Ivydene Gardens Cabbage Wild Flower Family Gallery:
Crucifer or Cabbage Family Page 1


Click on Underlined Text in:-

Common Name to view that Plant Description Page
Botanical Name to link to Plant or Seed Supplier
Flowering Months to view photos
Habitat to view further Natural Habitat details and Botanical Society of the British Isles Distribution Map

Crucifer Family:-

"Mostly non-woody plants, with flowers in erect spikes or heads, the 4 petals arranged clockwise, 4 sepals and usually 6 stamens. The seeds are contained in a usually beaked pod, developing above the petals." from Collins Pocket Guide to Wild Flowers by David McClintock and R.S.R. Fitter assisted by Francis Rose - ISBN 0 00 219363 9 - Eleventh Impression 1978.

"Some other superficially similar 4-petalled flowers are Greater Celandine (Poppy Family), Tormentil and other Potentillas (Rose Family), Willowherbs (Willow-Herb Family) and Bedstraws (Bedstraw Family)." from The Wild Flowers of Britain and Northern Europe by R.Fitter, A.Fitter and M. Blamey (ISBN 0 00 219715 4 paperback 0 00 219765 0 hardback) reprinted .

Crucifer Family plant table with its Common Name - Botanical Name. Flowering Months Range. Habitat with link to that Wild Flower Gallery:-

Common Name

Botanical Name

Flowering Months


Alpine Penny-Cress

(Penny Cress)

Thlaspi alpestre

(Thlaspi alpinum, Thalspi carulescens)


A perennial, or rarely biennial, herb almost confined in Britain to rocks or soils enriched with lead or zinc, being found on spoil heaps and mine waste and on metalliferous river gravels. It is also found, rarely, on outcrops and scree of limestone and other base-rich rocks, particularly in Scotland. Generally upland, reaching 940 m on Caenlochan (Angus), but descending to 100 m in Caernarvonshire.









Alpine Rock-Cress

(Mountain rock cress, Garden Arabis)

Arabis caucasica

(Arabis alpina)


A perennial, mat-forming herb, naturalised on walls, rocks and cliffs. Lowland.





Flower August

Flowers May

Foliage August

Form August

American Land-Cress

(American Wintercress, Barbaree, Barbenkraut, Belle Isle Cress, Creasy Greens, Cresson de terre, Early Cress, Fruhes Barbarakraut, Herbe de Saint Barbe, Land Cress, Upland Cress, Winter Cress, Peppergrass, Early Yellow Rocket, Watercress)

Barbarea verna

(Barbarea praecox, Erysimum vernum)


A biennial, or occasionally annual, herb which is most frequent as a garden escape on waste ground, by roads and on railways. It has a long-lived seed bank. Lowland.





Flower from Dungeness in Kent on 13 May

Flowers from Dungeness in Kent on 13 May

Foliage from Dungeness in Kent on 13 May

Form from Dungeness in Kent on 13 May

Austrian Yellow Cress

(Austrian Field Cress)

Rorippa austriaca

(Nasturtium austriacum)


A perennial herb with creeping roots found naturalised on waste ground, beside roads and rivers, and in meadows. It is probably introduced with grain. It is self-incompatible and seed-set is poor; it probably spreads mostly through root fragments. Lowland.










Subularia aquatica


An annual aquatic plant, sometimes overwintering as a rosette, growing on silt, gravel or stony substrates in acidic, oligotrophic lakes. It is normally a plant of water shallower than one metre, and is only rarely found in other water bodies, such as outfall streams. 0-825 m (Ffynnon Llyffaint, Caerns.).









Ball Mustard


Neslia paniculata

(Myagrum paniculatum)

June onwards

An annual which is introduced to rubbish tips and waste ground as an impurity of grain and bird-seed. Lowland.









Bargeman's Cabbage

(Abura-na, Bird Rape, Chou, Ma chieh, Salgam, Senfspinat, Wild Turnip)

Brassica campestris

(Brassica rapa, Brassica rapa ssp campestris)

April onwards

An annual or biennial herb, found as long-established populations on river and canal banks, and as a casual on roadsides, in arable fields and on tips. Lowland.





Flower 16 July

Flowers July

Seed Pods July

Flower Buds 16 July

Bastard Cabbage

(Common Giant Mustard, Turnipweed)

Rapistrum orientale

(Rapistrum rugosum, Myra rugosum, and 21 others)

May onwards

It is present throughout the world as an introduced species and a common weed. It is an invasive species in many areas. An annual or short-lived perennial herb, found mainly as a casual of waste ground, but now becoming naturalised in a variety of habitats where it is sometimes invasive, such as in open grassland. It is introduced with grain and bird-seed. Lowland.









Black Mustard

(Brauner Senf, Brown Mustard, Ch'ing chieh, Khardal Aswad, Mostarda-Preta, Mostaza Negra, Moutarde noire, Schwarzer Senf, Senf, Schwarzer, Siyah Hardel)

Brassica nigra

(Brassica nigra var. abyssinica, Brassica sinapioides, Melanosinapis nigra, Sinapis juncea, Sinapis nigra)

May onwards

An annual forming persistent populations by rivers, where it is a member of the tall-herb community in the flood zone, and on sea-cliffs and shingle. It is also widespread as a casual on roadsides and waste ground, and can occur at the edge of arable fields. Generally lowland, but with a casual record at 380 m from Withypool (S. Somerset).





Flower October

Flowers October

Foliage July

Seed Pods October

Bristol Rock-Cress

Arabis stricta

(Arabis scabra)


A short-lived perennial herb of Carboniferous limestone in the Avon Gorge at Bristol, growing in shallow soils, on scree, and on rock ledges. It spreads by seed. Lowland.





Flower March

Flowers 12 May

Foliage March

Form March

Brown-Leaved Watercress

(Narrow-fruited Water-cress)

Rorippa microphylla

(Nasturtium microphyllum)

June onwards

A perennial herb growing in and beside streams, ditches, ponds and canals, and in marshes. This species extends into rather more acidic sites than R. nasturtium-aquaticum, and in some areas is the most common segregate on non-calcareous soils.










