Topic
Case Studies
...Drive
...Foundations

Companion Planting
...A, B, C, D, E,
...F, G, H, I, J, K,
...L, M, N, O, P, Q,
...R, S, T, U, V, W,
...X, Y, Z
...Pest Control
...using Plants

Garden Construction
Garden Design
...How to Use the Colour Wheel Concepts for Selection of Flowers, Foliage and Flower Shape
...RHS Mixed Borders
......Bedding Plants
......Her Perennials
......Other Plants
......Camera photos of Plant supports
Garden Maintenance
Glossary
Home
Library
Offbeat Glossary
Plants
...Poisonous Plants
Soil
...Soil Nutrients
Tool Shed
Useful Data

................

Topic - Plant Photo Galleries

Camera Photo Galleries:-

RHS Garden at Wisley
Plant Supports -
When supporting plants in a bed, it is found that not only do those plants grow upwards, but also they expand their roots and footpad sideways each year. Pages
1
, 2, 3, 8, 11,
12, 13,
Plants 4, 7, 10,
Bedding Plants 5,
Plant Supports for Unknown Plants 5
,
Clematis Climbers 6,
the RHS does not appear to either follow it's own pruning advice or advice from The Pruning of Trees, Shrubs and Conifers by George E. Brown.
ISBN 0-571-11084-3 with the plants in Pages 1-7 of this folder. You can see from looking at both these resources as to whether the pruning carried out on the remainder of the plants in Pages 7-15 was correct.
Narcissus (Daffodil) 9,
Phlox Plant Supports 14, 15

Coleus Bedding Foliage Trial - Pages
1, 2, 3, 4, 5,
6, 7, 8, 9, 10,
11, 12, 13, 14, 15,
16, 17, 18, 19, 20,
21, 22, 23, 24, 25,
26, 27, 28, 29, 30,
31, 32
,
Index

National Trust Garden at Sissinghurst Castle
Plant Supports -
Pages for Gallery 1
with Plant Supports
1
, 5, 10
Plants
2
, 3, 4, 6, 7, 8, 9, 11, 12
Recommended Rose Pruning Methods 13
Pages for Gallery 2
with Plant Supports
2
,
Plants 1, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7

Dry Garden of
RHS Garden at
Hyde Hall
Plants - Pages
without Plant Supports
Plants 1
, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9

Nursery of
Peter Beales Roses
Display Garden
Roses Pages
1
, 2, 3, 4, 5,
6, 7, 8, 9, 10,
11, 12, 13

Nursery of
RV Roger
Roses - Pages
A1,A2,A3,A4,A5,
A6,A7,A8,A9,A10,
A11,A12,A13,A14,B15,
B16,B17,B18,B19,B20,
B21,B22,B23,B24,B25,
B26,B27,B28,B29,B30,
C31,C32,C33,C34,C35,
C36,C37,C38,C39,C40,
C41,CD2,D43,D44,D45,
D46,D47,D48,D49,E50,
E51,E52
,F53,F54,F55,
F56,F57,G58,G59,H60,
H61,I62,K63,L64,M65,
M66,N67,P68,P69,P70,

R71,R72,S73,S74,T75,
V76,Z77, 78,

Damage by Plants in Chilham Village - Pages
1
, 2, 3, 4

Pavements of Funchal, Madeira
Damage to Trees - Pages
1
, 2, 3, 4, 5,
6, 7, 8, 9, 10,
11, 12, 13
for trees 1-54
,
14, 15,
16, 17, 18, 19, 20,
21, 22, 23, 24, 25,
for trees 55-95,
26
, 27, 28, 29, 30,
31, 32, 33, 34, 35,
36, 37,
for trees 95-133,
38
, 39, 40,
41, 42, 43, 44, 45,
for trees 133-166


Chris Garnons-Williams
Work Done - Pages
1, 2, 3, 4, 5,
6, 7, 8, 9, 10,
11, 12, 13

Identity of Plants
Label Problems - Pages
1, 2, 3, 4, 5,
6, 7, 8, 9, 10,
11

Ron and Christine Foord
Garden Flowers - Pages
A1, 2, 3, 4, 5,
6, 7, 8, 9, 10,
11, 12, 13,

The plant with photo in the above Camera Photo Galleries
join

the plants with photos in the other Plant Photo Galleries below in

Plant with Photo Index of Ivydene Gardens - 1187
A 1, Photos - 43
B 1, Photos - 13
C 1, Photos - 35
D 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6,
Photos - 411

Photos of
Plants causing damage to buildings in Chilham Village and
Photos of
Damage to Trees in Pavements of Funchal
are also in the D pages
E 1, Photos - 21
F 1, Photos - 1
G 1, Photos - 5
H 1, Photos - 21
I 1, Photos - 8
J 1, Photos - 1
K 1, Photos - 1
L 1, Photos - 85
Photos of
Label Problems are also in the L pages
M 1, Photos - 9
N 1, Photos - 12
O 1, Photos - 5
P 1, Photos - 54
Q 1, Photos -
R 1,R 2,R 3,
Photos - 229
S 1, Photos - 111
T 1, Photos - 13
U 1, Photos - 5
V 1, Photos - 4
W 1, Photos - 100
Photos of
Work Done by Chris
Garnons-Williams are also in the W pages

X 1 Photos -
Y 1, Photos -
Z 1 Photos -

Articles/Items in Ivydene Gardens - 88

and in
Flower Shape and Plant Use of
Bedding
Bulb
Evergreen Perennial
Herbaceous Perennial
Rose
Evergreen Shrub
Deciduous Shrub
Evergreen Tree
Deciduous Tree
Annual
Fern
Wildflower
with
1. Why the perfect soil for general use is composed of 8.3% lime, 16.6% humus, 25% clay and 50% sand
within the SOIL TEXTURE, and
2. Why you are continually losing the SOIL STRUCTURE if you leave bare earth between plants so your soil - will revert to clay, chalk, sand or silt - unless you replace that lost humus with an organic mulch.


Aquatic
Bamboo


Bedding
...by Flower Shape

...Camera photos of Coleus Bedding Foliage Trial

Further details on Bedding from the Infill Galleries:-
...for Spring
...for Summer
...for Autumn
...for Winter
...for Sandy Soil
...for Acid Soil
...for Chalky Soil
...for Clay Soil
...Flower Colour:-
......Black
......Blue
......Orange
......Pink
......Purple
......Red
......White
......Yellow
......Multi-coloured
...Use of Bedding:-
......Aromatic Fol
......Scented Flo
......Long Flo
......Coloured Fol
......for Bees, etc
......Cut Flos
......Hanging Pot
......Pots/ Troughs
......Screening
......Window Box
......Bedding Out
......Filling in

Further details on Annuals from the Infill Galleries:-
Uses of Annuals

...Exposed Sites
...Sheltered Sites
...in Greenhouse
...Extra Poor Soil
...Very Rich Soil
...Gap Filling
...Patio Pots
...Cut Flowers 1, 2
...Everlasting Flos
...Attract Insects
...with Fragrance
...Bee Pollinated
...Annual Pairing
...Low-Growing
...Med-Growing
...Tall Growing
...Flower Colour:-
......Black/Brown
......Blue-Purple
......Green
......Red-Pink
......White
......Yellow/Orange
...for its Foliage
...in Moist Soil
...in Shade
...as Houseplants
...Edging Beds
...Hanging Basket
...Vining Annuals
...Plants for Cut Flowers which flower during:-
......January
......February
......March
......April
......May
......June
......July
......August
......September
......October
......November
......December
Further Details on Biennials from the Infill Galleries:-
Use of Bieenials

...Cottage Garden
...Cut Flower
...for Rock Work
...Patio Pots
...Conservatory
...for Wildlife
...Scented Flo



Bulb
...Allium/ Anemone
...Autumn
...Colchicum/ Crocus
...Dahlia
...Gladiolus
...Hippeastrum/ Lily
...Late Summer
...Narcissus
...Spring
...Tulip
...Winter
Climber
...Clematis
...Climbers
Conifer
Deciduous Shrub
...Shrubs - Decid
Deciduous Tree
...Trees - Decid
Evergreen Perennial
...P-Evergreen A-L
...P-Evergreen M-Z
...Flower Shape
Evergreen Shrub
...Shrubs - Evgr
...Heather Shrub
Evergreen Tree
...Trees - Evgr
Fern
Grass
Hedging
Herbaceous Perennial
...P -Herbaceous
...RHS Wisley
...Flower Shape
Herb
Odds and Sods
Rhododendron
Rose
...RHS Wisley A-F
...RHS Wisley G-R
...RHS Wisley S-Z
...Rose Use
...Other Roses A-F
...Other Roses G-R
...Other Roses S-Z
Soft Fruit
Top Fruit
...Apple

...Cherry
...Pear
Vegetable

Wild Flower
with its
flower colour page,
space,
Site Map page in its flower colour
NOTE Gallery
...Blue Note
...Brown Note
...Cream Note
...Green Note
...Mauve Note
...Multi-Cols Note
...Orange Note
...Pink A-G Note
...Pink H-Z Note
...Purple Note
...Red Note
...White A-D Note
...White E-P Note
...White Q-Z Note
...Yellow A-G Note
...Yellow H-Z Note
...Shrub/Tree Note
Poisonous
Wildflower Plants

............

