Case Studies

Companion Planting
...A, B, C, D, E,
...F, G, H, I, J, K,
...L, M, N, O, P, Q,
...R, S, T, U, V, W,
...X, Y, Z
...Pest Control
...using Plants

Garden Construction
Garden Design
...How to Use the Colour Wheel Concepts for Selection of Flowers, Foliage and Flower Shape
...RHS Mixed Borders
......Bedding Plants
......Her Perennials
......Other Plants Garden Maintenance
Offbeat Glossary

Plants *
...Poisonous Plants
...Subsidence by Clay Soil

...Soil Nutrients
Tool Shed
Useful Data


Topic - Plant Photo Galleries
Bedding Flower Shape

...Allium/ Anemone
...Colchicum/ Crocus
...Hippeastrum/ Lily
...Late Summer
Deciduous Shrub
...Shrubs - Decid
Deciduous Tree
...Trees - Decid
Evergreen Perennial
...P-Evergreen A-L
...P-Evergreen M-Z
...Flower Shape
Evergreen Shrub
...Shrubs - Evgr
...Heather Shrub
Evergreen Tree
...Trees - Evgr
Herbaceous Perennial
...P -Herbaceous
...RHS Wisley
...Flower Shape
Odds and Sods
...RHS Wisley A-F
...RHS Wisley G-R
...RHS Wisley S-Z
...Rose Use
...Other Roses A-F
...Other Roses G-R
...Other Roses S-Z
Soft Fruit
Top Fruit


Wild Flower
with its
flower colour page,
Site Map page in its flower colour
NOTE Gallery
...Blue Note
...Brown Note
...Cream Note
...Green Note
...Mauve Note
...Multi-Cols Note
...Orange Note
...Pink A-G Note
...Pink H-Z Note
...Purple Note
...Red Note
...White A-D Note
...White E-P Note
...White Q-Z Note
...Yellow A-G Note
...Yellow H-Z Note
...Shrub/Tree Note
Wildflower Plants


Topic - Flower/Foliage Colour
Colour Wheel Galleries

Following your choice using Garden Style then that changes your Plant Selection Process
Garden Style
...Infill Plants
...12 Bloom Colours per Month Index
...12 Foliage Colours per Month Index
...All Plants Index
...Cultivation, Position, Use Index
...Shape, Form

you could use these Flower Colour Wheels with number of colours
All Flowers 53

All Flowers per Month 12
with its
Explanation of
Structure of this Website with

...User Guidelines
All Bee-Pollinated Flowers per Month 12
Rock Garden and Alpine Flower Colour Wheel with number of colours
Rock Plant Flowers 53

...Rock Plant Photos

these Foliage Colour Wheels structures, which I have done but until I can take the photos and I am certain of the plant label's validity, these may not progress much further
All Foliage 212

All Spring Foliage 212
All Summer Foliage 212
All Autumn Foliage 212
All Winter Foliage 212

Flower Colour Wheel without photos, but with links to photos
12 Bloom Colours per Month Index
...All Plants Index


Topic - Wildlife on Plant Photo Gallery
Usage of Plants
by Egg, Caterpillar, Chrysalis and Butterfly

Egg, Caterpillar, Chrysalis and Butterfly usage of
Plant A-C
Plant C-M
Plant N-W
Butterfly usage of Plant

Ivydene Gardens Extra Pages of Plants
Growing Edibles in Containers Garden Use List


Indoor Edible Garden: Creative ways to grow herbs, fruits and vegetables in your home by Zia Allaway. Published by Dorling Kindersley Limited in 2017.
ISBN 978-0-2412-4897-3. Printed and bound in China.

Whether you live in an apartment with no outdoor space, or simply want to try a few tender crops, this book opens up a whole world of possibilities for growing your own food indoors. Most of the projects are very easy too, so you will need no previous experience if you want to enjoy your own freshly picked produce."


Planning an indoor edible garden.

  • Where to grow your edibles.
  • Bright sunlight zones.
  • Partially sunlit zones.
  • Cool zones.
  • Best indoor edibles.
  • Choosing a container.
  • Types of container.


Herbs & edible flowers

  • Introducing herbs & edible flowers
  • Herbs & edible flowers in pots for a windowsill
  • Thyme
  • Scented Geranium & herb windowbox
  • Basil
  • Grow your own herbal teas
  • Edible orchids mounted onto bark
  • Edible flowers
  • Edible flower ladder
  • Grow lemongrass from shop-bought stems
  • Cocktail herbs & fruits
  • Mint
  • Herbs in hanging jars
  • Oregano & parsley
  • Sage & Rosemary

Sprouts, leaves & roots

  • Introducing sprouts, leaves & roots
  • Sprouts in jars
  • Sprouts
  • Microgreens in muffin cases
  • Microgreens
  • Transform your shelves into a mini greenhouse
  • Salad leaves
  • Table-top spicy leaves
  • Tangy garlic shoots
  • Chives & spring onions
  • Pots of tasty roots
  • Radishes
  • pots of crunchy carrots
  • Carrots
  • Oyster mushrooms in 14 days
  • Mushrooms

Fruiting vegetables

  • Introducing fruiting vegetables
  • CChilli & herb ball
  • Chilli peppers
  • Mediterranean mix
  • Aubergines
  • Tiny tomatoes in a colander
  • Tomatoes
  • Tomato flowers
  • Tamarillo tree tomatoes
  • Cucumbers on wheels
  • Cucumbers
  • Cucamelons in hanging crates
  • Raise sweet peppers in colourful pots
  • Sweet peppers


  • Introducing fruit
  • Wild strawberry shelves
  • Strawberries
  • Fruit & flower windowbox
  • Grow your own curry leaves
  • Lemons & limes
  • Oranges in pots for a sunny room
  • Oranges
  • Fruity fig tree
  • Peaches & nectarines
  • Pineapply guavas
  • Cape gooseberries

Expert's tips

  • Planning your indoor edible gardening year
  • Choosing the right compost
  • Watering & feeding indoor edibles
  • Sowing from seed
  • Pruning, training & pollinating fruit crops
  • Common pest & diseases
  • Preserving your harvests
  • Useful resources
  • Index


Frosted flowering rose!!!


Why not grow edibles in containers outside?

See bottom of page.


Choosing the right compost for indoor edibles:-

  • Multi-purpose compost is best for annual crops that will not be in a pot for more than a year; hanging baskets.
  • Seed and cutting compost is best for sowing seeds in pots and trays; potting up cuttings and young seedlings.
  • Soil- or loam-based compost - also known as "John Innes no 3" compost is best for perennial crops, such as fruit trees and shrubs, which will remain in the same pot for more than 1 year.
  • Ericaceous compost is best for lemon, lime kumquat, calamondin and orange plants that require acidic soil conditions.


Aggregates for indoor edibles:-

  • Mulches - This is spread over the top of compost to prevent its surface drying out quickly and to lock in the moisture available to plants' roots.
  • Vermiculite and perlite - Vermiculite is a mineral heated to produce lightweight, spongy grains, while perlite is a volcanic rock, also heated to form similar white-grey absorbent grains. Both hold onto moisture, then release it slowly. They can be mixed with compost or used to cover small seeds, keeping them moist while allowing light through to aid germination.
  • Horticultural gravel and grit - A layer of gravel in the base of a waterproof pot creates a reservoir for water to drain into, supports the plant roots and compost above, and helps to prevent waterlogging. Grit mixed with compost increases drainage and provides good growing conditions for drough-loving plants such as Mediterranean herbs.


Watering indoor edibles:-

  • Watering from below - Do not flood a plant with too much water. Pour the water into the saucer below the pot or the outer pot when using Amberol pots.
  • Prevent waterlogging - "Rachel the Gardener lays a small piece of horticultural fleece down in the base of the pot, then tips in the compost. This keeps ants and earwigs from crawling up into the base of the rootball, and does not interfere with the perfectly normal and natural drainage of the pot. When potting on, it's easy to pull it away from the root ball: and in some cases, it helps to stop the plants pushing tap roots out through the drainage hole and rooting themselves in the shingle! In addition, at my various Clients' gardens, I usually encourage them to stand their large pots in saucers during the summer, to prevent them drying out too rapidly, but in autumn I go round and turn the saucers upside down, so each pot is standing on a low plinth, to allow extra drainage - and to avoid them sitting with their roots in water - through the winter."
  • Avoid fungal infection - Water the compost only, not the plant's leaves, flowers, or fruits, as it can encourage diseases such as grey mould and downy mildew.
  • Use a rose head - Use a watering can fitted with a rose had to water all seedlings and young plants, which may otherwise be dislodged by a stream of water.




The overall amount of sunlight received depends on aspect, the direction your garden faces:-

North-facing gardens get the least light and can be damp

South-facing gardens get the most light

East-facing gardens get morning light

West-facing gardens get afternoon and evening light

Sun Aspect, Soil Type, Soil Moisture, Plant Type and Height of Plant are used in the Plant Photo Galleries in the comparison of thumbnail photos


Surface soil moisture is the water that is in the upper 10 cm (4 inches) of soil, whereas root zone soil moisture is the water that is available to plants, which is generally considered to be in the upper 200 cm (80 inches) of soil:-

  • Wet Soil has Saturated water content of 20-50% water/soil and is Fully saturated soil
  • Moist Soil has Field capacity of 10-35% water/soil and is Soil moisture 2–3 days after a rain or irrigation
  • Dry Soil has Permanent wilting point of 1-25% water/soil and is Minimum soil moisture at which a plant wilts
  • Residual water content of 0.1-10% water/soil and is Remaining water at high tension
  • Available Water Capacity for plants is the difference between water content at field capacity and permanent wilting point

Sun Aspect:-

  • Full Sun: At least 6 full hours of direct sunlight. Many sun lovers enjoy more than 6 hours per day, but need regular water to endure the heat.
  • Part Shade: 3 - 6 hours of sun each day, preferably in the morning and early afternoon. The plant will need some relief from the intense late afternoon sun, either from shade provided by a nearby tree or planting it on the east side of a building.
    Dappled Sun - DS in Part Shade Column: Dappled sunlight is similar to partial shade. It is the sun that makes its way through the branches of a deciduous tree. Woodland plants and underplantings prefer this type of sunlight over even the limited direct exposure they would get from partial shade.
  • Full Shade: Less than 3 hours of direct sunlight each day, with filtered sunlight during the rest of the day. Full shade does not mean no sun.

Acid Site - An acid soil has a pH value below 7.0. Clay soils are usually acid and retentive of moisture, requiring drainage. The addition of grit or coarse sand makes them more manageable. Peaty soil is acidic with fewer nutrients and also requires drainage.

Alkaline Soil - An alkaline soil has a pH value above 7.0. Soils that form a thin layer over chalk restrict plant selection to those tolerant of drought.

Bank / Slope problems include soil erosion, surface water, summer drought and poor access (create path using mattock to pull an earth section 180 degrees over down the slope). Then, stabilise the earth with 4 inches (10cms) depth of spent mushroom compost under the chicken wire; before planting climbers/plants through it.

Cold Exposed Inland Site is an area that is open to the elements and that includes cold, biting winds, the glare of full sun, frost and snow - These plants are able to withstand very low temperatures and those winds in the South of England.

Dust and Pollution Barrier - Plants with large horizontal leaves are particularly effective in filtering dust from the environment, with mature trees being capable of filtering up to 70% of dust particles caused by traffic. Plants can also help offset the pollution effects of traffic. 20 trees are needed to absorb the carbon dioxide produced by 1 car driven for 60 miles.

Front of Border / Path Edges - Soften edges for large masses of paving or lawn with groundcover plants. Random areas Within Paths can be planted with flat-growing plants. Other groundcover plants are planted in the Rest of Border.