(Ackersenf, Moutarde des champs, Wild Mustard, Yabani Hardal)

Sinapis arvensis

(Brassica arvensis, Brassica sinapistrum)

May onwards

An annual, abundant as a weed of cultivation and also found on roadsides, railways, tips and waste ground. It is now a frequent weed associated with roadworks. Generally lowland, but reaching 450 m in Clun Forest (Salop). This is a weed pest. Poisonous to livestock. Mustard flower essence helps to shorten dark and gloomy days, lifting the spirit from the depths of despair.





Flower 3 August

Flowers from Norfolk in May

Foliage from Norfolk in May

Form from Norfolk in May

Common Penny-Cress (Syn. Field Pennycress, Acker-Hellerkraut, Fan WEED, French Weed, Hsi ming, Krodde, Mithridate Mustard, Pennycress, Stink Weed, Tambouret des champs)

Thlaspi arvense

May onwards

An annual found as an arable weed, particularly with broad-leaved crops and mainly on heavier soils. It is also a frequent weed on disturbed roadsides, and in waste places and gardens. Lowland, but there is a casual record at 330 m at Tomintoul (Banffs.). This is mostly used in salads, sometimes in sandwich spreads.





Flower May




Common Pepperwort (Syn. Field Pepperwort, Bastard Cress, Bourse de Judas, Feld-Kresse, Field Cress, Field Peppergrass, Field Pepperweed, Mostaza Silvestre, Passerage des Champs, Pepperwort)

Lepidium campestre

(Lepidium arvense, Thalspi campestre)


An annual, or occasionally biennial, herb of open grassland and arable fields, particularly on sandy or gravelly soils; also found on roadsides and walls, in gardens and waste places. It is often persistent, but occurs just as frequently as a casual. Lowland.





Flower from Isle of Sheppey in Kent in July

Flowers May

Foliage May

Form May

Common Scurvy-Grass

(Cochleaire, Coclearia, Cranson, Cranson officinal, Cucharita, Herbe aux cuillere, Kasikotu, Loffelkraut, Scurvy Grass, Spoonwort)

Cochlearia officinalis

(Cochlearia fenestrata)


Biennial or perennial herbs found in a range of moist, open, coastal and montane habitats. They also grow on hedge banks, for example in S.W. England and Wales, but are only occasional recent colonists of salted roadsides.





Flower June

Flowers from Pennard Castle on 12 July

Foliage from Inverew on 27 June

Form from Inverewe on 27 June

Common Wart Cress (Syn. Swinecress)

Coronopus squamatus

May onwards

A spring-germinating annual, rarely biennial, herb of nutrient-rich, often compacted soils in open, dry or winter-wet habitats. Typical sites include farmyards, waste ground, paths and particularly gateways. Lowland.





Flower 3 October

Flowers June

Foliage 3 October

Form 3 October

Common Whitlow-Grass

(Drave printaniere, Fruhlings-Hungerblumchen)

Erophila verna

(Draba obconica, Erophila krockeri, Erophila majuscula)


Typical semi-natural habitats of Erophila verna include limestone cliffs and pavements, sand dunes, sandy banks and coastal and riparian shingle. It is also frequent in quarries, sand- and gravel-pits and on lime-mine spoil heaps, walls, railway clinker, rubble and waste ground and cracks in pavements





Flower from Strood in Kent on 6 March

Flowers from Strrod in Kent on 6 March

Foliage from Strood in Kent 6 March

Form from Strood in Kent on 6 March

Common Winter-Cress

(Barbarakraut, Barbenkraut, Bitter Cress, Common Yellow Rocket, Creases, Echtes Barbarakraut, Erba Barbara, Erva-De-Santa-Barbara, Herb-Barbaras, Herbe Aux Charpentiers, Herbe De Sainte-Barbe, Hierba De Santa Barbara, Indian Posey, Rock Cress, Rocket Cress, Winter Cress, Winterkresse, Yellow Rocket)

Barbarea vulgaris

(Barbarea arcuata, Barbarea vulgaris var. arcuata, Barbarea vulgaris var. brachyc, Barbarea vulgaris var. longisi, Barbarea vulgaris var. sylvest, Campe barbarea, Erysimum arcuatum, Erysimum barbarea)


A biennial or perennial herb preferring a damp substrate, and thus widespread by rivers and streams, avoiding only the most acidic sites. It is also found on roadsides, by hedges and in ditches and waste places. It requires a degree of disturbance, which may be provided by seasonal flooding or human activity. Generally lowland, but occurring as a casual at 380 m near Alston (Cumberland).





Flower from Higham in Kent in May

Flowers from Ashburton in Devon in May

Foliage from Ashburton in Devon in May

Form from Caperconnell in County Clare on 13 June

Coralroot Bittercress

(Coral-Wort, Toothwort)

Cardamine bulbifera

(Dentaria bulbifera)


A rhizomatous perennial herb which grows in Britain in two habitats: on dry woodland slopes over chalk in the Chilterns, and in damp woodlands over clay in the Weald. Elsewhere it is an escape from cultivation by roads and in woodland and parkland. Lowland.





Flower May

Flowers from Kent on 28 May

Foliage from Kent on 28 May

Form May

Cotswold Penny-Cress

(Pennycress, Perfoliate Pennycress, Stengelum-fassendes Hellerkraut, Thoroughwort Penny cress)

Thlaspi perfoliatum


An annual of bare or sparsely vegetated habitats on oolitic limestone, found on screes, stony banks and open pastures; also found in old quarries and on broken rocks. Elsewhere it is usually a casual of waste places, although populations have persisted on railway embankments. Lowland.





Flower 30 April

Flower with stem 30 April

Foliage 30 April

Form 30 April

Creeping Yellow Cress

(Creeping Yellow Field Cress, Wilde Sumpfkresse, Yellow Field Cress)

Rorippa sylvestris

(Nasturtium sylvestre, Radicula sylvestris)

June onwards

A perennial herb growing on damp bare ground, often in sites flooded in winter, on the margins and banks of rivers, streams, canals and ditches, by lakes and ponds and in depressions in pastures. It is also a weed of cultivated ground, often in drier situations than in its semi-natural habitats. It is a vigorous pioneer species, intolerant of competition, spreading by seed and by broken pieces of rhizome. Lowland.