Topic - Flower/Foliage Colour
Colour Wheel Galleries

Following your choice using Garden Style then that changes your Plant Selection Process
Garden Style
...Infill Plants
...12 Bloom Colours per Month Index
...12 Foliage Colours per Month Index
...All Plants Index
...Cultivation, Position, Use Index
...Shape, Form
Index

or
you could use these Flower Colour Wheels with number of colours
All Flowers 53

All Flowers per Month 12
with its
Explanation of
Structure of this Website with

...User Guidelines
All Bee-Pollinated Flowers per Month 12
...Index
Rock Garden and Alpine Flower Colour Wheel with number of colours
Rock Plant Flowers 53

...Rock Plant Photos

or
these Foliage Colour Wheels structures, which I have done but until I can take the photos and I am certain of the plant label's validity, these may not progress much further
All Foliage 212

All Spring Foliage 212
All Summer Foliage 212
All Autumn Foliage 212
All Winter Foliage 212

or
Flower Colour Wheel without photos, but with links to photos
12 Bloom Colours per Month Index
...All Plants Index

............

Topic - Wildlife on Plant Photo Gallery
Butterfly
Usage of Plants
by Egg, Caterpillar, Chrysalis and Butterfly

Egg, Caterpillar, Chrysalis and Butterfly usage of
Plant A-C
Plant C-M
Plant N-W
Butterfly usage of Plant

followed by all the Wild Flower Family Pages:-

WILD FLOWER FAMILY
PAGE MENU 1


(o)Adder's Tongue
Amaranth
(o)Arrow-Grass
(o)Arum
(o)Balsam
Bamboo
(o)Barberry
(o)Bedstraw
(o)Beech
(o)Bellflower
(o)Bindweed
(o)Birch
(o)Birds-Nest
(o)Birthwort
(o)Bogbean
(o)Bog Myrtle
(o)Borage
(o)Box
(o)Broomrape
(o)Buckthorn
(o)Buddleia
(o)Bur-reed
(o)Buttercup
(o)Butterwort
(o)Cornel (Dogwood)
(o)Crowberry
(o)Crucifer (Cabbage/Mustard) 1
(o)Crucifer (Cabbage/Mustard) 2
Cypress
(o)Daffodil
(o)Daisy
(o)Daisy Cudweeds
(o)Daisy Chamomiles
(o)Daisy Thistle
(o)Daisy Catsears
(o)Daisy Hawkweeds
(o)Daisy Hawksbeards
(o)Daphne
(o)Diapensia
(o)Dock Bistorts
(o)Dock Sorrels

WILD FLOWER FAMILY
PAGE MENU 2


(o)Clubmoss
(o)Duckweed
(o)Eel-Grass
(o)Elm
(o)Filmy Fern
(o)Horsetail
(o)Polypody
Quillwort
(o)Royal Fern
(o)Figwort - Mulleins
(o)Figwort - Speedwells
(o)Flax
(o)Flowering-Rush
(o)Frog-bit
(o)Fumitory
(o)Gentian
(o)Geranium
(o)Glassworts
(o)Gooseberry
(o)Goosefoot
(o)Grass 1
(o)Grass 2
(o)Grass 3
(o)Grass Soft Bromes 1
(o)Grass Soft Bromes 2
(o)Grass Soft Bromes 3 (o)Hazel
(o)Heath
(o)Hemp
(o)Herb-Paris
(o)Holly
(o)Honeysuckle
(o)Horned-Pondweed
(o)Hornwort
(o)Iris
(o)Ivy
(o)Jacobs Ladder
(o)Lily
(o)Lily Garlic
(o)Lime
(o)Lobelia
(o)Loosestrife
(o)Mallow
(o)Maple
(o)Mares-tail
(o)Marsh Pennywort
(o)Melon (Gourd/Cucumber)
 

WILD FLOWER FAMILY
PAGE MENU 3


(o)Mesem-bryanthemum
(o)Mignonette
(o)Milkwort
(o)Mistletoe
(o)Moschatel
Naiad
(o)Nettle
(o)Nightshade
(o)Oleaster
(o)Olive
(o)Orchid 1
(o)Orchid 2
(o)Orchid 3
(o)Orchid 4
(o)Parnassus-Grass
(o)Peaflower
(o)Peaflower Clover 1
(o)Peaflower Clover 2
(o)Peaflower Clover 3
(o)Peaflower Vetches/Peas
Peony
(o)Periwinkle
Pillwort
Pine
(o)Pink 1
(o)Pink 2
Pipewort
(o)Pitcher-Plant
(o)Plantain
(o)Pondweed
(o)Poppy
(o)Primrose
(o)Purslane
Rannock Rush
(o)Reedmace
(o)Rockrose
(o)Rose 1
(o)Rose 2
(o)Rose 3
(o)Rose 4
(o)Rush
(o)Rush Woodrushes
(o)Saint Johns Wort
Saltmarsh Grasses
(o)Sandalwood
(o)Saxifrage
 

WILD FLOWER FAMILY
PAGE MENU 4


Seaheath
(o)Sea Lavender
(o)Sedge Rush-like
(o)Sedges Carex 1
(o)Sedges Carex 2
(o)Sedges Carex 3
(o)Sedges Carex 4
(o)Spindle-Tree
(o)Spurge
(o)Stonecrop
(o)Sundew
(o)Tamarisk
Tassel Pondweed
(o)Teasel
(o)Thyme 1
(o)Thyme 2
(o)Umbellifer 1
(o)Umbellifer 2
(o)Valerian
(o)Verbena
(o)Violet
(o)Water Fern
(o)Waterlily
(o)Water Milfoil
(o)Water Plantain
(o)Water Starwort
Waterwort
(o)Willow
(o)Willow-Herb
(o)Wintergreen
(o)Wood-Sorrel
(o)Yam
(o)Yew

 

It is worth remembering that especially with roses that the colour of the petals of the flower may change - The following photos are of Rosa 'Lincolnshire Poacher' which I took on the same day in R.V. Roger's Nursery Field:-

x11rosalincolnshirepoacherflot9a

Closed Bud

x11rosalincolnshirepoacherflot92a

Opening Bud

x11rosalincolnshirepoacherflot93a

Juvenile Flower

x11rosalincolnshirepoacherflot94a

Older Juvenile Flower

x11rosalincolnshirepoacherflot95a

Middle-aged Flower - Flower Colour in Season in its
Rose Description Page is
"Buff Yellow, with a very slight pink tint at the edges in May-October."

x11rosalincolnshirepoacherflot96a

Mature Flower

x11rosalincolnshirepoacherflot97a

Juvenile Flower and Dying Flower

x11rosalincolnshirepoacherflot98a

Form of Rose Bush

There are 720 roses in the Rose Galleries; many of which have the above series of pictures in their respective Rose Description Page.

So one might avoid the disappointment that the 2 elephants had when their trunks were entwined instead of them each carrying their trunk using their own trunk, and your disappointment of buying a rose to discover that the colour you bought it for is only the case when it has its juvenile flowers; if you look at all the photos of the roses in the respective Rose Description Page!!!!

Ivydene Horticultural Services logo with I design, construct and maintain private gardens. I also advise and teach you in your own garden. 01634 389677

Site design and content copyright ©August 2019.
Chris Garnons-Williams.

DISCLAIMER: Links to external sites are provided as a courtesy to visitors. Ivydene Horticultural Services are not responsible for the content and/or quality of external web sites linked from this site.  

