanical Garden, Atlanta, Georgia, USA. By Daderot via Wikimedia Commons with Multi-license GFDL, all CC-BY-SA permission.

polystichumtsussimensepforwikimediacommons

Polystichum vestitum (Polypodium vestitum, Aspidium vestitum, Polystichum venustum, Aspidium venustum,
Prickly Shield Fern, pūnui (Maori)

Hardy in Zone 6

Native to the three principal islands of New Zealand (North Island, South Island and Stewart Island) and the Chatham Islands, as well as to New Zealand's subantarctic Snares, Antipodes, Auckland and Campbell Islands, and to Australia’s Macquarie Island.

These can be seen at Attadale Gardens in Scotland.

Erect rhizomes and harsh, prickly, semi-deciduous fronds that are dark green above, lighter below. This species grows in cool, moist climates.

Can develop a small trunk.

It is native to New Zealand.

The fronds are 220–600 mm (9-24 inches) long. There are 3–7 (usually 5) round sori on each pinnule, halfway between the margin and midrib, with a light brown indusium. The ferns are usually bicolour with a dark brown centre that is surrounded by margins that are a pale brown.

The fern is seriously affected by rabbit grazing.

Photos

40 x 40
(100 x 100
)

On the Snares Islands, clumps of P. vestitum are apparently the preferred cover for nests of the Snares Island snipe, Coenocorypha huegeli (Miskelly, 1999). Birds on the Snares that nest higher up apparently lose a lot of eggs or chicks to petrels. Petrels don't eat the other birds, but they also nest under cover in the area - and petrels are notoriously bad at making landings.
Touchdown for a petrel seems to basically involve throwing itself at the ground and cushion its descent in the vegetation. Any nest in the way of a plummeting petrel is turned into kindling. A nice sturdy fern is a ground-nesting birds friend, catching the petrels before they scramble your eggs.

Shield Ferns, Buckler Ferns, Holly Ferns and their Relatives

Propagation: Geenhouse species by spores sown in sandy peat any time; division in March.

Easily grown from fresh spores and transplants. However, often slow to establish. Does best in a shaded site planted within a deep, free draining humus-enriched fertile soil.

Ferns suitable for

Cold-Hardy.
Conservatory or Heated Greenhouse.
Woodland.

Greenhouse Polystichum fern. Heights vary from 12-36 inches (30-90cms).
Culture of stove and greenhouse species: Compost, 2 parts peat, 1 part loam, silver sand and charcoal. Pot in March. Water freely in summer, moderately in winter. Shade from sun. Temperature for stove species, Sep-Mar 60-70 degrees Fahrenheit (15-21 degrees Centigrade), Mar-Sep 55-65 degrees Fahrenheit (13-18 degrees Centigrade).

Plants are very cold-hardy and will withstand severe frosts and snow. Likes plenty of moisture and will tolerate shade to partial sun.

Polystichum vestitum is common in the more exposed landscapes such as gulley floors, forest margins and tussock grasslands, but can also be found in abundance in the more cooler and wetter forests.
It prefers wetter areas and is why it can often be found in gully's however it does like the soil to be free draining rather than waterlogged.

It is found in conjunction with Stilbocarpa polaris, Poa foliosa and Pleurophyllum hookeri.

polystichumvestitumpsoriwikimediacommons


polystichumvestitumpjuvfrondwikimediacommons

Sori of Polystichum vestitum in Dunedin Botanic Garden. By Krzysztof Ziarnek, Kenraiz via Wikimedia Commons

 

Juvenile Fronds of Polystichum Vestitum
English: Prickly Shield Fern in Aoraki/Mount Cook National Park, South Island, New Zealand
Deutsch: Flora des Mount Cook Nationalpark, Südinsel, Neuseeland. By MSeses via Wikimedia Commons

Form of Polystichum vestitum in Auckland Botanic Gardens. By Krzysztof Ziarnek, Kenraiz via Wikimedia Commons

polystichumvestitumpforwikimediacommons

Polystichum whiteleggei
A former common name was heavy fern, alluding to the weight of one of the large, thick textured, fronds when fully developed.

