Topic
Case Studies
...Drive
...Foundations

Companion Planting
...A, B, C, D, E,
...F, G, H, I, J, K,
...L, M, N, O, P, Q,
...R, S, T, U, V, W,
...X, Y, Z
...Pest Control
...using Plants

Garden Construction
Garden Design
...How to Use the Colour Wheel Concepts for Selection of Flowers, Foliage and Flower Shape
...RHS Mixed Borders
......Bedding Plants
......Her Perennials
......Other Plants
......Camera photos of Plant supports
Garden Maintenance
Glossary
Home
Library
Offbeat Glossary
Plants
...Poisonous Plants
Soil
...Soil Nutrients
Tool Shed
Useful Data

................

Topic - Plant Photo Galleries

Camera Photo Galleries:-

RHS Garden at Wisley
Plant Supports -
When supporting plants in a bed, it is found that not only do those plants grow upwards, but also they expand their roots and footpad sideways each year. Pages
1
, 2, 3, 8, 11,
12, 13,
Plants 4, 7, 10,
Bedding Plants 5,
Plant Supports for Unknown Plants 5
,
Clematis Climbers 6,
the RHS does not appear to either follow it's own pruning advice or advice from The Pruning of Trees, Shrubs and Conifers by George E. Brown.
ISBN 0-571-11084-3 with the plants in Pages 1-7 of this folder. You can see from looking at both these resources as to whether the pruning carried out on the remainder of the plants in Pages 7-15 was correct.
Narcissus (Daffodil) 9,
Phlox Plant Supports 14, 15

Coleus Bedding Foliage Trial - Pages
1, 2, 3, 4, 5,
6, 7, 8, 9, 10,
11, 12, 13, 14, 15,
16, 17, 18, 19, 20,
21, 22, 23, 24, 25,
26, 27, 28, 29, 30,
31, 32
,
Index

National Trust Garden at Sissinghurst Castle
Plant Supports -
Pages for Gallery 1
with Plant Supports
1
, 5, 10
Plants
2
, 3, 4, 6, 7, 8, 9, 11, 12
Recommended Rose Pruning Methods 13
Pages for Gallery 2
with Plant Supports
2
,
Plants 1, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7

Dry Garden of
RHS Garden at
Hyde Hall
Plants - Pages
without Plant Supports
Plants 1
, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9

Nursery of
Peter Beales Roses
Display Garden
Roses Pages
1
, 2, 3, 4, 5,
6, 7, 8, 9, 10,
11, 12, 13

Nursery of
RV Roger
Roses - Pages
A1,A2,A3,A4,A5,
A6,A7,A8,A9,A10,
A11,A12,A13,A14,B15,
B16,B17,B18,B19,B20,
B21,B22,B23,B24,B25,
B26,B27,B28,B29,B30,
C31,C32,C33,C34,C35,
C36,C37,C38,C39,C40,
C41,CD2,D43,D44,D45,
D46,D47,D48,D49,E50,
E51,E52
,F53,F54,F55,
F56,F57,G58,G59,H60,
H61,I62,K63,L64,M65,
M66,N67,P68,P69,P70,

R71,R72,S73,S74,T75,
V76,Z77, 78,

Damage by Plants in Chilham Village - Pages
1
, 2, 3, 4

Pavements of Funchal, Madeira
Damage to Trees - Pages
1
, 2, 3, 4, 5,
6, 7, 8, 9, 10,
11, 12, 13
for trees 1-54
,
14, 15,
16, 17, 18, 19, 20,
21, 22, 23, 24, 25,
for trees 55-95,
26
, 27, 28, 29, 30,
31, 32, 33, 34, 35,
36, 37,
for trees 95-133,
38
, 39, 40,
41, 42, 43, 44, 45,
for trees 133-166


Chris Garnons-Williams
Work Done - Pages
1, 2, 3, 4, 5,
6, 7, 8, 9, 10,
11, 12, 13

Identity of Plants
Label Problems - Pages
1, 2, 3, 4, 5,
6, 7, 8, 9, 10,
11

Ron and Christine Foord
Garden Flowers - Pages
A1, 2, 3, 4, 5,
6, 7, 8, 9, 10,
11, 12, 13,

The plant with photo in the above Camera Photo Galleries
join

the plants with photos in the other Plant Photo Galleries below in

Plant with Photo Index of Ivydene Gardens - 1187
A 1, Photos - 43
B 1, Photos - 13
C 1, Photos - 35
D 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6,
Photos - 411

Photos of
Plants causing damage to buildings in Chilham Village and
Photos of
Damage to Trees in Pavements of Funchal
are also in the D pages
E 1, Photos - 21
F 1, Photos - 1
G 1, Photos - 5
H 1, Photos - 21
I 1, Photos - 8
J 1, Photos - 1
K 1, Photos - 1
L 1, Photos - 85
Photos of
Label Problems are also in the L pages
M 1, Photos - 9
N 1, Photos - 12
O 1, Photos - 5
P 1, Photos - 54
Q 1, Photos -
R 1,R 2,R 3,
Photos - 229
S 1, Photos - 111
T 1, Photos - 13
U 1, Photos - 5
V 1, Photos - 4
W 1, Photos - 100
Photos of
Work Done by Chris
Garnons-Williams are also in the W pages

X 1 Photos -
Y 1, Photos -
Z 1 Photos -

Articles/Items in Ivydene Gardens - 88

and in
Flower Shape and Plant Use of
Bedding
Bulb
Evergreen Perennial
Herbaceous Perennial
Rose
Evergreen Shrub
Deciduous Shrub
Evergreen Tree
Deciduous Tree
Annual
Fern
Wildflower
with
1. Why the perfect soil for general use is composed of 8.3% lime, 16.6% humus, 25% clay and 50% sand
within the SOIL TEXTURE, and
2. Why you are continually losing the SOIL STRUCTURE if you leave bare earth between plants so your soil - will revert to clay, chalk, sand or silt - unless you replace that lost humus with an organic mulch.


Aquatic
Bamboo


Bedding
...by Flower Shape

...Camera photos of Coleus Bedding Foliage Trial

Further details on Bedding from the Infill Galleries:-
...for Spring
...for Summer
...for Autumn
...for Winter
...for Sandy Soil
...for Acid Soil
...for Chalky Soil
...for Clay Soil
...Flower Colour:-
......Black
......Blue
......Orange
......Pink
......Purple
......Red
......White
......Yellow
......Multi-coloured
...Use of Bedding:-
......Aromatic Fol
......Scented Flo
......Long Flo
......Coloured Fol
......for Bees, etc
......Cut Flos
......Hanging Pot
......Pots/ Troughs
......Screening
......Window Box
......Bedding Out
......Filling in

Further details on Annuals from the Infill Galleries:-
Uses of Annuals

...Exposed Sites
...Sheltered Sites
...in Greenhouse
...Extra Poor Soil
...Very Rich Soil
...Gap Filling
...Patio Pots
...Cut Flowers 1, 2
...Everlasting Flos
...Attract Insects
...with Fragrance
...Bee Pollinated
...Annual Pairing
...Low-Growing
...Med-Growing
...Tall Growing
...Flower Colour:-
......Black/Brown
......Blue-Purple
......Green
......Red-Pink
......White
......Yellow/Orange
...for its Foliage
...in Moist Soil
...in Shade
...as Houseplants
...Edging Beds
...Hanging Basket
...Vining Annuals
...Plants for Cut Flowers which flower during:-
......January
......February
......March
......April
......May
......June
......July
......August
......September
......October
......November
......December
Further Details on Biennials from the Infill Galleries:-
Use of Bieenials

...Cottage Garden
...Cut Flower
...for Rock Work
...Patio Pots
...Conservatory
...for Wildlife
...Scented Flo



Bulb
...Allium/ Anemone
...Autumn
...Colchicum/ Crocus
...Dahlia
...Gladiolus
...Hippeastrum/ Lily
...Late Summer
...Narcissus
...Spring
...Tulip
...Winter
Climber
...Clematis
...Climbers
Conifer
Deciduous Shrub
...Shrubs - Decid
Deciduous Tree
...Trees - Decid
Evergreen Perennial
...P-Evergreen A-L
...P-Evergreen M-Z
...Flower Shape
Evergreen Shrub
...Shrubs - Evgr
...Heather Shrub
Evergreen Tree
...Trees - Evgr
Fern
Grass
Hedging
Herbaceous Perennial
...P -Herbaceous
...RHS Wisley
...Flower Shape
Herb
Odds and Sods
Rhododendron
Rose
...RHS Wisley A-F
...RHS Wisley G-R
...RHS Wisley S-Z
...Rose Use
...Other Roses A-F
...Other Roses G-R
...Other Roses S-Z
Soft Fruit
Top Fruit
...Apple

...Cherry
...Pear
Vegetable

Wild Flower
with its
flower colour page,
space,
Site Map page in its flower colour
NOTE Gallery
...Blue Note
...Brown Note
...Cream Note
...Green Note
...Mauve Note
...Multi-Cols Note
...Orange Note
...Pink A-G Note
...Pink H-Z Note
...Purple Note
...Red Note
...White A-D Note
...White E-P Note
...White Q-Z Note
...Yellow A-G Note
...Yellow H-Z Note
...Shrub/Tree Note
Poisonous
Wildflower Plants

............

Topic - Flower/Foliage Colour
Colour Wheel Galleries

Following your choice using Garden Style then that changes your Plant Selection Process
Garden Style
...Infill Plants
...12 Bloom Colours per Month Index
...12 Foliage Colours per Month Index
...All Plants Index
...Cultivation, Position, Use Index
...Shape, Form
Index

or
you could use these Flower Colour Wheels with number of colours
All Flowers 53

All Flowers per Month 12
with its
Explanation of
Structure of this Website with

...User Guidelines
All Bee-Pollinated Flowers per Month 12
...Index
Rock Garden and Alpine Flower Colour Wheel with number of colours
Rock Plant Flowers 53

...Rock Plant Photos

or
these Foliage Colour Wheels structures, which I have done but until I can take the photos and I am certain of the plant label's validity, these may not progress much further
All Foliage 212

All Spring Foliage 212
All Summer Foliage 212
All Autumn Foliage 212
All Winter Foliage 212

or
Flower Colour Wheel without photos, but with links to photos
12 Bloom Colours per Month Index
...All Plants Index

............