 

Picture Folder Name Pages:-

Since 14 June 2019 I have also started to put my own full-sized 4000 x 3000 digital Camera images into the relevant topics in this website again for use in the Public Domain - since there may
be 9 or more to a page the resulting 43Mb website page may take some time to load
. Since I have more than 26,522 photos using 111,460Mb of my disk space, then the extra upfront cost per annum before creating more folders like Photo coleus is just over 3.16 pence per photo has been paid for the total number in that entire photo collection before any are sent to the website.

It is hoped that you may find them of interest.

Ivydene Gardens Plant with Photo Index Gallery:
Page D 6. Photos of Damage to Trees in Pavement of Funchal and these are my solutions with background articles (Many cities in many countries may be experiencing the same problems as in Funchal, so you might find that looking at this section on Damage to Trees in Pavement of Funchal in its entirety for clarification and possible solutions; useful):-

"Solution to holes in trees.
Remove mesh covers and rot within the hole. Then blast the remaining rot with a high pressure water hose to try and clear more of the rot. Spray with Boron (a water based preservative kills only wood boring insects - not spiders, birds or bats) as a treatment for insect, wet and dry rot attack. While it is still wet, apply a layer of
Expanding Foam to the bottom of the hole. Immediately place bottles on this and allow to set for 5 minutes. Apply another layer of expanding foam and another layer of bottles. The aim of the bottles (you could use cullet instead) is to occupy space, they are not there as a deterrent. That is why the foam has to be in contact with the inside of the tree not the glass bottle. The poisons in the foam will kill anything eating it and the foam does stick better when wet with water. Keep up this operation until the hole is covered. 
Leave to set and then paint the foam surface twice with a recommended water-based, but not oil-based, sealant.

 

Solutions to stop creating holes in trees.
When a branch is cut off, remember to cut it off on the other side of the Branch Collar. (See Figure 1 - Optimum position of the final pruning cut in "Guide to Tree Pruning" by the Arboricultural Association which shows the branch collar within and outside the tree. My Comments: I disagree with their recommendation not to apply wound paint as you can see the result if you do not paint trees which are dehydrated, starved and gassed as these trees in the pavements of Madeira are.) 
Once that is done, then immediately apply Boron and 2 coats of protective sealant as used for holes in trees above.

 

Solution to current problem on these mosaic pavements:-
Carefully remove the existing marble mosaic, concrete, tarmac, or paver and the concrete/metal enclosures round the trees. If any further solid material like gravel, bricks, stones etc can be removed as well, then do so. Level the ground with sharp sand (Sharp sand is like pyramids which lock together, builder's sand is like ball bearings which displaces itself elsewhere if it can when downward pressure is applied to it). 
The time to execute the above and complete the refilling with sharp sand must be completed within 20 minutes, otherwise the exposed roots will dry up and die. 
It is useful to now water it to settle the sand and keep the roots wet. Put the roll of continuous geotextile over the top before laying down the
CEDAdrive slabs on 
top. Fill the slabs with the required colours of marble pea-shingle and leave a 3 inch (7.5 cm) gap between the trunk and the CEDAdrive section (Besides black 
and white marble, you can get many other colours). Spread Green Manure seed in the gap and cover to the same level as the top of the CEDAdrive with its pea-shingle; with sharp sand. The Green manure will provide a little nourishment for the tree and protection for the expanding trunk, together with protection from cigarettes. 
Further protection can be carried out by providing seating round the trunk, so that old fogeys like me can rest.
Pop-up irrigation water pipes can be supplied from these water manholes currently in the pavements and they can be set to irrigate each section in rotation from 
Midnight to 06:00 in the morning.
A dissolved mixture of seaweed, fully composted animal waste and fully worm composted human food waste from restaurants/hotels can be applied over a pavement an hour before that section is irrigated 3 times a year to provide the same fertilizer regime as practised by the gardeners at the Pestana Mirimar for that hotel's garden. The drained solids (bones, egg-shells and fish-heads can be crushed, and then added to the solids) from the above fertilizer solution can be applied over the sand between the tree and the CEDAdrive.
An alternative to using marble pea-shingle is Topmix Permeable Concrete within the CEDAdrive slabs. This would perform the same function as the marble pea-shingle, but it may be cheaper and quicker to use in other pavements. The depth of the Cedadrive slabs might have to be increased if traffic is allowed to cross or park on this type of pavement surface. At least the CEDAdrive slabs can flex, whereas concrete cannot.

 

Articles on

  • Branch Collar and the importance of leaving all of it while cutting off that branch; as shown above in this column
  • My repair to a 1300 year old yew tree in my church at the bottom of pages 1-12
  • Some of my work on trees using a chainsaw and chipper-shredder on page 13
  • Protective Dressing, Cavities and 'do not use plastic twine or wire to tie a plant' are at the bottom of pages 14-25 with Forked Leaders, also Terminal Bud and Dormant Branch Growth Bud.

    Details on Boron woodworm, wet and dry wood rot treatment on Page 16.

    The article on "I have copied the archived post below, because what is stated there is extremely important, since 99.99% of gardeners in the UK totally ignore the fact that plants require humus and think that double-digging is beneficial every year. That is why they are killing their soil and their plants do not grow well." and from its Comments in the row below it.
    "So why do you not use the companion planting cultivation method as further detailed in Companion Planting?
    You may follow this with the following which is normally used for the vegetable garden instead for your flower beds, rose beds and beds which currently have lawn/flower bed/trees/shrubs in them within public spaces and pavements:-
    "
    Spinach is sown in spring in rows 50cm apart over the whole vegetable garden area for the following
    purposes:
    • these rows divide the vegetable garden up for the whole year,
    • the spinach roots prevent erosion, so the usual paths between beds are omitted,
    • young spinach plants provide protection and shade for the vegetable crops to be grown between them,
    • spinach provides ideal material for sheet surface composting, which becomes an intermediate space, a footpath, and
    • it is in between these lines of spinach that the other vegetable varieties are arranged."
    • This could be used in the flower beds as the system between the permanent plants of trees, shrubs and perennials, which is where you may put bedding. This will also provide you with access to the bedding and the permanent plants together with the nitrogen fertilizer for the other plants from the legumes of spinach.
      You plant your bedding, bulbs or vegetables through the mulch between the lines of spinach. The damage you do to where you plant is fairly quickly repaired by the organisms in the surrounding soil, who each come into the level below the ground level where they normally reside, until they meet their relatives on the other side of the planting hole. The ecosystem is then restored.".
  • Tree 64 from pestana mirimar large tree with stumps and wires IMG 6383.JPG has the following solution for the ground surrounding these trees on page 17:-
    Funchal is building more and more on the land. The vegetation on this is being removed and replaced with concrete buildings and tarmaced roads. Neither concrete nor tarmac will convert carbon dioxide that we as animals breathe out into oxygen, which we require to live by. Vegetation also helps absorb the poisons produced by vehicles. It would be cheaper to cut these trees down and build a restaurant on the ground instead, but at some point, we the human race must take some responsibilty for the actions that we do and stop asphyxiating ourselves.
    Suggestion -
    • Remove the lawn and the flower bed plants leaving the trees and the ferns.
    • Mow the lawn and bed with a rotary mower and put the shreddings round the trees.
      • Use a strong Bulldog Premier Border Fork, Brown to lift the turf out of the ground and place this upside down along the edge of the ground with the pavement. Build this up to about 3 inches (7.5 cms) to act as an edging to the pond created when you apply the flood of the solids left over from the combined seaweed, animal manure, worm composted food - after the solutions to the trees and mosaic pavement have been executed. Use the same fork to take up the plants in the flower beds after they have been mown and put them upside down round the base of the trees up to 30 inches (75 cms) radius from the trunk. It is very important that this work done on the ground enclosed by the mosaic pavements is done by hand and not by machine. If you rotovated the lawn and flower beds you would cut through a vast majority of the feeder roots of these trees. When an area has been cleared, then before the break for mid-morning tea, lunch or going home, irrigate the land that has been cleared to prevent that ground from drying out and the roots then would die as well.
      • Mix Clover Seed Blend MAS-CLOo4 in wallpaper paste and spray it over the exposed portion of this upside-down turf edging and leave that as your permanent green edging to the ground enclosing these trees.
      • You could also use the same clover seed mix round the base of the remaining trees and shrubs/ferns up to 36 inches (90 cms) radius from the trunk edge over the shredded flower bed plants and grass mowings, so that the roots nearest the trees would not be disturbed in the future by digging.
    • Irrigate every 3 days with 0.5 inches (1.25 cm) depth of recommended seaweed, animal manure and worm composted hotel/restaurant leftovers for a month. This could start to improve these trees, so that they can stand for the treatment they will later receive. When the mosaic pavements have been replaced with a permeable pavement surface, then that pavement surface surface will require the same liquid irrigation as the ground it encloses.
    • Then after that month, get a professional firm to remove the existing bracing and replace it, including rods for the lowest part of Forked Leaders.
    • Then erect scaffolding so that any part of these trees can be treated with the solutions for the various problems. The scaffolding is supported on the pavements not on the ground round these trees.
    • Then start sorting the problems on the trees from the ground up. Keep the irrigation system going during this operation - irrigate between midnight and 06:00.
    • When all solutions have been executed, including the replacement of the mosaic pavements as the final one; then either
      • sow a green manure over the open ground and irrigate as before. Flood the green manure with a 3 inch (7.5 cm) depth of the solids left over from the combined seaweed, animal manure, worm composted food every 4 months and apply the new different green manure by spraying a solution of wallpaper paste and seeds on the surface of the mulch. Repeat this every 4 months.
      • or
      • sow lines of everlasting spinach over the site and irrigate as before. A succession of bulbs can be planted between these lines of spinach to provide flowers throughout the year. The lines of spinach could be replaced every 4 months or so (depending on the time when the next bulbs come up and the dead foliage of the previous ones can be removed) with a different green manure. The bulbs would take little nourishment or irrigation water. The irrigation water on the ground and on the replaced mosaic pavements could mostly be used by the trees who require this volume most of the year round.
  • "Ways to install trees at the bottom of pages 26-37 includes the following on watering - "Throughout the warm, summer weather, the tree will need the equivalent of 1 inch (2.5 cm) of rain per week and this water needs to be applied about twice each week (My Comments - since this is over the entire root area of this tree - which is at least the radius from the trunk of the height of the tree - then if the CEDAdrive slabs are used, apply 0.5 inchs (1.25 cms) of irrigation twice a week to that entire area).  Approximately 5-10 gallons (20 – 40 liters) of water is sufficient to moisten a 20-inch (50 cm) diameter root ball.  A 40-inch (100 cm) diameter root ball has more than twice the volume and would require 35-45 gallons (130 – 170 liters). 
    Another way to measure water need is with the following formula:   The tree needs 5 gallons minimum and 5 additional gallons per inch of diameter (DBH); hence a 3 inch DBH tree needs 20 gallons of water per week to equal 1 inch of rainfall, in other words, 5 gallons minimum + (3 X 5) 15 gallons = 20 gallons."
  • The Pruning and Maintenance of Mature Trees:
    • 'Lifting' or the removal of the lower branch systems,
    • Crown Thinning and
    • Crown Reduction
    • at the bottom of
      pages 38-45
  • Explaination of watersprouts and watershoots in the Watersprouts on Trees in Pavements in Funchal, Madeira Page. These should be removed from the trees since they are weakly joind to the branch/trunk from which they originated and are dangerous to use as supports for electricians or tree surgeons; as well as likely to fall down in a storm.
     