Sub-tropical zone

Plants have long and broad bright green fronds attractively divided, with the stipe and young fronds covered with large, papery scales. They like shady conditions in moist but well-drained soil

The fern is endemic to Australia’s subtropical Lord Howe Island in the Tasman Sea; it is locally common to rare on the edges and flanks of the summits of Mounts Lidgbird and Gower.

?

Shield Ferns, Buckler Ferns, Holly Ferns and their Relatives

Propagation: Stove and greenhouse species by spores sown in sandy peat any time; division in March. Hardy species by division of crowns in April, also by spores sown on sterilised loam and kept close under glass cover.

Ferns suitable for

Conservatory or Heated Greenhouse.
Woodland in central and southern California.

Stove greenhouse and hardy Polystichum ferns. Heights vary from 12-36 inches (30-90cms).
Culture of stove and greenhouse species: Compost, 2 parts peat, 1 part loam, silver sand and charcoal. Pot in March. Water freely in summer, moderately in winter. Shade from sun. Temperature for stove species, Sep-Mar 60-70 degrees Fahrenheit (15-21 degrees Centigrade), Mar-Sep 55-65 degrees Fahrenheit (13-18 degrees Centigrade).
Culture of hardy species: Compost, equal parts loam, peat, leaf-mould and coarse silver sand. Position, shady or partially shady spots. Plant in October or April. Water freely in dry weather.

Damp banks support a variety of ferns including the endemic Dryopteris apiculis and Polystichum whiteleggei in Lord Howean Hill Forest on Lord Howe Island.
Lord Howean Mountain Moss Forest on Lord Howe Island - above altitudes of about 600 m these forests are often enveloped in clouds, and more or less permanently saturated.

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Polystichum whiteleggei. By John Game from Berkeley, United States via Wikimedia Commons

polystichumwhiteleggeipforwikimediacommons

 

View 260 thumbnails of Polystichum

Nephrolepis cordifolia (Nephrolepis tuberosa, Polypodium cordifolium, Aspidium cordifolium)
Fishbone Fern, Tuber Ladder Fern, Tuberous Sword Fern, erect sword fern, narrow sword fern and ladder fern, and herringbone fern

Native to northern Australia and Asia.

The genus name comes from the Greek nephros, kidney, and lepis, scale, referrring to the kidney-bean-shaped indusia.

Nephrolepis cordifolia has become an invasive species is some areas where it has been introduced. In New Zealand it is listed on the National Pest Plant Accord, which prohibits the sale, cultivation and distribution of the plant.
It is listed as an invasive species in Florida, United States - "The sword fern poses a threat on native species. Through its aggressive spread, sword fern is able to form dense stands and quickly displace native vegetation. Because it is a true fern, it reproduces via spores. Thousands of spores can be produced by one plant and these can be dispersed by wind and water. Spore production occurs year-round in south Florida."

Nephrolepis cordifolia is a wood fern that typically grows in woodland areas. Both fertile and sterile fronds are pinnate, up to 3 feet in length and 3 inches wide. There are many leaflets, or pinnae, ranging from 40-100 mm (1.5 to 4 inches) on each side of the rachis. Each pinna is oblong to lanceolate with an auricle that overlaps rachis. Rhizomes are orange/brown to pale brown with linear scales having hair like tips. Stolons are straw colored and produce small underground tubers. The presence of tubers distinguishes sword fern from the native Nephrolepis exaltata fern. Numerous sori (spore containing structures) are also produced between the leaflet midvein and margin. Dispersal occurs via spores and through the movement of stolons, tubers, and rhizomes.

 

Hardy to 25°F.

24-36 x 24-36
(60-90 x 60-90)

Boston Ferns (Nephrolepis)

 

Propagation: By spores sown on surface of pans of sandy peat under bell-glass and placed in temperature 75-85F (24-30C) any time; division of plants, February-April; or by pegging down creeping stems bearing young plants and removing when rooted.

The most common problem in caring for established plants is overwatering combined with poor drainage. These ferns generally tolerate short periods of dryness.