Flowers from East Malling in Kent in June

Flowers from East Kent on 3 October

Seed Pods from East Kent on 3 October


Dame's Violet

(Arragone, Damask Violet, Dame's Rocket, Gemeine Nachtviole, Juliana, Julienne des dames, Matronal, Nachtviole, Queen's Gilliflowers, Sweet Dame's Violet, Sweet Rocket, White Cross, Wieczornik)

Hesperis matronalis


A perennial, or sometimes biennial, herb of shaded moist habitats, found in hedgerows and wood borders, on river-banks, roadsides and waste ground, usually near habitation. It is often well-naturalised, but only where there is little competition. Casual plants occur on tips and in waste places. Lowland.





Flower from Thirsk in North Yorkshire in June

Flowers from Thirsk in North Yorkshire in June

Foliage from Thirsk in North Yorkshire in June

Form from Thirsk in North Yorkshire in June


(Breitblattrige, Kresse, Broad-Leaf Peppergrass, Erva-Pimenteira, Grand Passerage, Lepidio, Mastuerzo Montesino, Peppergrass, Perennial Cress, Perennial Peppercress, Perennial Pepperweed, Piperisa)

Lepidium latifolium


A rhizomatous perennial herb native on creek-sides, ditches, sea-walls, open brackish grassland and the upper fringes of estuarine saltmarshes. It is also naturalised in disturbed areas such as waste ground, dockland, railways and roadsides. Lowland.









Dune Cabbage (Syn. Isle of Man Cabbage)

Rhynchosinapis monensis

(Brassicella monensis, Sisymbrium monense, Coincya monensis), Coincya monensis subsp. monensis)


An annual or short-lived perennial herb, mainly found by the sea on open dunes and on the strand-line, and only rarely in bare fields and hedge banks near the sea. There is recent evidence to suggest that seed might be dispersed by sea (Rich, 1999b). Lowland.









Early Scurvy-Grass

(Danish Scurvy Grass)

Cochlearia danica


A winter-annual of cliff-tops, sand dunes and sea-walls, and on old walls and pavements in coastal towns; generally preferring open ground on well-drained sandy soils or bare rock. It used to occur on railway ballast, and is now frequent along inland roadsides. Lowland, but above 300 m on roadsides in N. England.





Flower from Cliffs of Moher on 11 June

Flowers in June

Foliage from Kidwelly on 13 July

Form from Kidwelly on 13 July

Early Winter-Cress

(Mittleres Barbarakraut, Yellow Rocket, Medium-flowered Winter-cress)

Barbarea intermedia


A biennial herb, rarely a perennial or an annual, found in a variety of waste and disturbed places, although it was formerly most frequent as an arable weed. Generally lowland, but occurring as a casual at 340 m N. of Alston (Cumberland).









Eastern Rocket

(Orientalis Rauke)

Sisymbrium orientale


An annual naturalised in rough ground and waste places, including railway land. Lowland.









False London Rocket

(Small tumbleweed mustard)

Sisymbrium loeslelii

July onwards

An annual of waste places, railways and roadsides. It is usually casual, but very occasionally naturalised, as in parts of London. It is a common contaminant of bird-seed mixtures. Lowland.










(Besenrauke, Herb-Sophia, Sagesse des chirurgiens, Sophienrauke)

Descurainia sophia

(Sisymbrium sophia)


An annual, or rarely biennial, herb which is locally abundant as a weed in arable fields in light soils in E. England. Elsewhere, it can occur in long-established populations, but is usually a casual in waste places. Lowland.









Garden Arabis

Arabis caucasica


A perennial, mat-forming herb, naturalised on walls, rocks and cliffs. Lowland.





Flower from Bakewell on 22 May

Flowers from Bakewell on 22 May

Foliage from Deep Dale in May

Form from Bakewell on 22 May

Garden Cress

(Cresson alenois, Cresson des jardins, Halim, Kresse, Least Pepperwort, Salad Cress Plain Leaf)

Lepidium sativum


An annual of waste and ruderal habitats, arising principally from bird-seed and culinary sources, and usually occurring as a casual. Lowland. Garden Cress is added to soups, sandwiches and salads for its tangy flavor.





Flower 15 June

Flowers 15 June

Foliage 15 June

Form 15 June

Garden Radish

Raphanus sativus

May onwards

An annual, occurring casually on tips and waste places, as a garden escape or bird-seed alien. Lowland.





Flower July

Flowers August

Seed Pods August

Form August

Garlic Mustard

(Alliare officinale, Erbe Sophia, Erva Adheira, Hedge Garlic, Hierba del Ajo, Jack-by-the-Hedge, Knoblauchsrauke, Lauchkraut, Lauchrauch, St. Sophia's Herb)

Alliaria petiolata

(Alliaria officinalis, Arabis petiolata, Erysimum alliaria, Sisymbrium alliaria)


A biennial or monocarpic herb, found in a wide range of habitats including disturbed woodland, woodland edges and clearings, shaded hedge banks, river-banks, the base of walls, road verges, waste ground, farmyards and gardens. It grows especially well on relatively fertile, moist soils, but avoids only the most acidic sites. Generally lowland, but reaching 535 m S. of Garsdale Head (N.W. Yorks.).





Flower in May




Garlic Pennycress

(Lauch-Hellerkraut, Roadside Pennycress)

Thlaspi alliaceum


An annual occurring as a weed of arable fields, field margins and other cultivated land. It is often naturalised, but may be casual. Lowland.





Flower from Ashford in Kent on 24 April

Leaves from Ashford in Kent on 24 April

Foliage from Ashford in Kent on 24 April

Form from Ashford in Kent on 24 April

Gold of Pleasure

(Big-seed False Flax, Camelina, Camelina pilosa, Cameline ciliee, Dandakorn, False Flax, Leindotter, Saat-Leindotter, Tsitsmati)

Camelina sativa

(Camelina parodii, Camelina pilosa, Myagrum sativum)

June onwards

An annual, now occurring mainly as a casual on rubbish tips and waste ground, and in gardens. It was formerly a frequent weed of arable fields and a contaminant of flax seed. Lowland. It has been cultivated as an oilseed crop to produce vegetabe oil and animal feed.









Greater Yellow Cress

Rorippa amphibia


A perennial herb of emergent vegetation along the edges of streams and rivers, by lakes and ponds and in other swampy ground. It often grows in sites which are flooded in winter and where some water remains in the summer, and is usually found where the water is calcareous and eutrophic. Seed set is often poor, possibly because plants are highly self-incompatible, and spread is mainly by fragmentation of mature plants. Lowland.