Topic - Wildlife on Plant Photo Gallery
Butterfly
Usage of Plants
by Egg, Caterpillar, Chrysalis and Butterfly

Egg, Caterpillar, Chrysalis and Butterfly usage of
Plant A-C
Plant C-M
Plant N-W
Butterfly usage of Plant

followed by all the Wild Flower Family Pages:-

WILD FLOWER FAMILY
PAGE MENU 1


(o)Adder's Tongue
Amaranth
(o)Arrow-Grass
(o)Arum
(o)Balsam
Bamboo
(o)Barberry
(o)Bedstraw
(o)Beech
(o)Bellflower
(o)Bindweed
(o)Birch
(o)Birds-Nest
(o)Birthwort
(o)Bogbean
(o)Bog Myrtle
(o)Borage
(o)Box
(o)Broomrape
(o)Buckthorn
(o)Buddleia
(o)Bur-reed
(o)Buttercup
(o)Butterwort
(o)Cornel (Dogwood)
(o)Crowberry
(o)Crucifer (Cabbage/Mustard) 1
(o)Crucifer (Cabbage/Mustard) 2
Cypress
(o)Daffodil
(o)Daisy
(o)Daisy Cudweeds
(o)Daisy Chamomiles
(o)Daisy Thistle
(o)Daisy Catsears
(o)Daisy Hawkweeds
(o)Daisy Hawksbeards
(o)Daphne
(o)Diapensia
(o)Dock Bistorts
(o)Dock Sorrels

WILD FLOWER FAMILY
PAGE MENU 2


(o)Clubmoss
(o)Duckweed
(o)Eel-Grass
(o)Elm
(o)Filmy Fern
(o)Horsetail
(o)Polypody
Quillwort
(o)Royal Fern
(o)Figwort - Mulleins
(o)Figwort - Speedwells
(o)Flax
(o)Flowering-Rush
(o)Frog-bit
(o)Fumitory
(o)Gentian
(o)Geranium
(o)Glassworts
(o)Gooseberry
(o)Goosefoot
(o)Grass 1
(o)Grass 2
(o)Grass 3
(o)Grass Soft Bromes 1
(o)Grass Soft Bromes 2
(o)Grass Soft Bromes 3 (o)Hazel
(o)Heath
(o)Hemp
(o)Herb-Paris
(o)Holly
(o)Honeysuckle
(o)Horned-Pondweed
(o)Hornwort
(o)Iris
(o)Ivy
(o)Jacobs Ladder
(o)Lily
(o)Lily Garlic
(o)Lime
(o)Lobelia
(o)Loosestrife
(o)Mallow
(o)Maple
(o)Mares-tail
(o)Marsh Pennywort
(o)Melon (Gourd/Cucumber)
 

WILD FLOWER FAMILY
PAGE MENU 3


(o)Mesem-bryanthemum
(o)Mignonette
(o)Milkwort
(o)Mistletoe
(o)Moschatel
Naiad
(o)Nettle
(o)Nightshade
(o)Oleaster
(o)Olive
(o)Orchid 1
(o)Orchid 2
(o)Orchid 3
(o)Orchid 4
(o)Parnassus-Grass
(o)Peaflower
(o)Peaflower Clover 1
(o)Peaflower Clover 2
(o)Peaflower Clover 3
(o)Peaflower Vetches/Peas
Peony
(o)Periwinkle
Pillwort
Pine
(o)Pink 1
(o)Pink 2
Pipewort
(o)Pitcher-Plant
(o)Plantain
(o)Pondweed
(o)Poppy
(o)Primrose
(o)Purslane
Rannock Rush
(o)Reedmace
(o)Rockrose
(o)Rose 1
(o)Rose 2
(o)Rose 3
(o)Rose 4
(o)Rush
(o)Rush Woodrushes
(o)Saint Johns Wort
Saltmarsh Grasses
(o)Sandalwood
(o)Saxifrage
 

WILD FLOWER FAMILY
PAGE MENU 4


Seaheath
(o)Sea Lavender
(o)Sedge Rush-like
(o)Sedges Carex 1
(o)Sedges Carex 2
(o)Sedges Carex 3
(o)Sedges Carex 4
(o)Spindle-Tree
(o)Spurge
(o)Stonecrop
(o)Sundew
(o)Tamarisk
Tassel Pondweed
(o)Teasel
(o)Thyme 1
(o)Thyme 2
(o)Umbellifer 1
(o)Umbellifer 2
(o)Valerian
(o)Verbena
(o)Violet
(o)Water Fern
(o)Waterlily
(o)Water Milfoil
(o)Water Plantain
(o)Water Starwort
Waterwort
(o)Willow
(o)Willow-Herb
(o)Wintergreen
(o)Wood-Sorrel
(o)Yam
(o)Yew

 

It is worth remembering that especially with roses that the colour of the petals of the flower may change - The following photos are of Rosa 'Lincolnshire Poacher' which I took on the same day in R.V. Roger's Nursery Field:-

x11rosalincolnshirepoacherflot9a

Closed Bud

x11rosalincolnshirepoacherflot92a

Opening Bud

x11rosalincolnshirepoacherflot93a

Juvenile Flower

x11rosalincolnshirepoacherflot94a

Older Juvenile Flower

x11rosalincolnshirepoacherflot95a

Middle-aged Flower - Flower Colour in Season in its
Rose Description Page is
"Buff Yellow, with a very slight pink tint at the edges in May-October."

x11rosalincolnshirepoacherflot96a

Mature Flower

x11rosalincolnshirepoacherflot97a

Juvenile Flower and Dying Flower

x11rosalincolnshirepoacherflot98a

Form of Rose Bush

There are 720 roses in the Rose Galleries; many of which have the above series of pictures in their respective Rose Description Page.

So one might avoid the disappointment that the 2 elephants had when their trunks were entwined instead of them each carrying their trunk using their own trunk, and your disappointment of buying a rose to discover that the colour you bought it for is only the case when it has its juvenile flowers; if you look at all the photos of the roses in the respective Rose Description Page!!!!

Ivydene Horticultural Services logo with I design, construct and maintain private gardens. I also advise and teach you in your own garden. 01634 389677

Site design and content copyright ©August 2019.
Chris Garnons-Williams.

DISCLAIMER: Links to external sites are provided as a courtesy to visitors. Ivydene Horticultural Services are not responsible for the content and/or quality of external web sites linked from this site.  

 

Picture Folder Name Pages:-

Since 14 June 2019 I have also started to put my own full-sized 4000 x 3000 digital Camera images into the relevant topics in this website again for use in the Public Domain - since there may
be 9 or more to a page the resulting 43Mb website page may take some time to load
. Since I have more than 26,522 photos using 111,460Mb of my disk space, then the extra upfront cost per annum before creating more folders like Photo coleus is just over 3.16 pence per photo has been paid for the total number in that entire photo collection before any are sent to the website.

It is hoped that you may find them of interest.

Ivydene Gardens Plant with Photo Index Gallery:
Page D 2. Photos of Damage to Trees in Pavement of Funchal and these are my solutions with background articles (Many cities in many countries may be experiencing the same problems as in Funchal, so you might find that looking at this section on Damage to Trees in Pavement of Funchal in its entirety for clarification and possible solutions; useful):-

"Solution to holes in trees.
Remove mesh covers and rot within the hole. Then blast the remaining rot with a high pressure water hose to try and clear more of the rot. Spray with Boron (a water based preservative kills only wood boring insects - not spiders, birds or bats) as a treatment for insect, wet and dry rot attack. While it is still wet, apply a layer of
Expanding Foam to the bottom of the hole. Immediately place bottles on this and allow to set for 5 minutes. Apply another layer of expanding foam and another layer of bottles. The aim of the bottles (you could use cullet instead) is to occupy space, they are not there as a deterrent. That is why the foam has to be in contact with the inside of the tree not the glass bottle. The poisons in the foam will kill anything eating it and the foam does stick better when wet with water. Keep up this operation until the hole is covered. 
Leave to set and then paint the foam surface twice with a recommended water-based, but not oil-based, sealant.

 

Solutions to stop creating holes in trees.
When a branch is cut off, remember to cut it off on the other side of the Branch Collar. (See Figure 1 - Optimum position of the final pruning cut in "Guide to Tree Pruning" by the Arboricultural Association which shows the branch collar within and outside the tree. My Comments: I disagree with their recommendation not to apply wound paint as you can see the result if you do not paint trees which are dehydrated, starved and gassed as these trees in the pavements of Madeira are.) 
Once that is done, then immediately apply Boron and 2 coats of protective sealant as used for holes in trees above.

 

Solution to current problem on these mosaic pavements:-
Carefully remove the existing marble mosaic, concrete, tarmac, or paver and the concrete/metal enclosures round the trees. If any further solid material like gravel, bricks, stones etc can be removed as well, then do so. Level the ground with sharp sand (Sharp sand is like pyramids which lock together, builder's sand is like ball bearings which displaces itself elsewhere if it can when downward pressure is applied to it). 
The time to execute the above and complete the refilling with sharp sand must be completed within 20 minutes, otherwise the exposed roots will dry up and die. 
It is useful to now water it to settle the sand and keep the roots wet. Put the roll of continuous geotextile over the top before laying down the
CEDAdrive slabs on 
top. Fill the slabs with the required colours of marble pea-shingle and leave a 3 inch (7.5 cm) gap between the trunk and the CEDAdrive section (Besides black 
and white marble, you can get many other colours). Spread Green Manure seed in the gap and cover to the same level as the top of the CEDAdrive with its pea-shingle; with sharp sand. The Green manure will provide a little nourishment for the tree and protection for the expanding trunk, together with protection from cigarettes. 
Further protection can be carried out by providing seating round the trunk, so that old fogeys like me can rest.
Pop-up irrigation water pipes can be supplied from these water manholes currently in the pavements and they can be set to irrigate each section in rotation from 
Midnight to 06:00 in the morning.
A dissolved mixture of seaweed, fully composted animal waste and fully worm composted human food waste from restaurants/hotels can be applied over a pavement an hour before that section is irrigated 3 times a year to provide the same fertilizer regime as practised by the gardeners at the Pestana Mirimar for that hotel's garden. The drained solids (bones, egg-shells and fish-heads can be crushed, and then added to the solids) from the above fertilizer solution can be applied over the sand between the tree and the CEDAdrive.
An alternative to using marble pea-shingle is Topmix Permeable Concrete within the CEDAdrive slabs. This would perform the same function as the marble pea-shingle, but it may be cheaper and quicker to use in other pavements. The depth of the Cedadrive slabs might have to be increased if traffic is allowed to cross or park on this type of pavement surface. At least the CEDAdrive slabs can flex, whereas concrete cannot.
An additional watering system, which would reduce flooding from the road water in towns:-
Since the land is being used up, then one could install my solution for mosaic pavements with Beany Block Kerb drainage solution as the concrete kerb of the road alongside. The drained water from the road and the front garden drives could be channeled into a 45 degree branch by Marley. The straight through section continues to the next Beany Block section. The 45 degree branch points at 45 degrees across the pavement and goes into a P trap gully with the outlet from that entering a French Drain to cross the pavement from the roadside to the the other side. This French Drain continues back across the pavement in a curve to another 45 degree branch to rejoin the water draining down the Beany Block drainage. If this French Drain gets blocked, then rodding can occur from the inspection chamber after the P trap gully to the 45 degree branch further down the hill. This system could be used for each tree that is in the pavement. This would considerabley reduce the volume of water going down storm drains, irrigate the trees and provide us with oxygen. Perhaps a ratio of 5 evergreen to 3 deciduous trees would provide year round interest from the foliage in new pavements and at least the evergreen trees could take up the water in the autumn and winter as well. This system could considerably reduce the rain flooding towns and villages by being absorbed in situ rather than traveling down to cause problems elsewhere.
If you are short of tree space, then use hedge beds the width of supplied evergreen hedging like privet of between 6-12 inches in beds of 2 metres (80 inches) in length and keep the hedge pruned to about 12 inches (30 cms) wide and shoulder height for ease of pruning. This hedge will also take that water. You can get a hedge panel that you simply attach to a post at each end and that means an instant hedge, see Hedging
.