Grows in wet, shady places, limestone ledges, cliffs, rock and roadsides in North America.

Suitable for

Basket fern.
Warm Greenhouse. Ferns for Woodland. Shade Tolerant.
Sun Tolerant.
Hedge in Philippine. Fern for Acid Soil. Groundcover in tropical and subtropical areas.

Stove Evergreen Ferns. Fronds linear, narrow, once divided, plain or crested. First introduced late eighteenth century.
Culture: Compost, equal parts loam, leaf-mould and sand, 2 parts lumpy peat.
Position: in baskets suspended from roof, or in well-drained pots or beds in shady part of stove.
Pot or plant, February or March. Water moderately October to March, freely afterwards.
Temperature: September to March 55-60F (13-16C), March to September 65-75F (18-24C). Nephrolepis cordifolia will thrive in warm greenhouse.

Ground cover in tropical and subtropical areas.

Grows from shade to full sun (grows in full sun if given ample water) in soil, among rocks or as an epiphyte (particularly on palm trunks). It is colony former and is popularly grown in temperate regions but in the tropics is generally regarded as a weed. It can be grown in gardens, pots or baskets.

Bayabang grows in the Philippines as a hedge plant.

 

Also in
Zones 8-10 in the USA, where it tolerates sea air and salty soil - Lemon buttons ferns thrive in moist, well-drained, acidic soil with a pH of 4 to 7.

nephrolepiscordifoliapforwikimediacommons

Español: Cola de Quetzal (Nephrolepis cordifolia), jardín botánico de Tallinn, Estonia
English: Tuber ladder fern (Nephrolepis cordifolia), Tallinn Botanic Garden, Estonia.
Date 13 August 2012.
By Diego Delso, delso.photo, License CC-BY-SA via Wikimedia Commons

 

Nephrolepis cordifolia (L.) C.Presl from Rodney Ecological District. This image has been released as "CCBY" by Auckland War Memorial Museum. By Ewen Cameron via Wikimedia Commons.

 

Nephrolepis cordifolia - Sori. Date 19 March 2008. By Ixitixel via Wikimedia Commons

nephrolepiscordifoliapfor2wikimediacommons

 

nephrolepiscordifoliapfruwikimediacommons

Cheilanthes californica (Hypolepis californica, Adiantopsis californica)
California Lace Fern

California, Mexico

Needs dry atmosphere.

Grow in a terrarium set up with a stony potting mix and kept on the dry side (by sparse watering and leaving the lid off for long periods), Cheilanthes can sometimes be grown to perfection. They may need brighter light than other ferns usually grown in terrariums.

It has lacy fronds of an attractive fresh green.

Aspidotis californica has leaves that are thin and dissected into many triangular leaflets which are subdivided into small segments with curled teeth.
The leaf segments bear sori containing sporangia, with the edges of the leaves rolled under to create a false indusium over the sori.

2-6 x 2-4
(5-15 x 5-10)

Cloak, Lip, Hand Ferns and Their Hardy Relatives (Bommeria, Cheilanthes, Doryopteris, Gymnopteris, Hemionitis, Notholaena, Paraceterach, Pellae, Pleurosorus, Quercifilix)

 

Propagation: By spores sown on fine sandy peat, kept moist and shaded under bell-glass.

Suitable for

Rock Garden and Wall Fern.
Terrarium.
Acid Soil.
Conservatory and Heated Greenhouse.
Woodlands in California.
 

Stove and Greenhouse Ferns. First introduced late eighteenth century.
Culture: Compost, 2 parts peat, 1 part loam and silver sand.
Position, pots in shade. Pot, February or March. Water moderately October to February, freely afterwards.
Temperature,
Stove species, September to March 55-65F (13-18C), March to September 65-75F (18-24C);
Greenhouse, September to March 45-50F (7-10C), March to September 55-65F (13-18C).
These ferns require less moisture than most.

Greenhouse Fern.

It occurs naturally on shaded, rock sites. In cultivation, it has proved tricky to maintain requiring a very porous, acid mixture, bright light but not sun, and ample air movement. Plants are susceptible to overwatering.