Plant Name with link to its page in Ivydene Gardens

If the image has IMG or PICT in its filename, then it is a Passthrough Camera Image of usually 4000 x 3000 pixels and it will take a long time to load on your screen. Click on it and drag it to your desktop to use it.

Type of Plant with Thumbnail

Comments
If the Image is copyrighted to
Garnons-Williams or Foord, then it is in the Public Domain and you may download it and use it. Many of the Images published within Ivydene Gardens have the copyright name appended to the Image filename.

Damage to Trees in Pavement of Funchal Page 40

Tree 143 from funchal roundabout to cathedral irrigation pipe
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Tree 144 from funchal roundabout to cathedral gridded base area
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Tree 145 from funchal roundabout to cathedral damaged branch
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Tree 146 from funchal roundabout to cathedral crossing branches
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Tree 147 from funchal roundabout to cathedral lighting cables
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Tree 147 from funchal roundabout to cathedral lwater manhole
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Tree 147 from funchal roundabout to cathedral view next road section
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Tree 147 from funchal roundabout to cathedral water manhole
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Tree 148 from funchal roundabout to cathedral double trunk
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Tree 149 from funchal roundabout to cathedral
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Tree 150 from funchal roundabout to cathedral
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When you study the metal grating surrounding this tree that it has a series of equally spaced ridges attached to the top of a metal box. This is resting directly on the roots or ground underneath as are the black concrete slabs surrounding this metal enclosure. This is repeated for many of the trees in this section of the Main Street of Funchal. Not only do people walk over these, but quite likely delivery vans and maintenance staff vehicles. This is absolute madness for the state of the roots of these trees.

You will notice a stub end of a cigarette on one of the lateral roots of this tree.
How would you like it, if a smoker stubbed out his cigarette on your face?

I wonder if the wite plastic pipe is an irrigation pipe? It might be, but I doubt if it is used - study the tree trunk and you do not see splits in the bark showing lighter brown new bark in between as the trunk swells and fills out this year's new growth ring.

Trunk buttresses are explained elsewhere, but this tree seems to be creating them, since there is insufficient water to make equal growth each year round the entire trunk, it has decided to create buttresses instead to support the extra weight above these buttresses and prevent the tree from falling down.

You will also note that it is concrete joining these marble blocks and so this creates an impermeable surface, which requires drainage,etc.

You can also note that mains water access manholes are nearby as shown by
Tree 147 from Funchal roundabout to cathedral water manhole IMG 0111.JPG
further down this page.

Solution to current problem on these mosaic pavements:-

Carefully remove the existing marble mosaic, concrete, tarmac, or paver and the concrete/metal enclosures round the trees. If any further solid material like gravel, bricks, stones etc can be removed as well, then do so. Level the ground with sharp sand (Sharp sand is like pyramids which lock together, builder's sand is like ball bearings which displaces itself elsewhere if it can when downward pressure is applied to it).
The time to execute the above and complete the refilling with sharp sand must be completed within 20 minutes, otherwise the exposed roots will dry up and die.
It is useful to now water it to settle the sand and keep the roots wet. Put the roll of continuous geotextile over the top before laying down the CEDAdrive slabs on top. Fill the slabs with the required colours of marble pea-shingle and leave a 3 inch (7.5 cm) gap between the trunk and the CEDAdrive section (Besides black and white marble, you can get many other colours). Spead Green Manure seed in the gap and cover to the same level as the top of the CEDAdrive with its pea-shingle; with sharp sand. The Green manure will provide a little nourishment for the tree and protection for the expanding trunk, together with protection from cigarettes.
Further protection can be carried out by providing seating round the trunk, so that old fogeys like me can rest.
Pop-up irrigation water pipes can be supplied from these water manholes currently in the pavements and they can be set to irrigate each section in rotation from Midnight to 06:00 in the morning. A dissolved mixture of seaweed, fully composted animal waste and fully worm composted human food waste from restaurants/hotels can be applied over a pavement an hour before that section is irrigated 3 times a year to provide the same fertilizer regime as practised by the gardeners at the Pestana Mirimar for that hotel's garden.

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THE REST OF THIS PAGE GIVES YOU SOME COMMENTS ON THE REMAINING PHOTOS. YOU ARE NOT ALONE IN CREATING AND DOING NOTHING ABOUT IT AS WE HAVE THE SAME IN MY HOME TOWN AND PROBABLY MOST TOWNS/VILLAGES ETC.

I MUST STOP WASTING MY TIME ON THIS SINCE IT IS HIGHLY UNLIKELY THAT ANYONE WILL DO ANYTHING ABOUT IT, BUT FUNCHAL HAD A FLOODING PROBLEM FROM EXCESSIVE RAIN AND THE POPULATION PULLED TOGETHER AND WITHIN A FORTNIGHT HAD CLEARED THE MESS UP AND THEN SPENT A FORTUNE ON STRENGTHENING THE DYKES TO STOP IT HAPPENING AGAIN.