 

Articles on

  • Branch Collar and the importance of leaving all of it while cutting off that branch; as shown above in this column
  • My repair to a 1300 year old yew tree in my church at the bottom of pages 1-12
  • Some of my work on trees using a chainsaw and chipper-shredder on page 13
  • Protective Dressing, Cavities and 'do not use plastic twine or wire to tie a plant' are at the bottom of pages 14-25 with Forked Leaders, also Terminal Bud and Dormant Branch Growth Bud.

    Details on Boron woodworm, wet and dry wood rot treatment on Page 16.

    The article on "I have copied the archived post below, because what is stated there is extremely important, since 99.99% of gardeners in the UK totally ignore the fact that plants require humus and think that double-digging is beneficial every year. That is why they are killing their soil and their plants do not grow well." and from its Comments in the row below it.
    "So why do you not use the companion planting cultivation method as further detailed in Companion Planting?
    You may follow this with the following which is normally used for the vegetable garden instead for your flower beds, rose beds and beds which currently have lawn/flower bed/trees/shrubs in them within public spaces and pavements:-
    "
    Spinach is sown in spring in rows 50cm apart over the whole vegetable garden area for the following
    purposes:
    • these rows divide the vegetable garden up for the whole year,
    • the spinach roots prevent erosion, so the usual paths between beds are omitted,
    • young spinach plants provide protection and shade for the vegetable crops to be grown between them,
    • spinach provides ideal material for sheet surface composting, which becomes an intermediate space, a footpath, and
    • it is in between these lines of spinach that the other vegetable varieties are arranged."
    • This could be used in the flower beds as the system between the permanent plants of trees, shrubs and perennials, which is where you may put bedding. This will also provide you with access to the bedding and the permanent plants together with the nitrogen fertilizer for the other plants from the legumes of spinach.
      You plant your bedding, bulbs or vegetables through the mulch between the lines of spinach. The damage you do to where you plant is fairly quickly repaired by the organisms in the surrounding soil, who each come into the level below the ground level where they normally reside, until they meet their relatives on the other side of the planting hole. The ecosystem is then restored.".
  • Tree 64 from pestana mirimar large tree with stumps and wires IMG 6383.JPG has the following solution for the ground surrounding these trees on page 17:-
    Funchal is building more and more on the land. The vegetation on this is being removed and replaced with concrete buildings and tarmaced roads. Neither concrete nor tarmac will convert carbon dioxide that we as animals breathe out into oxygen, which we require to live by. Vegetation also helps absorb the poisons produced by vehicles. It would be cheaper to cut these trees down and build a restaurant on the ground instead, but at some point, we the human race must take some responsibilty for the actions that we do and stop asphyxiating ourselves.
    Suggestion -
    • Remove the lawn and the flower bed plants leaving the trees and the ferns.
    • Mow the lawn and bed with a rotary mower and put the shreddings round the trees.
      • Use a strong Bulldog Premier Border Fork, Brown to lift the turf out of the ground and place this upside down along the edge of the ground with the pavement. Build this up to about 3 inches (7.5 cms) to act as an edging to the pond created when you apply the flood of the solids left over from the combined seaweed, animal manure, worm composted food - after the solutions to the trees and mosaic pavement have been executed. Use the same fork to take up the plants in the flower beds after they have been mown and put them upside down round the base of the trees up to 30 inches (75 cms) radius from the trunk. It is very important that this work done on the ground enclosed by the mosaic pavements is done by hand and not by machine. If you rotovated the lawn and flower beds you would cut through a vast majority of the feeder roots of these trees. When an area has been cleared, then before the break for mid-morning tea, lunch or going home, irrigate the land that has been cleared to prevent that ground from drying out and the roots then would die as well.
      • Mix Clover Seed Blend MAS-CLOo4 in wallpaper paste and spray it over the exposed portion of this upside-down turf edging and leave that as your permanent green edging to the ground enclosing these trees.
      • You could also use the same clover seed mix round the base of the remaining trees and shrubs/ferns up to 36 inches (90 cms) radius from the trunk edge over the shredded flower bed plants and grass mowings, so that the roots nearest the trees would not be disturbed in the future by digging.
    • Irrigate every 3 days with 0.5 inches (1.25 cm) depth of recommended seaweed, animal manure and worm composted hotel/restaurant leftovers for a month. This could start to improve these trees, so that they can stand for the treatment they will later receive. When the mosaic pavements have been replaced with a permeable pavement surface, then that pavement surface surface will require the same liquid irrigation as the ground it encloses.
    • Then after that month, get a professional firm to remove the existing bracing and replace it, including rods for the lowest part of Forked Leaders.
    • Then erect scaffolding so that any part of these trees can be treated with the solutions for the various problems. The scaffolding is supported on the pavements not on the ground round these trees.
    • Then start sorting the problems on the trees from the ground up. Keep the irrigation system going during this operation - irrigate between midnight and 06:00.
    • When all solutions have been executed, including the replacement of the mosaic pavements as the final one; then either
      • sow a green manure over the open ground and irrigate as before. Flood the green manure with a 3 inch (7.5 cm) depth of the solids left over from the combined seaweed, animal manure, worm composted food every 4 months and apply the new different green manure by spraying a solution of wallpaper paste and seeds on the surface of the mulch. Repeat this every 4 months.
      • or
      • sow lines of everlasting spinach over the site and irrigate as before. A succession of bulbs can be planted between these lines of spinach to provide flowers throughout the year. The lines of spinach could be replaced every 4 months or so (depending on the time when the next bulbs come up and the dead foliage of the previous ones can be removed) with a different green manure. The bulbs would take little nourishment or irrigation water. The irrigation water on the ground and on the replaced mosaic pavements could mostly be used by the trees who require this volume most of the year round.
  • "Ways to install trees at the bottom of pages 26-37 includes the following on watering - "Throughout the warm, summer weather, the tree will need the equivalent of 1 inch (2.5 cm) of rain per week and this water needs to be applied about twice each week (My Comments - since this is over the entire root area of this tree - which is at least the radius from the trunk of the height of the tree - then if the CEDAdrive slabs are used, apply 0.5 inchs (1.25 cms) of irrigation twice a week to that entire area).  Approximately 5-10 gallons (20 – 40 liters) of water is sufficient to moisten a 20-inch (50 cm) diameter root ball.  A 40-inch (100 cm) diameter root ball has more than twice the volume and would require 35-45 gallons (130 – 170 liters). 
    Another way to measure water need is with the following formula:   The tree needs 5 gallons minimum and 5 additional gallons per inch of diameter (DBH); hence a 3 inch DBH tree needs 20 gallons of water per week to equal 1 inch of rainfall, in other words, 5 gallons minimum + (3 X 5) 15 gallons = 20 gallons."
  • The Pruning and Maintenance of Mature Trees:
    • 'Lifting' or the removal of the lower branch systems,
    • Crown Thinning and
    • Crown Reduction
    • at the bottom of
      pages 38-45
  • Explaination of watersprouts and watershoots in the Watersprouts on Trees in Pavements in Funchal, Madeira Page. These should be removed from the trees since they are weakly joind to the branch/trunk from which they originated and are dangerous to use as supports for electricians or tree surgeons; as well as likely to fall down in a storm.
     

Plant Name with link to its page in Ivydene Gardens

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Type of Plant with Thumbnail

Comments
If the Image is copyrighted to
Garnons-Williams or Foord, then it is in the Public Domain and you may download it and use it. Many of the Images published within Ivydene Gardens have the copyright name appended to the Image filename.

Damage to Trees in Pavement of Funchal Page 16

Tree 63 from pestana mirimar juvenile tree
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Tree 63 from pestana mirimar juvenile tree
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Tree 62 from pestana mirimar view of road section towards mirimar
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Tree 64 from pestana mirimar large tree view of these trees IMG 6382.JPG

Tree 64 from pestana mirimar large tree view of this road section from the other end
IMG 6390.JPG

Tree 64 from pestana mirimar large tree with 3 bracing wires IMG 6386.JPG

Tree 64 from pestana mirimar large tree with bracing wire
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Tree 64 from pestana mirimar large tree with damaged trunk IMG 6384.JPG

Tree 64 from pestana mirimar large tree with damaged trunk IMG 6388.JPG

Tree 64 from pestana mirimar large tree with damaged trunk IMG 6389.JPG

Tree 64 from pestana mirimar large tree with loose bracing IMG 6380.JPG

Tree 63 is likely to die from its branch stump wounds

rIMG6369indextree63frompestanamirimarinfunchalgarnonswilliams

Photo 6370 for Tree 63 -
Trunk is rotting

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Photo 6368 for Tree 62 -
Loose bracing in this group of trees is a complete waste of time, as is the dehydration caused to the trees by the lawn.

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Photo 6382 for Tree 64 -

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Photo 6390 for Tree 64 -

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Photo 6386 for Tree 64 -

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Photo 6381 for Tree 64 -

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Photo 6384 for Tree 64 -

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Photo 6388 for Tree 64 -

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Photo 6389 for Tree 64 -

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Photo 6380 for Tree 64 -

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This juvenile tree has been planted in a small area of open ground. The pavement surrounding it is marble and concrete, so no rain or anything else will get to the ground under this pavement. There does not appear to be any irrigation for this
tree and the exposed soil is bone dry. This tree has been tied with plastic and the bottom tie goes round the trunk twice and is tight. This means that this trunk cannot expand at this point and will suffer because when the tree gets larger and this stake support is no longer functioning, then the tree willl snap at this point as shown in pages 14-25. This stake should only be attached to the trunk at about 18 inches (45 cms) to act to stop the tree from being pulled out of the ground.
Unfortunately with this support, the trunk will not flex until it is over the the top tie and therefore the lower trunk will not be as mechanically strong as the trunk above it. This tree started as a "feathered" tree and has been converted to a
"standard" tree. In between the 2 rubber/plastic ties, one can note that where these branches have been cut off that the callus has not covered the wound and that those wounds are now rotting. With the maintenance programme currently in vogue in Madeira, this tree trunk is going to be rotten before the stake support rots away. This will occur unless the tree becomes so dehydrated that it dies from that cause first.
A point in its favour, there seems to be a least a 20 inch (50 cm) gap between the trunk and the road surface, so that this tree if it survived could be 80 inches (200cms) in diameter before it's trunk meets the road.