Seaside Plants that deal with salt-carrying gales and blown sand; by you using copious amounts of compost and thick mulch to conserve soil moisture.

Sound Barrier - The sound waves passing through the plant interact with leaves and branches, some being deflected and some being turned into heat energy. A wide band of planting is necessary to achieve a large reduction in the decibel level.

Wind Barrier - By planting a natural windbreak you will create a permeable barrier that lets a degree of air movement pass through it and provide shelter by as far as 30 times their height downwind.

Woodland ground cover under the shade of tree canopies.



In the case of some genera and species, at least two - and sometimes dozens of - varieties and hybrids are readily available, and it has been possible to give only a selection of the whole range. To indicate this, the abbreviation 'e.g.' appears before the selected examples ( for instance, Centaurea cyanus e.g. 'Jubilee Gem'). If an 'e.g.' is omitted in one list, although it appears beside the same plant in other lists, this means that that plant is the only suitable one - or the only readily available suitable one - in the context of that particular list.

Chalky alkaline soils are derived from chalk or limestone with a pH of 7.1 or above.
Clay soils swell and shrink as they wet and dry.
Lime-Free soils are acidic and without chalk.
In poorly drained soils (50 % solid materials and about 50 % pore space), most of the pore space is filled with water for long periods of time, leaving too little air.
Light sandy soils dry out quickly and are low in nutrients.







To locate mail-order nursery for plants from the UK in this gallery try using search in RHS Find a Plant.

To locate plants in the European Union (EU) try using Search Term in Gardens4You and Meilland Richardier in France.

To locate mail-order nursery for plants from America in this gallery try using search in Plant Lust.

To locate plant information in Australia try using Plant Finder in Gardening Australia.


The following is from "A land of Soil, Milk and Honey" by Bernard Jarman in Star & Furrow Issue 122 January 2015 - Journal of the Biodynamic Association;_

"Soil is created in the first place through the activity of countlesss micro-organisms, earthworms and especially the garden worm (Lumbricus terrestris). This species is noticeably active in the period immediately before and immediately after mid-winter. In December we find it (in the UK) drawing large numbers of autumn leaves down into the soil. Worms consume all kinds of plant material along with sand and mineral substances. In form, they live as a pure digestive tract. The worm casts excreted from their bodies form the basis of a well-structured soil with an increased level of available plant nutrients:-

  • 5% more nitrogen,
  • 7% more phosphorous and
  • 11% more potasium than the surrounding topsoil.

Worms also burrow to great depths and open up the soil for air and water to penetrate, increasing the scope of a fertile soil.

After the earthworm, the most important helper of the biodynamic farmer is undoubetdly

  • the cow. A cow's digestive system is designed to make use of roughage such as grass and hay. Cow manure is arguably the most effective and long lasting of all the fertilizing agents at the farmer's disposal and has been found to have a carry over effect of at least 4 years. It is also one of the most balanced and it contains no grass seeds, since they have been completely digested.
  • Pig manure is rich in potassium, attractive to earthworms and beneficial on sandy soils.
  • Horse manure increases soil activity and stimulates strong healthy growth, but it does contain grass seed and other seeds."

There are other pages on Plants which bloom in each month of the year in this website:-

12 Bloom Colours per Month Index

Other Colours which lead on to other pages

Colour Wheel - All Flowers per Month 12

Deciduous Shrub
Deciduous Tree
Evergreen Perennial
Evergreen Shrub
Evergreen Tree
Herbaceous Perennial
Wild Flower


Plants for Cut Flowers in

Climber 3 sector Vertical Plant System with flowers in
May 1, 2


Indoor Bulbs for

Indoor Bulbs for

Bulbs for

Indoor Bulbs for

Plant Bloom

Plant Bloom

Plant Bloom

Soil Moisture:-

Sun Aspect:-

Plant Location:-

Plant Name

with link to mail-order nursery in UK / Europe

Plant Names will probably not be in Alphabetical Order

Common Name

with link to mail-order nursery in USA


Planning your Indoor Edible gardening year will help you to produce a year-round indoor edible garden, showing what to sow and plant through the seasons, and when you can expect a harvest from the crops in Indoor Edible Garden: Creative ways to grow herbs, fruits and vegetables in your home by Zia Allaway. Although most plants grow from spring to autumn when conditions are optimum, remember that you can still enjoy fresh salad leaves, sprouts, and fruits (such as citrus), in winter when light levels and temperatures are lower.



So, having harvested them, one needs cookery recipes to prepare gastronomic delights for your delight and delectation.

Which compost to use for the relevant indoor plant is stated above.
Growing zones mostly indoors:-

  • Zone 1 - South-facing windows
  • Zone 2 - Other windows
  • Zone 3 - Beneath a skylight
  • Zone 4 - Walls
  • Zone 5 - Dark corners
  • Zone 6 - Centre of room
  • Zone 7 - Cool South-facing room
  • Zone 8 - Outside windowsill



AC = Acid Soil

AL = Alkaline Soil

AN = Any for Acid, Neutral or Alkaline Soil

FA = Grow for Flower Arrangers

FB = Front of Border
/ Path Edges

RB = Rest of Border

SP = Speciman

RG = Rock Garden

WP = Within Path

CL = Climber or Shrub grown against a wall or fence

BE = Bedding

GP = Grow in Pot / Container

HB = Grow in Hanging Basket

HE = Hedge
GC = Ground Cover
SC = Screening

TH =
Thorny Hedge

BG = Grow in Bog Area

BA = Grow on Bank / Slope


AN = Any Soil

SE = Seaside / Coastal Plants

CH = Chalk

EX = Cold Exposed Inland Site

CL = Clay

DP = Dust and Pollution Barrier

LF = Lime-Free (Acid Soil)

D = Dry

S = Full Sun

SO = Sound Barrier

PD = Poorly Drained
PE = Peaty

M = Moist

PS = Part Shade
DS = Dappled Sun

WI = Wind Barrier

LS = Light Sand

W = Wet

FS = Full Shade

WO = Woodland







































































Indoor edibles with Zones.






























Ocimum basilicum

Sweet Basil

Incredible Vegetables from Self-Watering Containers Using Ed's Amazing Pots System (Portable, Organic, Trouble-free, Secret Soil Formula) by Edward C. Smith. Published by Storey Publishing in 2006. ISBN 13: 978-1-58017-556-2.

  • Part One: Get Growing in Containers
    • A new way to grow vegetables
    • A pot for every plant
    • What's in the Pot?
    • Tools and Accessories
  • Part Two: Putting it all together
    • Getting Started
    • Of seeds and six-packs
    • Designing for containers
    • Caring for your Container Gardens
    • Managing Pests and Diseases
    • Harvesting the Bounty
    • When winter draws near
  • Part Three: Incredible edibles
    • The best vegetables
    • Herbs for every pot
    • The edible bouquet

The combination of using the Self-Watering Containers as described in the "A pot for every plant" chapter and his secret soil formula described in the "Whats in the pot" chapter will guarantee healthy strong growth of vegetables and herbs grown in containers.

Zones 1,2,3.
Annual herb, providing fresh, spicy leaves for many months from spring to autumn.
Ocimum basilicum 'Spice' (Spice Basil),
Ocimum basilicum 'Dark Opal' (Dark Opal Basil),
Ocimum minimum 'Bush' (Bush Basil),
Ocimum basilicum var. thyrsiflorum (Thai Basil) and
Ocimum x citriodorum (Lemon Basil)






























Allium schoenoprasum

Garden Chives

Zones 1,2,3,7,8.
Mild, onion-flavoured leaves from mid-spring to autumn. Leaves appear year fter year but die down each winter and sprout again in spring.
Allium tuberosum (Garlic Chives)






























Cymbopogon schoenanthus


Zones 1,2,3
Grow this tall grass-like plant in a large container in a sunny room or deep windowsill and harvest the lemon-flavoured stems - ideal for Asian dishes - from late spring to late summer.






























Mentha piperita f. citrata 'Basil'

Basil Mint

How to extract Mint oils from leaves, since we need mint oil in the following recipe.

Favourite Easy to Make Recipes - Simple Ideas for First Cookery. Published by J. Salmon Ltd. ISBN 1-902842-68-5.
Peppermint Creams
First carefully sieve the icing sugar into the bowl, and then gradually mix in the condensed milk to form a stiff paste. Next, add the peppermint oil and work the mixture with the hands until the flavouring is evenly distributed. Dust a pastry board or work surface with icing sugar, turn out the mixture on to it and roll it to about 0.25 inch (6mm) thick with a rolling pin dusted with sugar. Alternatively put between 2 layers of non-stick paper and roll out. Now stamp out into small rounds (size according to preference) with a plain cutter, or use for example an inverted sherry glass. Re-roll the remaining mixture until it is all used up. Place the mints on a tray or dish and leave in a cool place to dry out.

Zones 2,3,6,7,8
Tall deciduous herb that produces masses of fresh-flavoured leaves on sturdy stems from late spring to autumn; dies down over winter.
Satureja douglasii (Indian trailing mint),
Mentha suaveolens 'Pineapple' (Pineapple mint),
Mentha x piperita f. citrata 'Chocolate' (Chocolate mint),
Mentha suaveolens (Apple mint) and
Mentha x piperita f. citrata 'Lime' (Lime mint).






























Origanum vulgare

Marjoram, Oregano


Zones 1,2,3,7,8
A compact deciduous herb with green, yellow or variegated foliage. Leaves appear from spring to autumn but die down each winter.
Origanum majorana (Sweet marjoram),
Origanum vulgare 'Aureum' (Golden origano) and
Origanum vulgare 'Country Cream' (Variegated oregano).






























Petroselinum crispum

Flat-leaved Parsley

A Book of Welsh Soups & Savouries recipes from the traditional heart of Welsh cookery, including traditional Welsh Cawl by Bobby Freeman. Published by Y Lolfa Cyf. in 1987, Seventh impression 2006.
Parsley Pie
One tends to wonder about this recipe: why the sugar in the custardy filling? I'm inclined to think it is a carry-over of an old idea from the times when sugar went in almost everything, before the distinction between sweet and savoury seasoning took place. The idea persists in the sugar-baked ham.
Line a deep pie dish with the pastry. Mix the flour with a little of the milk, beat the eggs with the rest of the milk, add to the blended milk and flour with the salt, sugar and parsley. Lay the bacon cut in small dice in the pie, pour the custard over, bake in a fairly hot oven ... minutes or until the mixture has nicely set and cooked through. The same pie can be made with leeks instead of parsley.

Zones 1,2,3,7,8
Flat- or curly-leaved varieties both do well in pots in a sunny room, providing leaves from spring to late autumn.
Petroselinum crispum (Curly-leaved Parsley).






























Rosmarinus officinalis

Common Rosemary


Zones 1,2,3,7,8
An aromatic shrubby herb, the small needle-like foliage is evergreen, but best only harvested from early spring to late autumn.
Rosmarinus officinalis 'Miss Jessop's Upright' (Miss Jessop's Rosemary) and
Rosmarinus officinalis 'Prostratus' (prostrate rosemary).






























Salvia officinalis

Common Sage

Beeton's New Book of Garden Management - A compendium of the Theory and Practice of Horticulture, and a Complete Guide to Gardening in all its Branches. Published by Ward, Lock & Co. Limited
Sage will grow freely from slips (Slip is A part of a plant cut or broken off for grafting or planting; a scion or cutting), which may be taken in the autumn as soon as the plants have ceased flowering, or in the spring of the year. It may also be proagated by layers in spring or autumn.