YOU - THE PEOPLE OF MADEIRA - CAN DO THE SAME THING HERE AND MAKE YOUR CLIMATE CHANGE CONTRIBUTION BOTH FOR THE TREES IN THE PAVEMENTS AS WELL AS YOUR HOME AND WORK BY USING THE RAINWATER TO GROW PLANTS INSTEAD OF FLOODING THE AREAS LOWER DOWN IN THE VALLEYS, AND YOU CAN RE-USE YOUR WASTE TO HELP NATURE RATHER THAN DUMP IT AND CHARGE THE POPULATION FOR DOING IT.
THE CHOICE IS YOURS SINCE THE POLITICIANS IGNORE IT EVEN THOUGH THEY LIVE AND WORK RIGHT IN IT.
A minor point to remember is that you pollute the atmosphere by breathing and driving or using public transport. That produces carbon dioxide and that traps heat between the ground and space. Plants breath carbon dioxide and give us oxygen. You do not own sufficient plants to offset your pollution. If you just started to have some plants, then you would help stop the increase in temperature with its winds and high temperatures. Because of you, the ice is melting and the oceans are rising to flood your property - polititians play with Carbon Trading - but you have to live in the real world, so get plants in your home, your workplace, on the pavements, on the outside of buildings etc because no one else will.

 

YOU MIGHT FIND MY FIRST PIECE OF WORK AMUSING, SINCE I EXECUTE DESCALING HOT WATER PIPES IN A HOUSE FOR A MAN WHO WORKS FOR A BUILDING FIRM AND WHOSE NEIGHBOUR IS A PLUMBER, BUT PREFERS ME DESCALING HIS PIPES SINCE I AM OF COURSE PROFESSIONALLY QUALIFIED AS ALMOST A COMPLETE PRATT AND THEREFORE ABLE TO CARRY OUT THIS TASK.

 

 

Some suggestions:-
 

  • I worked in the defense industry on the Nimrod aircaft doing the Routine Tabular Display and the Tactical Tabular Display while somebody else did the Tactical Situation Display. The Routine Tabular Display could have every row and column filled with numbers and letters of the alphabet, but the Tactical Tabular Display could not, because every character had to be drawn. That meant that in the worst scenario you could only display one third of the screen with information. Since you had to have the abilty to show the same page on both screens, then that cut down the other screen to also a third of information. Add to that the Tactical Situation Display and Tactical Tabular Display had to split up a section of memory in a display computer and the computing time, then you were limited as to what both displays could show. If you attempted to show more then a flashing graphics show would occur. The Ministry of Defense then had 2 committess from 2 defense commercial firms to talk to instead of one. This whole design was absolutely crazy -
    get one idiot to do the overall management so that each of the departments have a hope of working together.
    The following would be useful:-
    • Site survey of the roads (the main road splits between the Lido and The Forum Shopping Centre before coming back tgether again) from the Cathedral to the Forum Shopping Centre. The position etc of every tree/shrub/plant within the public area between these points needs to be identified and numbered.
    • This needs to go on a public website, so that the population can identify exactly what is what, where it is, its current and future state as well as when it will be replaced.
    • The seaweed production system requires setting up and linking with the recycling waste food etc to create this liquid feed and its drained solids.
    • The other solutions have to be assessed and the decided way detailed for every section of this length of road.
    • It might be best to allocate a certain length of road to a certain school and the parents of that school can help their children to carry out the work with the government personnel set up to oversee this.
    • If the pavement solution is accepted then that needs to be done as quickly as possible. Once done those trees will be fed, watered and have access to the air for root gases exchange. Then, you can repair the trees once the cullet is available etc. All of this work would be recorded on the website with photos, so that decisions for instance can be made on the frequency of using the made up fertiliser. Maybe somebody could design a Y drain junction that the arm used to branch off to the p-trap and french drain has a 2 way tap on it, so that if the road is to have salt on it to melt the snow or the fuel leakage from a vehicle crash is going down the storm drain, you can quickly stop it going near the tree roots. The schools could work together as to when between midnight and 06:00 they can have their irrigating time, etc. A safer way of dealing with the holes and damage to each tree is to have scaffolding round it so that every section of it can be inspected and dealt with safely by the children as well as the parents in collaboration with trained experts. This is especially true of the trees overlooking the valley (crossed by the main road just before Pestana Mirimar Hotel) with the cooking gas canisters for the hotel nearby, so that there is no extra weight of people on those trees while they are being repaired
    • Then the replacement trees can be decided on and what they should be and the schools would then still have an input as to their section of road in the future as well as learning the advantages of dealing sympathetically with climate change on the public roads, their home and their school.
    • You can improve it further by making sure that all plants in public places are bee-pollinated to prevent your hay-fever sufferers from the pollen in the air and that as far as possible grass is replaced with a bee-pollinated green manure in certain areas so that if walking their dog, then they can do so safely in that area.
    • The design on each school's pavement area can be changed on a decided regular interval quite easily by using a vacuum cleaner to take the material out of the CEDAdrive and replacing it with the decided marble, cullet, green manure picture etc. Seating round the trees or elsewhere can then also be used by the local lacemakers, painters, artists, jewellery makers etc creating their products at a regular time of the week and having space next to them for the buyers to sit and chat to them.

Damage to Trees in Pavement of Funchal Page 41

Tree 151 from funchal roundabout to cathedral
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Tree 151 from funchal roundabout to cathedral
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Tree 152 from funchal roundabout to cathedral proper tree in lawn
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Tree 153 from funchal roundabout to cathedral
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Tree 153 from funchal roundabout to cathedral
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Tree 153 from funchal roundabout to cathedral might be irrigated
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Tree 153 from funchal roundabout to cathedral view next road section
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Tree 154 from funchal roundabout to cathedral by golden gate
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Tree 154 from funchal roundabout to cathedral by golden gate
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Tree 154 from funchal roundabout to cathedral by golden gate
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This is all a bit heavy isn't it? So let us have a cup of tea and a piece of cake:-

Never Fail Cake. ( Recipe by A. Whybrow)
amended by Chris Garnons-Williams

3 mugs fruit (mixed) - I tend to use the Villier and Bosch Large Mugs,
dried mixed fruit, chopped dates, chopped apricots, chopped prunes
with bought mixed peel and glace cherries added after the 3 mugs of
the mixed fruit of the previous ones in this list

1 mug sugar - I tend to use Dark Molasses in one third and two thirds
light molasses

1.5 mugs water

4 oz margarine or butter - I tend to use unsalted butter

 

Boil for 25 minutes

 

Whisk 4 large eggs in a mixing bowl, then whisk in
1 teaspoon of Bicarbonate of Soda

 

When cool add

pinch of salt and then mix with the contents of the mixing bowl before adding
2 mugs of sifted S.R. flour and folding over until the flour has disappeared

 

Spoon into a greased and lined cake tin (7-8 in. square or round)

Bake at 160c or 325 - 350F or Mark 3.5-4 (fan 140c)
for approx. 1.5 hours for 1 lb loaf tins or 1 hour 50 minutes for an 8 inch
lined circular cake tin. The cake should rise at least 50% in size.

Remove from oven having tested for it being fully cooked with a skewer,
empty out of tin onto a mesh tray and leave to cool.

Unfortunately humans do not seem to be able to keep their hands off it,
so its shelf life is limited.

 

While you are drinking your tea and eating this cake, you can read through
these exciting chronicles and find out about the demise of the most important
man who was carrying the red flag:-

"The first automobile owner in Tonbridge is Mr Alfred Cornell, a watch-maker and
jeweller, who occupies premises at the lower end of the High Street. Another is
Harry Beckett, pharmacist, dentist and inventor; of Quarry Hill Road.
Both these men campaigned to end the tyranny of the man with the red flag who
had to preceed every motor-powered vehicle to warn horse drivers. They were joined
by William Arnold of East Peckham who was actually prosecuted for 'proceeding at
a speed greater than four miles an hour'.
The Red Flag Act was eventually repealed. It had been introduced to control steam-driven
tractors and then applied to motor vehicles. In 1896, however, the restriction
requiring vehicles to be preceeded by a man carrying a red flag was lifted and
then the speed limit raised from four miles an hour to a more reasonable 20mph.
Today horse-drawn transport still rules the road but there are now powered vehicles
in the ownership of professional men who keep their motor car in the stable yard
and a chauffeur in livery in addition to the stable man. The cost of motoring is high
so it will never be as popular as the railway or tram but it will be interesting to see
how many people find the money to invest in automobiles during the early years of
the new century." from page 7 of
Kent A chronicle of the Century Volume One : 1900-1924 by Bob Ogley. Published by
Froglets Publications Ltd in November 1996.
ISBN Hardback 1 872337 24 4
ISBN Paperback 1 872337 19 8
There is of course Volumes 2, 3 and 4 to take you to 1999.