Photo 6370 for Tree 63 -
I wonder if this was cut up bicycle tubing used for the ties. You can already see the rot of this branch stump going into the trunk.

Photo 6368 for Tree 62 -
These are the beginning 2 of a group of trees that are in real trouble. Let us start by looking at the bracing on this tree. It is the same problem on the others with the "karate effect" with using steel rope. When you look at the top of the tree there are braces going through the foliage from one trunk to another which are so loose that you can use them as swings instead. Cobra crown bracing could help sort this mess out.
This group of trees is in a bed which contains lawns, so that lawn is an item that should be got rid off since it absorbs all irrigation water and and nutrients in that irrigation water. Replace it with green manure seed and a 3 inch (7.5 cm) layer of the drained solids from the fertilizer. Before squashing this 4 month old green manure sow the next green manure crop and mulch it with a 3 inch layer of the drained solids from the fertilizer. Repeat this procedure every 4 months with a different green manure. The squashed green manure will break down and release its minerals etc to the tree roots and the growing green manure will provide nitrogen to the same tree roots free of charge.
It then has a mosaic pavement both sides of it which is marble or slabs embedded in concrete, so there is no access to water, nutrients or gas exchange. These mosaic pavements should be replaced with my solution for it, which is detailed
at the top of this page.
The other side of that wall with its yellow sides and red piping is a deep valley with cooking gas tanks for the hotel at the end of these trees.

Photo 6382 for Tree 64 -
Some of the damage to the first tree:-

  • This branch on the left has had
    • a forked leader of 3 trunks and as shown in the article on forked leaders at the bottom of this page, that is why the other 2 branches have sheared off. It is very kind not to do anything about it and allow this remaining branch to rot off
    • and an exposed branch stump which will rot.
  • The next branch also has an exposed branch stump, which will rot.
  • Missing out branch/trunk 3, one comes to trunk 4 which 1 of 2 trunks to form another forked leader of trunk 4 and trunk 3, where trunk 4 is a branch from trunk 3. Trunk 3 is also joined to other trunks below the junction with Trunk 4.
  • There are various holes rotting in Trunk 3.
  • In one of the other trunks joined at the base of this tree there is a large branch stump rotting into its trunk.

Some of the damage to the second tree:-

  • You can see the tear in the trunk at the forked leader on the left of the trunk where at least 1 if not 2 of these forked leaders have separated from the other 2. There is now a split in the trunk from that damage to the ground.
  • The 2 branches on the right are also a forked leader and there is a split in the trunk to the left of that forked leader pair.

Ignorance is bliss for these visitors and the 2 standing local inhabitants when in the presence of this Russian Roulette situation.

Photo 6390 for Tree 64 -
The large branch stump on the first tree on the left has dried out and is now splitting. The callus has hardly got anywhere probably because the branch collar was cut in half.
The next tree is a series of Forked Leaders. Branches have been cut off and these are drying out and starting to split. There is more damage from these branch stumps where the rot is going on in the trunks.

Photo 6386 for Tree 64 -
This brace is no longer doing anything, since it is currently not tensioned. A section of bark has gone from that trunk where the brace is attached to and there are cracks in the bark alongside indicating that bark is starting to separate from the trunk. If this continues round the trunk, then the trunk beyond it will die off. Sealant paint on the exposed heartwood and on the loose bark might save it.

The tree at the top of the photo also has a forked leader and there is damage to the topmost trunk, which may have been burnt.

Photo 6381 for Tree 64 -
There is a blackened snapped branch stump at the bottom and a blackened branch stump being supported by the branch below it on the left. A branch stump left from cutting the branch from the left to the right so that part of the branch collar was ripped off when this branch finally fell. This is now rotting and so is the trunk from which this branch came. The bark on the trunk is splitting away from the trunk and if this continues then that trunk will die above the light brown exposed heartwood. It does not help the tree that the 4 branch stumps to the right of that are also now rotting into the trunk.
To add to the joy, this trunk is one of 2 in a Forked Leader and so it is either this trunk will fall away from its other above it
in the Forked Leader pair or the rot will cause this trunk to fall off first. An additonal bit of news - there is a black patch of probable rot where these 2 trunks start to form the Forked Leader.
One has to congratulate the lack of any sort of tree maintenance program except for felling a tree if there is a problem or pollarding it when it has just been planted or you want to use it as a support for Christmas Lights in Funchal streets.

The brace on this trunk is not in line with the wire/rope to where it is attached to at the other end and the protective bark cover is not long enough. Perhaps it is too loose to act as a brace, since if it was under tension then the brace and its connection to the brace at the other end would occupy the least space - in other words a straight line.

Photo 6384 for Tree 64 -
This Forked Leader probably had 5 trunks branching off at this point and at least one of them has sheared off, tearing its branch collar. The wound has dried and is starting to split and the bark by this wound is separating from the trunk. I wonder if the black split from the wound to the ground is another start of those 2 trunks from ground level splitting apart. It might be that the 2 black holes indicate that this was a Forked Leader with the trunk at the bottom which came up between the trunks on either side and formed the trunk which has sheared away. There is a split down the bark between this middle trunk and the lower one. Is that going to join the lower black split and continue the process of splitting the lowest Forked Leader.

Besides filling in the black splits and the holes in the wound with expanding foam, then this wound requires its sealant coats, as well as coating over the graphiti on the upper trunk. It then needs to be decided how the various Forked Leaders on this tree are going to be supported to prevent them from shearing off in the future as well as using my other solutions for the mosaic pavements, ground round these trees, the holes in these trees and the braces.

Photo 6388 for Tree 64 -
There are many branch stump wounds and splits in the trunks on both of these trees. You can see 2 braces which are loose and therefore useless. You can see woodworm holes in one of the branch wounds. Some of the bark has split and separated from the heartwood - has it gone all the way round the trunk? The branch stump on the right has dried out and is splitting with the bark disappearing from it down the trunk and the bark on the trunk above it and to the right is now splitting, so the branch that goes from it to the left and up is straining the trunk that it comes from.

Having got woodworm or other insect attack, a safe method of treating that is to use:-

  • BORON ULTRA 12 - Surface Treatment of Woodworm and Dry Rot:-
    A unique Boron based Borax powder concentrate, ready to dissolve in water, designed to treat timber by brush, spray or dipping. It avoids the hazard problems of many liquid insecticides by using only water as a carrier. It can also be used in most wood preservation situations to replace other less ‘friendly’ contact type insecticides, including Permethrin. The Boron powder is dissolved in water to treat Woodworm at 5% (BAE), based on applying two coats by brush, or low pressure sprayer.
  • Benefits of Boron in water timber and masonry treatments
    * Boron has a world-wide safety reputation - Boron in water at 5% still require no hazard warnings
    * Boron in water has low toxicity - about the same as diluted Table Salt
    * Boron in water based preservative kills only wood boring insects - not spiders, birds or bats
    * Boron in water has no odour - leaves no smell
    * Boron does not evaporate - it stays in the wood
    * Boron Ultra 12 in water has a 1 hour re-entry time - the lowest for any insecticide
    * Borons are non-flammable - they actually act as Flame Retardants" from Boron.org.

It might be possible to follow this up by the use of No-Go Zone Paint on those areas not to be covered by bottles/expanding foam, but only bt wound sealant. No-Go Zone Paint is a specially green pigmented preservative biocidal emulsion paint designed to prevent the surface spread of Dry rot. Ideal for timber and masonry in the treatment of adjacent areas, to provide visual lasting evidence of treatment. It prevents surface spread of strands and mycelium. Having applied it, then the sealant can be applied over the top.

Photo 6389 for Tree 64 -
You could say that the trunks on the right have multiple branch stump wounds, 1 with woodworm, others splitting down the stump, bark splitting off the trunk and the trunk is splitting. You could say that this tree is in a very bad way. It is good to see cabling (telephone?) through the foliage above this rotting trunk.
The branch on the extreme right has split.

There is no need to worry - the government of Madeira has this situation under control.

Photo 6380 for Tree 64 -
Tree 64 from pestana mirimar large tree with loose bracing IMG 6380.JPG
The first brace on the left is loose. The second brace is also loose and it crosses over the trunk, which has the other end of the first brace above it. The second brace if it was under correct tension is pushing this trunk it crosses out from the vertical. The third brace which starts above the other braces on the same trunk is under tension. If the braces were all under tension, then braces 1 and 3 pull against each other and brace 2 pulls at ninety degrees to the other 2.
Each of these trunks have branch stump wounds and 3 of them have bark splitting down the trunk.

"Cables are placed to provide support to weak limbs. Rods can be inserted in weak fork unions usually in conjunction with cables higher in the crown. " from Heritage Arboriculture.

I have been to see the Ministry of Tourism, since that is where I was directed by the Customer Relations staff of the timeshares I was staying in. I managed to have a talk with one lady and started to point out the problems with the trees outside her office in the centre of Funchal. Within a few minutes, she left her office to go to a meeting with her colleagues on some other matter. Perhaps tourists should mind their own business and not pester the government when they have the situation under control.

Damage to Trees in Pavement of Funchal Page 17

Tree 64 from pestana mirimar large tree with stumps and end of brace
IMG 6374.JPG

Tree 64 from pestana mirimar large tree with stumps and wires
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Tree 64 from pestana mirimar large tree with stumps and wires
IMG 6372.JPG

Tree 64 from pestana mirimar large tree with stumps and wires
IMG 6373.JPG

Tree 64 from pestana mirimar large tree with stumps and wires IMG 6379.JPG

Tree 64 from pestana mirimar large tree with stumps and wires IMG 6376.JPG

Tree 64 from pestana mirimar large tree with stumps and wires IMG 6378.JPG

Tree 64 from pestana mirimar large tree with stumps and wires IMG 6383.JPG

Tree 64 from pestana mirimar large tree with stumps and wires IMG 6385.JPG

Tree 65 from pestana mirimar large tree with stumps and bracing wires IMG 6391.JPG

Photo 6374 for Tree 64 -

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Photo 6371 for Tree 64 -

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Photo 6372 for Tree 64 -

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104 - Photo 6373 for Tree 64 -

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105 - Photo 6379 for Tree 64 -

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106 - Photo 6376 for Tree 64 -

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107 - Photo 6378 for Tree 64 -

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108 - Photo 6383 for Tree 64 -

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109 - Photo 6385 for Tree 64 -

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110 - Photo 6391 for Tree 65 -

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Photo 6374 for Tree 64 -

This and the following problems are detailed in Plant with Photo Index Gallery and with the Camera Photo and Index Photo combination within its page.


If we start in the bottom left hand corner, there is a dying branch coming from the trunk along the bottom with its bark separating from it. Moving up the trunk we see multiple branch stumps, some which were cut and others broken off. They are splitting and rotting. Going past the brace, we discover more branch stumps and a forked leader. The lower of the 2 trunks in the forked leader is starting to split away from the other and is dying with some bark fallen off and some split and other sections separated from the trunk. This will fall off.
The top right hand side has another forked leader that has split off leaving the lower jagged edges and the other trunk at the top has 2 branch stumps.