Zones 1,2,3,7,8
An evergreen shrubby herb that produces fresh green, purple or variegated new leaves from spring to autumn each year.
Salvia officinalis 'Icterina' (Icterina sage),
Salvia officinalis 'Purpurasens' (Purple sage),
Salvia officinalis 'Tricolor' (Tricolor sage),
Salvia microphylla var. microphylla (Blackcurrant sage) and Salvia elegans 'Scarlet Pineapple' (Pineapple sage).






























Thymus vulgaris

Common Thyme

Tiny Tabletop Gardens 35 projects for super-small spaces - outdoors and in by Emma Hardy. Published in 2017 by CICO Books. ISBN 978-1-78249-413-3.
Herbs in vintage containers
Herbs are perfect plants for containers because they look beautiful, are easy to grow, and provide delicious flavours for you to use in cooking for months on end. To create a little herb bed when you don't have a garden, collect some old cans(tins) and bowls from secondhand markets and tabletop sales. Group the containers in a pleasing arrangement and then plant them with a range of herbs you like and enjoy:-

Some suggested plants - Lavandula 'Pretty Polly (lavender), Origanum vulgare (Oregano / wild marjoram), Rosmarinus offcinalis (Common rosemary), Salvia officinalis 'Purpurascens' (purple sage), Thymus 'Golden Queen' (Lemon thyme) and Thymus 'Silver Queen' (thyme).

Zones 1,2,3,7,8
This small-leaved evergreen herb forma a mound of edible foliage all year; harvest from early spring to late autumn and allow the plant to rest in midwinter when it is not growing.
Thymus 'Worfield Gardens' (Alpine thyme),
Thymus serpyllum (Wild thyme), Thymus pulegioides 'Archer's Gold' (Lemon thyme),
Thymus 'Silver Posie' (Silver posie thyme) and
Thymus 'Coccineus Group' (Creeping red thyme).






























'Berry Oda'

Dendrobium orchid


Great Containers - making - decorating - planting - by Clare MatthewsPublished by Hamlyn in 2004. ISBN 0 600 60947 2.
Making containers work
The collections

  • opulence & riches
  • passion & daring
  • cool sophistication
  • pretty romantics
  • contemporary
  • sun-baked mediterranean

Decorative techniques
Plant care.

Yellow is a versatile colour and one that abounds in the garden, from pale yellows with a fresh purity, through clear yellow, to deeper golden yellows. In containers, yellow can be used to create a number of effects - clear bright yellows are eye catching, pale yellows are suited to simple pretty displays, while the deeper golds and mustards reflect less light and have a more opulent feel.
The second photo on page 18 has the following text - This joyful spring display has a harmony gebnerated by the combination of yellows and limegreen. The color of tulip 'Golden Girl', Narcissus 'Yellow Cheerfulness' and the pansies is actually emphasised by the lilac-blue backdrop.

Zones 2,3,6,7
The cucumber- and kale-flavoured blooms make beautiful cake decorations.































Pot marigold

Zones 1,2,3,7,8
These colourful orange or yellow flowers have a peppery flavour and will bloom all summer if you set them in a sunny area.































Scented pelargonium

Zones 1,2,3,7,8
Esy to grow on a sunny windowsill. You can eat both the flowers and the foliage.
































Zones 2,6,7,8
Buy young plants about to flower in spring ( dry bulbs planted in autumn won't develop indoors).
































Zones 1,2,3,4,7,8
These diminutive-flowers are available in bloom year-round and are easy to grow in small pots.






























'Bolthardy' Beetroot

Vegetables: Grow Them, Cook Them, Eat Them by Charlotte Popescu. Published by Cavalier Paperbacks in 2004. ISBN 1-899470-25-5.
Beetroot and Chocolate Cake
Sift together the flour, baking powder and cocoa powder. Grate the beetroot using plastic gloves to avoid staining your hands red. Stir the sugar, grated beetroot, vanilla essence and beaten eggs into the dry ingredients. Melt the butter and chocalate together in a microwave or over a gentle heat and stir to combine before adding to the cake mixture. Spoon into 2 greased 17.5 cm, 7 inch cake tins and bake in the oven at ... for ... minutes or until a skewer in the cakes comes out clean. To make the filling beat the icing sugar into the butter and add the lemon juice and zest. Sandwich the cakes together and sift a little icing sugar over the cake before serving.

Zones 2,6,7,8
Sow beetroot in spring for a crop of sweet roots later in the summer and autumn.
'Burpee's Golden' beetroot and
'barbietola di Chioggia' beetroot.






























Daucus carota subsp. sativus


Sproutman's Kitchen Garden Cookbook by Steve Meyerowitz. Fifth Edition Published 1999. ISBN 1-878736-86-8
Carotene Energizer
Carrot juice, with its abundance of carotene, is as orange as orange juice and not at all acidic.Its sweetness offers quick energy. Mix this juice with beets, a liver stimulant, and you have one of the most healthful elixirs. The addition of cucumber and parsley, while not core ingredients, offsets the sweetness of the carrots. Both are known as cleansers for the kidney and urinary system. Their chlorophyll-rich healing green colour added to the orange makes this a nicely balanced drink.

Zones 2,6,7,8
Long or short varieties are available to grow in pots indoors; sow seeds in spring and summer for 2 crops later in the year.
'St Valery',
'White Satin',
'Purple Haze' and
'Royal Chantenay'.































Garlic greens


Zones 1,2,3,7
The bulbs will not bulk up indoors, but you can still enjoy the garlic-flavoure leaves they produce in just a few weeks.






























Lactuca sativa



Zones 2,4,5,6,7,8
Green- or red-leaved lettuces can be grown for most of the year in a bright area out of direct sunlight or under a grow light, providing you with fresh salad leaves in an array of colours.
Cos Lettuce,
Green Batavian Lettuce,
Little Gem Lettuce,
Lolla Rossa Lettuce,
Green Oak Leaf Lettuce and
Red Oak Leaf Lettuce.
































Tiny Tabletop Gardens 35 projects for super-small spaces - outdoors and in by Emma Hardy. Published in 2017 by CICO Books. ISBN 978-1-78249-413-3.
Micro-green Tower
Eating micro-greens is very popular at the moment and they are surprisingly easy to grow. The idea involves growing seedlings - which are harvested when they they are still small - a and then adding them to salads, where their intense flavours can be enjoyed. You can, of course, grow micro-greens in flat trays, which will provide you with ample seedlings, but this towering planter is a fun way to grow them and would make a lovely centerpiece for an al fresco lunch. Just provide a pair of scissors and your guests can help themselves.

Other Edible Plants Projects:-

  • Blueberries in a tub,
  • Strawberries in rusty troughs,
  • Salad baskets,
  • Herbs in vintage containers and
  • Berries in an urn.

Zones 1,2,3,4,5,7
One of the easiest crops to grow indoors, microgreens (Microgreens are simply the young seedlings of edible plants that, given time, would grow into mature crops.) produce fresh , tiny leaves and can be grown year-round. There is also a wide selection and colours to choose from.
Red Amaranth,
'Red Frills' mustard

































Zones 2,4,5,6,7,8
These leafy crops hail from Asia and have a spicy flavour that tastes great in salads and stir-fries. They are easy to grow from seed each year and require similar conditions to salad leaves.
































































From Cooking in 10 minutes or The adaption to the rhythm of our times by Edouard de Pomaine. Published in 2008 by Serif. ISBN 978 1 897959 61 9.
Fillets of Sole with Mushrooms.
Buy some ready-prepared fillets of sole. Buy at the same time .... mushrooms.
When you reach home, cut off the sandy base of the mushroom stems. Wsh them in plenty of water, and throw this away together with the sand it contains. Begin again. Do not peel them, it is a waste of time - and mushroom. Cut them in slices. Wash them once more and lift them out of the water. Dry them. Put a frying pan with a piece of butter the size of .... on the gas. Warm for a minute. Turn. Cook for a ..... Add the mushrooms. Turn the gas full on. The mushrooms ooze water. Salt. Pepper. Add ... of dry white wine. Let it boil hard. The water evaporates. The ten minutes are over. Reduce the heat. Add a piece of butter mixed with a little flour. Let it melt, stirring all the time. Pour it into a dish. Serve.
After cooking there should be just enough juice to make sufficient sauce. So watch and regulate the evaporation carefully.

Zones 2,4,5,6,7
You can try a variety of mushrooms, which are easy to grow from kits, all year round, and many are ready to harvest after just a couple of weeks.
Lentinula edodes (Shiitake mushroom),
Flammulina velutipes (Enoki Mushroom),
Pleurotus eryngii (King oyster mushroom) and
Pleurotus ostreatus (Oyster mushroom).






























Pak choi

Simply Beef & Lamb by EBLEX which is a division of the Agriculture and Horticulture Development Board.
Sizzling Beef with Pak Choi Noodles
Put the beef in a large bowl, season with pepper, soy sauce, sherry, ginger and half the oil and marinate for ... minutes. Meanwhile, heat the remaining oil in a large non-stick wok or pan. Remove the beef from the marinade and stir-fry for ... minutes. Add the spring onions, pak choi or broccoli, bean sprouts, Thai fish sauce, chilli and noodles. Stir-fry for ... minutes, tossing occasionally. Add the reserved marinade and cook for a further ... Add the lemon zest and serve immediately.

Zones 2,4,5,6,7,8
These leaves with their mild mustardy flavour, can be grown as microgreens or larger crops indoors for a summer to autumn harvest.






























Raphanus sativus

'Cherry Belle' Radish


Zones 2,3,5,6,7,8
A fast-maturing crop, the seeds can be sown in pots every month for crunchy radshes in summer and early autumn. The larger white winter radishes should be sown in autumn.
'Scarlet Globe' Radish,
'Zlata' Radish,
'Sparkler' Radish,
'Amethyst' Radish,
'Kulata Cerna' Radish,
'French Breakfast' Radish and
'Mooli' Radish.






























Allium cepa 'White Lisbon'

White Lisbon Spring onion

Maw Broon's Cookbook - for every day and special days by Jeannie Broon. Published by Waverley Books in 2007.
ISBN 978-1-902407-45-6.
Chapit Tatties with Sibies
Boil the potatoes until they are soft. Drain and return them to the heat to dry slightly before mashing. Finely chop the white and green of the spring onions and cook in the milk. Beat this mixture into the mashed potatoes until they are fluffy and smooth. Season to taste and serve a generous helping onto each plate, topping with a dod (a dod = a dob which is a small amount of something, especially paste) of butter.
26 other recipes for Mashed Potatoes.

Zones 1,2,3,5,7.
The mild-flavoured stems do not take up much space indoors, but they need bright but cool conditions to mature.
Allium fistulosum 'Performer' (Performer Spring Onion) and
Allium cepa 'Apache' (Apache Spring Onion)






























Sprouts the miracle food. The complete guide to sprouting by Steve Meyerowitz - 6th edition in 1999. ISBN 1-878736-04-3.