I am a genius -
reintroduce the man with the red flag and speed limit of 4 miles per hour.
Accidents would be non-existent except between the 2 men carrying a red flag each.
There would be no unemployed adults, since all of them could be employed as
Red Flag Men/ Women.
There would be more cobblers repairing shoes, more livery-makers making apparel
for the Red Flag bearing individuals, the stableman would have somebody to chat to
besides the horses. There might be a problem if the man carrying the Red Flag was
requested by the driver to push the car to get it started, so perhaps the stableman
could accompany the driver and carry out this extra function instead of the person
carrying the Red Flag.

Damage to Trees in Pavement of Funchal Page 42

Tree 154 from funchal roundabout to cathedral by golden gate
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Tree 154 from funchal roundabout to cathedral by golden gate view down to harbour
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Tree 154 from funchal roundabout to cathedral by golden gate view to cathedral IMG 0130.JPG

Tree 154 from funchal roundabout to cathedral by golden gate view to cathedral IMG 0131.JPG

Tree 155 from funchal roundabout to cathedral by golden gate cathedral
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Tree 155 from funchal roundabout to cathedral by golden gate drainage channel IMG 0137.JPG

Tree 155 from funchal roundabout to cathedral by golden gate drainage channel IMG 0138.JPG

Tree 155 from funchal roundabout to cathedral by golden gate
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Tree 155 from funchal roundabout to cathedral by golden gate irrigation system IMG 0134.JPG

Tree 155 from funchal roundabout to cathedral by golden gate view previous road section
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Tree 155 from funchal roundabout to cathedral by golden gate view previous road section
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Amazing how over the years trees turn into beautiful buildings.

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Damage to Trees in Pavement of Funchal Page 43

Tree 155 from funchal roundabout to cathedral by golden gate view previous road section
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Tree 156 from golden gate to harbour ferns and palm
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Tree 156 from golden gate to harbour view up road
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Tree 157 from golden gate to harbour permeable base
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Tree 157 from golden gate to harbour permeable base
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Tree 158 from golden gate to harbour permeable base damaged roots
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Tree 158 from golden gate to harbour permeable base damaged roots
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Tree 159 from golden gate to harbour permeable base damaged roots
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Tree 159 from golden gate to harbour permeable base
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Tree 159 from golden gate to harbour permeable base with concrete
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Tree 160 from golden gate to harbour permeable base damaged roots
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Damage to Trees in Pavement of Funchal Page 44

Tree 160 from golden gate to harbour permeable base
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Tree 160 from golden gate to harbour permeable base
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Tree 160 from golden gate to harbour permeable base
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Tree 160 from golden gate to harbour permeable base loose IMG 0156.JPG

Tree 161 from golden gate to harbour permeable base view up road
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Tree 162 from golden gate to harbour permeable base
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Tree 163 from golden gate to harbour permeable base new tree
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Tree 164 from golden gate to harbour permeable base
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This pebble slab on top of the grey gravel is resin bonded gravel. The slab laid on top of loose gravel has broken up and the jagged gravel below it has been grinding against the roots of these trees by the action of pedestrians walking over them. If you use my "Solution to current problem on these mosaic pavements' instead of this resin-bonded gravel etc, the problem would be sorted for these trees.

 

The ResinMill is the UK's largest of Resin Bonded & Resin Bound Gravel Suppliers.
From the Best Base for Resin Bound Gravel, there should have been the following:
0.5 mm of crushed glass, casted as antislip on top of
surface course of 16mm permeable resin bound gravel.
This is above the Base (binder course) of 70 mm of AC14 open textured tarmac, grade dependant on temperature, which is above the
sub base of Frost resistant MOT Type 3 100-250mm dependant on the application, and that is
above the sub grade.

"What Is The Best Base For Resin Bound Gravel?

INTRODUCTION

When deciding what base to choose for your resin bound gravel installation, it is first important to establish whether there is a suitable existing base that can be utilised. Resin bound can be overlaid onto existing tarmac or concrete surfaces of suitable construction for the expected traffic. They need to be crack free and in good condition. If there is any possibility for movement in the concrete or tarmac, the resin overlay surface can fail.

Generally when installing an overlay, the current base will not be permeable. In most circumstances if a new base is to be installed, contractors can ensure it is permeable and SuDS compliant. Longer guarantees can often be offered when contractors install the full base build up themselves. This is because you know the base build up has been installed in line with best practice for resin bound and there are no nasty surprises at a later stage.

WHAT IS THE BASE?

When it comes to resin bound gravel, there is often some confusion with the terminology ‘base’ and ‘sub-base’.

The ‘sub-base’ refers to what is underneath the ‘base’ course.

The ‘base’ is the binder course and refers to what the resin is immediately laid on.

Some people can also refer to the whole base build up structure underneath the resin bound gravel as a ‘base’ so it is important to be clear which part is being referred to when discussing bases.

WHAT ARE THE FUNCTIONS OF THE SUB BASE?

The sub-base has two functions. One is to provide a working platform for the base and the other to increase the intrinsic strength of the construction of the resin bound system.

WHAT IS THE BEST SUB BASE FOR RESIN BOUND GRAVEL?

The best sub base to use for resin bound gravel is a well compacted bed of non frost susceptible MOT type 3. The primary reason it is the best for resin bound systems, is because it is SuDS compliant. MOT type 3 has a lot less fines in comparison to other sub base materials and so as water permeates through the system, it is less likely to move and cause sinkage.

The thickness of the sub base should be calculated subject to survey and dependant on the condition of the soil below. The general guidelines, however, are that it should be laid at between 100-250mm.

WHAT ARE THE FUNCTIONS OF THE BASE?

The base provides the binding structure for the resin bound gravel. It creates a smooth surface to lay the resin bound gravel on.

3. ECOGRID

Understanding Ecogrid…

EcoGrid is a grid made of recycled plastic materials and it comes in different specifications. Doing pretty much as it says on the tin, Ecogrid creates a locked, grid like structure in order to bear heavy loads. It is laid on top of a geotextile membrane which is laid on top of the bed of type 3 sub base. It needs to then be filled with clean stone prior to laying the resin bound aggregates. Regarding the stone it needs to be filled with, the smaller the better.

How much Ecogrid should I be laying?

EcoGrids are 330mmx330mm and arrive on site in grids of 12, so the amount you will lay will depend on the size of your resin bound installation.

What is the best EcoGrid spec when laying resin bound gravel?

The most common one for carrying the load required for resin bound installations is the E50.

Pros 

• Cost effective for very small jobs

• It is highly permeable

• Easy to install

Cons 

• It’s not as strong as concrete or tarmac

• Requires additional products to be purchased in order to lay it

CONCLUSION

The base you choose for your resin bound installation will depend on the specification required for the project. If clients are not too fussed about their surface being SuDS compliant, concrete can act as a suitable base. You will find for the majority of installations however, in order to achieve a SuDS compliant surface, the best base to install resin bound surfacing on to is AC14 open textured tarmac at 70mm. This is because open textured tarmac offers a strong, permeable and SuDS compliant base that is cost effective, with a relatively quick curing time.

The size of the installation will also impact the choice of base. For example, Ecogrid maybe more economical for smaller installations where you don’t have the economies of scale of installing tarmac but ultimately whilst it is more permeable, it is not as strong as tarmac or concrete. Surfaces that will be heavily trafficked should have all of the layers designed according to DoT requirements.

It is important to note that the advice given is based on best practice for resin bound surfacing and that the specifier of project can design different base layers dependant on the ground conditions and the expected use of the surface."

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Photo 0162 for Tree 164 -
 

Damage to Trees in Pavement of Funchal Page 45

Tree 165 from lido to forum
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Tree 165 from lido to forum
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Tree 165 from lido to forum
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Tree 166 from lido to forum
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Tree 166 from lido to forum
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Improvements due to trees
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mobilane info
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mobilane info
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409 - Photo 0292 forImprovements due to Trees -

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410 - Photo 0765 for mobilane info -

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Photo 0192 for Tree 165 -
You can see from the extent of the hole and the rot that this tree has a major problem.

