Topic
Case Studies
...Drive
...Foundations

Companion Planting
...A, B, C, D, E,
...F, G, H, I, J, K,
...L, M, N, O, P, Q,
...R, S, T, U, V, W,
...X, Y, Z
...Pest Control
...using Plants

Garden Construction
Garden Design
...How to Use the Colour Wheel Concepts for Selection of Flowers, Foliage and Flower Shape
...RHS Mixed Borders
......Bedding Plants
......Her Perennials
......Other Plants
......Camera photos of Plant supports
Garden Maintenance
Glossary
Home
Library
Offbeat Glossary
Plants
...Poisonous Plants
Soil
...Soil Nutrients
Tool Shed
Useful Data

................

Topic - Plant Photo Galleries

Camera Photo Galleries:-

RHS Garden at Wisley
Plant Supports -
When supporting plants in a bed, it is found that not only do those plants grow upwards, but also they expand their roots and footpad sideways each year. Pages
1
, 2, 3, 8, 11,
12, 13,
Plants 4, 7, 10,
Bedding Plants 5,
Plant Supports for Unknown Plants 5
,
Clematis Climbers 6,
the RHS does not appear to either follow it's own pruning advice or advice from The Pruning of Trees, Shrubs and Conifers by George E. Brown.
ISBN 0-571-11084-3 with the plants in Pages 1-7 of this folder. You can see from looking at both these resources as to whether the pruning carried out on the remainder of the plants in Pages 7-15 was correct.
Narcissus (Daffodil) 9,
Phlox Plant Supports 14, 15

Coleus Bedding Foliage Trial - Pages
1, 2, 3, 4, 5,
6, 7, 8, 9, 10,
11, 12, 13, 14, 15,
16, 17, 18, 19, 20,
21, 22, 23, 24, 25,
26, 27, 28, 29, 30,
31, 32
,
Index

National Trust Garden at Sissinghurst Castle
Plant Supports -
Pages for Gallery 1
with Plant Supports
1
, 5, 10
Plants
2
, 3, 4, 6, 7, 8, 9, 11, 12
Recommended Rose Pruning Methods 13
Pages for Gallery 2
with Plant Supports
2
,
Plants 1, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7

Dry Garden of
RHS Garden at
Hyde Hall
Plants - Pages
without Plant Supports
Plants 1
, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9

Nursery of
Peter Beales Roses
Display Garden
Roses Pages
1
, 2, 3, 4, 5,
6, 7, 8, 9, 10,
11, 12, 13

Nursery of
RV Roger
Roses - Pages
A1,A2,A3,A4,A5,
A6,A7,A8,A9,A10,
A11,A12,A13,A14,B15,
B16,B17,B18,B19,B20,
B21,B22,B23,B24,B25,
B26,B27,B28,B29,B30,
C31,C32,C33,C34,C35,
C36,C37,C38,C39,C40,
C41,CD2,D43,D44,D45,
D46,D47,D48,D49,E50,
E51,E52
,F53,F54,F55,
F56,F57,G58,G59,H60,
H61,I62,K63,L64,M65,
M66,N67,P68,P69,P70,

R71,R72,S73,S74,T75,
V76,Z77, 78,

Damage by Plants in Chilham Village - Pages
1
, 2, 3, 4

Pavements of Funchal, Madeira
Damage to Trees - Pages
1
, 2, 3, 4, 5,
6, 7, 8, 9, 10,
11, 12, 13
for trees 1-54
,
14, 15,
16, 17, 18, 19, 20,
21, 22, 23, 24, 25,
for trees 55-95,
26
, 27, 28, 29, 30,
31, 32, 33, 34, 35,
36, 37,
for trees 95-133,
38
, 39, 40,
41, 42, 43, 44, 45,
for trees 133-166


Chris Garnons-Williams
Work Done - Pages
1, 2, 3, 4, 5,
6, 7, 8, 9, 10,
11, 12, 13

Identity of Plants
Label Problems - Pages
1, 2, 3, 4, 5,
6, 7, 8, 9, 10,
11

Ron and Christine Foord
Garden Flowers - Pages
A1, 2, 3, 4, 5,
6, 7, 8, 9, 10,
11, 12, 13,