The Sprouters Handbook by Edward Cairney. Reprinted by Aryll Publishing in 2002.
ISBN 1 874640 48 3.
"Sprouting for permanent weight loss.
Most people gain weight, not so much because they eat too much but rather that they eat the wrong food at the wrong time. Ideally we want a food which is high in nutrition and energy but low in potential weight gain factors. One of the reasons we overeat is that the appetite control centre in the brain, which closely monitors the food we eat, often finds it difficult to know when we've had enough for it relies on a series of complex information for its decision making. However when food is incomplete because vital parts have been destroyed through cooking and processing, the information will be incomplete and the data handling process confused and we go on eating until we feel physically full. This is why traditionally we always finish a meal with a sweet pudding heavily laced with sugar. By sending our blood-sugar level through the roof, it's a crude but effective way of shutting off our appetite.
The more dynamic a food is, the better chance it has of maintaining energy levels without the risk of weight gain. Because of their dynamic nature, raw sprouts can solve this problem by providing energy for exercise and nutrition for health maintenance without running the risk of weight gain.
The waste problem -
another major consideration to be faced during weight loss is the amount of toxins which end up in the bloodstream as a result of fat deposits being broken down. Our layers of fat are used to store away toxic residues, which our elimination systems have been unable to dispose of. It's a bit like sweeping rubbish under the carpet for want of a better place to put it. The method works fine until the carpet is removed exposing the problem. This is precisely what happens when we start to burn off old fat deposits which have been carried around for years. This is where the sore heads and feeling like death-warmed-up comes from. Fat is burned off and toxins get dumped into the bloodstream. This period is often referred to as a healing crisis when the elimination system struggles to cleanse the body of this very unpleasant legacy. How quickly we get through this crisis depends largely on the foods we eat and the drinks we drink. The toxic residues in the bloodstream are acidic requiring alkaline-forming foods to neutralise them. All sprouts are alkaline-forming even when they come from acid-forming grains like wheat. The high plant enzyme content of sprouts is important because they help support the pancreas, liver and kidneys also acting as scavengers in the bloodstream helping to neutralize and remove waste."

Zones 2,3,4
Ideal for any home, nutrient-rich sprouts can be grown in glass jars in a bright location such as on a windowsill or kitchen counter.
Green lentils,
Mung beans,
Adzuki beans






























Solanum melongena



Zones 1,2,3
Keep the plants, which can grow up to 36 inches (90 cms) in height, close to a window in bright sunlight if you want to guarantee a good crop of round or Zeppelin-shaped purple or white fruits.
'Black Beauty',
'Thai Aubergines',
'Raja' and






























Capsicum species

Chilli pepper

Jamie's 15 minute meals by Jamie Oliver. Published by Penguin Books in 2012. ISBN 978-0-718-15780-7
Veggie Chilli
Put the chillies, peeled and halved red onion, paprika and cumin seeds into the processor, squash in the unpeeled garlic through a garlic crusher, then add the coriander stalks (reserving the leaves) and 2 tablespoons of oil, and whiz until fine. Tip into the pan, then add the deseeded and roughly chopped peppers, drained chickpeas and black beans, a pinch of salt and pepper; and the passata, stir well and put the lid on. Fold the tortillas in half, slice into 0.5 cm strips, sprinkle on to a baking tray and pop in the oven until golden and crisp.
Put most of the coriander leaves, a pinch of salt and pepper, half a peeled avocado, the yoghurt and the juice from ... limes into a jug and whiz with a stick blender until silky. Check and adjust the seasoning of the chilli, leave the lid off. Remove the tortillas from the oven into a bowl, cut the lettuce into chunky wedges and add to the bowl. Scoop and dot over curls of avocado. Peel the cucumber into ribbons and finely slice ... chilli, then scatter both over the top.
Make a well in the middle of the chilli and tip in the rice, then pop the lid on for the last few minutes to warm the rice through. Pour the dressing over the salad, pick over the remaining coriander leaves, finely slice the remaining chilli and sprinkle over the top along with the halved cherry tomatoes, then toss everything together. Serve with dollops of yoghurt.

Zones 1,2,3,8
These compact woody plants will live from year to year, and are covered with colourful fruits from summer to early autumn. The little white flowers that precede the fruits are pretty too.
Chilli 'Apache',
Chilli 'Prairie Fire',
Capsicum annum 'Jalapeno' (Jalapeno),
Capsicum annuum 'Cayenne' (Cayenne chilli),
Capsicum chinense 'Dorset Naga' (Dorset Naga chilli),
Capsicum annuum 'Loco' (Loco chilli),
Capsicum baccatum Aji Amarillo' (Aji Amarillo Chilli),
Capsicum baccatum 'Lemon Drop' (Lemon Drop chilli) and
Capsicum annuum 'Chilly chili' (Chilly Chili chilli.

































Zones 1,2,3,8
These trailing plants can be grown in large hanging baskets in a sunny room, and produce small fruits that look like baby watermelons and taste of cucumber with a hint of lime. Harvest when fruits are grape-sized and firm. Try them sliced and mixed into salads, salsas, and vegetsable dishes, or eat them whole as a healthy snack.






























Cucumis sativus


Vertical Vegetables & Fruit - Creative Gardening Techniques for Growing Up in Small Spaces by Rhonda Massingham Hart. Published by Storey Publishing in 2011.
ISBN 978-1-60342-998-6.
Training cucumbers to grow up.
Cucumbers really benefit from trellising. Even "dwarf" varieties produce superior fruit when levitated above ground, whether climbing a support or cascading down the sides of a container or hanging basket. Most are extremely susceptible to diseases brought on by the high humidity and poor air circulation so typical of grounded vines. Missshapen fruit is also a common product of grounded vines. Those same plants, however, will develop straight fruit when hanging from a support. Cucumbers climb by tightly coiling tendrils, whose slow-motion grasp is ever reaching upward. A soft tie here and there helps train them in the right place, especially on a vertical or angled trellis. Fence-type trellises with wire mesh for plant support work work well for cucumbers.A-frames, pipe and wooden-lattice designs can also be used with good results. Some gardeners caution that wire or metal may overheat and burn the tendrils or leaves, but the leaves should shade the frame well enough to prevent this. Wire and pipe can be wrapped with florists' tape or cloth strips to prevent it from burning the vines. The zigzag design of an A-frame trellis is very popular for cucumbers. It is easily relocated year after year to facilitate crop rotation, and cucumbers find the sloping sides easy to scale.

Zones 1,2,3
You need a lrge sunny room to accomodate this climbing plant, but the tasty fruit, which have much more flavour than those you can buy in the shops, make them worth growing.
There are 2 main groups: indoor greenhouse types, and smaller outdoor "ridge" varieties. Both can be grown indoors, but the outdoor types need to be hand-pollinated, and should not be grown near indoor cucumbers: if the male flowers (those without a tiny fruit behind them) of outdoor varieties pollinate indoor varieties, they make the latter's fruits taste bitter. Many greenhouse types are "all-female", producing only fruit-bearing female flowers that don't need pollinating, but they may produce male flowers, which must be removed.
'Cucino' greenhouse variety,
'Delizia' greenhouse variety,
'Carmen' greenhouse variety and
'Bush Champion' outdoor, compact variety.






























Capsicum annuum

Sweet pepper


Zones 1,2,3
Also known as 'bell' peppers, these compact plants produce large green, yellow, red or purple fruits in late summer or early autumn. Unlike chillies, sweet peppers have a mild flavour. Sweet peppers come in a range of colours, although most green types will eventually ripen to yellow, orange, or red, and will sweeten as they mature.
'lunchbox Mix',
'Thor' and






























Solanum betaceum



Zones 1,2,3
If you have a big sunny room to accomodate this large-leaved, handsome plant, you will be rewarded with beautiful yellow or red fruits that taste like a blend of tomato and kiwi fruit.






























Solanum lycopersicum


Eating for Victory - Healthy home front cooking on war rations. Foreword by Jill Norman 2007, 2013. Published in 2013.
ISBN 978-1-78243-026-1
Pulping Tomatoes
Wash and drain the jars and lids (probably Kilner Jars). Put the rubber rings to soak in cold water. Put the jars somewhere to get hot.
Skin and cut up tomatoes and cook in a covered saucepan with 0.25 teaspoon salt to every 2 lbs of tomatoes, adding just enough water to prevent burning. Very little water is needed. When the tomatoes are thoroughly pulped pour at once into the hot jars. Wipe the top of the jar with a clean cloth and seal immdediately with rubber ring, lid and screwband, clip or other grip. Tighten the screwband up and THEN UNSCREW HALF A TURN TO ALLOW FOR EXPANSION.
Put the jars in BOILING water in a deep pan as described in "Preserving Tomatoes in Brine", bring to the boil and boil for 10 minutes. The jars must be completely covered by the water.
Remove the jars one at a time and tighten the screwband or see that the clip or other grip is properly in position. After cooling 24 hours test as described in the "Oven Method".

Zones 1,2,3,8
For summer or early autumn crops, choose compact bush, or patio, types for hanging baskets and windowsills, or cordon tomatoes with red or yellow fruits that grow up a stake.
'Tumbling Tom',
'Black Cherry',
'Olivade' and






























x Citrofortunella microcarpa



Zones 1,2,3,7
When grown in a sunny area, this diminutive orange will produce a bumper crop of small sour fruits, which are ideal for making marmalade, from late winter to late spring. The plants need to be housed in a cool but bright room in winter.






























Physalis peruviana

Cape gooseberry


Zones 1,2,3
These sun-loving bushy plants produce small white flowers, followed in late summer by cherry-sized yellow or orange fruits that are encased in decorative papery husks.






























Ficus carica


The Lincolnshire Cook Book. Published by Meze Publishing in 2015. ISBN 978-1-910863-05-3
Doddington Hall Mulberry Frangipane
Pre-heat the oven to ... Cream together butter and sugar in a mixer until light and fluffy. Add the eggs one at a time keeping the mixer on until incorporated fully. Add all the dry ingredients to the mix. Pour into an 8 inch (20 cm) tin and top with the mulberries or any other seasonal fruit of your choice such as plums, rhubarb, raspberries, strawberries, blackberries, figs, apples or cherries. Bake at ... for approximately ... until golden. To serve, sprinkle on a few chopped almonds and some powdered sugar. Add vanilla ice cream and more fresh fruit if you like.

Zones 1,2,3,6,7
Set a potted plant in a bright room in direct sun, and your fig should produce a few ripe fruits each year from summer to early autumn. The plants need cooler conditions in winter.
'Violette de Sollies',
'Brunswick' and
'Brown Turkey'.






























Citrus species


Hoxton Street Monster Supplies Cookbook - Everyday Recipes for the Living, Dead and Undead by Hoxton Street Monster Supplies Limted. Published in 2016. ISBN 978-1-78472-230-2
Chunky Vomit Dip
Ogres traditionally prepared this foul-smelling delicacy as a dipping source for larger human joints and pan-fried organs. However, its popularity spread and you can now find it in pop-up bodily fluid bars everywhere. Certain human ailments give the vomit a sickly sweet aftertaste so always source from those who are sick with terror, as opposed to illness. If unsure, this vegetable version of the dip will suffice in an emergency.
Sufficient for 6 monster servings of dip.
Halve and stone the avocados, then scoop the flesh out of the shells and place in a bowl. Add the tomato, chopped coriander and cumin and roughly mash together with a fork. Stir in the lime juice and season to taste with salt. Serve immediately with tortilla chips or Crispy Skin for dipping.

Zones 1,2,3,7
Very similar in size and appearance to lemon trees, limes need a bright, sunny, warm location from spring to early autumn and a cool but bright room in winter. The makrut lime differs slightly in appearance from other limes with its large divided leaves and knobbly green fruits.
Citrus x aurantiifolia (Key Lime),
Citrus hystrix (Makrut (Kaffir) Lime) and
Citrus x latifolia (Tahiti Lime).






























Citrus sinensis

Sweet Orange

Cookery Year - A month-by-month collection of delicious seasonal recipes by The Reader's Digest. Copyright 1973. Reprinted 2009. ISBN 978 0 276 42893 7.
Dundee Marmalade
Wash all the fruit thoroughly. Place the whole fruits in a large pan with the water and cover. Bring to the boil and cook over low heat for about 90 minutes or until the fruit pierces easily.
Lift out the fruit and leave until cool enough to handle. Slice the fruit, scaping out all the pips and adding them to the pan with the cooking liquid. Chop the fruit roughly.
Boil the fruit juices rapidly for 15 minutes or until reduced by about half. Strain the liquid into a preserving pan, add the chopped fruit and bring to the boil. Stir in the sugar and black treacle and boil the marmalade until it reaches a temperature of ... and setting pont is reached. Skim, stand, pot and then cover when cold.