Great Sea Stock

(Matthiole sinuee, Sea Stock)

Matthiola sinuata

(Cheiranthus sinuatus)


A biennial or short-lived perennial herb of sand dunes and sea-cliffs. Most colonies are on young, fairly mobile dunes, and it has probably spread in the past by seeds floating in sea-water to new sites. Lowland.









Hairy Rocket

(Common Dog Mustard)

Erucastrum gallicum

(Sisymbrium gallicum)


An annual, occasionally persisting in quarries and along tracks on chalk soils, but almost always casual on roadsides and waste ground. Lowland.









Hairy Bittercress

Cardamine hirsuta

(Cardamine hirsute)

March onwards

A winter-annual which, under favourable conditions, can flower and seed again in autumn. It is particularly common as a weed of cultivation and in other ruderal habitats, but it also grows on rock outcrops, by streams and in woods. 0-1190 m (Breadalbanes, Mid Perth).





Flower from Leybourne in Kent in May

Flowers and Seed Pod growth

Foliage May

Form May

Hairy Rock-Cress

(Behaarte Gansekresse)

Arabis hirsuta

(Turritis hirsuta, Arabis brownii)


A biennial or perennial herb growing in dry, sunny, exposed situations on rock outcrops and in grassland on base-rich substrates, particularly chalk and limestone; also occurring on sand dunes and on bridges and walls. 0-1005 m (Aonach Beag, Westerness).





Flower from Liechtenstein on 9 May

Flowers from Caperconnell in County Clare on 13 June

Foliage from Monks Dale on 21 May

Form from Monks Dale on 21 May

Hedge Mustard

(Bulbulotu, Erismo, Erysimum, Simmara, Singer's Plant, Tumble Mustard, Wegrauke)

Sisymbrium officinale

(Erysimum officinale)

May onwards

An annual or biennial herb of dry, neutral or base-rich soils, doing best in open situations and frequent in cultivated ground, on roadsides and waste ground. It is almost invariably associated with man, but it also occurs rarely in natural habitats such as river-banks. 0-315 m (Garrigill, Cumberland).





Flower June

Flowers from Rochester in Kent in August

Foliage from Chardown Hill in Dorset in June

Form June

Hoary Alison

(Allysum, Graukresse, Hoary False Alyssum, Hoary-Alyssum)

Berteroa incana


A biennial, but occasionally annual or perennial herb, rarely naturalised on waste ground, and predominantly occurring as a casual in arable fields, on waste ground, around docks and in newly sown grass or clover leys. Lowland. Grows from a deep taproot.

From Parkseed.com who provide American gardeners with vegetable seeds, perennial seeds, flower seeds and seed-starters for the American garden since 1868:-

"Are you curious about how to start your own vegetables and flowers from seed? Or are you perhaps an old hand at seed-starting looking for detailed information?

Either way, the site Success with Seed puts the entire contents of the perennially popular Park's Success with Seed (new edition) within easy reach of your mouse."

Planting by the moon and stars

Planting by the phases of the moon is a method of cultivation as old as agriculture it's self.

The most ancient records of growing plants show a reliance on selecting the proper signs in the heavens for planting and performing garden chores in conjunction with the phases of the moon.

Today we have access to this half forgotten knowledge and what has endured is a schedule of plant growth that we can use just as those gardeners of yore.

Hoary Cress

(Pfeilkresse, Whitetop)

Cardaria draba

(Lepidium draba)


A perennial rhizomatous herb of roadsides, and on dry limestone or clinker ballast of railways. It also grows on waste ground, in arable fields on light soils, on sand dunes and other sandy ground, particularly near the sea, and in the uppermost zone of saltmarshes. Lowland. Invasive species in North America.






Flowers from Thanet in Kent 18 May

Foliage from Thanet in Kent 18 May

Form from Thanet in Kent 18 May

Hoary Mustard

(Buchanweed, Grauer Bastardsenf, Hairy Brassica)

Hirschfeldia incana

(Brassica adpressa, Erucastrum incanum, Sinapis incana)


An annual or short-lived perennial herb, increasingly naturalised in a variety of waste places such as by docks, railways and roadsides, and on tips. It is often associated with grain imports and bird-seed, and frequently occurs as a casual. It was formerly introduced with wool shoddy. Lowland.

KPR - Gardeners Club Slovakia:-

"KPR was officially established in 2000 in Slovakia in Europe; however, we supply seeds and plants from all over the world since 1998.

Our main object is focused on joining gardeners around the world from all fields of interests to create a big database of seeds and plants (Seeds and Plants Bank of KPR) from around the world.

At present, we have 6 main branches (Slovakia, Czechia, Australia, India, Thailand, South Africa and Tanzania) and over 200 co-operators and seeds collectors all over the world.

Nowadays we are able to collect and supply over 10 000 species of plants from all over the world.

If you are looking for anything, you are at the right place! Although we do not have every plant in our collection yet, but we are expanding daily, step-by-step, seed-by-seed, plant by plant. We believe that soon we will be able to supply (almost) anything!

For sale over 10 000 seeds and plants from all over the world - palms, cycads, exotic and frost tolerant shrubs and trees, succulents, carnivorous, annuals, perennials, ornamental grasses, vegetable, etc."

Flora of Europe:-

"At present, we can collect seeds and plants on request (as well as parts of plants - for example bulbs, cuttings, meristematic tissues, pollen, etc.) from more than 4000 species of plants from 19 European countries.

Now we collect in the following countries: Austria, Bulgaria, Czechia, Germany, Spain, Finland, Great Britain, Croatia, Hungary, Lithuania, Latvia, Montenegro, Macedonia, Poland, Portugal, Serbia, Russia, Slovenia, Slovakia.


We prepare to collect in the following countries: Albania, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Belarus, Estonia, France, Switzerland, Italy, Kosovo, Norway, Sweden, Ukraine.

We are able to collect all species in this area on your request. However, we do not collect protected species and species from the orchids (Orchidaceae).

Since 2002, we supply a wide range of European plants annually to both domestic and foreign small gardeners as well as big gardeners' societies, pharmaceutical companies and for scientific research.

The Vegetation season in Europe is from March to October. Seeds are usually harvested from August to September, and some species earlier. We provide a guarantee of 2 years for germination seeds. Seeds of some species are available throughout the year, but most of the species are collected on request. If you are searching for anything from Europe, you are at the right place! Contact us and inform yourself about stock availability, prices and terms of supplying.