The plant with photo in the above Camera Photo Galleries
join

the plants with photos in the other Plant Photo Galleries below in

Plant with Photo Index of Ivydene Gardens - 1167
A 1, Photos - 36
B 1, Photos - 13
C 1, Photos - 35
D 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6,
Photos - 411

Photos of
Plants causing damage to buildings in Chilham Village and
Photos of
Damage to Trees in Pavements of Funchal
are also in the D pages
E 1, Photos - 21
F 1, Photos - 1
G 1, Photos - 5
H 1, Photos - 21
I 1, Photos - 8
J 1, Photos - 1
K 1, Photos - 1
L 1, Photos - 72
Photos of
Label Problems are also in the L pages
M 1, Photos - 9
N 1, Photos - 12
O 1, Photos - 5
P 1, Photos - 54
Q 1, Photos -
R 1,R 2,R 3,
Photos - 229
S 1, Photos - 111
T 1, Photos - 13
U 1, Photos - 5
V 1, Photos - 4
W 1, Photos - 100
Photos of
Work Done by Chris
Garnons-Williams are also in the W pages

X 1 Photos -
Y 1, Photos -
Z 1 Photos -

Articles/Items in Ivydene Gardens - 88

and in
Flower Shape and Plant Use of
Bedding
Bulb
Evergreen Perennial
Herbaceous Perennial
Rose
Evergreen Shrub
Deciduous Shrub
Evergreen Tree
Deciduous Tree
Annual
Fern
Wildflower
with
1. Why the perfect soil for general use is composed of 8.3% lime, 16.6% humus, 25% clay and 50% sand
within the SOIL TEXTURE, and
2. Why you are continually losing the SOIL STRUCTURE if you leave bare earth between plants so your soil - will revert to clay, chalk, sand or silt - unless you replace that lost humus with an organic mulch.


Aquatic
Bamboo


Bedding
...by Flower Shape

...Camera photos of Coleus Bedding Foliage Trial

Further details on Bedding from the Infill Galleries:-
...for Spring
...for Summer
...for Autumn
...for Winter
...for Sandy Soil
...for Acid Soil
...for Chalky Soil
...for Clay Soil
...Flower Colour:-
......Black
......Blue
......Orange
......Pink
......Purple
......Red
......White
......Yellow
......Multi-coloured
...Use of Bedding:-
......Aromatic Fol
......Scented Flo
......Long Flo
......Coloured Fol
......for Bees, etc
......Cut Flos
......Hanging Pot
......Pots/ Troughs
......Screening
......Window Box
......Bedding Out
......Filling in

Further details on Annuals from the Infill Galleries:-
Uses of Annuals

...Exposed Sites
...Sheltered Sites
...in Greenhouse
...Extra Poor Soil
...Very Rich Soil
...Gap Filling
...Patio Pots
...Cut Flowers 1, 2
...Everlasting Flos
...Attract Insects
...with Fragrance
...Bee Pollinated
...Annual Pairing
...Low-Growing
...Med-Growing
...Tall Growing
...Flower Colour:-
......Black/Brown
......Blue-Purple
......Green
......Red-Pink
......White
......Yellow/Orange
...for its Foliage
...in Moist Soil
...in Shade
...as Houseplants
...Edging Beds
...Hanging Basket
...Vining Annuals
...Plants for Cut Flowers which flower during:-
......January
......February
......March
......April
......May
......June
......July
......August
......September
......October
......November
......December
Further Details on Biennials from the Infill Galleries:-
Use of Bieenials

...Cottage Garden
...Cut Flower
...for Rock Work
...Patio Pots
...Conservatory
...for Wildlife
...Scented Flo



Bulb
...Allium/ Anemone
...Autumn
...Colchicum/ Crocus
...Dahlia
...Gladiolus
...Hippeastrum/ Lily
...Late Summer
...Narcissus
...Spring
...Tulip
...Winter
Climber
...Clematis
...Climbers
Conifer
Deciduous Shrub
...Shrubs - Decid
Deciduous Tree
...Trees - Decid
Evergreen Perennial
...P-Evergreen A-L
...P-Evergreen M-Z
...Flower Shape
Evergreen Shrub
...Shrubs - Evgr
...Heather Shrub
Evergreen Tree
...Trees - Evgr
Fern
Grass
Hedging
Herbaceous Perennial
...P -Herbaceous
...RHS Wisley
...Flower Shape
Herb
Odds and Sods
Rhododendron
Rose
...RHS Wisley A-F
...RHS Wisley G-R
...RHS Wisley S-Z
...Rose Use
...Other Roses A-F
...Other Roses G-R
...Other Roses S-Z
Soft Fruit
Top Fruit
...Apple