Solution to holes in trees.

Remove mesh covers and rot within the the hole. Then blast the remaining rot with a high pressure water hose to try and clear more of the rot. While it is still wet, apply a layer of foam to the bottom of the hole. Immediatele place bottles on this and allow to set for 5 minutes. Apply another layer of expanding foam and another layer of bottles. The aim of the bottles is to occupy space, they are not there as a deterrent. That is why the foam has to be in contact with the inside of the tree not
the glass bottle. The poisons in the foam will kill anything eating it and the foam does stick better when wet with water. Keep up this operation until the hole is covered. Leave to set and then paint the foam surface twice with a recommended water-based
sealant, but not oil-based sealant. There are several trees in the same very dangerous condition as this one, but every one can be saved, if you who so far cannot be bothered can do so before they fall down and injure someone.

Solutions to stop creating holes in trees.

When a branch is cut off, remember to cut it off on the other side of the branch collar. Once that is done, then immediately apply 2 coats of protective sealant as used for holes in trees above.

 

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Photo 0292 for Improvements due to Trees -
 

Photo 0765 for mobilane info -
 

Photo 0766 for mobilane info -
I quote from the letter in the photo:-
"Something that may be of interest to you is the work we are currently involved
with in Europe to see what effect the screens have on pollution. They have been
shown to absorb 6gms per square metre of sub micron particles per year from the
atmosphere. In layman's terms this means that 10 of our screens do the same job
in reducing atmospheric pollution as an average size tree."
So if you want to reduce air pollution in cities, why not get your houseowners and
house builders to erect these mobilane screens as their front and back garden
boundaries, instead of waney fencing or garden walls. Normally, modern gardens
are too small for trees (they would tend to damage their houses, see What to do
about subsiidence caused by Clay? page
), except for trained topfruit - see
Top Fruit Plant List Page.
Besides Green Screen for garden boundaries, Mobilane also do

  • WallPlanter for green facades to buildings
  • Mobiroof for instant roof planting system
  • Noistop for Noise Reduction Screens
  • Live Panel as Green Wall system for the outdoors as well as one for the
    indoors
  • Livepicture as living picture made up of plants, and
  • Livedivider as a green room divider

so that irrespective of whether you have a garden or not, you still live
somewhere so you can have nature benefitting you in your home and you
can help in reducing the pollution caused by you in the environment.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

xIMG0292improvementsduetotrees2garnonswilliams

Photo 6055 for Tree 98 on
Page 27 -

 

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PERHAPS REPLACEMENT OF ALL THE TREES IN THESE PAVEMENTS USING TREES GROWN BY BARCHAM USING THEIR LIGHT POT SYSTEM WOULD BE SAFER FOR THE VISITING AND NATIVE POPULATION. IF SOME ARE REQUIRED TO HAVE LIGHTING DISPLAYS, THEN BARCHAM CAN GROW THOSE TREES APPROPRIATELY (when you see the growth of the pollarded Tree 80 in the front garden of Pestana Mirimar Hotel within 12 months, then it is possible that the trees grown by Barcham for lighting displays could display lights within 18 months of planting in the pavement, providing the recommendations from Barcham on how to attach the lighting system to those trees is followed).

Photo 6055 for Tree 98

This tree was pollarded once planted. WHY? AND WHY WAS THE OTHER LEADER OF THE FORKED LEADER ON THE RIGHT PULLED OFF? WHAT DID THE PERSON DOING THIS THINK WOULD HAPPEN TO THE TREE WITH THE DAMAGE THAT HE HAD DONE IT? - HOP, SKIP AND PLAY WITH LOOPLA!!!

If you look at the large trees grown by Barcham, you will notice that they are multibranched and ready to plant within this extremely narrow space of 1 metre square - see Quercus robur Fastigiata and other trees suitable for pavements. It might be possible that they would plant them for you as well with their Planting Kit Plus and Tree Hydration bag (if you cannot be bothered to create an irrigation system as I have advised).

Barcham grow their pleached trees in the ground. Then, this tree is containerised in Light Pots for sale 12 months later. The tree can then be planted with 2 layers of weed-proof geotextile next to the kerb 18 inches (45 cm) from the trunk. This allows the trunk to become 38 inches (95 cms) in diameter before it reaches the concrete kerb and the roots will have been stopped from entering the ground, rubble, or foundations under the tarmac of the road. The roots including the lateral roots would still be all the way round the tree stabilising it and feeding it.

Provided my solution for the entire pavement area is followed, then the roots can extend to fill under the top wearing surface. This would be irrigated and fed by the waste food products of restaurants, hotels, supermarkets and weekly markets as well as from the animal waste from chickens, turkeys, cattle, goats and pigs system I suggested. This is topped up with trace minerals etc from seaweed from seaweed farming (if the liquid in it is not saline, then the wet product could be used instead of having to dry it and then dissolving it back into water to irrigate with it). This is further supported by the use of green manure and the irrigation water supplied by stopping the waste from leaking toilets in the hotels and restaurants; and using it for the trees instead. The used bottles from the same establishments and the native population could be turned into cullet and used to repair the holes in the trees and to create part of the mosaic pattern in the top surface of the pavement.

There we are in re-using the waste created by us and out activities in raising animals for our consumption to provide healthy trees, which do not just provide us with oxygen, but clean up after us by filtering the air to strip it of the dust particles from engines as well as the engine gases, it also improves our mental well-being by providing us with some nature to look at instead of man-made materials, like metal, concrete, tarmac and glass. We are also using the rain falling on the road and the water from the driveways of buildings alongside using the Beany Block Kerb and French Drain system, which would alleviate that rainwater flow from flooding the city centre as it stops the road drains in the valleys from accepting any more water. Win, Win and Win and improve people's mental life.

Give trees a proper volume of soil for their roots as shown by Barcham and fertiliser to help them grow as shown by Barcham .
You could also use Barcham pleached trees if you think that airspace is at a premium.
Trees can be kept in containers - the larger soil volume the better, especially the root system of a medium or large growing tree is going to access 30 cubc metres (if the pavement has its 2 inches (5 cm) depth of sharp sand with my mosaic pavement solution, then some of that volume can be available to the pavement trees.).
Barcham has the answer to which trees can be planted safely near buildings.
Barcham shows you which tree is best to combat diesel pollution.
Barcham states which trees can establish within the sight of the sea.
Barcham explains the difference between pleached, topiary and espaliered trees.
Barcham explains the correct planting depth for trees.
Barcham shows how trees hold themselves up.
Barcham explains their white pot and how it improves root growth so that their trees have a longer life in the client's ground than trees grown from scratch in black plastic pots.

Tree 99 from pestana promenade to forum tree in road IMG 6057.JPG also on Page 27 -

 

Tree 99 from pestana promenade to forum tree in road IMG 6058.JPG

 

Tree 140 from funchal roundabout to cathedral fuse box for lights IMG 0097.JPG on Page 39 -

 

mobilane info IMG 0765.JPG on Page 45 -

 

mobilane info IMG 0766.JPG on Page 45 -

 

 

Barenbrug UK have such a passion for grass that they have created a kinder grass mowing machine:-

xbarenbrugukmowingmachinegarnonswilliams

Why not use their e13 - Coastal Areas Landscaping grass seed to stabilse the areas round your cliffs or in new lawns in your coastal towns and villages. It has excellent drought tolerance so does not mind lack of irrigation during water drought conditions and utilises deep rooted species.

tIMG6057indextree99frompestanapromenadetoforuminfunchalgarnonswilliams1a1a

 

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GET BARCHAM TO GROW PLEACHED TREES THAT COULD DISPLAY LIGHTING IN THE MIDDLE HEIGHT SECTION TO REPLACE YOUR PAVEMENT TREES - Tree 99 from pestana promenade to forum tree in road IMG 6057.JPG
This and the next photo show how the trunk extends into the road and that the lateral roots extend more than 18 inches (45 cm) under the tarmac elevating it. The outer 12 inches of this tarmac is run over by the heavier duty tyres of lorries, buses and coaches beating the living daylights out of these roots. The tree has also overgrown the pink pavers and concrete kerb.
The metal box girder/lintel needs to be positioned at least 40 inches (100 cms) from the current kerb and my other solutions carried out if you want to save this tree. When you see the yellow bus in the background and the fact that there are 3 lanes of traffic all in the same direction of travel, then that restriction of 115 cms (46 inches) in the road width can easily be taken care of to keep these trees in this straight section of road to the Forum Shopping Centre.
Of course the cheaper solution is have these trees replaced with pleached trees from Barcham in properly irrigated, nourished and gaseous exchange conditions (perhaps using my Solution to current problem on these mosaic pavements - irrespective of what else is done this remedial work to all the pavements with trees in should be done within the first year to keep these trees or any replacement trees or shrubs with bedding). Perhaps it is best to replace the worst damaged to the least at 10% a year to reduce the shock to the population and the visitors till all the trees in this section of pavements from the Cathedral to The Forum have been replaced. Then, provide a tree replacement system in a 30 year rotation. Get Barcham to provide the annual training courses to the maintenance staff for these trees; including photo/history record-keeping for each tree.