We are able to supply all plant parts as well - seeds, bulbs, cuttings, meristematic issues, pollen etc. We also grow many species in cultivation and supply these as seedlings or young plants for wholesale. If you require seedlings, your order should be placed before April, seeing that the seeds are sown in April."

Down Garden Services provides a species list of the Common Name, Other Names and Botanical Name of weeds.

"Many people regard weeding as the "ironing" of garden work, but the sight of a newly weed border is very rewarding..... Recent research by 2 Texas universities has shown that tending the garden exercises the brain as well, so gardeners are more organised, feel more optimistic and feel they hav a better quality of life than non-gardeners. A study by University College London found that gardening for just 20 minutes a week can enhance mood and reduce mental stress."

For those without gardens, they can plant containers (See Vegetable Gallery for containers) in their house on the windowcill facing South and grow vegetables, bedding plants or bonsais.

From an article in the Wild Flower Society's magazine in 2003 by David Bevan with new photos and captions by Peter Llewellyn in January 2006 :-

Bittercresses (Cardamine) for beginners.


(Bayirturpu, Cranson, Meacan-Each, Meerrettich, Rabano Picante, Rabano Rusticano, Rabano-Picanto, Raifort, Raifort Cran, Raiz-Forte, Red Cole)

Armoracia rusticana

(Armoracia lapathifolia, Cochlearia armorica, Cochlearia macrocarpa, Nasturtium armoricia, Radicula armoricia, Raphanus rusticanus, Rorippa armoricia)


A long-lived perennial herb, persisting in old gardens and allotments and spreading by root fragments to roadsides, waste ground, railways, sandy seashores and river-banks. The plant is highly sterile, and seed-set is unknown in our area. Lowland. Horseradish is mainly cultivated for its large white, tapered root.





Flower June

Flowers from Isle of Sheppey in Kent on 18 June

Foliage from Isle of Sheppey in Kent on 18 June

Form from Isle of Sheppey in Kent on 18 June

Colin's virtual Herbarium - "I am Colin Ladyka, and I live in Regina, Saskatchewan, Canada.  Native plants are my hobby.

This web site contains pictures I have taken of 280 species of flowering plants (excluding grasses) found on the Canadian Prairies, with particular emphasis on those found in Saskatchewan."



Site Map of pages with content (o)


FLOWER COLOUR Comparison Pages/Galleries under Wild Flower in the Main Topic Menu Table

Botanical Name
Common Name


(o)Seed 1
(o)Seed 2

Lists of:-
Edible Plant Parts.
Flower Legend.
Food for

Habitat Lists:-
Approaching the
Coast (Coastal)
Grassland - Acid, Neutral, Chalk.
Heaths and Moors.
Hedgerows and Verges.
Lakes, Canals and Rivers.
Marshes, Fens,
Old Buildings and Walls.
River Banks and
other Freshwater Margins
Sandy Shores and Dunes.
Shingle Beaches, Rocks and
Cliff Tops

Number of Petals List:-
Without Petals. Other plants
without flowers.
1 Petal or
Composite of
many 1 Petal Flowers as Disc
or Ray Floret .
2 Petals.
3 Petals.
4 Petals.
5 Petals.
6 Petals.
Over 6 Petals.

Lists of:-
Poisonous Parts.
Scented Flower, Foliage, Root.
Story of their Common Names.






See Explanation of Structure of this Website with User Guidelines to aid your use of this website.







Site Map of pages with content (o)


(o)Seed 3

(o)Bed 1


(o)Adder's Tongue
(o)Bog Myrtle
(o)Cornel (Dogwood)
(o)Crucifer (Cabbage/Mustard) 1
(o)Crucifer (Cabbage/Mustard) 2
(o)Daisy Cudweeds
(o)Daisy Chamomiles
(o)Daisy Thistle
(o)Daisy Catsears (o)Daisy Hawkweeds
(o)Daisy Hawksbeards
(o)Dock Bistorts
(o)Dock Sorrels


(o)Filmy Fern
(o)Royal Fern
(o)Figwort - Mulleins
(o)Figwort - Speedwells
(o)Grass 1
(o)Grass 2
(o)Grass 3
(o)Grass Soft Bromes 1
(o)Grass Soft Bromes 2
(o)Grass Soft Bromes 3 (o)Hazel
(o)Jacobs Ladder
(o)Lily Garlic
(o)Marsh Pennywort
(o)Melon (Gourd/Cucumber)


(o)Orchid 1
(o)Orchid 2
(o)Orchid 3
(o)Orchid 4
(o)Peaflower Clover 1
(o)Peaflower Clover 2
(o)Peaflower Clover 3
(o)Peaflower Vetches/Peas
(o)Pink 1
(o)Pink 2
Rannock Rush
(o)Rose 1
(o)Rose 2
(o)Rose 3
(o)Rose 4
(o)Rush Woodrushes
(o)Saint Johns Wort
Saltmarsh Grasses


(o)Sea Lavender
(o)Sedge Rush-like
(o)Sedges Carex 1
(o)Sedges Carex 2
(o)Sedges Carex 3
(o)Sedges Carex 4
Tassel Pondweed
(o)Thyme 1
(o)Thyme 2
(o)Umbellifer 1
(o)Umbellifer 2
(o)Water Fern
(o)Water Milfoil
(o)Water Plantain
(o)Water Starwort







Site Map of pages with content (o)

Poisonous Plants


(o)Pink 1
(o)Pink 2
(o)Shrub or Small Tree

(o)Seed 1
(o)Seed 2


Flowers in
Acid Soil

Flowers in
Chalk Soil

Flowers in
Marine Soil

Flowers in
Neutral Soil



See current Wildflower Common Name Index link Table for more wildflower of the UK common names together with their names in languages from America, Finland, France, Germany, Holland, Italy, Poland, Portugal, Spain and Sweden.

See current Wildflower Botanical Name Index link table for wildflower of the United Kingdom (Great Britain) botanical names.