...Cherry
...Pear
Vegetable

Wild Flower
with its
flower colour page,
space,
Site Map page in its flower colour
NOTE Gallery
...Blue Note
...Brown Note
...Cream Note
...Green Note
...Mauve Note
...Multi-Cols Note
...Orange Note
...Pink A-G Note
...Pink H-Z Note
...Purple Note
...Red Note
...White A-D Note
...White E-P Note
...White Q-Z Note
...Yellow A-G Note
...Yellow H-Z Note
...Shrub/Tree Note
Poisonous
Wildflower Plants

............

Topic - Flower/Foliage Colour
Colour Wheel Galleries

Following your choice using Garden Style then that changes your Plant Selection Process
Garden Style
...Infill Plants
...12 Bloom Colours per Month Index
...12 Foliage Colours per Month Index
...All Plants Index
...Cultivation, Position, Use Index
...Shape, Form
Index

or
you could use these Flower Colour Wheels with number of colours
All Flowers 53

All Flowers per Month 12
with its
Explanation of
Structure of this Website with

...User Guidelines
All Bee-Pollinated Flowers per Month 12
...Index
Rock Garden and Alpine Flower Colour Wheel with number of colours
Rock Plant Flowers 53

...Rock Plant Photos

or
these Foliage Colour Wheels structures, which I have done but until I can take the photos and I am certain of the plant label's validity, these may not progress much further
All Foliage 212

All Spring Foliage 212
All Summer Foliage 212
All Autumn Foliage 212
All Winter Foliage 212

or
Flower Colour Wheel without photos, but with links to photos
12 Bloom Colours per Month Index
...All Plants Index

............

Topic - Wildlife on Plant Photo Gallery
Butterfly
Usage of Plants
by Egg, Caterpillar, Chrysalis and Butterfly

Egg, Caterpillar, Chrysalis and Butterfly usage of
Plant A-C
Plant C-M
Plant N-W
Butterfly usage of Plant

followed by all the Wild Flower Family Pages:-

WILD FLOWER FAMILY
PAGE MENU 1


(o)Adder's Tongue
Amaranth
(o)Arrow-Grass
(o)Arum
(o)Balsam
Bamboo
(o)Barberry
(o)Bedstraw
(o)Beech
(o)Bellflower
(o)Bindweed
(o)Birch
(o)Birds-Nest
(o)Birthwort
(o)Bogbean
(o)Bog Myrtle
(o)Borage
(o)Box
(o)Broomrape
(o)Buckthorn
(o)Buddleia
(o)Bur-reed
(o)Buttercup
(o)Butterwort
(o)Cornel (Dogwood)
(o)Crowberry
(o)Crucifer (Cabbage/Mustard) 1
(o)Crucifer (Cabbage/Mustard) 2
Cypress
(o)Daffodil
(o)Daisy
(o)Daisy Cudweeds
(o)Daisy Chamomiles
(o)Daisy Thistle
(o)Daisy Catsears
(o)Daisy Hawkweeds
(o)Daisy Hawksbeards
(o)Daphne
(o)Diapensia
(o)Dock Bistorts
(o)Dock Sorrels

WILD FLOWER FAMILY
PAGE MENU 2


(o)Clubmoss
(o)Duckweed
(o)Eel-Grass
(o)Elm
(o)Filmy Fern
(o)Horsetail
(o)Polypody
Quillwort
(o)Royal Fern
(o)Figwort - Mulleins
(o)Figwort - Speedwells
(o)Flax
(o)Flowering-Rush
(o)Frog-bit
(o)Fumitory
(o)Gentian
(o)Geranium
(o)Glassworts
(o)Gooseberry
(o)Goosefoot
(o)Grass 1
(o)Grass 2
(o)Grass 3
(o)Grass Soft Bromes 1
(o)Grass Soft Bromes 2
(o)Grass Soft Bromes 3 (o)Hazel
(o)Heath
(o)Hemp
(o)Herb-Paris
(o)Holly
(o)Honeysuckle
(o)Horned-Pondweed
(o)Hornwort
(o)Iris
(o)Ivy
(o)Jacobs Ladder
(o)Lily
(o)Lily Garlic
(o)Lime
(o)Lobelia
(o)Loosestrife
(o)Mallow
(o)Maple
(o)Mares-tail
(o)Marsh Pennywort
(o)Melon (Gourd/Cucumber)
 