It grows in rock cracks and crevices in many types of habitat, including Chaparral, Yellow pine forest, Foothill oak woodland, and Valley grassland in California, USA.

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See Botanical Figure.

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Cheilanthes dalhousiae (Aleuritopteris leptolepis)
薄叶粉背蕨 bao ye fen bei jue

China, North India

Aleuritopteris leptolepis was long known to Asian botanists as A. dalhousiae, but the basionym Cheilanthes dalhousiae was typified by a mixed collection and was thus of ambiguous application; the name has been formally rejected preventing further use.

Grow in a terrarium set up with a stony potting mix and kept on the dry side (by sparse watering and leaving the lid off for long periods), Cheilanthes can sometimes be grown to perfection. They may need brighter light than other ferns usually grown in terrariums.

8-12 x
(20-30 x )

Cloak, Lip, Hand Ferns and Their Hardy Relatives (Bommeria, Cheilanthes, Doryopteris, Gymnopteris, Hemionitis, Notholaena, Paraceterach, Pellae, Pleurosorus, Quercifilix)

 

Propagation: By spores sown on fine sandy peat, kept moist and shaded under bell-glass.

Suitable for

Rock Garden and Wall Fern.
Cold Hardy.
Terrarium.
Woodlands.
 

Stove and Greenhouse Ferns. First introduced late eighteenth century.
Culture: Compost, 2 parts peat, 1 part loam and silver sand.
Position, pots in shade. Pot, February or March. Water moderately October to February, freely afterwards.
Temperature,
Stove species, September to March 55-65F (13-18C), March to September 65-75F (18-24C);
Greenhouse, September to March 45-50F (7-10C), March to September 55-65F (13-18C).
These ferns require less moisture than most.

A delightful fern which forms clumps of erect, narrow-deltoid fronds, the segments coarsely toothed. It occurs at high altitudes and is apparently cold-hardy.

Rock crevices in forests; 1900-3500 m. SW Sichuan, SE Xizang, NW Yunnan [Bhutan, India, Kashmir, Myanmar, Nepal, Pakistan, Philippines].

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Cheilanthes distans +
Bristly Cloak Fern, woolly cloak fern, woolly rock fern

Australia, New Zealand, Lord Howe Island, New Caledonia

This small plant is native to various parts of Australia including Western Australia and New South Wales in the east. It is occasionally seen around Sydney in rocky exposed areas. The Bristly Cloak Fern grows in areas of high rainfall as well as the semi arid areas of inland Australia.

distans: distant (widely spaced female flowers).

Found in drier, exposed areas in the eastern parts of the North Island from the Bay of Islands the middle of the South Island of New Zealand.

Grow in a terrarium set up with a stony potting mix and kept on the dry side (by sparse watering and leaving the lid off for long periods), Cheilanthes can sometimes be grown to perfection. They may need brighter light than other ferns usually grown in terrariums.

Fronds crowded, to 30 cm high, < 3 cm wide; stipe red-brown to dark brown, shiny, moderately to densely covered with lanceolate, entire brown scales; lamina narrow-lanceolate, 2-pinnate, upper surface sparsely hairy with simple whitish hairs, lower surface with scales only, golden-brown; ultimate segments sessile, 1–6 mm long and 1 mm wide.
Sori becoming confluent and continuous around the margins of the segments.

4-6 x
(10-15 x )

Cloak, Lip, Hand Ferns and Their Hardy Relatives (Bommeria, Cheilanthes, Doryopteris, Gymnopteris, Hemionitis, Notholaena, Paraceterach, Pellae, Pleurosorus, Quercifilix)

 

Propagation: By spores sown on fine sandy peat, kept moist and shaded under bell-glass.

Minute spores are wind dispersed (Thorsen et al., 2009).

Suitable for

Rock Garden and Wall Fern.
Terrarium.
Acid Soil.
Pot in Conservatory or Heated Greenhouse.
Colour in Fern Fronds.
Woodland.
Drier Soil Fern.
Ground Cover.
Cold Hardy.