WILD FLOWER Botanical Name INDEX link to Wildflower Family Page; then

Click on Underlined Text in:-

Common Name to view that Plant Description Page
Botanical Name to link to Plant or Seed Supplier
Flowering Months to view photos
Habitat to view further Natural Habitat details and Botanical Society of the British Isles Distribution Map






Achillea millefolium
Achillea ptarmica

Achyrophorus maculatus

Aconitum anglicum

Aconitum cammarum
Aconitum napellus
Acorus calamus
Actaea spicata
Adiantum capillus-veneris
Adonis annua
Aesculus hippocastanum
Aetopteron lonchitis
Alliaria officinalis
Alliaria petiolata
Alnus cordata
Alnus glutinosa
Alyssum alyssoides
Alyssum calycinum
Alyssum campestre
Alyssum maritima
Alyssum minus
Amaranthus albus
Amaranthus chlorostachys
Amaranthus cruentus
Amaranthus hybridus
Amaranthus paniculatus
Amaranthus retroflexus
Armoracia lapathifolia
Armoracia rusticana
Anaphalis margaritacea
Anchusa arvensis
Anemone apennina
Anemone nemorosa
Anemone pulsatilla
Anemone ranunculoides
Anogramma caespitosa
Anogramma leptophylla
Antennaria dioica
Anthemis arvensis
Anthemis cotula
Anthemis tinctoria
Aponogeton distachyos
Aquilegia pyrenaica
Aquilegia vulgaris
Arabidopsis thaliana Arabis alpina
Arabis brownii
Arabis caucasica
Arabis collina
Arabis glabra
Arabis hirsuta
Arabis petiolata
Arabis petraea
Arabis rosea
Arabis scabra
Arabis stricta
Arabis thaliana
Arabis turrita
Aristolochia clematitis
Artemisia absinthium
Artemisia campestris
Artemesia caudata
Artemesia chamae-melifolia
Artemesia forwoodii
Artemisia maritima
Artemisia norvegica
Artemisia verlotiorum
Artemisia vulgaris
Aspidium lonchitis
Aster linosyris
Arum italicum
Arum italicum subsp. neglectum Arum maculatum
Arum neglectum
Arundinaria jaunsarensis
Arundinaria simonii
Arundinaria vagans
Asarum europaeum
Asperugo procumbens
Asperula cynanchica
Asplenium adiantum-nigrum
Asplenium marinum
Asplenium obovatum
Asplenium ruta-muraria
Asplenium septentrionale
Asplenium trichomanes
Asplenium viride
Aster eminens
Aster junceus
Aster longifolius
Aster novi-belgii
Aster salicfolius
Aster tripolium
Athanasia maritima
Athyrium alpestre
Athyrium distentifolium
Athyrium filix-femina

Galanthus nivalis
Galinsoga aristulata
Galinsoga bicolorata
Galinsoga caracasana
Galinsoga ciliata
Galinsoga quadriradiata

Galium album
Galium aparine
Galium boreale
Galium cruciata
Galium debile
Galium erectum
Galium mollugo
Galium odoratum
Galium palustre
Galium parisiense
Galium pumilum
Galium saxatile
Galium tricorne
Galium tricornutum
Galium uliginosum Galium verum
Glebionis segetum
Gnaphalium luteoalbum
Gnaphalium norvegicum
Gnapalium sylvaticum
Gnaphalium supinum
Gnaphalium uliginosum
Gnaphalium undulatum
Guepinia nudicaulis
Gymnocarpium dryopteris

Mahonia aquifolium
Matricaria chamomilla
Matricaria discoidea
Matricaria matricarioides
Matricaria recutita
Matthiola incana
Matthiola sinuata
Melanosinapis nigra
Menyanthes trifoliata
Mertensia maritima
Monotropa hypopitys
Myagrum paniculatum
Myagrum sativum
Mycelis muralis
Myosotis alpestris
Myosotis arvensis
Myosotis brevifolia
Myosotis caespitosa
Myosotis discolor
Myosotis hispida
Myosotis laxa
Myosotis lingulata
Myosotis palustris
Myosotis ramosissima
Myosotis repens
Myosotis scorpioides
Myosotis secunda
Myosotis sicula
Myosotis stolonifera
Myosotis sylvatica
Myosotis uliginosa
Myosurus minimus
Myra rugosum
Myrica gale

Sasaella ramosa
Sasa palmata
Sasa ramosa
Scorzonera humilis
Scorzoneroides autumnalis
Selaginella selaginoides
Semiarundinaria fastuosa
Senecio aquaticus
Senecio campestris
Senecio capitatus
Senecio cineraria
Senecio erucifolius
Senecio fluviatilis
Senecio integrifolius
Senecio jacobaea
Senecio saracenicus
Senecio smithii
Senecio squalidus
Senecio sylvaticus
Senecio viscosus
Senecio vulgaris
Seriphidium maritimum
Sherardia arvensis
Sinapis alba
Sinapis arvensis
Sinapis incana
Sinapis juncea
Sinapis nasturtiifolium
Sinapis nigra
Sisymbrium alliaria
Sisymbrium altissimum
Sisymbrium gallicum
Sisymbrium islandicum
Sisymbrium loeslelii
Sisymbrium monense
Sisymbrium murale
Sisymbrium nasturtium
Sysmbrium nasturtium-aquaticum
Sisymbrium officinale
Sisymbrium irio
Sisymbrium orientale
Sisymbrium sophia
Sisymbrium tenuifolium
Sisymbrium thalianum
Solidago altissima
Solidago canadensis
Solidago gigantea
Solidago serotina
Solidago serotinoides
Solidago virgaurea
Solidago x leiophallax
Sonchus asper
Sonchus arvensis
Sonchus oleraceus
Sonchus palustris
Sparganium angustifolium
Sparganium emersum
Sparganium erectum
Sparganium minimum
Sparganium natans
Sparganium simplex
Spirodela polyrhiza
Subularia aquatica
Symphyotrichum longifolium
Symphytum asperum
Symphytum asperum x officinale
Symphytum officinale
Symphytum orientale
Symphytum tuberosum
Symphytum x uplandicum