WILD FLOWER FAMILY
PAGE MENU 3


(o)Mesem-bryanthemum
(o)Mignonette
(o)Milkwort
(o)Mistletoe
(o)Moschatel
Naiad
(o)Nettle
(o)Nightshade
(o)Oleaster
(o)Olive
(o)Orchid 1
(o)Orchid 2
(o)Orchid 3
(o)Orchid 4
(o)Parnassus-Grass
(o)Peaflower
(o)Peaflower Clover 1
(o)Peaflower Clover 2
(o)Peaflower Clover 3
(o)Peaflower Vetches/Peas
Peony
(o)Periwinkle
Pillwort
Pine
(o)Pink 1
(o)Pink 2
Pipewort
(o)Pitcher-Plant
(o)Plantain
(o)Pondweed
(o)Poppy
(o)Primrose
(o)Purslane
Rannock Rush
(o)Reedmace
(o)Rockrose
(o)Rose 1
(o)Rose 2
(o)Rose 3
(o)Rose 4
(o)Rush
(o)Rush Woodrushes
(o)Saint Johns Wort
Saltmarsh Grasses
(o)Sandalwood
(o)Saxifrage
 

WILD FLOWER FAMILY
PAGE MENU 4


Seaheath
(o)Sea Lavender
(o)Sedge Rush-like
(o)Sedges Carex 1
(o)Sedges Carex 2
(o)Sedges Carex 3
(o)Sedges Carex 4
(o)Spindle-Tree
(o)Spurge
(o)Stonecrop
(o)Sundew
(o)Tamarisk
Tassel Pondweed
(o)Teasel
(o)Thyme 1
(o)Thyme 2
(o)Umbellifer 1
(o)Umbellifer 2
(o)Valerian
(o)Verbena
(o)Violet
(o)Water Fern
(o)Waterlily
(o)Water Milfoil
(o)Water Plantain
(o)Water Starwort
Waterwort
(o)Willow
(o)Willow-Herb
(o)Wintergreen
(o)Wood-Sorrel
(o)Yam
(o)Yew

 

It is worth remembering that especially with roses that the colour of the petals of the flower may change - The following photos are of Rosa 'Lincolnshire Poacher' which I took on the same day in R.V. Roger's Nursery Field:-

x11rosalincolnshirepoacherflot9a

Closed Bud

x11rosalincolnshirepoacherflot92a

Opening Bud

x11rosalincolnshirepoacherflot93a

Juvenile Flower

x11rosalincolnshirepoacherflot94a

Older Juvenile Flower

x11rosalincolnshirepoacherflot95a

Middle-aged Flower - Flower Colour in Season in its
Rose Description Page is
"Buff Yellow, with a very slight pink tint at the edges in May-October."

x11rosalincolnshirepoacherflot96a

Mature Flower

x11rosalincolnshirepoacherflot97a

Juvenile Flower and Dying Flower

x11rosalincolnshirepoacherflot98a

Form of Rose Bush

There are 720 roses in the Rose Galleries; many of which have the above series of pictures in their respective Rose Description Page.

So one might avoid the disappointment that the 2 elephants had when their trunks were entwined instead of them each carrying their trunk using their own trunk, and your disappointment of buying a rose to discover that the colour you bought it for is only the case when it has its juvenile flowers; if you look at all the photos of the roses in the respective Rose Description Page!!!!

Ivydene Horticultural Services logo with I design, construct and maintain private gardens. I also advise and teach you in your own garden. 01634 389677

Site design and content copyright ©August 2019.
Chris Garnons-Williams.

DISCLAIMER: Links to external sites are provided as a courtesy to visitors. Ivydene Horticultural Services are not responsible for the content and/or quality of external web sites linked from this site.  

 

Picture Folder Name Pages:-

Since 14 June 2019 I have also started to put my own full-sized 4000 x 3000 digital Camera images into the relevant topics in this website again for use in the Public Domain - since there may
be 9 or more to a page the resulting 43Mb website page may take some time to load
. Since I have more than 26,522 photos using 111,460Mb of my disk space, then the extra upfront cost per annum before creating more folders like Photo coleus is just over 3.16 pence per photo has been paid for the total number in that entire photo collection before any are sent to the website.