Zones 1,2,3,7
As well as the delicious fruits, these citrus trees also produce scented blossoms that will perfume your home. Keep the plants in a bright, sunny spot in summer, and a cool but bright room during the winter.






























Citrus x limon cultivars


Beeton's Shilling Gardening - Beeton's New Gardening Book - A popular exposition of the Art and Science of Gardening, and every thing that pertains to the garden and its culture in all its branches. Published by Ward, Lock & Co.
From the Preface - may be stated to be the best and largest shillingsworth on the subject ever placed at the disposal of the British public (A hardback book of 456 pages for 1 shilling = 12 pennies = 5 new pennies of 2018. Bradshaw's shilling handbook of Great Britain and Ireland was published in 1860)

Attachment of plants to stakes and supports.
As regards the means of attaching plants to sticks and supports of all kinds (the support is vertical the plant stem is about 30 degrees from it), if it be a tree or a stake, or the stem of a hard-wooded plant, such as the honeysuckle, &c, that may be tied without danger of injuring the bark, tarred cord may be used. Of course, climbing plants may be tied loosely so as to not to cut into the bark or stem in any way; but when a tree is tied to a supporting stake, it must be bound to it tightly. To prevent injury to the bark, something soft must intervene between the string and the tree and the stake. There is nothing better for this purpose than a piece of old Victoria felt carpeting, a strip of which may be wrapped 3 or 4 times round the stem, or folded to form a wad, and paced on the side of the tree to that opposite to that on which it is touched by the stake; but if the latter mode be adopted, it is desirable to place another thickness or 2 of the felt between the tree and the stake, to prevent them from being in absolute contact. The tarred cord may then be tied as tightly as it is possible to tie it.

This tree was tied with plastic baling twine to a fence when very young. The white section shows the width at which it was tied. This tree top snapped in the wind.

Please never use plastic twine or wire to tie a plant.
Please also do not use tarred cord as it will last too long and cause the same problem as above, use garden twine which will rot within a few years and then allows the plant' stem to expand. For trees or shrubs remember that the stake is only a support for the first 3 years at most, in order to stop the plant from being uprooted and to allow the stem above the 18 inches (45 cms) where it is tied to being able to sway in the breeze and strengthen rather than being tied at 60 inches (150 cms) and then when the support is removed the tree trunk is not strong enough and breaks in a strong wind. If you going to support climbers then also use garden twine, since when you cut it to move or remove that branch every 2 or 3 years, it can then lie on the ground and be recycled by your friendly earth organisms!

Zones 1,2,3,7
These beautiful plants need bright sunny conditions for a good crop of fruits to develop and ripen, but also require a cool but bright room in the winter when they are resting.
Citrus x limon 'Meyer' (Meyer Lemon)






























Citrus reticulata

Mandarin Orange

Zones 1,2,3,7
This is a variety of orange plant, and requires heat and bright sun from late spring to autumn when the fruits are starting to develop, followed by cool conditions throughout the winter.






























Prunus persica var. nectarina
'Lord Napier'


Zones 1,2,3,7
Nectarines, like their close cousins, peaches, produce sweet juicy fruits in summer, but you will need to fertilize the flowers by hand to ensure they fruit when growing them indoors.






























Citrus japonica


Zones 1,2,3,7
Tall and elegant, kumqut plants produce pear-shaped fruits with edible skins from early spring to summer, but to grow successfully the following year, they need a cool room in winter.






























Prunus persica


Zones 1,2,3,7
The peach tree's sweet furry-skinned fruits appear in summer, and require bright sunlight to ripen. Keep the tree in cooler conditions in winter after it has lost its leaves.
'Avalon Pride' and






























Acca sellowiana

Pineapple guava

Zones 1,2,3,7
The fruits of this evergreen tropical plant, which appear in late summer or autumn, are small and sweet with a pineapple flavour. The flowers are also edible. This shrub requires bright sunlight and warmth in summer, but keep it in a cooler room in the winter.






























Fragaria species



Favourite Easy to Make Recipes - Simple Ideas for First Cookery. Published by J. Salmon Ltd. ISBN 1-902842-68-5 - This book contains a selection of simple recipes, which are straightforward to prepare. They are ideal for beginners and children, or for anyone who wants quick and easy recipes to make and enjoy. There are many other titles available in this series from J. Salmon Ltd.

Strawberry Cream Dessert
First put the strawberries into a bowl and mash to a pulp with a fork; then stir in the sugar. Rub the mixture through a sieve into a bowl and then fold in the lightly whipped cream. Put the gelatine into another bowl, add the hot water and let it dissolve. Set aside to allow it to cool and then mix it gently into the fruit/cream mixture and keep stirring until it begins to set. Then pour the mixture into the individual sundae glasses (or if preferred into a jelly mould) and leave to set completely before serving. If in a mould, stand the mould in hot ater for a few seconds to loosen before turning out and serving.

Zones 1,2,3,4,6,7,8
Choose from wild or alpine strawberries, which produce small fruits over many weeks from late spring, or plants with full-sized strawberries that ripen in summer or early autumn. These regular strawberries need a bright position to produce the best crops, but the wild types will fruit in areas that are out of direct sunlight. There are 3 types: wild, summer fruiting, and perpetual (everbearing). Wild plants have small fruits, but are tolerant of shade; summer-fruiting types produce heavy crops from early to midsummer; and perpetual varieties produce berries from summer to autumn.
Fragaria x ananassa 'Albion' ('Albion' - perpetual type),
Fragaria vesca (Wild Strawberry - wild type),
Fragaria x ananassa 'Honeoye' ('Honeoye' - summer-fruiting type),
Fragaria x ananassa 'Frau Mieze Schindler' ('Frau Mieze Schindler' - summer-fruiting type) and
Fragaria x ananassa 'Mara des Bois' ('Mara des Bois' - perpetual type).





































A Book of Welsh Soups & Savouries recipes from the traditional heart of Welsh cookery, including traditional Welsh Cawl by Bobby Freeman. Published by Y Lolfa Cyf. in 1987, Seventh impression 2006.

  • Cawl
  • Leek and Potato Soup (Cawl Cennin)
  • Hare broth (Cawl Coch Ysgyfarnog)
  • Michaelmas Goose (Gwydd Mihangel)
  • Broad Bean Broth (Cawl Ffa)
  • Brandy Broth (Cawl Mawr)
  • Market Pie (Katt Pie)
  • Faggots (Ffagoden)
  • Glamorgan Sausages (Selsigen Morgannwg) - made from breadcrumbs, hard cheese, onion, egg, mustard, herbs, butter, pepper and salt.
  • Green Pancakes (Crempog Las)
  • Rabbit Pie (Pastai Gwningen)
  • Sweet Lamb Pie (18th century)
  • Mashed Turnips with Liver (Stwns Rwdan a Iau)
  • Chicken and Leek Pie (Pastai Cyw Iar a Cennin)
  • Salt Duck (Hwyad Hallt)
  • Onion Cake (Teisen Nionod)
  • Welsh Chicken (Ffowlyn Cymreig)
  • Parsley Pie (Pastai Persli)
  • Mum's Supper (Swper Mam)
  • The Miser's Feast (Ffest y Cybydd)
  • Honeyed Welsh Lamb (Oen Cymreig Melog)
  • Gower Oyster Soup (Cawl Wystrys Gwyr)
  • Laverbread for breakfast (Bara lawr a Brecwast)
  • Roasted Cheese (Caws Pobi)

Cawl - Wales' national dish
"The basic dish of meat, root vegetables, potatoes and leeks, and sometimes cabbage, finds many variations, nor is made exactly the same in 2 kitchens together. Like any other 'national' dish it has regional variations, and in North Wales it tends to be called lobscows from the English 'sheep broth'.
Cawl is traditionally eaten in wooden bowls with hand-carved wooden spoons which vary in design from region to region. There were also pretty, flowered pottery cawl bowls. Bread and cheese are taken with the cawl to make an extremely satisfying meal.
But in times of hardship the broth would be drunk first, on its own. Then the meat eaten with some potatoes. Next day, root vegetables would be cooked in the left-over broth, still rich with nourishment. This was known as cawl twymo (second cawl), or cawl ail-dwym (re-heated cawl). Otherwise the meat would be taken out when cooked, the vegetables added to the broth, and when this was served in bowls everyone helped themselves to the meat from a large wooden platter in the centre of the table.
Basic instructions:
Precise quantities are unimportant, so these are just a guide. For a weight of 2 lbs (about 1 Kg) meat - about 2 large parsnips, 3 large carrots, 1 small swede rurnip, 2 medium onions, 2 or 3 leeks and 1.5 lbs potatoes (650 grammes) (the tiny, marble-size new potatoes are most prized). You will need a big pan to hold all this, covered with cold water, so reduce quantities by half if you only want 3-4 servings. Flavour with plenty of thyme or winter savoury, parsley, bayleaf and 1 or 2 cloves, and I like to add celery. Season with whole black peppercorns (leave the salt to add later). Some cooks thicken the cawl with a handful of oatmeal or flour and water paste.
I leave the leeks out of the cooking altogether and sprinkle them on top of the bowls of cawl, chopped very fine, with plenty of freshly-chopped parsley, so they are crisp, crunchy and peppery. If you do cook them, don't add them until the final 10 minutes of cooking time. The same applies to cabbage if you include it.
Cook the tougher meats for an hour or so first before adding the vegetables, which should be cut up roughly (not finel) to ensure the character of the dish. And brown both meat, onions and vegetables first in a little oil or dripping.
Varations on the basic theme:
Bacon and Brisket: this is my favourite combination and most will agree it is the best - the brisket gives the cawl a very particular quality and taste. A hock-end of bacon - smoked for preference - pairs well with an equal weight of brisket. Make sure everyone gets a portion of both in their bowl. Since cawl is in fact better reheated, you can lift the surplus fat off the top next day when it is cold.
Bacon only: very fatty home-cured bacon was tradtionally used (plenty of 'stars' on its face) but nowadays our taste and lifestyle are for something leaner. Again a kock-end is useful, or shoulder bacon, or you can be extravagant and use a piece of gammon or other lean cut.
Lamb and shin: again the addition of mutton improves the flavour - shin of course will require substantial pre-cooking.
Quick cawl: for this version everything - meat and vegeables - is cut up small and cooks relatively quickly. The result is more stwe-like than truw cawl, and not so good. This version was almost always thickened with flour and water and therefore looked whitish. A direct descendent is:
'Magimix' cawl: inevitably, the ease with which the food-processor chops the vegetables to small dice is irresistable to cooks who have made more brews of real cawl in a kitchen where runnig water was a luxury than city-spoiled seekers after tradition like myself care to think about - and who can blame them? It's not proper cawl though!


Roasted Cheese (Caws Pobi)
This is the truw 'Welsh Rarebit' as far as the Welsh are concerned. They wre inordinately fond of it from the earliest times in its simple form: later it developed into one of the many regional 'rarebits' or 'rabbits' as a cheese sauce on toast.
The original was simply a piece of hard cheese roasted, or toasted, on one side only, before the fire, on a piece of barley or other wholegrain bread. Now with the micrwave we can take a gigantic backward leap across the centuries, for nothing makes caes pobi more ciorrectly and faster than a few seconds in the MW.