Barbarea arcuata
Barbarea intermedia
Barbarea praecox
Barbarea stricta
Barbarea verna
Barbarea vulgaris
Barbarea vulgaris var. arcuata
Barbarea vulgaris var. brachyc
Barbarea vulgaris var. longisi
Barbarea vulgaris var. sylvest
Bellis perennis
Berberis vulgaris
Berteroa incana
Betula nana
Betula pendula
Betula pubescens
Betula verrucosa
Bidens cernua
Bidens frondosa
Bidens tripartita
Blechnum spicant
Borago officinalis
Botrychium lunaria
Brassica adpressa
Brassica alba
Brassica arvensis
Brassica campestris
Brassica hirta
Brassica napus
Brassica nigra
Brassica nigra var. abyssinica
Brassica oleracea
Brassica sinapioides
Brassica sinapistrum
Brassicella monensis
Brassicella wrightii
Buddleja davidii
Buglossoides arvensis
Buglossoides purpurocaerulea
Bunias orientalis
Buxus sempervirens

Helichrysum luteoalbum
Helleborus foetidus

Helleborus viridis
Hesperis matronalis
Hirschfeldia incana
Homogyne alpina
Hornungia alpina
Hornungia petraea
Huperzia selago
Hutchinsia alpina
Hymenophyllum peltatum
Hymenophyllum tunbrigense
Hymenophyllum wilsonii
Hymenophyllum unilaterale
Hypochaeris carpatica
Hypochaeris glabra
Hypochaeris maculata
Hypochaeris radicata
Hypopeltis lonchitis

Nanozostera americana
Narcissus pseudonarcissus subsp. obvallaris
Narcissus pseudoncissus subsp. pseudonarcissus
Nardosmia japonica
Nasturtium aquaticum
Nasturtium armoricia

Nasturtium austriacum
Nasturtium fontanum
Nasturtium microphyllum
Nasturtium nasturtium-aquatica
Nasturtium officinale
Nasturtium officinalis
Nasturtium sylvestre
Nasturtium x sterile
Neslia paniculata
Nymphoides peltata

Tanacetum parthenium
Tanacetum vulgare
Teesdalia iberis

Teesdalia nudicaulis

Tephroseris integrifolia
Thalictrum alpinum
Thalictrum aquilegifolium
Thalictrum flavum
Thalictrum minus
Thelypteris dryopteris
Thelypteris oreopteris
Thlaspi alliaceum
Thlaspi alpestre
Thlaspi alpinum
Thlaspi arvense
Thlaspi bursa-pastoris
Thalspi campestre
Thalspi carulescens
Thlaspi nudicaulis
Thlaspi perfoliatum
Thelycrania sanguinea
Thelypteris palustris
Thelypteris phegopteris
Thelypteris robertiana
Trachystemon orientalis
Tragopogon porrifolius
Tragopogon pratensis
Trichomanes andrewsii
Trichomanes radicans
Trichomanes speciosum
Triglochin maritima
Triglochin maritimum
Triglochin palustre
Triglochin palustris
Tripleurospermum maritimum
Trollius europaeus
Turritis glabra
Turritis hirsuta
Tussilago farfara







Cakile maritima
Calamaria lacustris
Caltha palustris
Calystegia sepium
Calystegia silvatica
Calystegia soldanella
Calystegia sylvestris
Camelina parodii
Camelina pilosa
Camelina sativa
Campanula alliariifolia
Campanula glomerata
Campanula latifolia
Campanula medium
Campanula patula
Campanula rapunculoides
Campanula rapunculus
Campanula rotundifolia
Campanula trachelium
Campe barbarea
Capsella bursa-pastoris
Capsella nudicaulis
Cardamine amara
Cardamine bulbifera
Cardamine corymbosa
Cardamine flexuosa
Cardamine hirsuta
Cardamine hirsuta var. corymbosa
Cardamine hirsute
Cardamine impatiens
Cardamine pratensis
Cardaminopsis petraea
Cardaria draba
Capsella rubella
Castanea sativa
Ceterach officinarum
Chamaemelum nobile
Chamae-periclymenum suecicum
Cheiranthus cheiri
Cheiranthus sinuatus
Cheirinia cheiranthoides
Chrysanthemum leucanthemum
Chrysanthemum parthenium
Chrysanthemum segetum
Chrysanthemum vulgare
Chrysocoma linosyris
Cicerbita alpina
Cicerbita macrophylla
Cineraria maritima
Clematis flammula
Clematis vitalba
Clematis viticella
Clypeola alyssoides
Clypeola campestris
Cochlearia alpina
Cochlearia anglica
Cochlearia armorica
Cochlearia danica
Cochlearia fenestrata
Cochlearia macrocarpa
Cochlearia officinalis
Cochlearia officinalis var. alpina
Cochlearia pyrenaica subsp. alpina
Coincya monensis
Coincya monensis subsp. cheiranthos
Coincya monensis subsp. monensis
Coincya wrightii
Consolida ajacis
Consolida ambigua
Consolida orientalis
Convolvulus arvensis
Conyza canadensis
Cornus sanguinea
Cornus suecica
Coronopus didymus
Coronopus squamatus
Cota tinctoria
Cotula coronopifolia
Crambe maritima
Crambe pontica
Crinitaria linosyris
Crithmum maritimum
Cruciata laevipes
Cruciform teesdalia
Cryptogramma crispa
Cuscuta epithymum
Cuscuta europaea
Cynoglossum germanicum
Cynoglossum officinale
Cystopteris fragilis
Cystopteris montana

Iberis amara
Iberis coronaria

Impatiens glandulifera
Impatiens noli-tangere
Impatiens parviflora
Inula conyza
Inula crithmoides
Inula helenium
Inula salicina
Isatis tinctoria
Isoetes echinospora
Isoetes histrix
Isoetes lacustris
Isoetes macrospora
Isoetes rossica

Oligosporus campestris
Omalotheca supina
Omphalodes verna

Ophioglossum lusitanicum
Ophioglossum vulgatum
Oreopteris limbosperma
Orobanche alba
Orobanche artemisiae-campestris
Orobanche caryophyllacea
Orobanche elatior
Orobanche hederae
Orobanche loricata
Orobanche maritima
Orobanche minor
Orobanche picridis
Orobanche purpurea
Orobanche rapum-genistae
Osmunda regalis
Otanthus maritimus

Ulmus campestris
Ulmus carpinifolia
Ulmus diversifolia
Ulmus glabra
Ulmus minor
Ulmus procera
Urostachys selago