It is hoped that you may find them of interest.

Ivydene Gardens Plant with Photo Index Gallery:
Shape of Flower and Use of Plant Page 1
with
1. Why the perfect soil for general use is composed of 8.3% lime, 16.6% humus, 25% clay and 50% sand
within the SOIL TEXTURE, and

 

As photos are added to this index, then if the plant has the relevant photos to be included in the comparison pages in this table, then they shall be included in the relevant Flower Shape and Plant Use gallery below for

  • Bedding
  • Bulb
  • Evergreen Perennial
  • Herbaceous Perennial
  • Rose
  • Evergreen Shrub
  • Deciduous Shrub
  • Evergreen Tree
  • Deciduous Tree

BEDDING PLANT GALLERY PAGES

Flower Colour

Bicolour

Blue

Green

Orange

Other Colours

Pink

Purple

Red

White

White / Bicolour

Yellow

 

 

 

Flower Simple Shape

3 Petals

4 Petals

5 Petals

6 Petals

Stars

Bowls, Cups and Saucers

Globes, Goblets and Chalices

irisflotpseudacorus1

aethionemacfloarmenumfoord1

anemonecflo1hybridafoord1

 

anthericumcfloliliagofoord1a

geraniumflocineremuballerina1a1a1a1a

paeoniamlokosewitschiiflot1a

Trumpets and Funnels

Bells, Thimbles and Urns

 

Single Flower provides pollen for bees

 

2 Petals

 

acantholimoncfloglumaceumfoord1a

digitalismertonensiscflorvroger1

 

anagalisflotcskylover1a

 

cupheacflollaveakavanagh1

 

Flower Elabor-ated Shape

Tubes, Lips and Lobes

Slippers, Spurs and Lockets

Hats, Hoods and Helmets

Standards, Wings and Keels

Discs and Florets

Pin-cushions and Tufts

Rosettes, Buttons and Pompons

prunellaflotgrandiflora1

aquilegiacfloformosafoord1

acanthusspinosuscflocoblands1

lathyrusflotvernus1

brachyscomecflorigidulakevock1

echinaceacflo1purpurealustrehybridsgarnonswilliams1

argyranthemumflotcmadeiracrestedyellow1

Bedding Plant Use

Bedding Out

Filling In

Screen-ing

Pots and Troughs

Window Boxes

Hanging Baskets

Spring Bedding

Summer Bedding

Winter Bedding

Foliage instead of Flower


Bedding Photos
for use in Public Domain 1

 

Bedding Plant Height from Text Border Gallery

Blue =
0-24 inches
(0-60 cms)

Green =
24-72 inches
(60-180 cms) or
Green =
24-72 inches
(60-180 cms)

Red =
72+ inches
(180+ cms)
 

Bedding Plant Soil Moisture from Text Background

 

Wet Soil

Moist Soil

Dry Soil

Click on thumbnail to change this Comparison Page to the Plant Description Page of the Bedding Plant named in the Text box below that photo.


The Comments Row of that Bedding Plant Description Page details where that Bedding Plant is available from.

 

From

Ivydene Gardens Bulb Flower Shape, Bulb Form, Bulb Use and Bulb in Soil Gallery:

BULB FLOWER SHAPE GALLERY PAGES

lessershapemeadowrue2a1a1

alliumcflohaireasytogrowbulbs

berberisdarwiniiflower10h3a14c2

irisflotpseudacorus

aethionemacfloarmenumfoord

anemonecflo1hybridafoord

anemonecflo1blandafoord

Number of Flower Petals

Petal-less

1

2

3

4

5

Above 5

 

anthericumcfloliliagofoord1

alliumcflo1roseumrvroger

geraniumflocineremuballerina1a1a1a1

paeoniamlokosewitschiiflot1

paeoniaveitchiiwoodwardiiflot

acantholimoncfloglumaceumfoord1

stachysflotmacrantha1

Flower Shape - Simple

Stars with Single Flowers

Bowls

Cups and Saucers

Globes

Goblets and Chalices

Trumpets

Funnels

 

digitalismertonensiscflorvroger

fuchsiaflotcalicehoffman1

ericacarneacflosspringwoodwhitedeeproot1a

phloxflotsubulatatemiskaming1

 