This section of the tree is in serious danger of falling down.

Photo 6371 for Tree 64 -
A series of branch stumps, some have dried and started to split and others have started to rot on both the first and second trunk. It also looks as if the first trunk braces 2 other trunks/branches above where these branch stumps are rotting towards that first trunk.

Photo 6372 for Tree 64 -
Branch stumps rotting into the trunk. Trunk Leader on the right is dying off where the bark has split and is separating from the lighter brown trunk. It could be rotting trunk stumps of a Forked Leader on the left.

How deep the rot in the this trunk is cannot be seen; nor the rot in stumps of the Forked Leader behind it.

Photo 6373 for Tree 64 -
The callus on this branch stump has attempted to cover the wound caused by undercutting and then overcutting and then the branch/trunk snapped off. That snapped off area is now starting to rot.

Bad pruning practice in cutting off a large branch at only 1 place. It should have been undercut 40 inches (100 cm) away and then overcut 39 inches (97.5 cm) away to get rid of the main weight. Then undercut at 9 inches (21.5 cm) and overcut at 8 inches (20 cm) to lower the remaining weight. Then cut through beyond the branch collar where the remaining weight is minimal and should not cause tearing or snapping. Roping the branch section to be cut and lowering it once cut is safer for the tree and the people below. 2 ropes are required so that the cut branch stays in the same position that it was and then one person can allow their rope to go up and the other can pull on his rope to guide the cut branch to where it is required on the ground for cutting up. These ropes are in addition to the safety rope for the climber cutting this branch so that if he falls then the rope will stop him damaging the ground.

Photo 6379 for Tree 64 -
Multiple trunk stump damage. This heart-shaped rotting into the trunk damage was likely to have been 2 out of 4 in a Forked Leader, who have split away from the other 2. Besides the rot into the trunk, there are also woodworm holes in the trunk stumps of the Forked Leader.

Boron solution against woodworm is one of the solutions that need to be applied; together with a rod brace and cable above it for the remaining Forked Leader trunks.

Photo 6376 for Tree 64 -
A possible Forked Leader of 3 trunks at the bottom of the photo. One of the 3 has been cut off and is now rotting into the other 2 trunks. There is sufficient rot in the junction of the remaining 2 trunks of this Forked Leader to provide space for the roots of this new tree.
There is more damage in these 2 trunks as you go to the top of the photo, which may lead to their death from the bark separating from the trunks all the way round.

Photo 6378 for Tree 64 -
This is an example of a Forked Leader where one of the trunks has split off from the other. The wounded section on the remaining trunk is drying and rotting. There is a line of stress cracks in the bark above the juncture of the Forked Leader. There is a damaged branch in the middle of the top of this photo.

Photo 6383 for Tree 64 -
You can see splits in the trunks of the 3 trees of the same type in this photo.

Funchal is building more and more on the land. The vegetation on this is being removed and replaced with concrete buildings and tarmaced roads. Neither concrete nor tarmac will convert carbon dioxide that we as animals breathe out into oxygen, which we require to live by. Vegetation also helps absorb the poisons produced by vehicles. It would be cheaper to cut these trees down and build a restaurant on the ground instead, but at some point, we the human race must take some responsibilty for the actions that we do and stop asphyxiating ourselves.
Suggestion -

  • Remove the lawn and the flower bed plants leaving the trees and the ferns.
  • Mow the lawn and bed with a rotary mower and put the shreddings round the trees.
    • Use a strong Bulldog Premier Border Fork, Brown to lift the turf out of the ground and place this upside down along the edge of the ground with the pavement. Build this up to about 3 inches (7.5 cms) to act as an edging to the pond created when you apply the flood of the solids left over from the combined seaweed, animal manure, worm composted food - after the solutions to the trees and mosaic pavement have been executed. Use the same fork to take up the plants in the flower beds after they have been mown and put them upside down round the base of the trees up to 30 inches (75 cms) radius from the trunk. It is very important that this work done on the ground enclosed by the mosaic pavements is done by hand and not by machine. If you rotovated the lawn and flower beds you would cut through a vast majority of the feeder roots of these trees. When an area has been cleared, then before the break for mid-morning tea, lunch or going home, irrigate the land that has been cleared to prevent that ground from drying out and the roots then would die as well.
    • Mix Clover Seed Blend MAS-CLOo4 in wallpaper paste and spray it over the exposed portion of this upside-down turf edging and leave that as your permanent green edging to the ground enclosing these trees.
    • You could also use the same clover seed mix round the base of the remaining trees and shrubs/ferns up to 36 inches (90 cms) radius from the trunk edge over the shredded flower bed plants and grass mowings, so that the roots nearest the trees would not be disturbed in the future by digging.
  • Irrigate every 3 days with 0.5 inches (1.25 cm) depth of recommended seaweed, animal manure and worm composted hotel/restaurant leftovers for a month. This could start to improve these trees, so that they can stand for the treatment they will later receive. When the mosaic pavements have been replaced with a permeable pavement surface, then that pavement surface surface will require the same liquid irrigation as the ground it encloses.
  • Then after that month, get a professional firm to remove the existing bracing and replace it, including rods for the lowest part of Forked Leaders.
  • Then erect scaffolding so that any part of these trees can be treated with the solutions for the various problems. The scaffolding is supported on the pavements not on the ground round these trees.
  • Then start sorting the problems on the trees from the ground up. Keep the irrigation system going during this operation - irrigate between midnight and 06:00.
  • When all solutions have been executed, including the replacement of the mosaic pavements as the final one; then either
    • sow a green manure over the open ground and irrigate as before. Flood the green manure with a 3 inch (7.5 cm) depth of the solids left over from the combined seaweed, animal manure, worm composted food every 4 months and apply the new different green manure by spraying a solution of wallpaper paste and seeds on the surface of the mulch. Repeat this every 4 months.
    • or
    • sow lines of everlasting spinach over the site and irrigate as before. A succession of bulbs can be planted between these lines of spinach to provide flowers throughout the year. The lines of spinach could be replaced every 4 months or so (depending on the time when the next bulbs come up and the dead foliage of the previous ones can be removed) with a different green manure. The bulbs would take little nourishment or irrigation water. The irrigation water on the ground and on the replaced mosaic pavements could mostly be used by the trees who require this volume most of the year round.

Photo 6385 for Tree 64 -
More damage to these trunks, including 1 where a third of the bark has gone exposing the heartwood. This heartwood is drying and splitting, prior to rotting.
At least this brace looks under tension.
I wonder if the 2 trunks on the left are supporting the third trunk at 45 degrees; towards this pair.

Photo 6391 for Tree 65 -
The 2 lower braces are under tension whereas the upper third one is not (Health and Safety regulations for children's swings would probably state that the distance from this swing to the ground could be a problem if a child fell off it).
There are unsealed branch stumps and heavy damage down the trunks of 2 of the trunks.
It might be more helpful for this tree in replacing the plants in the flower bed surrounding it with clover green manure and the same irrigation system as for the trees above.

Damage to Trees in Pavement of Funchal Page 18

Tree 65 from pestana mirimar large tree with stumps and bracing wires IMG 6392.JPG

Tree 65 from pestana mirimar large tree with stumps and bracing wires IMG 6393.JPG

Tree 65 from pestana mirimar large tree with stumps and bracing wires IMG 6394.JPG

Tree 65 from pestana mirimar large tree with stumps and bracing wires IMG 6395.JPG

Tree 68 from pestana mirimar by information centre IMG 6397.JPG

Tree 68 from pestana mirimar with holes by information centre IMG 6398.JPG

Tree 68 from pestana mirimar with holes by information centre IMG 6399.JPG

Tree 68 from pestana mirimar with holes by information centre IMG 6400.JPG

Tree 68 from pestana mirimar with holes by information centre IMG 6401.JPG

Tree 68 from pestana mirimar with holes by information centre view next road section
IMG 6402.JPG

Tree 69 from pestana mirimar with holes by information centre view next road section IMG 6403.JPG

111 - Photo 6392 for Tree 65 -

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112 - Photo 6393 for Tree 65 -

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113 - Photo 6394 for Tree 65 -

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114 - Photo 6395 for Tree 65 -

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115 - Photo 6397 for Tree 68 -

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116 - Photo 6398 for Tree 68 -

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117 - Photo 6399 for Tree 68 -

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118 - Photo 6400 for Tree 68 -

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119 - Photo 6401 for Tree 68 -

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120 - Photo 6402 for Tree 68 -

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121 - Photo 6403 for Tree 69 -

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Photo 6392 for Tree 65 -
Close up of the damage down the trunks of the top 2 of trunks of the previous photo. You can see in the other tree within the background that one of the 2 in a Forked Leader has been removed before the natural splitting would have occurred.

Photo 6393 for Tree 65 -
Why is there vertical splits in the first trunk? There is damage on the branch stumps of the next 3 trunks which are starting to rot into the trunks. The rot on the third trunk has extended down the trunk and the bark has started to split - does this indicate that this trunk is part of a Forked Leader and is starting the process of splitting apart helped by the rot above it?

Photo 6394 for Tree 65 -
There is a branch stump on the right hand side of the middle trunk and it is possible that the rot has started from there and is splitting the bark off lower down the trunk to the left. If this continues round this trunk then that trunk will die.
There are other branch stump wounds which also need attention.

Photo 6395 for Tree 65 -
I wonder if this was a Forked Leader with 4 trunks arising at this point, 3 of which have been cut off and the fourth snapped off. This left 3 more trunks, the middle of which is now rotting.

Perhaps put a rod through the 2 trunks and the third rotten one. Apply boron to the rot in the third trunk and the 4 stump rot. Apply wound sealant to the rotten trunk with the 4 branch stump and apply a brace further up the remaining 2 trunks to prevent these trunks with its new rod from splitting apart.

Photo 6397 for Tree 68 -
There is a hole and rot is deeply within the right hand trunk of this tree.

Photo 6398 for Tree 68 -
This branch stump has rotted well into the trunk.

Photo 6399 for Tree 68 -
This branch stump has rotted well into the trunk. 3 other branches have been snapped off at the trunk. There is a long branch stump which has rotted into the trunk to the right of the other. There are widening cracks in the bark above and below the first hole in the trunk.

Photo 6400 for Tree 68 -
This is the long branch stump stated in the last photo.
Note that this tree has a small area of open ground round its trunks and that is surrounded by grass bounded by a mosaic pavement of marble pointed in concrete. The yellow vehicle in the background is bus doing its round in Funchal.

Photo 6401 for Tree 68 -
Damaged branch stump wounds on both trunks. The first one on the lower trunk has rotted into the trunk.