Utricularia intermedia

Utricularia minor
Utricularia vulgaris







Delphinium orientale
Dentaria bulbifera
Descurainia sophia
Diotis candidissima
Diotis maritima
Diphasium alpinum
Diaphasiastrum alpinum
Diplotaxis muralis
Diplotaxis tenuifolia
Doronicum pardalianches
Draba aizoides
Draba incana
Draba muralis
Draba norvegica
Draba obconica
Dryopteris abbreviata
Dryopteris aemula
Dryopteris affinis
Dryopteris borreri
Dryopteris carthusiana
Dryopteris cristata
Dryopteris dilatata
Dryopteris expansa
Dryopteris filix-mas
Dryopteris lonchitis
Dryopteris oreades Fomin
Dryopteris phegopteris
Dryopteris spinulosa
Dryopteris submontana
Dryopteris villarii

Jasione montana
Juncus bufonius
Juniperus communis

Pentaglottis sempervirens
Petasites albus
Petasites fragrans
Petasites hybridus
Petasites japonicus
Phegopteris connectilis
Phegopteris polypodioides
Phyllitis scolopendrium
Phyteuma cordifolium
Phyteuma fistulosum
Phyteuma tenerum
Phyteuma orbiculare
Phyteuma spicatum
Picris echioides
Picris hieracioides
Pinguicula grandiflora
Pinguicula lusitanica
Pinguicula vulgaris
Plananthus selago
Pleioblastus simonii
Polypodium interjectum
Polypodium lonchitis
Polypodium montanum
Polypodium vulgare
Polystichum aculeatum
Polystichum asperum
Polystichum lonchitis
Polystichum setiferum
Pritzelago alpina
Pseudosasa japonica
Ptarmica vulgaris
Pteridium aquilinum
Pulicaria dysenterica
Pulicaria vulgaris
Pulmonaria longifolia
Pulmonaria officinalis
Pulsatilla vulgaris
Pyrus cordata

Vandenboschia speciosa
Vittadenia triloba







Echium plantagineum
Echium vulgare
Empetrum nigrum
Equisetum arvense
Equisetum fluviatile
Equisetum hyemale
Equisetum limosum
Equisetum palustre
Equisetum pratense
Equisetum ramosissimum
Equisetum sylvaticum
Equisetum telmateia
Equisetum variegatum
Eranthis hyemalis
Erigeron acer
Erigeron borealis
Erigeron karvinskianus
Erigeron mucronatus
Erophila krockeri
Erophila majuscula
Erophila verna
Eruca selvatica
Erucastrum gallicum
Erucastrum incanum
Erucastrum nasturtiifolium
Eruka marina
Erysimum alliaria
Erysimum altissimum
Erysimum arcuatum
Erysimum barbarea
Erysimum cheiranthoides
Erysimum cheiri
Erysimum officinale
Erysimum vernum
Eupatorium cannabinum


Quercus cerris
Quercus Ilex
Quercus petraea
Quercus robur

Wahlenbergia hederacea
Wolffia arrhiza
Woodsia alpina
Woodsia ilvensis







Fagus sylvatica
Fagus sylvatica cuprea purpurea
Filago apiculata
Filago gallica
Filago germanica
Filago lutescens
Filago maritima
Filago minima
Filago pyramidata
Filago pyramidata subsp. lutescens
Filago spathulata
Filago vulgaris
Frangula alnus

Lactuca macrophylla
Lastrea phegopteris

Lathraea clandestina
Lathraea squamaria
Legousia hybrida
Lemna gibba
Lemna minor
Lemna polyrhiza
Lemna trisulca
Leontodon autumnalis
Leontodon hispidus
Leontodon saxatilis
Leontodon taraxacoides
Lepidotis inundata
Lepidium arvense
Lepidium campestre
Lepidium draba
Lepidium heterophyllum
Lepidium latifolium
Lepidium ruderale
Lepidium sativum
Lepidium scapiferum
Lepidium smithii
Leucanthemum adustum
Leucanthemum vulgare
Leucojum aestivum
Leucojum vernum
Linosyris vulgaris
Lithospermum arvense
Lithospermum officinale
Lithospermum purpurocaeruleum
Lobularia benthamii
Lobularia maritima
Lycopodiella inindata
Lycopodium alpinum
Lycopodium annotinum
Lycopodium clavatum
Lycopodium inundatum
Lycopodium selago
Lycopsis arvensis
Lysichiton americanus

Radicula armoricia
Radicula nasturtium
Radicula nasturtium-aquaticum

Radicula sylvestris
Ranunculus acris
Ranunculus aquatilis
Ranunculus arvensis
Ranunculus auricomus
Ranunculus bulbosus
Ranunculus ficaria
Ranunculus flabellatus
Ranunculus flammula
Ranunculus floribundus
Ranunculus fluitans
Ranunculus hederaceus
Ranunculus lingua
Ranunculus lutarius
Ranunculus marginatus
Ranunculus muricatus
Ranunculus obtusiflorus
Ranunculus omiophyllus
Ranunculus ophioglossifolius
Ranunculus paludosus
Ranunculus parviflorus
Ranunculus peltatus
Ranunculus petiveri
Ranunculus repens
Ranunculus reptans
Ranunculus sardous
Ranunculus sceleratus
Ranunculus spaerospermus
Ranunculus trichophyllus
Ranunculus tripartitus
Raphanus landra
Raphanus landra Moretti
Raphanus raphanistrum
Raphanus raphanistrum subsp. landra
Raphanus raphanistrum ssp. maritimus
Raphanus raphanistrum subsp. raphanistrum
Raphanus rusticanus
Raphanus sativus
Rapistrum rugosum
Rapistrum orientale
Rhamnus cathartica
Rhynchosinapis erucastrum
Rhynchosinapis monensis
Rhynchosinapis wrightii
Rorippa amphibia
Rorippa armoricia
Rorippa austriaca
Rorippa islandica
Rorippa microphylla
Rorippa nasturtium
Rorippa nasturtium-aquaticum
Rorippa sylvestris
Rorippa x sterilis
Rubia peregrina
Rucola sylvatica
Rucula selvatica

Xanthium spinosum Yushania anceps
Zostera americana
Zostera angustifolia
Zostera hornemanniana
Zostera japonica
Zostera marina
Zostera nana
Zostera noltei

Ivydene Horticultural Services logo with I design, construct and maintain private gardens. I also advise and teach you in your own garden. 01634 389677


Site design and content copyright ©May 2008.
Page structure amended October 2012.
Feet changed to inches (cms) July 2015.
Menus and Master changed January 2016.
Chris Garnons-Williams.

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