 

 

USE BUNGEES INSTEAD OF WIRE OR PLASTIC TWINE TO TIE ELECTRICAL MATERIAL TO TREES - Tree 140 from funchal roundabout to cathedral fuse box for lights IMG 0097.JPG
Instead of using black wire or black plastic twine, use black bungee cord instead. When attaching heavy objects like the LuxStar electric light control box to the tree attach a coarse net of bungee cords over the box. Attach bungee cords to the top metal hooks of that net and lead that over the gap between a forked leader or a good supporting branch junction with the trunk and back down to that coarse net of bungee cords on the top of that box. Attach more bungee cords to the left hand side of the coarse net of bungees and lead round to the other side of the coarse net to attach them to. Being looser it means that the horizontal bungees generally hold the box against the tree but the weight of the box is taken by the top upright bungees. Check each year that the box with its coarse net of bungee cords and bungee cords are not biting into the bark of the trunk, as it would do otherwise with the use of wire or plastic twine and if neccessary change the bungees - bungee cord length 6, 18, 40 inches (15, 45, 100 cms).
The same bungee cord system can be used for the electrical wiring to prevent damage to the tree.

 

MOBILANE GREEN SCREENS INSTEAD OF FENCES/GARDEN WALLS - mobilane info IMG 0766.JPG
I quote from it:-
"Something that may be of interest to you is the work we are currently involved with in Europe to see what effect the screens have on pollution. They have been shown to absorb 6gms per square metre of sub micron particles per year from the atmosphere. In layman's terms this means that 10 of our screens do the same job in reducing atmospheric pollution as an average size tree."
So if you want to reduce air pollution in cities, why not get your houseowners and house builders to erect these mobilane screens as their front and back garden boundaries, instead of waney fencing or garden walls. Normally, modern gardens are too small for trees (they would tend to damage their houses, see What to do about subsiidence caused by Clay? page), except for trained topfruit - see Top Fruit Plant List Page.
Besides Green Screen for garden boundaries, Mobilane also do

  • WallPlanter for green facades to buildings
  • Mobiroof for instant roof planting system
  • Noistop for Noise Reduction Screens
  • Live Panel as Green Wall system for the outdoors as well as one for the indoors
  • Livepicture as living picture made up of plants, and
  • Livedivider as a green room divider

so that irrespective of whether you have a garden or not, you still live somewhere so you can have nature benefitting you in your home and you can help in reducing the pollution caused by you in the environment.

 

INSTEAD OF A 2 INCH (5 CM) DEPTH OF SHARP SAND UNDER THE CEDADRIVE AND GEOTEXTILE, HEICOM TREE SAND PROVIDES A BETTER ALTERNATIVE.
Heicom Tree Sand (Amsterdam Tree Sand) is a special blend of washed, semi-rounded silica sand and PAS100 organic matter blended to a formula developed following research by Dutch Universities in the 1980's. Heicom approached us shortly after this to become a licensed supplier of the blend and it has grown ever since.
Bourne Amenity is the sole supplier in the UK with the license to manufacturer Heicom Tree Sand - www.treesand.co.uk:-
Back in 2004 Bourne Amenity were approached by Van Der Berk trees to become a sole distributer of their Heicom Tree sand brand. Recognising our strength in the marketplace they wanted a reliable partner to deliver their tree sand into the growing urban tree planting market. Since then we have developed our own brand of tree sand (alongside Heicom) and supply these across the country.
Bourne Amenity Tree Sand is brand of structural urban tree planting sand for Car Parks, Pavements, SuDS and High Footfall:-
Whilst we are a registered manufacturer of the Heicom trees and brand, we designed our own blend back in 2008 to provide a slightly cheaper alternative to Heicom. This material is for use in tree pit planting where compaction is a consideration (i.e. car parks, pavements etc.). It should be used in conjunction with our washed tree pit subsoil and to the project guidelines.

 

PROTECTION FOR THE TREE WHICH IS IN THE ROAD FROM THE TRAFFIC
A temporary solution to the problem of trees jutting out into the road and the possibility of the roots being driven over, or the trunk driven into, could be solved with bell traffic bollards like the Bell 150 to protect the trees jutting into the road:-
The Bell traffic bollard is designed to deflect the wheels of heavy traffic. "Introduced to the market in 1986 it is a simple yet effective solution to many highways issues including:

• Pedestrian safety
• Width restriction
• Protection of property
• Traffic calming measures
• Protection of road signs and street furniture

Furnitubes constant development of the Bell bollard has resulted in the Bell being adapted to meet a range of varying specifications.

• Bell100 is the original full-sized Bell bollard.
• Bell340 Three quarter Bell is ideal for the protection of corners and exposed brickwork.
• Bell120 Bell half is suitable for protecting walls or pre-existing structures.
• Bell500X Bell with subframe for locations where underground services make installation difficult.
• Bell600 Kerbline Bell is for installation within the kerbline  - an ideal width restrictor and it stops vehicles parking on the flower bed / pavement behind it
• Bell115 allows the installation of a 115mm diameter bollard or railing post within the same footings as a Bell bollard. It produces the same results but acts as a high visibility post or cost effective vehicular and pedestrian barrier.
• Bell138 has a recess specifically to house a CIT538 City Bollard. 
• Ave100 Avector is a new traffic control bollard which deflects vehicles
wheels. Its sleek modern form is suitable for more contemporary locations."

The smaller ones could also be used every 120 inches (300 cms) behind kerbs to stop vehicles parking on the pavement with its trees/flower beds.

 

It would be better to use the water for the tree rather than grass.
The following is from my Welcome Page:-
"9. The section below explains why grass has such a detrimental effect on trees/shrubs/ or other plants planted within it:-
hotelgardens4garnonswilliams1a
This shows the roots of 1 ryegrass plant, which had been removed from the foundation bed of Type I MOT Roadstone in a client's garden. You can see that this plant has tens of yards or metres of root to absorb water.
"Most turf grass roots are concentrated in the first 6-8 inches (15-20 cms) of soil. Try to irrigate only one or two inches of water per week during the turf growing season. You could irrigate the whole amount of water at one time, however most folks have better results splitting the amount into two separate applications.  Please note however in sandy soils where the water percolates more rapidly it may benefit you to split the applications into three separate irrigation cycles.  You do not want to irrigate more than three times a week because you would be applying so little water the outcome would be shallow roots."
"Native Grass Meadow
MARSHALL SILTY CLAY LOAM (HEAVY SUBSOIL PHASE) These plots (18-20) were located in an area that is in native grasses and has never been plowed, but being within a cemetery area has had frequent mowing. It adjoins the Agronomy Farm at Lincoln, Nebraska. T ests on these native grass plots (Table 1) showed that they absorbed over 2 inches of water during the first 1.5 hours with an absorption rate of about 1.4 inches per hour at the end of this time. Following a delay of 10 days during which there was no rain-fall, water was again applied to the test areas with practically the same results as for the previous test. It will be shown later that if the second test is made only 1 day after the first, the rate of intake will be materially reduced. This seems to be due to the settling of soil immediately after wetting. Upon longer standing the soil seems to resume its original condition."

SO IF YOU SUPPLY THE RECOMMENDED 1 INCH (2.5 CM) DEPTH OF TREE IRRIGATION WATER PER WEEK SPLIT INTO 2 IRRIGATION SESSIONS OF 0.5 INCHES (1.25 CM) DEPTH, THEN THE GRASS ABOVE THE TREE ROOTS WILL ABSORB ALL OF THAT.
Remove the grass and replace with green manure for at least 80 inches (200 cms) radius from the tree trunk.