Photo 6402 for Tree 68 -
Old tree now in a small enclosed space of open ground and that tree is surrounded by tarmac, or mosaic of marble pointed with concrete.
You can see that in the next section of mosaic pavement that there is open ground; and this looks as if the earth was higher by the depth of marble chips embedded in the earth. Rain could filter in the earth between the mosaic and so could the gaseous exchange. The fallen leaves could taken into the ground by earthworms to provide a little nourishment.
This new pavement totally stops that and so less than 1% of the roots of this old tree now has access via open ground to rain, etc., whereas before it probably had at least 40% of its roots with access. Difficult to see how this tree can survive man's inhumanity to trees!!!
The building on the right has currently become the Royal Savoy.

Photo 6403 for Tree 69 -
Turning round one can see the new mosaic pavement of marble chips pointed in concrete on a bed of concrete. Safe to walk on but death to roots of trees.

It is cheap to kill these trees in the pavements between the Cathedral and The Forum Shopping Centre in Funchal, but would cost millions if my suggestions were followed to save them.
Madeira is the Portuguese for wood - does that mean anything to the native population?

Damage to Trees in Pavement of Funchal Page 19

Tree 70 from pestana mirimar branch stump with holes dehydration IMG 6404.JPG

Tree 70 from pestana mirimar branch stump with holes dehydration IMG 6405.JPG

Tree 71 from pestana mirimar IMG 6407.JPG

Tree 71 from pestana mirimar IMG 6408.JPG

Tree 72 from pestana mirimar IMG 6409.JPG

Tree 72 from pestana mirimar IMG 6410.JPG

Tree 72 from pestana mirimar IMG 6411.JPG

Tree 73 from pestana mirimar IMG 6412.JPG

Tree 73 from pestana mirimar IMG 6413.JPG

Tree 73 from pestana mirimar IMG 6414.JPG

Tree 74 from pestana mirimar IMG 6417.JPG

122 - Photo 6404 for Tree 70 -

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123 - Photo 6405 for Tree 70 -

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124 - Photo 6407 for Tree 71 -

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125 - Photo 6408 for Tree 71 -

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126 - Photo 6409 for Tree 72 -

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127 - Photo 6410 for Tree 72 -

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128 - Photo 6411 for Tree 72 -

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129 - Photo 6412 for Tree 73 -

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130 - Photo 6413 for Tree 73 -

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131 - Photo 6414 for Tree 73 -

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132 - Photo 6417 for Tree 74 -

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Photo 6404 for Tree 70 -
Branch stump is drying out and splitting. What causes these holes - is it lack of irrigation?

Photo 6405 for Tree 70 -
Branch stumps drying out and splitting.

Photo 6407 for Tree 71 -
4 branch stumps rotting into the trunks and bark is splitting away from one of the trunks.

Photo 6408 for Tree 71 -
This is a view of the old mosaic pavement from the other end of the view in Photo IMG 6402. So it looks as though a skim of concrete will be laid and then a mosaic pavement embeddded in it before that is pointed with concrete to resemble the new pavement in Photo IMG 6402 on Page 18 outside the new hotel Royal Savoy. This new pavement has no benefit for the old trees which have been in that pavement for years.

Photo 6409 for Tree 72 -
Serious length branch stump damage including 2 areas where it has rotted into the trunk. There are other branch stumps that require attention. These light brown or pink branches are watersprouts and should be removed. Perhaps the electricians putting up the lights think that watersprouts being more vertical than new branches; will eventually produce a better lighting display and therefore leave these watersprouts for later use.

Photo 6410 for Tree 72 -
Branch stump is now rotting well into the trunk. Note the juvenile branch growing on the left.

Photo 6411 for Tree 72 -
This is the base layer of concrete for the new mosaic pavement layer of marble/concrete above it.
There is a hole in the trunk.

Photo 6412 for Tree 73 -
There is a deep hole of rot in this trunk. The cavity created is splitting the bark above and below the entry hole.

Photo 6413 for Tree 73 -
These 3 branch stumps are now rotting into the trunk.

Photo 6414 for Tree 73 -
Damage to bark on trunk - no sign of branch stump. Could this be the result of carved graphiti and then the section inside the carving has died off and fallen off? The result is a drying and splitting trunk, which will lead to it rotting and the tree falling down.

Photo 6417 for Tree 74 -
How far has the cavity extended from this branch stump? The trunk on the left is starting to shed bark and the bark is splitting apart.

This tree is in serious trouble.

Damage to Trees in Pavement of Funchal Page 20

Tree 74 from pestana mirimar IMG 6418.JPG

Tree 74 from pestana mirimar IMG 6419.JPG

Tree 74 from pestana mirimar IMG 6420.JPG

Tree 75 from pestana mirimar IMG 6421.JPG

Tree 75 from pestana mirimar IMG 6422.JPG

Tree 76 from pestana mirimar IMG 6423.JPG

Tree 77 from pestana mirimar IMG 6425.JPG

Tree 77 from pestana mirimar IMG 6426.JPG

Tree 78 from pestana mirimar IMG 6427.JPG

Tree 78 from pestana mirimar IMG 6428.JPG

Tree 78 from pestana mirimar IMG 6429.JPG

133 - Photo 6418 for Tree 74 -

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134 - Photo 6419 for Tree 74 -

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135 - Photo 6420 for Tree 74 -

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136 - Photo 6421 for Tree 75 -

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137 - Photo 6422 for Tree 75 -

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138 - Photo 6423 for Tree 76 -

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139 - Photo 6425 for Tree 77 -

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140 - Photo 6426 for Tree 77 -

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141 - Photo 6427 for Tree 78 -

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142 - Photo 6428 for Tree 78 -

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143 - Photo 6429 for Tree 78 -

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Photo 6418 for Tree 74 -
There are 4 branch stumps here. The one facing us has rotted into the trunk and the cavity goes up and down. The next branch stump up the trunk is splitting and one of those splits could indicate that it is separating from the trunk and it may have joined the cavity of the one below. Below the main branch stump the trunk is splitting apart.

This trunk is seriously weakened.

Photo 6419 for Tree 74 -
This branch stump is rotting into the trunk. The callus formed to protect this tree wound has rotted and split apart. The bark is splitting above and below this branch stump.

This trunk is rotting and splitting apart.

Photo 6420 for Tree 74 -
There are 5 branch stumps visible on this trunk with one detailed in the previous photo. This trunk is in a seriously weakened condition.
The trunk on the left of this one has a forked leader of 4 trunks - 1 of which has been cut off. These need rods and braceing cables above the forked leader junction. 3 Watersprouts or Dormant Branch Growth Buds creating new branches arise from the same area of one of these trunks - I suspect 2 are watersprouts and the third larger diameter one comes from a Dormant Branch Growth Bud. The 2 watersprouts require removal.

Page 23 of The Pruning of Trees, Shrubs and Conifers by
George E. Brown. ISBN 0-571-11084-3 states this about Terminal Bud and Dormant Branch Growth Bud:-
"The impression may be given that the formation of a branch system in a young tree is to a certain extent accidental. This is not so. The buds on a stem or twig are dominated by the terminal bud. This bud reduces the vigour of the remainder; in fact, those near the base often do not develop but remain dormant. They may remain in this condition for many years, perhaps throughout the life of the tree. However, should a break or a pruning cut be made in the upper portion, these lower buds may develop and grow out. It should be noted that dormant buds often keep pace with the developing stem over the years, ready to break out should the need arise."

Photo 6421 for Tree 75 -
The branch on the right has branch stump wounds. These are rotting into each trunk of this Forked Leader. Repair work is required.

Photo 6422 for Tree 75 -
This branch stump wound is rotting into the trunk. Like other branch stump wounds, they all require to be repaired before the tree falls down.

Photo 6423 for Tree 76 -
This branch stump wound is quite old, since not only is the trunk rotting but also the callus that was trying to protect it. When you do not protect branch stumps, then from these photos you can see the result. I did not look at every tree in the pavements between the Cathedral and The Forum - I got pissed off once I got past the Royal Savoy and up the hill from Funchal roundabout and thought is anyone going to be interested in what I have to say in trying to save these trees and wasting most of my timeshare time taking photos of their condition. So far, the result is zilch and I will review the situation when I see it again - If the result is still zilch, I will try and persuade my wife to cancel and never come back, since you can lead a horse to water, but you cannot make it drink (in other words visitors and the native population could have the branches or trunks of these trees fall on them as happened at that religious festival.).

Photo 6425 for Tree 77 -
The cavities in these 2 branch stumps are quite deep, thus weakening this trunk.

Photo 6426 for Tree 77 -
Note this car is parked on the mosaic pavement on the roots of this tree behind the main tree that confronts us. This has watersprouts from at least 1 branch stump. The lowest branch of this light brown tree has a long hole in it where rot is weakening it.

High Containment Kerbs could stop cars/lorries/vans etc parking on the mosaic pavements. Provide on road parking for those vehicles who want to make deliveries or go shopping and stop this further damage to these trees.
These could also be used to stop taxis parking on the pavement and the group of trees from 46 to 55 to stop them from hitting their trunks.

There are branch stumps rotting into the trunk of blackish colour trees on both sides of this road.

Photo 6427 for Tree 78 -
This is where we have an abundance of watersprouts. One was cut off and so it retaliated by producing 2 more from its stump.

Photo 6428 for Tree 78 -
No branch stump can be seen. Perhaps carved graphiti then killed off the enclosed bark, which then fell off and the exposed heartwood is drying out and splitting.

Photo 6429 for Tree 78 -
3 exposed heartwood from 3 branch stumps, where both are drying a nd splitting and one has started to rot into the trunk. The third seems to have a dormant branch growth bud beside it, which is growing well.

Damage to Trees in Pavement of Funchal Page 21

Tree 78 from pestana mirimar IMG 6431.JPG

Tree 78 from pestana mirimar view next road section
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Tree 79 from pestana mirimar on opposite side of road
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Tree 79 from pestana mirimar on opposite side of road
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Tree 79 from pestana mirimar on opposite side of road
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Tree 80 from pestana mirimar in mirimar front garden
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Tree 80 from pestana mirimar in mirimar front garden
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Tree 80 from pestana mirimar in mirimar front garden
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Tree 80 from pestana mirimar on opposite side of road
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Trees 66 and 67 from pestana mirimar pollarded by information centre
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Trees in pavement from junction of 2 roads to forum
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144 - Photo 6431 for Tree 78 -

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145 - Photo 6432 for Tree 78 -

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146 - Photo 6434 for Tree 79 -

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147 - Photo 6435 for Tree 79 -

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148 - Photo 6436 for Tree 79 -

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149 - Photo 6439 for Tree 80 -

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150 - Photo 6441 for Tree 80 -

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151 - Photo 6442 for Tree 80 -

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152 - Photo 6438 for Tree 80 -

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153 - Photo 6396 for Trees 66 and 67 -

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154 - Photo 6114 for Trees in pavement -

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Photo 6431 for Tree 78 -
3 of the 6 branch stumps are rotting into the trunk.