 

 

Flower Shape - Simple

Bells

Thimbles

Urns

Salver form

 

 

 

 

prunellaflotgrandiflora

aquilegiacfloformosafoord

acanthusspinosuscflocoblands

lathyrusflotvernus

anemonecflo1coronariastbrigidgeetee

echinaceacflo1purpurealustrehybridsgarnonswilliams

centaureacfloatropurpureakavanagh

Flower Shape - Elabor-ated

Tubes, Lips and Straps

Slippers, Spurs and Lockets

Hats, Hoods and Helmets

Stan-dards, Wings and Keels

Discs and Florets

Pin-Cushions

Tufts and Petal-less Cluster

 

androsacecforyargongensiskevock

androsacecflorigidakevock

argyranthemumflotcmadeiracrestedyellow

armeriacflomaritimakevock

anemonecflonemerosaalbaplenarvroger

 

 

Flower Shape - Elabor-ated

Cushion

Umbel

Buttons with Double Flowers

Pompoms

Stars with Semi-Double Flowers

 

 

 

bergeniamorningredcforcoblands1

ajugacfloreptansatropurpurea

lamiumflotorvala2

astilbepurplelancecflokevock1

berberisdarwiniiflower10h3a1433a1a1

berberisdarwiniiflower10h3a1434a1a1

androsacecfor1albanakevock

Natural Arrange-ments

Bunches, Posies and Sprays (Group)

Columns, Spikes and Spires

Whorls, Tiers and Cande-labra

Plumes and Tails

Chains and Tassels

Clouds, Garlands and Cascades

Sphere, Dome (Clusters), Drumstick and Plate

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

BULB
FORM, BULB USE AND BULB IN SOIL GALLERY PAGES

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Bulb Form

Mat-Forming

Prostrate or Trailing

Cushion or Mound-forming

Spreading or Creeping

Clump-forming

Stemless. Sword-shaped Leaves

Erect or Upright

Bulb Use

Other than Only Green Foliage

Bedding or Mass Planting

Ground-Cover

Cut-Flower

Tolerant of Shade

In Woodland Areas

Under-plant

Tolerant of Poor Soil

Covering Banks

In Water

Beside Stream or Water Garden

Coastal Conditions

Edging Borders

Back of Border or Back-ground Plant

Fragrant Flowers

Not Fragrant Flowers

Indoor House-plant

Grow in a Patio Pot

Grow in an Alpine Trough

Grow in an Alpine House

Grow in Rock Garden

Speciman Plant

Into Native Plant Garden

Naturalize in Grass

Grow in Hanging Basket

Grow in Window-box

Grow in Green-house

Grow in Scree

 

 

Natural-ized Plant Area

Grow in Cottage Garden

Attracts Butter-flies

Attracts Bees

Resistant to Wildlife

Bulb in Soil

Chalk

Clay

Sand

Lime-Free (Acid)

Peat

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Bulb Height from Text Border

Brown= 0-12 inches (0-30 cms)

Blue = 12-24 inches (30-60 cms)

Green= 24-36 inches (60-90 cms)

Red = 36+ inches (90+ cms)

Bulb Soil Moisture from Text Background

Wet Soil

Moist Soil

Dry Soil

Flowering months range abreviates month to its first 3 letters (Apr-Jun is April, May and June).

Click on thumbnail to change this comparison page to the Plant Description Page of the Bulb named in the Text box below that photo.
The Comments Row of that Plant Description Page links to where you personally can purchase that bulb via mail-order.

 

 

The following table shows the linkages for the information about the plants
described in Sanders' Encyclopedia of Gardening in The Gardeners' Golden Treasury, revised by A. G. L Hellyer F.L.S, Editor of 'Amateur Gardening', (thirty-first impression of original published in 1895) was published in 1960 by W. H. & L. Collingridge Limited,
between:-

STAGE 4D
SHAPE, FORM INDEX GALLERY

Plant Foliage

Aromatic Foliage

1

Autumn Foliage

1

Finely Cut Leaves

1

Large Leaves

1

Yellow Variegated Foliage

1

White Variegated Foliage

1

Red / Purple Variegated Foliage

1

Silver, Grey and Glaucous Foliage

1

Sword-shaped Leaves

1

 