 

Stove and Greenhouse Ferns. First introduced late eighteenth century.
Culture: Compost, 2 parts peat, 1 part loam and silver sand.
Position, pots in shade. Pot, February or March. Water moderately October to February, freely afterwards.
Temperature,
Stove species, September to March 55-65F (13-18C), March to September 65-75F (18-24C);
Greenhouse, September to March 45-50F (7-10C), March to September 55-65F (13-18C).
These ferns require less moisture than most.

A fairly easily grown species which forms clumps of slender fronds that are covered with bristly scales. Attractive in a pot or rock garden. Needs acid, humus-rich soil in a part shade situation.

It has a woolly appearance with small white hairs on the top side of the fronds, and a rusty brown underneath.

Grows on rocky hillsides in woodland or open forest in New South Wales, Australia.

Coastal to montane in dry, rocky habitats with only sparse or no vegetation cover. Often found growing with Asplenium flabellifolium, Cheilanthes sieberi subsp. sieberi and Pellaea calidirupium. More common in the drier eastern parts of the country of New Zealand.
Easily grown in a dry sunny site. An excellent pot plant. In ideal conditions it soon self establishes.

cheilanthesdistanspforwikimediacommons1

Cheilanthes distans at UC Berkeley Botanical Garden, California, USA. Identified by sign. Date 31 March 2010. By Stickpen via Wikimedia Commons.

See other photos and Noosa's Publications.
 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Ivydene Horticultural Services logo with I design, construct and maintain private gardens. I also advise and teach you in your own garden. 01634 389677

 

If you grow and sell ferns in any country, please tell me so that I can put them on this website and inform others where they can be bought online via mail-order.

If you would provide photos and fern details to be only used by me on this website, they would be gratefully received, since I could assume that the photo was a valid one in regard to its name of fern in its filename to that fern in the photo.

 

Site design and content copyright ©January 2009.
Page structure amended December 2012.
Gallery structure changed November 2018.
Chris Garnons-Williams.

DISCLAIMER: Links to external sites are provided as a courtesy to visitors. Ivydene Horticultural Services are not responsible for the content and/or quality of external web sites linked from this site.  

 

Fern Grower's Manual by Barbara Joe Hoshizaki & Robbin C. Moran. Revised and Expanded Edition. Published in 2001 by Timber Press, Inc. Reprinted 2002, 2006. ISBN-13:978-0-88192-495-4.
"This book is mainly written for people seriously interested in growing ferns, knowing their names and what makes them similar or different, and appreciating their diversity. It is not a coffee-table book, nor a chatty type of garden book meant for light reading. Beginning fern amateurs may find more information than they need, but they will also find information useful at their level. Although this book primarily is a reference, it is also for browsing and gleaning bits of information not readily found elsewhere.
The core information in this book will be particularly helpful to plant people who want to grow or identify different ferns and fern allies." from the Preface to the above book.

 

 

USE OF FERN WITH PHOTOS
using information from Fern Grower's Manual by Barbara Joe Hoshizaki & Robbin C. Moran and
The Encyclopaedia of Ferns An Introduction to Ferns, their Structure, Biology, Economic Importance, Cultivation and Propagation by David L. Jones ISBN 0 88192 054 1


Outdoor Use in
Northeastern United States
Zones 3-6
Southeastern United States Zones 6-8
Southern Florida and Hawaii Zones 10-11
Central United States Zones 3-6
Northwestern United States Zones 5-8 with some Zone 9
Southwestern United States Zones 6-9
Coastal Central and Southern California Zones 9-10

Accent
Aquatic 1, 2

Basket 1,
Ferns for Hanging Baskets 2, 3, 4, 5, 6
Ferns for Hanging Baskets with Pendulous Fronds or weeping Growth Habit 7, 8

Bog or Wet-Soil 1,
Ferns for Wet Soils 2, 3
Border and Foundation 1, 2
Grow in Coastal Region
Cold-hardy Ferns 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6
Colour in Fern Fronds 1, 2, 3, 4
Conservatory (Stove House) or Heated Greenhouse 1, 2, 3, 4, 5
Drier Soil 1, 2, 3, 4
Grows on Rock (epilithic) 1, 2
Borne on Leaf (epiphyllous) 1, 2
Grows on another Plant (epiphyte) 1, 2
Evergreen and Deciduous
Fronds in Floral Decorations