One of the branch stumps was broken off leaving some of the internal part of the Branch Collar. The lowest new branch from that stump is from below the break and could well have come from a Dormant Branch Growth Bud on the branch that was snapped off. The one above it is a watersprout where it straddles the Branch Collar and the outside bark and is only grown from the one-cell cambium layer.

The other thicker new branch probably comes from a Dormant Branch Growth Bud.

Photo 6432 for Tree 78 -
Note that the top of the concrete surround of each tree is elevated above the pavement thus ensuring that no rainwater or other water can enter the open ground round these trees.

Most of the white section and the black section of mosaic pavement on the right is marble pointed with concrete. There are sections in the white part of the mosaic pavement between the 2 black sections which have green vegetation between the marble pieces and some marble pieces are missing and probably exposing the ground underneath. It would appear that as repairs are made to the mosaic pavement, the marble is pointed with concrete rather than earth. Use my solution for the mosaic pavement and then the roots of these trees would return to having access to the rain and irrigation as well as gaseous exchange; that they had before.

The metal railing is another way of preventing vehicles parking or using the pavement rather than the High Containment Kerbs.

Photo 6434 for Tree 79 -
Whether the black section extending upwards and to the left was another branch or not, perhaps a firework landed in this area and burnt the bark off this section of tree. The result is blackened bark with drying, splitting and some rotting of the heartwood underneath.

Photo 6435 for Tree 79 -
The extensive rot in the cavity of this branch stump has progressed from the the right side of it up to the top round the edge of the branch collar and then beyond the branch collar on its way below the original branch.

When you take into account this damage with the damage to the branch above it on the left which has been detailed in the photo before this one, then the ant population walking over this tree would have cause for concern, since they do not yet possess parachutes.

Photo 6436 for Tree 79 -
One of 2 in a Forked Leader has fallen away, the branch stumps have not been sealed and from a branch stump you can see wispy watersprouts. There are 2 long branches crossing over each other and the higher one is resting on the lower where it forms a fork with a branch coming up. The trunk which the other branch is resting on is the bottom one of the pair in a Forked Leader, which is threatening to fall apart.

Rod and cable bracing is required and the branch resting in the fork requires cutting back in stages, until it reaches about 6-12 inches (15-30 cms) from the branch that extends from it up into the air leaving its branch collar undamaged.

Looking at this photo in detail on the 11 November 2019 at 05:53 in the morning, I have located these problems with the crossing branches and Forked Leader. Can the people of Madeira realise why I stopped taking yet more detailed photos as I saw more and more damage to very nearly every tree planted in these pavements and realised that you do not worry about the safety of your population or your visitors in your cavalier attitude to this Russian Roulette situation. Your response is to do the worst possible in the management of these trees on every level - if I had planted a tree with a major crossing branch on it, I would have been sacked and told to get an expert in to replace it with a better tree.
I was building a walkway all the way round a 25 feet ellipsed lawn, with a pergola on it bounding two-thirds of the ellipse. Pleached trees would provide the shade on the top of it and climbers on the bowed upwards pergola sections at each end. I bought the wood to bend it in water within the garden and tried to make the bows. The bows did not survive the bending. I ended up paying a boat-builder several thousands of pounds out of my own pocket for them to create them. The client was pleased with the result and I was poorer, but at least I had done my side of the job in a professionally sorted out way.

Photo 6439 for Tree 80 -
This foliage you can see on the top of a tree just inside Pestana Mirimar front garden has been produced during the year from January 2018 to February 2019.

Photo 6441 for Tree 80 -
This is looking up at this new foliage shown in the previous photo. You can see on the trunk on the left hand side the beginnings of a new branch from a Dormant Branch Growth Bud. It has other branches growing from it but due to lack of water because that is being used by the other new foliage and the fact that it is in the shade, it does not have any leaves on it and is likely to die off. It appears that there are big branches growing from the trunk stumps but we will have to see what type of branches they are in later photos.

Photo 6442 for Tree 80 -
If we look at the 3 large diameter branches coming from the trunk on the left we can see that trunk 1 and trunk 3 are joined together from a Dormant Branch Growth Bud. Whether trunk 2 is part of it we do not know. This has created a Forked Leader and the branch collar of the junction to the trunk is non-existent on 1 side. There seems to a split already occurring between the branch collar of the trunk and this Forked Leader.

If we look at the same diameter new branch on the right hand side of this trunk, we see that the branch collar has extended itself from the trunk and that it creates a strong bond with the new branch. Some green and light brown watersprouts have sprung up round and to the right of it.

You will also note that the bark has repeatedly split to reveal lighter brown new bark underneath. That is this year's new growth of the trunk to form it's annual ring eventually and is due to the fact that this tree is irrigated on a regular basis. You do not notice this effect on the old trees in the pavements between the Cathedral and The Forum because they are not irrigated and even if they were then less than 1% of their roots could possibly take that water up. Even this is unlikely since the main roots going out from the trunk are usually the lateral roots which are used to stabilise the tree. Once these have extended and done their job, feeder roots are then sent out to obtain the water, nutrients and do the gaseous exchange. Once the earth in which those feeder roots usually growing beyond the drip line have no further water, nutrients and they are gassinging themselves from its exuding carbon dioxide and nitrogen, then those feeder roots die off and new ones are created where conditions are favourable.
Having the pavement now of marble pointed with concrete, then no water, or any further supplies of humus or nourishment and the gaseous exchange stops for over 99% of the tree root system with the following results:-

  • That is why you are unlikely to see splits in the bark with new bark in the split for most trees in pavements. Those trees have to rely on the leaves catching the rain and transmitting it down to the roots, or for the roots to break into a drain, the roots to go into the road to get the rainwater from the other side of the kerbs or into a garden alongside by going under the wall to the soil on the other side. Now most front gardens in the UK are converted into driveways with concrete pavers and the rain is diverted off them into the public storm drain system in the road outside leaving nothing for the trees in the pavement.
  • Nutrients for the tree is obtained by sacrificing a lower branch and removing its useful parts to grow a new branch further up the tree. The leaves falling off the tree are lost to the tree, since there is no way it can take its roots and sweep the surface of the pavement and road to get them for consumption via earthworms and organisms in the soil. Those earthworms and organisms in the soil will have died off or moved elsewhere since there food and water have also gone.

Photo 6438 for Tree 80 -
Watersprouts are growing from branch stumps and a black branch stump is rotting inside each of the trunks 1 and 2, but it is not know if trunks 3 and 4 also branch stumps rotting in their trunks.

Photo 6396 for Trees 66 and 67 -
The trees within the building site for the Royal Savoy have been pollarded and are growing a mixture of watersprouts from the trunk stumps and new branches from Dormant Branch Growth Buds. This harmful practice of pollarding instead of pruning and leaving a branch to take over the terminal lead (Dormant Branch Growth Buds would also have been released to grow from this correct pruning procedure). The new watersprouts are a future safety disaster for the hotel visitors, since its gardeners will not know how to deal with it. The pollarding procedure has also been followed on very old olive trees planted in this new hotel space at the other end to produce the same result of watersprouts and valid branches from Dormant Branch Growth Buds. It does produce trees that look as if they are green pom-poms at the end of branches to provide the illusion of trees but not stop the vision from the hotel. It also stops the hotel from looking enclosed.

We will of course forget about the unprotected branch/trunk stumps, forked leaders, lawn grass depriving these trees of water and nutrients and other damage on the trunks of these trees.

Photo 6114 for Trees in pavement -
Note that the bus is within a short distance from the centre of the road and that the trees have been pruned by its roof.

These trees planted in the pavement next to this new road created between the Hotel Pestana Promenade and the main road leading to tThe Forum shopping centre have considerably more green foliage than many of the older trees in the pavements between the Cathedral and The Forum. These trees are irrigated whereas the others are not. If the concrete pavers were replaced with my solution and irrigation system, then these trees would be healthy and grow very well.

 

 

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Photo 6055 for Tree 98 on
Page 27 -

 

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PERHAPS REPLACEMENT OF ALL THE TREES IN THESE PAVEMENTS USING TREES GROWN BY BARCHAM USING THEIR LIGHT POT SYSTEM WOULD BE SAFER FOR THE VISITING AND NATIVE POPULATION. IF SOME ARE REQUIRED TO HAVE LIGHTING DISPLAYS, THEN BARCHAM CAN GROW THOSE TREES APPROPRIATELY (when you see the growth of the pollarded Tree 80 in the front garden of Pestana Mirimar Hotel within 12 months, then it is possible that the trees grown by Barcham for lighting displays could display lights within 18 months of planting in the pavement, providing the recommendations from Barcham on how to attach the lighting system to those trees is followed).

Photo 6055 for Tree 98

This tree was pollarded once planted. WHY? AND WHY WAS THE OTHER LEADER OF THE FORKED LEADER ON THE RIGHT PULLED OFF? WHAT DID THE PERSON DOING THIS THINK WOULD HAPPEN TO THE TREE WITH THE DAMAGE THAT HE HAD DONE IT? - HOP, SKIP AND PLAY WITH LOOPLA!!!

If you look at the large trees grown by Barcham, you will notice that they are multibranched and ready to plant within this extremely narrow space of 1 metre square - see Quercus robur Fastigiata and other trees suitable for pavements. It might be possible that they would plant them for you as well with their Planting Kit Plus and Tree Hydration bag (if you cannot be bothered to create an irrigation system as I have advised).

Barcham grow their pleached trees in the ground. Then, this tree is containerised in Light Pots for sale 12 months later. The tree can then be planted with 2 layers of weed-proof geotextile next to the kerb 18 inches (45 cm) from the trunk. This allows the trunk to become 38 inches (95 cms) in diameter before it reaches the concrete kerb and the roots will have been stopped from entering the ground, rubble, or foundations under the tarmac of the road. The roots including the lateral roots would still be all the way round the tree stabilising it and feeding it.

Provided my solution for the entire pavement area is followed, then the roots can extend to fill under the top wearing surface. This would be irrigated and fed by the waste food products of restaurants, hotels, supermarkets and weekly markets as well as from the animal waste from chickens, turkeys, cattle, goats and pigs system I suggested. This is topped up with trace minerals etc from seaweed from seaweed farming (if the liquid in it is not saline, then the wet product could be used instead of having to dry it and then dissolving it back into water to irrigate with it). This is further supported by the use of green manure and the irrigation water supplied by stopping the waste from leaking toilets in the hotels and restaurants; and using it for the trees instead. The used bottles from the same establishments and the native population could be turned into cullet and used to repair the holes in the trees and to create part of the mosaic pattern in the top surface of the pavement.

There we are in re-using the waste created by us and out activities in raising animals for our consumption to provide healthy trees, which do not just provide us with oxygen, but clean up after us by filtering the air to strip it of the dust particles from engines as well as the engine gases, it also improves our mental well-being by providing us with some nature to look at instead of man-made materials, like metal, concrete, tarmac and glass. We are also using the rain falling on the road and the water from the driveways of buildings alongside using the Beany Block Kerb and French Drain system, which would alleviate that rainwater flow from flooding the city centre as it stops the road drains in the valleys from accepting any more water. Win, Win and Win and improve people's mental life.