Eating for Victory - Healthy home front cooking on war rations. Reproductions of official Second World War instruction leaflets. Foreword by Jill Norman 2007, 2013. Compilation copyright Michael O'Mara Books Limited, published in 2013.
ISBN 978-1-78243-026-1

  • Foreword
  • Dried Eggs
  • One pot Meals
  • Making the most of meat
  • High teas and suppers
  • Potatoes
  • Foods for fitness
  • Cheese
  • How to fry
  • Puddings
  • Your vitamin ABC
  • What's left in the larder
  • Herrings
  • How to preserve tomatoes
  • Cakes, biscuits and scones
  • Making the most of sugar
  • Cooking for one
  • A salad a day
  • Suggestions for breakfast
  • Easy to make soups and broths
  • How to make soups and broths
  • How to make short pastry
  • Fruit bottling
  • Green vegetables
  • Making the most of the fat ration
  • Extras for the expectant mother
  • Cookery conversion tables

From the foreword:-
"At the end of the First World War, the government took stock of the food problems faced during that period. During the great depression at the end of the 1920's, when unemployment exceeded 2 million, the poorest people could just about afford to buy sufficient calories to stay alive, but not to buy the milk, fruit and vegetables that would ensure they had sufficient protein, minerals and vitamins. In the 1930's a study organized by the Britsh Medical Association showed that only the richest part of the population received a surplus of these basic dietarty constituents; all the rest, some 40 million people, were deficient to some extent, and 4.5 million were deficient in all constituents:-

  • Calcium deficiency was one of the biggest problems, which prompted the government to promote the drinking of milk in schools (Make milk available by selling it in vending machines rather than the school provides it free to every pupil - January 2018. Therefore do we in 2018 have children deficient in Calcium due to the same reasons as in the Great Depression?).

The outbeak of war in 1939 made it imperative to apply the findings of nutritional science to feeding the population. Unfamiliar foods such as dried eggs and dried skimmed milk were introduced, and it was necessary to teach the public how to use them. This led to an extensive programme of cookery teaching and of education in nutrition, by means of leaflets of the kind reproduced here, books, posters, radio broadcasts and demostrations. Some 18 million people listened to the early morning five-minute BBC radio programme, The Kitchen Front. This gave the public lasting guidance about the healthiest way to feed themselves and to make the best use of their rations. Every man, woman and chld had a ration book. Everyone was entitled to the same amount:-

  • except that agricultural and manual workers were allowed extra cheese for their lunch boxes,
  • pregant women and children were allowed additional milk and eggs, and
  • children under 5 were allowed orange juice, blackcurrant juixce, rosehip syrup and cod liver oil, but only half the meat ration.

At the beginning of the war, the government launched the Dig for Victory campaign, to encourage people to dig up their rose beds and herbaceous borders and plant vegetables instead. By 1943 it was estimated that over 1 million tons of vegetables were being grown in gardens and allotments, and many lawns had been turned into chicken runs. The leaflets distributed by the Ministry of Food fell into different categories:-

  • some gave helpful recipes to get the best from the rations, by making pies, stews and puddings, using up stale bread in stuffings to serve with meat;
  • others concentrated on making healthy vegetable soups and salads, or suggesting different ways of preparing potatoes. Their high vitamin C content meant potatoes were a vital part of the diet; posters of 'Potato Pete' encouraged cooks to scrub potatoes instead of peeling them.
  • Some leaflets explained new ingredients, like dried eggs, and how to reconstitue and use them;
  • others on preserving or What's Left in the Larder? ensured nothing was wasted, and
  • another set concentrated on nutritional aspects, like Foods for Fitness and Your Vitamin ABC.

The information in Foods for Fitness and Your Vitamin ABC is just as relevant today as it was 60 years ago, and the former ends with a salutary note that is worth heeding now: 'Appetite is a good guide to our needs of ... energy foods and, if we take more than we require, we generally store the surplus as fat.
During the war, although there were privations and shortages, people generally had a good diet. When the war ended, it was found that the average food intake was much higher than when it began. This was mostly because many poor people had been too poor to feed themselves properly, but with virtually no unemployment and the rationing system, with its fixed prices, they ate better than in the past:-

  • School dinners, milk, orange juice and cod liver oil provided poor children with more nutritious food than they had had before.
  • People at all levels of society took nutrition seriously and fed their families sensibly with the rations and whatever vegetables and fruit were available, and
  • with less sugar and fewer sweet snacks there was less tooth decay.
  • As a whole the population was slimmer and healthier than it is today; people ate less fat and sugar, less meat and many more vegetables.


Why not grow edibles in Containers?

The following information from America written into the white background rows of this table about growing edibles in containers is from this book:-
Just the Facts : Dozens of Garden Charts - Thousands of Garden Answers by the Editors of Garden Way Publishing (ISBN 0-88266-867-6). Copyright 1993 by Storey Communications, Inc., which is based in Vermont - a state in the northeastern United States.

Suggested Varieties


Growing Tips

High or Low Light

Bush: Romano, Royal Burgundy, Venture
Pole: Scarlet Runner


Soak seeds in water overnight to improve germination. Use trellis or support for pole beans.

High Light

Detroit Dark Red, Early Wonder, Burpee's Golden, Cylindra, Boltardy


3-4 inches (7.5-10 cms) between plants if harvesting roots;
2 inches (5 cms) between plants if harvesting only tops.
Plant any time indoors in sunny window. Avoid overcrowding

High Light

Spartan, Italian Green Sprouting, DiCicco


1-3 plants per 5 gallon container. Continue fertilizing after first harvest to encourage secondary heads.

High Light

Jade Cross Hybrid, Long Island Improved

Brussel Sprouts

2-3 plants per 5 gallon container. Sprouts must mature during cool temperatures. Stake when plants are 10-14 inches (25-35 cms) tall. Remove tops of plants if necessary to force sprout development. Will produce year-round in southern states. Mild frost improves flavor. Grow indoors in sunny window.

Low Light

Earliana, Early Jersey Wakefield, Copenhagen Market, Red Ace, Ruby Ball Hybrid, Red Head Hybrid


2-3 plants per 5 gallon container. Don't plant in same container as cauliflower, brussels sprouts, broccoli, kohlrabi, chinese cabbage, kale or collards because of disease spred. Maintain uniform moisture.

Low Light

Little Finger, Ox-Heart, Baby Finger, Royal Chantenay, Spartan Bonus, Nantes, Short N Sweet, Gold Pak


2 inches (5 cms) between plants. Use soil-less mix. Place plastic cover over container to improve germination. Grow indoors in sunny window.

Low Light

Early Snowball, Snow Crown Hybrid, Purple Head


1-2 plants per 5 gallon container. Avoid moisture stress during early growth or they-ll form small heads. Tie large outer leaves together over developing head to prevent discoloration. Grow as winter crop if you have mild winters.

High Light

Burpee Hybrid, Bush Whopper, Salad Bush, Park's Burpless Bush, Pot Luck, Burpless Early Pik


2 plants per 5 gallon container. Support maturing fruit in a sling tied to support or suspend dwarf varieties in hanging basket. Plant vine varieties in long rectangular planter box with trellis.

High Light

Slim Jim, Ichiban, Black Beauty, Small Ruffled Red, Thai Green, Bambino


1 plant per 12-18 inch (30-45 cms) pot. Likes heat reflected from nearby wall or hang black plastic behind plant. Challenging to grow indoors but it will produce fruit under lights at 65-70 degrees Fahrenheit.

High Light

Broadleaved Batavian, Salad King, Green Curled, White Curled


To improve flavour before harvesting, gather outer leaves and tie loosely with string for 14 days. Grow indoors in sunny window.

Low Light

Most varieties


Need 8 inch (20 cms) deep container. Plant cloves 2 inches (5 cms) deep and 5 inches (12.5 cms) apart. Water well during warm weather. Lift bulbs when foliage shrivels in late summer. Tie in bunches and dry in sun.

High Light

Most varieties


Annual herbs can be brought indoors during cold weather. Perennials should be placed in cold frame or cool basement for winter. Repot once a year. Grow indoors in sunny window.

Light requirement depends on variety

Oak Leaf, Buttercrunch, Sal;ad Bowl, Dark Green Boston, Ruby, Bibb, Little Gem


Can grow indoors year-round in sunny window. Leaf varieties are easiest. Fertilize weekly. Shield from intense sun.

Low Light

Consult seed catalogs for best varieties


6-8 plants in a 12 x 48 inch (30 x 120 cms) box with trellis or support. Or 2 plants per 5 gallon container. Grow best against south facing wall. Make support out of galvanized, welded-wire, 2 x 4 inch (5 x 10 cms) screen. Support developing fruit with nylon sling attached to support. Reduce watering as melons near maturity.

High Light

Sugar Snap, Snowbird, Alaska, Little Marvel, Frosty, Green Arrow, Burpee Sweet Pod


3-6 plants per 5 gallon container. Edible pods are easiest. Plant in long planter boxes with trellis. Yields are reduced in containers so plant a large crop.

High Light

Bell: Bell Boy, Keystone Resistant, California Wonder, New Ace, World-Beater, Sweet Banana.

Hot: Red Cherry, Long Red Cayenne, Jalapeno, Thai Hot


1 plant per 8-10 inch (20-25 cms) pot. Stake the plants in windy areas. Bring the pots inside when the outside temperature drops below 60 degrees or above 90 degrees Fahrenheit.

High Light

Chippewa, Sable, White Cobbler


Use a 30-gallon trash can with hole drilled in the bottom for drainage. Plant 3 seed potatoes in half soil/compost in the bottom. When the potato sprouts are 6 inches (15 cms) high, cover them with soil/compost, leaving a few leaves showing. aContinue to cover with more medium whenever the sprouts are 6 inches (15 cms) high until the medium reaches the top of the can. Water heavily and don't fertilize. At the end of the season, dump the can over and shovel out your harvest.

High Light

Cherry Belle, Scarlet Globe


Plant weekly for continuous harvest all summer. When days shorten in fall, bring indoors under lights to extend harvest. Plant in any container at least 8 inches (20 cms) deep. Grows well with carrots, lettuce and beets in large planter. Grow indoors in sunny window.

Low Light

Bulbs: White Sweet Spanish,Yellow Sweet Spanish, Southport White Globe, Southport Yellow Globe

Bunching: Evergreen, White Bunching, Kujo Green Multistalk

Shallots / Onions

Outside, plant onion sets 2 inches (5 cms) apart in spring. Plant mature shallot bulbs 2-3 inches (5-7.5 cms) deep, 4-6 inches (10-15 cms) apart in early fall. Overwinter plants, protecting from freezing. Mature shallots can be harvested in summer. Don't let either plant dry out. Grow indoors under lights for 12 hours/day at 60-70 degrees Fahrenheit.

High Light

Melody, Long Standing Bloomsdale, America, Avon Hybrid


Best grown in spring and fall. Indoors, keep temperatures between 50-65 degrees Fahrenheit. Grow indoors in sunny window.

Low Light

Zucchini: Green Magic, Burpee Golden Zucchini, Burpee Hybrid Zucchini.

Acorn: Table King, Cream of the Crop Hybrid.

Butternut: Early Butternut, Burpee Butterbush


1-3 plants per 5 gallon container or 1 plant per 12 inch (30 cms) pot. Use trellis. Support fruit with nylon sling tied to trellis.

High Light

Fordhook Giant, Burpee's Rhubarb Chard

Swiss Chard

1 plant per 12 inch (30 cms) pot or 2-3 per 5 gallon container. Outside, plants will die back in winter and resume growth the following spring. Grow indoors year-round in sunny window.

Low Light

Standard Size: Early Girl, Better Boy VFN.