Ferns for Acid Soil 1,
Lime-hating (Calcifluges) 2, 3, 4, 5

Ferns for Basic or Limestone Soil 1,
Ferns Found on Limestone or Basic Soils (Calciphiles) 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10

Ferns for Ground Cover 1,
Ground Cover Ferns 2, 3, 4, 5
Ferns of the Atlantic Fringe with associated plants (1 - Atlantic Cliff-top Grassland, Ledges and Rough Slopes; 2 - Clay Coasts and Dunes of South-East Ireland; 3 - Limestones of Western Atlantic Coasts; 4 - Hebridean Machair; 5 - Horsetail Flushes, Ditches and Stream Margins; 6 - Water Margin Osmunda Habitats; 7 - Western, Low-lying, Wet, Acid Woodlands; 8 - Western, Oak and Oak-Birch Woodlands and Ravines, in the UK and Ireland)
Ferns in Coastal District with associated plants
(Hard Rock Cliffs, Soft Rock Cliffs, Clay Coasts, or Coastal Sand-Dunes in the UK)
Ferns of Grasslands and Rock Outcrops (Grasslands; Rocks, Quarries and Mines in the UK)
Ferns of Heath and Moorland with associated plants (1 - Bracken Heath; 2 - Ferns of Moist Heathland Slopes and Margins of Rills and Streams; 3 - Heathland Horsetails, 4 - Heathland Clubmosses, in the UK)
Ferns of Lower Mountain Habitats with associated plants (1 - Upland Slopes and Screes; 2 - Base-rich, Upland Springs and Flushes; 3 - Base-rich, Upland, Streamside Sands and Gravels; 4 - Juniper Shrub Woodland, in the UK)
Ferns for Man-Made Landscapes with associated plants (South-western Hedgebanks, Hedgerows and Ditches, Walls and Stonework, Water Mills and Wells, Lime Kilns and abandoned Lime-Workings, Pit heaps and Shale Bings, Canals, Railways and Their Environs in the UK)
Ferns of Upper Mountain Habitats with associated plants (1 - High Mountain, Basic Cliffs and Ledges; 2 - High, Cliff Gullies; 3 - High Mountain Corries, Snow Patches and Fern beds; 4 - Ridges, Plateaux and High Summits, in the UK)
Ferns for Wetlands with associated plants (1- Ponds, Flooded Mineral Workings and Wet Heathland Hollows; 2 - Lakes and Reservoirs; 3 - Fens; 4 - Ferns of the Norfolk Broads' Fens; 5 - Willow Epiphytes in the UK)
Ferns in Woodland with associated plants (1 - Dry, Lowland, Deciduous Woodland; 2 - Inland, Limestone, Valley Woodland; 3 - Base-rich Clay, Valley Woodland; 4 - Basic, Spring-fed Woodland; 5 - Ravine Woodland on Mixed Rock-types; 6 - Native Pine Forest in the UK)

Ferns in Hedges or Hedgebanks

Outdoor Containers 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7

Rapidly Growing Fern 1, 2
Resurrection Fern
Rock Garden and Wall Ferns 1, 2, 3, 4, 5
Shade Tolerant 1, 2, 3, 4
Slowly Growing Fern
Sun Tolerant 1, 2, 3, 4
House Fern in Trough Garden 1,
Fern Suitable for
Indoor Decoration 2
, 3, 4, 5, 6
House Fern in Terrarium, Wardian Case or
Bottle Garden 1,

Ferns suitable for Terrariums, Wardian Cases 2, 3, 4,
5, 6

Grow in Woodlands 1, 2, 3, 4
 

TYPE OF FERN TO GROW WITH PHOTOS
using information from
Fern Grower's Manual by Barbara Joe Hoshizaki & Robbin C. Moran and
The Encyclopaedia of Ferns An Introduction to Ferns, their Structure, Biology, Economic Importance, Cultivation and Propagation by David L. Jones ISBN 0 88192 054 1