Give trees a proper volume of soil for their roots as shown by Barcham and fertiliser to help them grow as shown by Barcham .
You could also use Barcham pleached trees if you think that airspace is at a premium.
Trees can be kept in containers - the larger soil volume the better, especially the root system of a medium or large growing tree is going to access 30 cubc metres (if the pavement has its 2 inches (5 cm) depth of sharp sand with my mosaic pavement solution, then some of that volume can be available to the pavement trees.).
Barcham has the answer to which trees can be planted safely near buildings.
Barcham shows you which tree is best to combat diesel pollution.
Barcham states which trees can establish within the sight of the sea.
Barcham explains the difference between pleached, topiary and espaliered trees.
Barcham explains the correct planting depth for trees.
Barcham shows how trees hold themselves up.
Barcham explains their white pot and how it improves root growth so that their trees have a longer life in the client's ground than trees grown from scratch in black plastic pots.

Tree 99 from pestana promenade to forum tree in road IMG 6057.JPG also on Page 27 -

 

Tree 99 from pestana promenade to forum tree in road IMG 6058.JPG

 

Tree 140 from funchal roundabout to cathedral fuse box for lights IMG 0097.JPG on Page 39 -

 

mobilane info IMG 0765.JPG on Page 45 -

 

mobilane info IMG 0766.JPG on Page 45 -

 

 

Barenbrug UK have such a passion for grass that they have created a kinder grass mowing machine:-

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Why not use their e13 - Coastal Areas Landscaping grass seed to stabilse the areas round your cliffs or in new lawns in your coastal towns and villages. It has excellent drought tolerance so does not mind lack of irrigation during water drought conditions and utilises deep rooted species.

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GET BARCHAM TO GROW PLEACHED TREES THAT COULD DISPLAY LIGHTING IN THE MIDDLE HEIGHT SECTION TO REPLACE YOUR PAVEMENT TREES - Tree 99 from pestana promenade to forum tree in road IMG 6057.JPG
This and the next photo show how the trunk extends into the road and that the lateral roots extend more than 18 inches (45 cm) under the tarmac elevating it. The outer 12 inches of this tarmac is run over by the heavier duty tyres of lorries, buses and coaches beating the living daylights out of these roots. The tree has also overgrown the pink pavers and concrete kerb.
The metal box girder/lintel needs to be positioned at least 40 inches (100 cms) from the current kerb and my other solutions carried out if you want to save this tree. When you see the yellow bus in the background and the fact that there are 3 lanes of traffic all in the same direction of travel, then that restriction of 115 cms (46 inches) in the road width can easily be taken care of to keep these trees in this straight section of road to the Forum Shopping Centre.
Of course the cheaper solution is have these trees replaced with pleached trees from Barcham in properly irrigated, nourished and gaseous exchange conditions (perhaps using my Solution to current problem on these mosaic pavements - irrespective of what else is done this remedial work to all the pavements with trees in should be done within the first year to keep these trees or any replacement trees or shrubs with bedding). Perhaps it is best to replace the worst damaged to the least at 10% a year to reduce the shock to the population and the visitors till all the trees in this section of pavements from the Cathedral to The Forum have been replaced. Then, provide a tree replacement system in a 30 year rotation. Get Barcham to provide the annual training courses to the maintenance staff for these trees; including photo/history record-keeping for each tree.

 

USE BUNGEES INSTEAD OF WIRE OR PLASTIC TWINE TO TIE ELECTRICAL MATERIAL TO TREES - Tree 140 from funchal roundabout to cathedral fuse box for lights IMG 0097.JPG
Instead of using black wire or black plastic twine, use black bungee cord instead. When attaching heavy objects like the LuxStar electric light control box to the tree attach a coarse net of bungee cords over the box. Attach bungee cords to the top metal hooks of that net and lead that over the gap between a forked leader or a good supporting branch junction with the trunk and back down to that coarse net of bungee cords on the top of that box. Attach more bungee cords to the left hand side of the coarse net of bungees and lead round to the other side of the coarse net to attach them to. Being looser it means that the horizontal bungees generally hold the box against the tree but the weight of the box is taken by the top upright bungees. Check each year that the box with its coarse net of bungee cords and bungee cords are not biting into the bark of the trunk, as it would do otherwise with the use of wire or plastic twine and if neccessary change the bungees - bungee cord length 6, 18, 40 inches (15, 45, 100 cms).
The same bungee cord system can be used for the electrical wiring to prevent damage to the tree.

 

MOBILANE GREEN SCREENS INSTEAD OF FENCES/GARDEN WALLS - mobilane info IMG 0766.JPG
I quote from it:-
"Something that may be of interest to you is the work we are currently involved with in Europe to see what effect the screens have on pollution. They have been shown to absorb 6gms per square metre of sub micron particles per year from the atmosphere. In layman's terms this means that 10 of our screens do the same job in reducing atmospheric pollution as an average size tree."
So if you want to reduce air pollution in cities, why not get your houseowners and house builders to erect these mobilane screens as their front and back garden boundaries, instead of waney fencing or garden walls. Normally, modern gardens are too small for trees (they would tend to damage their houses, see What to do about subsiidence caused by Clay? page), except for trained topfruit - see Top Fruit Plant List Page.
Besides Green Screen for garden boundaries, Mobilane also do

  • WallPlanter for green facades to buildings
  • Mobiroof for instant roof planting system
  • Noistop for Noise Reduction Screens
  • Live Panel as Green Wall system for the outdoors as well as one for the indoors
  • Livepicture as living picture made up of plants, and
  • Livedivider as a green room divider

so that irrespective of whether you have a garden or not, you still live somewhere so you can have nature benefitting you in your home and you can help in reducing the pollution caused by you in the environment.

 

INSTEAD OF A 2 INCH (5 CM) DEPTH OF SHARP SAND UNDER THE CEDADRIVE AND GEOTEXTILE, HEICOM TREE SAND PROVIDES A BETTER ALTERNATIVE.
Heicom Tree Sand (Amsterdam Tree Sand) is a special blend of washed, semi-rounded silica sand and PAS100 organic matter blended to a formula developed following research by Dutch Universities in the 1980's. Heicom approached us shortly after this to become a licensed supplier of the blend and it has grown ever since.
Bourne Amenity is the sole supplier in the UK with the license to manufacturer Heicom Tree Sand - www.treesand.co.uk:-
Back in 2004 Bourne Amenity were approached by Van Der Berk trees to become a sole distributer of their Heicom Tree sand brand. Recognising our strength in the marketplace they wanted a reliable partner to deliver their tree sand into the growing urban tree planting market. Since then we have developed our own brand of tree sand (alongside Heicom) and supply these across the country.
Bourne Amenity Tree Sand is brand of structural urban tree planting sand for Car Parks, Pavements, SuDS and High Footfall:-
Whilst we are a registered manufacturer of the Heicom trees and brand, we designed our own blend back in 2008 to provide a slightly cheaper alternative to Heicom. This material is for use in tree pit planting where compaction is a consideration (i.e. car parks, pavements etc.). It should be used in conjunction with our washed tree pit subsoil and to the project guidelines.

 

PROTECTION FOR THE TREE WHICH IS IN THE ROAD FROM THE TRAFFIC
A temporary solution to the problem of trees jutting out into the road and the possibility of the roots being driven over, or the trunk driven into, could be solved with bell traffic bollards like the Bell 150 to protect the trees jutting into the road:-
The Bell traffic bollard is designed to deflect the wheels of heavy traffic. "Introduced to the market in 1986 it is a simple yet effective solution to many highways issues including:

• Pedestrian safety
• Width restriction
• Protection of property
• Traffic calming measures
• Protection of road signs and street furniture

Furnitubes constant development of the Bell bollard has resulted in the Bell being adapted to meet a range of varying specifications.

• Bell100 is the original full-sized Bell bollard.
• Bell340 Three quarter Bell is ideal for the protection of corners and exposed brickwork.
• Bell120 Bell half is suitable for protecting walls or pre-existing structures.
• Bell500X Bell with subframe for locations where underground services make installation difficult.
• Bell600 Kerbline Bell is for installation within the kerbline  - an ideal width restrictor and it stops vehicles parking on the flower bed / pavement behind it
• Bell115 allows the installation of a 115mm diameter bollard or railing post within the same footings as a Bell bollard. It produces the same results but acts as a high visibility post or cost effective vehicular and pedestrian barrier.
• Bell138 has a recess specifically to house a CIT538 City Bollard. 
• Ave100 Avector is a new traffic control bollard which deflects vehicles
wheels. Its sleek modern form is suitable for more contemporary locations."

The smaller ones could also be used every 120 inches (300 cms) behind kerbs to stop vehicles parking on the pavement with its trees/flower beds.

 

It would be better to use the water for the tree rather than grass.
The following is from my Welcome Page:-
"9. The section below explains why grass has such a detrimental effect on trees/shrubs/ or other plants planted within it:-
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This shows the roots of 1 ryegrass plant, which had been removed from the foundation bed of Type I MOT Roadstone in a client's garden. You can see that this plant has tens of yards or metres of root to absorb water.
"Most turf grass roots are concentrated in the first 6-8 inches (15-20 cms) of soil. Try to irrigate only one or two inches of water per week during the turf growing season. You could irrigate the whole amount of water at one time, however most folks have better results splitting the amount into two separate applications.  Please note however in sandy soils where the water percolates more rapidly it may benefit you to split the applications into three separate irrigation cycles.  You do not want to irrigate more than three times a week because you would be applying so little water the outcome would be shallow roots."
"Native Grass Meadow
MARSHALL SILTY CLAY LOAM (HEAVY SUBSOIL PHASE) These plots (18-20) were located in an area that is in native grasses and has never been plowed, but being within a cemetery area has had frequent mowing. It adjoins the Agronomy Farm at Lincoln, Nebraska. T ests on these native grass plots (Table 1) showed that they absorbed over 2 inches of water during the first 1.5 hours with an absorption rate of about 1.4 inches per hour at the end of this time. Following a delay of 10 days during which there was no rain-fall, water was again applied to the test areas with practically the same results as for the previous test. It will be shown later that if the second test is made only 1 day after the first, the rate of intake will be materially reduced. This seems to be due to the settling of soil immediately after wetting. Upon longer standing the soil seems to resume its original condition."

SO IF YOU SUPPLY THE RECOMMENDED 1 INCH (2.5 CM) DEPTH OF TREE IRRIGATION WATER PER WEEK SPLIT INTO 2 IRRIGATION SESSIONS OF 0.5 INCHES (1.25 CM) DEPTH, THEN THE GRASS ABOVE THE TREE ROOTS WILL ABSORB ALL OF THAT.
Remove the grass and replace with green manure for at least 80 inches (200 cms) radius from the tree trunk.