Dwarf Determinates: Patio, Pixie, Red Robin, Sugar Lump


Dwarf determinates (patio or cherry types) grow 8 to 36 inches (20-90 cms) tall. Dwarf inderminates grow 36-60 inches (90-150 cms) tall and produce larger, more standard size fruit. They are easily supported with a short stake. 1 plant of standard variety per 5 gallon container. Dwarf varieties can be planted in smaller pots or hanging baskets. Need consistent watering. Grow indoors under lights in warm location.

High Light

Apple: Garden Delicious, Starspur Compact Mac.

Apricot: Stark Goldenglo, Goldcot.

Cherry: Compact Lambert, North Star.

Nectarine: Nectar Babe, Stark Honeyglo.

Peach: Honey Babe, Stark Sensation.

Naval Orange: Washington.

Grapefruit: Oro Blanco.

Avocado: Mexicola.

Banana: Dwarf.

Fig: Dwarf

Fruit Trees

Plant early spring. Buy disease resistant varieties. Need at least 8 hours sun/day. Move to protected area during winter where tree can go dormant without soil freezing. If outdoors, mulch container with straw or newspapers and cover with large appliance box. Water well in early winter and not again until spring. Can train trees as espaliers, with branches growing flat against trellis.

High Light

Blueberries: Berkeley, Bluecrop, Blueray, Earliblue, Jersey. Choose 2-3 year-old certified plants 12-36 inches (30-90 cms) tall. Plant bare-root stock in early spring.

Strawberries: Alexandria, Baron Solemacher, Blakemore, Surecrop, Solana, Tioga.

Raspberries: Allen, Brandywine, Bristol, Latham.

Blackberries: Darrow, Oregon Thornless, Thornfree.

Fruits, small

For strawberries, use strawberry pots or commercially available strawberry barrels. Some fuits, like blueberries, require 2 different varieties for pollination. Blueberries do especially well in containers because it's easy to keep soil acid enough. During the winter, move all fruits to an unheated garage or basement, mulch the soil, and cover with a protective cover such as GardenQuilt.

High Light





































There are 180 families in the Wildflowers of the UK and they have been split up into 22 Galleries to allow space for up to 100 plants per gallery.

Each plant named in each of the Wildflower Family Pages may have a link to:-

its Plant Description Page in its Common Name in one of those Wildflower Plant Galleries and will have links

to external sites to purchase the plant or seed in its Botanical Name,

to see photos in its Flowering Months and

to read habitat details in its Habitat Column.



(o)Adder's Tongue
(o)Bog Myrtle
(o)Cornel (Dogwood)
(o)Crucifer (Cabbage/Mustard) 1
(o)Crucifer (Cabbage/Mustard) 2
(o)Daisy Cudweeds
(o)Daisy Chamomiles
(o)Daisy Thistle
(o)Daisy Catsears (o)Daisy Hawkweeds
(o)Daisy Hawksbeards
(o)Dock Bistorts
(o)Dock Sorrels


(o)Filmy Fern
(o)Royal Fern
(o)Figwort - Mulleins
(o)Figwort - Speedwells
(o)Grass 1
(o)Grass 2
(o)Grass 3
(o)Grass Soft Bromes 1
(o)Grass Soft Bromes 2
(o)Grass Soft Bromes 3 (o)Hazel
(o)Jacobs Ladder
(o)Lily Garlic
(o)Marsh Pennywort
(o)Melon (Gourd/Cucumber)


(o)Orchid 1
(o)Orchid 2
(o)Orchid 3
(o)Orchid 4
(o)Peaflower Clover 1
(o)Peaflower Clover 2
(o)Peaflower Clover 3
(o)Peaflower Vetches/Peas
(o)Pink 1
(o)Pink 2
Rannock Rush
(o)Rose 1
(o)Rose 2
(o)Rose 3
(o)Rose 4
(o)Rush Woodrushes
(o)Saint Johns Wort
Saltmarsh Grasses


(o)Sea Lavender
(o)Sedge Rush-like
(o)Sedges Carex 1
(o)Sedges Carex 2
(o)Sedges Carex 3
(o)Sedges Carex 4
Tassel Pondweed
(o)Thyme 1
(o)Thyme 2
(o)Umbellifer 1
(o)Umbellifer 2
(o)Water Fern
(o)Water Milfoil
(o)Water Plantain
(o)Water Starwort


Fragrant Plants adds the use of another of your 5 senses in your garden:-
Sense of Fragrance from Roy Genders

Fragrant Plants:-
Trees and Shrubs with Scented Flowers.

Trees and Shrubs with Scented Leaves.

Trees and Shrubs with Aromatic Bark.

Shrubs bearing Scented Flowers for an
Acid Soil

Shrubs bearing Scented Flowers for a
Chalky or Limestone Soil

Shrubs bearing Scented leaves for a
Sandy Soil

Herbaceous Plants with Scented Flowers.

Herbaceous Plants with Scented Leaves.

Annual and Biennial Plants with Scented Flowers or Leaves.

Bulbs and Corms with Scented Flowers.

Scented Plants of Climbing and Trailing Habit.

Winter-flowering Plants with Scented Flowers.

Night-scented Flowering Plants.

Scented Aquatic Plants.

Plants with Scented Fruits.

Plants with Scented Roots.

Trees and Shrubs with Scented Wood.

Trees and Shrubs with Scented Gums.

Scented Cacti and Succulents.

Plants bearing Flowers or Leaves of Unpleasant Smell.

Choose 1 of these different Plant selection Methods:-

1. Choose a plant from 1 of 53 flower colours in the Colour Wheel Gallery.

2. Choose a plant from 1 of 12 flower colours in each month of the year from 12 Bloom Colours per Month Index Gallery.

3. Choose a plant from 1 of 6 flower colours per month for each type of plant:-
Deciduous Shrub
Deciduous Tree
Evergreen Perennial
Evergreen Shrub
Evergreen Tree
Herbaceous Perennial
Odds and Sods
Rhododendron nectar is toxic to bees
Soft Fruit
Top Fruit
Wild Flower

4. Choose a plant from its Flower Shape:-
Shape, Form

Flower Shape

5. Choose a plant from its foliage:-

6. There are 6 Plant Selection Levels including
Bee Pollinated Plants for Hay Fever Sufferers in Plants Topic.

7. Choose a plant from the soil it prefers:-
Information for its Plants - Any Soil

Any Soil A-F
Any Soil G-L
Any Soil M-R
Any Soil S-Z

Information for its Plants -
Chalky Soil

Chalky Soil A-F 1
Chalky Soil A-F 2
Chalky Soil A-F 3
Chalky Soil G-L
Chalky Soil M-R
Chalky Soil Roses
Chalky Soil S-Z
Chalky Soil Other
Information for its Plants - Clay Soil

Clay Soil A-F
Clay Soil G-L
Clay Soil M-R
Clay Soil S-Z
Clay Soil Other
Information for its Plants - Lime-Free (Acid) Soil

Lime-Free (Acid) A-F 1
Lime-Free (Acid) A-F 2
Lime-Free (Acid) A-F 3
Lime-Free (Acid) G-L
Lime-Free (Acid) M-R
Lime-Free (Acid) S-Z
Information for its Plants - Sandy Soil

Sandy Soil A-F 1
Sandy Soil A-F 2
Sandy Soil A-F 3
Sandy Soil G-L
Sandy Soil M-R
Sandy Soil S-Z
Information for its Plants - Peaty Soils

Peaty Soil A-F
Peaty Soil G-L
Peaty Soil M-R
Peaty Soil S-Z

8. Choose a plant from its Fragrance - see alongside in the column with the blue background.

9. when I do not have my own photos or ones from mail-order nursery photos, then from March 2016, if you want to start from the uppermost design levels through to your choice of cultivated and wildflower plants to change your Plant Selection Process then use the following galleries:-
Create and input all plants known by Amateur Gardening inserted into their Sanders' Encyclopaedia from their edition published in 1960 (originally published by them in 1895) into these

  • Stage 1 - Garden Style Index Gallery,
  • Stage 2 - Infill Plants Index Gallery being the only gallery from these 7 with photos (from Wikimedia Commons and The Hardy Plant Society from August 2017) ,
  • Stage 3 - All Plants Index Gallery with each plant species in its own Plant Type Page followed by choice from Stage 4a, 4b, 4c and/or 4d REMEMBERING THE CONSTRAINTS ON THE SELECTION FROM THE CHOICES MADE IN STAGES 1 AND 2
  • Stage 4a - 12 Bloom Colours per Month Index Gallery,
  • Stage 4b - 12 Foliage Colours per Month Index Gallery with
  • Stage 4c - Cultivation, Position, Use Index Gallery and
  • Stage 4d - Shape, Form Index Gallery
  • Unfortunately, if you want to have 100's of choices on selection of plants from 1000's of 1200 pixels wide by up to 16,300 pixels in length webpages, which you can jump to from almost any of the pages in these 7 galleries above, you have to put up with those links to those choices being on
    • the left topic menu table,
    • the header of the middle data table and on
    • the page/index menu table on the right of every page of those galleries.


The following details come from Cactus Art:-

"A flower is the the complex sexual reproductive structure of Angiosperms, typically consisting of an axis bearing perianth parts, androecium (male) and gynoecium (female).    

Bisexual flower show four distinctive parts arranged in rings inside each other which are technically modified leaves: Sepal, petal, stamen & pistil. This flower is referred to as complete (with all four parts) and perfect (with "male" stamens and "female" pistil). The ovary ripens into a fruit and the ovules inside develop into seeds.

Incomplete flowers are lacking one or more of the four main parts. Imperfect (unisexual) flowers contain a pistil or stamens, but not both. The colourful parts of a flower and its scent attract pollinators and guide them to the nectary, usually at the base of the flower tube.



Androecium (male Parts or stamens)
It is made up of the filament and anther, it is the pollen producing part of the plant.
Anther This is the part of the stamen that produces and contains pollen. 
Filament This is the fine hair-like stalk that the anther sits on top of.
Pollen This is the dust-like male reproductive cell of flowering plants.

Gynoecium (female Parts or carpels or pistil)
 It is made up of the stigma, style, and ovary. Each pistil is constructed of one to many rolled leaflike structures.
This is the part of the pistil  which receives the pollen grains and on which they germinate. 
This is the long stalk that the stigma sits on top of ovary. 
The part of the plant that contains the ovules. 
The part of the ovary that becomes the seeds. 

The colorful, often bright part of the flower (corolla). 
The parts that look like little green leaves that cover the outside of a flower bud (calix). 
(Undifferentiated "Perianth segment" that are not clearly differentiated into sepals and petals, take the names of tepals.)"




The following details come from Nectary Genomics:-

"NECTAR. Many flowering plants attract potential pollinators by offering a reward of floral nectar. The primary solutes found in most nectars are varying ratios of sucrose, glucose and fructose, which can range from as little a 8% (w/w) in some species to as high as 80% in others. This abundance of simple sugars has resulted in the general perception that nectar consists of little more than sugar-water; however, numerous studies indicate that it is actually a complex mixture of components. Additional compounds found in a variety of nectars include other sugars, all 20 standard amino acids, phenolics, alkaloids, flavonoids, terpenes, vitamins, organic acids, oils, free fatty acids, metal ions and proteins.

NECTARIES. An organ known as the floral nectary is responsible for producing the complex mixture of compounds found in nectar. Nectaries can occur in different areas of flowers, and often take on diverse forms in different species, even to the point of being used for taxonomic purposes. Nectaries undergo remarkable morphological and metabolic changes during the course of floral development. For example, it is known that pre-secretory nectaries in a number of species accumulate large amounts of starch, which is followed by a rapid degradation of amyloplast granules just prior to anthesis and nectar secretion. These sugars presumably serve as a source of nectar carbohydrate.