Aquatic Ferns (Azolla, Ceratopteris, Marsilea, Pilularia, Regnellidium, Salvinia)

Boston ferns (Nephrolepis exaltata), Fishbone ferns (Nephrolepis cordifolia), Lace ferns and Sword ferns

Cloak, Lip, Hand Ferns and their Hardy Relatives (Bommeria, Cheilanthes, Doryopteris, Gymnopteris, Hemionitis, Notholaena, Paraceterach, Pellae, Pleurosorus, Quercifilix) 1,
2, 3


Davallia Ferns (Araiostegia, Davallia, Davallodes, Gymno-grammitis, Humata, Leucostegia, Scyphularia, Trogostolon) 1, 2

Fern Allies (Psilotums or Whisk Ferns, Lycopodiums or Ground Pines, Selaginellas or Spike Mosses, and Equisetums, Horsetails or Scouring Rushes) 1, 2

Filmy and Crepe Ferns (Hymenophyllum, Trichomanes, Leptopteris) 1, 2

Lacy Ground Ferns (Culcita, Dennstaedtia, Histiopteris, Hypolepis, Leptolepia, Microlepia, Paesia, Pteridium) 1, 2

Lady Ferns and Their Allies (Allantodia, Athyrium, Diplazium, Lunathyrium, Pseudo-cystopteris, Callipteris, Cornopteris, Cystopteris) 1, 2

Maidenhair Ferns (Adiantum) 1, 2

Miscellaneous Ferns (Acrostichum, Actiniopteris, Anemia, Anogramma, Anopteris, Blotiella, Bolbitis, Christella, Coniogramma, Cryptogramma, Ctenitis, Cyclosorus, Didymochlaena, Dipteris, Elaphoglossum, Equisetum, Gymnocarpium, Llavea, Lonchitis, Lygodium, Macrothelypteris, Oeontrichia, Oleandra, Onoclea, Onychium, Oreopteris, Parathelypteris, Phegopteris, Photinopteris, Pityrogramma, Pneumatopteris, Psilotum, Stenochlaena, Thelypteris, Vittaria)
1
, 2, 3, 4 including Fern Allies of Equisetum and Psilotum or Whisk Ferns


Polypodium Ferns and Relatives (Anarthropteris, Belvisia, Campyloneurum, Colysis, Crypsinus, Dictymia, Gonphlebium, Lecanopteris, Lemmaphyllum, Lexogramme, Microgramma, Microsorum, Niphidium, Phlebodium, Phymatosurus, Pleopeltis, Polypodium, Pyrrosia, Selliguea) 1, 2, 3

Primitive Ferns and Fern Oddities (Angiopteris, Botrychium, Christensenia, Danaea, Helminthostachys, Marattia, Ophioglossum, Osmunda and Todea)

Scrambling, Umbrella, Coral and Pouch Ferns (Dicranopteris, Diploptergium, Gleichenia, Sticherus)

Shield, Buckler, Holly Ferns and their Relatives (Arachniodes, Cyrtomium, Dryopteris, Lastreopsis, Matteuccia, Polystichum, Rumohra, Tectaria and Woodsia) 1, 2, 3, 4

Spleenworts Ferns (Asplenium) 1, 2, 3

Staghorns, Elkhorns and other large epiphytes (Aglaomorpha, Drynaria, Merinthosorus, Platycerium, Pseudodrynaria) 1, 2

Fern Allies - Tassel Ferns and Clubmosses (Lycopodium)

The Brakes (Pteris) 1, 2

Tree Fern
s (Cibotium, Cnemidaria, Cyathea, Dicksonia, Nephelea and Trichipteris) 1, 2

Water, Hard, Rasp and Chain Ferns (Blechnum, Doodia, Woodwardia, Sadleria) 1, 2

Xerophytic Ferns (Actinopteris, Astrolepis, Cheilanthes, Doryopteris, Notholaena, Pellaea, Pityrogramma) 1, 2