WHY STUDY NECTAR? Nearly one-third of all worldwide crops are dependent on animals to achieve efficient pollination. In addition, U.S. pollinator-dependent crops have been estimated to have an annual value of up to $15 billion. Many crop species are largely self-incompatible (not self-fertile) and almost entirely on animal pollinators to achieve full fecundity; poor pollinator visitation has been reported to reduce yields of certain species by up to 50%."


It is worth remembering that especially with roses that the colour of the petals of the flower may change - The following photos are of Rosa 'Lincolnshire Poacher' which I took on the same day in R.V. Roger's Nursery Field:-

Closed Bud


Opening Bud


Juvenile Flower


Flower Perfume Group:-

Indoloid Group.

Aminoid Group with scent - Hawthorn.

Heavy Group with scents -
Jonquil and

Aromatic Group with scents - Almond,
Aniseed, Balsamic,
Carnation, Cinnamon, Clove,
Spicy and

Violet Group.

Rose Group.

Lemon Group with scent -

Fruit-scented Group with scents -
Green Apple,
Orange, Pineapple,
Ripe Apple , Ripe Banana and
Ripe Plum.

Animal-scented Group with scents -
Human Perspiration,
Ripe Apple and
Tom Cat.

Older juvenile Flower


Middle-aged Flower - Flower Colour in Season in its
Rose Description Page is
"Buff Yellow, with a very slight pink tint at the edges in May-October."

Middle-aged Flower


Mature Flower


Juvenile Flower and Dying Flower


Form of Rose Bush


There are 720 roses in the Rose Galleries; many of which have the above series of pictures in their respective Rose Description Page.

So one might avoid the disappointment that the 2 elephants had when their trunks were entwined instead of them each carrying

their trunk using their own trunk, and your disappointment of buying a rose to discover that the colour you bought it for is only the case when it has its juvenile flowers; if you do not look at all the photos of that rose in the respective Rose Description Page!!!!

Plant Selection by Flower Colour

Blue Flowers

Evergr Per.
Evergr Shrub.
Wild Flower.

Orange Flowers


Wild Flower.

Other Colour Flowers


Evergr Per.
Evergr Shrub.
Wild Flower.

Flower Perfume Group:-

Honey Group.

Unpleasant Smell Group with scents -
Stale Lint,
Sulphur and

Flower Perfume

Miscellaneous Group with scents -
Damask Rose,
Lily of the Valley, Meadowsweet, Mignonette,

Flower Perfume Group:-

Miscellaneous Group with scents -
Newly Mown Hay,
Resinous, Sandalwood, Sassafras,
Treacle and
Very Sweet.


The following details about DOUBLE FLOWERS comes from Wikipedia:-

"Double-flowered" describes varieties of flowers with extra petals, often containing flowers within flowers. The double-flowered trait is often noted alongside the scientific name with the abbreviation fl. pl. (flore pleno, a Latin ablative form meaning "with full flower"). The first abnormality to be documented in flowers, double flowers are popular varieties of many commercial flower types, including roses, camellias and carnations. In some double-flowered varieties all of the reproductive organs are converted to petals — as a result, they are sexually sterile and must be propagated through cuttings. Many double-flowered plants have little wildlife value as access to the nectaries is typically blocked by the mutation.


There is further photographic, diagramatic and text about Double Flowers from an education department - - in the University of Kentucky in America.


"Meet the plant hunter obsessed with double-flowering blooms" - an article from The Telegraph.

Red Flowers


Decid Shrub.
Evergr Per.
Evergr Shrub.
Herbac Per.
Wild Flower.

White Flowers


Decid Shrub.
Decid Tree.
Evergr Per.
Evergr Shrub.
Herbac Per.
Wild Flower.

Yellow Flowers

Decid Shrub.
Evergr Per.
Evergr Shrub.
Herbac Per.
Wild Flower.







































Height in inches (cms):-

25.4mm = 1 inch
304.8mm = 12 inches
12 inches = 1 foot
3 feet = 1 yard
914.4mm = 1 yard

I normally round this to
25mm = 1 inch
300mm = 30 cms = 12 inches =1 foot,
900 mm = 3 feet = 1 yard and
1000mm = 100 cms = 1 metre = 40 inches

Site design and content copyright ©December 2006. Page structure changed September 2012. Created New Page structure and Pages before information added to those new pages. May 2015. Data added to existing pages and page structure changed January 2018. Chris Garnons-Williams.

DISCLAIMER: Links to external sites are provided as a courtesy to visitors. Ivydene Horticultural Services are not responsible for the content and/or quality of external web sites linked from this site.  

Perryhill Nurseries sells Plants for a Purpose in these lists:-


Site Map

Plant Selection
Level 1
Bee Forage Plants
Attracts Bird/Butterfly
Photos - Butterfly

Bee Pollinated Plants for Hay Fever Sufferers
0-24 inches
(0-60 cms)
24-72 inches
(60-180 cms)
Above 72 inches
(180 cms)
Photos -
Bloom per Month
Blooms Nov-Feb
Blooms Mar-May
Blooms Jun-Aug 1, 2
Blooms Sep-Oct

Groundcover Height
0-24 inches
(0-60 cms)
1, 2, 3
24-72 inches
(60-180 cms)
4, 5, 6
Above 72 inches
(180 cms)

Poisonous Cultivated and UK Wildflower Plants with Photos
Cultivated Poisonous Plants

Wildflower Poisonous Plants

Rabbit-Resistant Plant
Flower Arranging
Photos - Wildflowers


Plant Selection
Level 2
Info - Any Soil
Any Soil A-F
Any Soil G-L
Any Soil M-R
Any Soil S-Z

Info - Chalky Soil
Chalky Soil A-F 1
Chalky Soil A-F 2
Chalky Soil A-F 3
Chalky Soil G-L
Chalky Soil M-R
Chalky Soil Roses
Chalky Soil S-Z
Chalky Soil Other

Info - Clay Soil
Clay Soil A-F
Clay Soil G-L
Clay Soil M-R
Clay Soil S-Z
Clay Soil Other

Info - Lime-Free (Acid) Soil
Lime-Free (Acid)
A-F 1

Lime-Free (Acid)
A-F 2

Lime-Free (Acid)
A-F 3

Lime-Free (Acid) G-L
Lime-Free (Acid) M-R
Lime-Free (Acid) S-Z

Info - Sandy Soil
Sandy Soil A-F 1
Sandy Soil A-F 2
Sandy Soil A-F 3
Sandy Soil G-L
Sandy Soil M-R
Sandy Soil S-Z

Info - Peaty Soils
Peaty Soil A-F
Peaty Soil G-L
Peaty Soil M-R
Peaty Soil S-Z

Following parts of Level 2a,
Level 2b,
Level 2c and
Level 2d are included in separate columns
together with
Acid Soil,
Alkaline Soil
Any Soil,
Height and Spread,
Flowering Months and
Flower Colour in their Columns,
and also
Companion Plants to aid this plant Page,
Alpine Plant for
Rock Garden Index Page
Native to UK WildFlower Plant in its Family Page in this website

Level 2cc
in the Comment Column
within each
of the Soil Type Pages of
Level 2

Explanation of Structure of this Website with User Guidelines Page for those photo galleries with Photos (of either ones I have taken myself or others which have been loaned only for use on this website from external sources)


Plant Selection by Plant Requirements
Level 2a
Sun aspect, Moisture

Plant Selection by Form
Level 2b
Tree Growth Shape
Rounded / Spherical
Flattened Spherical
Narrow Conical
Broad Pyramidal
Ovoid / Egg
Broad Ovoid
Narrow Vase
Broad Fan
Narrow Weeping
Broad Weeping
Single-stem Palm
Multi-stem Palm
Shrub/Perennial Growth Habit
Prostrate / Trailing
Cushion / Mound
Spreading / Creeping
Erect or Upright

Plant Selection by Garden Use
Level 2c
Photos - Bedding
Bog Garden
Coastal Conditions
Containers in Garden
Front of Border
Edibles in Containers
Hanging Basket
Photos - Hedging
Pollution Barrier 1, 2
Rest of Border
Rock Garden
Photos -
Rock Garden
Thorny Hedge

Plant Selection by Garden Use
Level 2cc Others
Back of Shady Border
Crevice Garden
Desert Garden
Raised Bed
Scree Bed
Specimen Plant
Trees for Lawns
Trees for Small Garden
Photos -

Plant Selection by Plant Type
Level 2d
Photos - Evergr Per
Photos - Herbac Per
Photos - RHS Herbac
Photos - Rock Garden
Photos - Bamboo

Photos - Bulb
Photos - Climber
Deciduous Rhizome
Deciduous Shrub
Photos - Decid Shrub
Evergreen Perennial
Photos - Evergr Per
Evergreen Shrub
0-24 inches 1, 2, 3
24-72 inches 1, 2, 3
Above 72 inches 1, 2
Semi-Evergreen Shrub

Photos - Evergr Shrub
Photos - Fern
Fruit Plant
Herbaceous Perennial
Photos - Herbac Per
Remaining Top Fruit
Soft Fruit
Top Fruit
Photos - Vegetable

Photos - with its link; provides a link to its respective Plant Photo Gallery in this website to provide comparison photos.
Click on required comparison page and then centre of selected plant thumbnail. Further details on that plant will be shown in a separate Plant Description webpage.
Usually the Available from Mail Order Plant Nursery link will link you to the relevant page on that website.
I started this website in 2005 - it is possible that those particular links no longer connect, so you may need to search for that plant instead.

When I started, a click on the centre of the thumbnail ADDED the Plant Description Page, now I CHANGE the page instead. Mobile phones do not allow ADDING a page, whereas stand alone computers do. The User Guidelines Page shows which Plant Photo Galleries have been modified to CHANGE rather than ADD.


Plant Selection by
Flower Colour
Level 3a
Blue Flowers
Photos -

Evergr Per
Evergr Shrub
Wild Flower

Orange Flowers
Photos -

Wild Flower

Other Colour Flowers
Photos -
Evergr Per
Evergr Shrub
Wild Flower

Red Flowers
Photos -

Decid Shrub
Evergr Per
Evergr Shrub
Herbac Per
Wild Flower

White Flowers
Photos -

Decid Shrub
Decid Tree
Evergr Per
Evergr Shrub
Herbac Per
Wild Flower

Yellow Flowers
Photos -

Decid Shrub
Evergr Per
Evergr Shrub
Herbac Per
Wild Flower

Photos - 53 Colours in its Colour Wheel Gallery

Photos - 12 Flower Colours per Month in its Bloom Colour Wheel Gallery

Plant Selection by Flower Shape
Level 3b
Photos -
Evergr Per
Herbac Per

Plant Selection by Foliage Colour
Level 3c
Aromatic Foliage
Finely Cut Leaves
Large Leaves
Foliage 1

Foliage 2

Sword-shaped Leaves


Plant Selection by Pruning Requirements
Level 4
Pruning Plants


Plant Selection Level 5
Plant Name - A
Plant Name - B
Plant Name - C
Plant Name - D
Plant Name - E
Plant Name - F
Plant Name - G
Plant Name - H
Plant Name - I
Plant Name - J
Plant Name - K
Plant Name - L
Plant Name - M
Plant Name - N
Plant Name - O
Plant Name - P
Plant Name - Q
Plant Name - R
Plant Name - S
Plant Name - T
Plant Name - U
Plant Name - V
Plant Name - W
Plant Name - XYZ


Then, finally use
aid your plant selected or to
deter Pests
Plant Selection Level 6