 

 

STAGE 4D
SHAPE, FORM INDEX GALLERY

Shrub, Tree Shape

Columnar
ccolumnarshape1a1a1a1a1a1

1

Oval
covalshape1a1a1a1a1a1

1

Rounded or Spherical
croundedshape1a1a1a1a1a1

1

Flattened Spherical
cflattenedsphericalshape1a1a1a1a1a1

1

Narrow Conical / Narrow Pyramidal
cnarrowconicalshape1a1a1a1a1a1

1

Broad Conical / Broad Pyramidal
cbroadpyramidalshape1a1a1a1a1a1

1

Ovoid /
Egg-Shaped

ceggshapedshape1a1a1a1a1a1

1

Broad Ovoid
cbroadovoidshape1a1a1a1a1a1

1

Narrow Vase-shaped / Inverted Ovoid
cnarrowvaseshapedshape1a1a1a1a1a1

1

Fan-Shaped /Vase-Shaped
cfanshapedshape1a1a1a1a1a1

1

Broad Fan-Shaped / Broad Vase-Shaped
cbroadfanshapedshape1a1a1a1a1a1

1

Narrow Weeping
cnarrowweepingshape1a1a1a1a1a1

1

Broad Weeping
cbroadweepingshape1a1a1a1a1a1

1

Palm

1

 

Conifer Cone

1

 

Form

Arching

1

Climbing

1

Clump-Forming

1

Mat-Forming

1

Mound-Forming

1

Prostrate

1

Spreading

1

Stemless

1

Upright

1

 

Poisonous Plant

1

 

STAGE 4D
SHAPE, FORM INDEX GALLERY

Plant Foliage

STAGE 4D
SHAPE, FORM INDEX GALLERY

Tree and Shrubs in Garden Design -

Trees and Shrubs suitable for Clay Soils (neutral to slightly acid)

Trees and Shrubs suitable for Dry Acid Soils

Trees and Shrubs suitable for Shallow Soil over Chalk

Trees and Shrubs tolerant of both extreme Acidity and Alkalinity

Trees and Shrubs suitable for Damp Sites

Trees and Shrubs suitable for Industrial Areas

Trees and Shrubs suitable for Cold Exposed Areas

Trees and Shrubs suitable for Seaside Areas

Shrubs suitable for Heavy Shade

Shrubs and Climbers suitable for NORTH- and EAST-facing Walls

Shrubs suitable for Ground Cover

Trees of Pendulous Habit

Trees and Shrubs of Upright or Fastigiate Habit

Trees and Shrubs with Ornamental Bark or Twigs

Trees and Shrubs with Bold Foliage

Trees and Shrubs for Autumn Colour

Trees and Shrubs with Red or Purple Foliage

Trees and Shrubs with Golden or Yellow Foliage

Trees and Shrubs with Grey or Silver Foliage

Trees and Shrubs with Variegated Foliage

Trees and Shrubs bearing Ornamental Fruit

Trees and Shrubs with Fragrant or Scented Flowers

Trees and Shrubs with Aromatic Foliage

Flowering Trees and Shrubs for Every Month:-
Jan
, Feb, Mar, Apr, May, Jun, Jul, Aug, Sep, Oct, Nov, Dec

 

STAGE 1
GARDEN STYLE INDEX GALLERY

 

Fragrant Plants adds the use of another of your 5 senses in your garden:-
Sense of Fragrance from Roy Genders

Fragrant Plants:-
Trees and Shrubs with Scented Flowers
1
, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6

Trees and Shrubs with Scented Leaves
1
, 2, 3, 4, 5

Trees and Shrubs with Aromatic Bark
1
, 2, 3

Shrubs bearing Scented Flowers for an
Acid Soil
1
, 2, 3, 4

Shrubs bearing Scented Flowers for a
Chalky or Limestone Soil
1
, 2, 3, 4

Shrubs bearing Scented leaves for a
Sandy Soil
1
, 2, 3

Herbaceous Plants with Scented Flowers
1
, 2, 3

Herbaceous Plants with Scented Leaves
1
, 2, 3

Annual and Biennial Plants with Scented Flowers or Leaves
1
, 2

Bulbs and Corms with Scented Flowers
1
, 2, 3, 4, 5

Scented Plants of Climbing and Trailing Habit
1
, 2, 3

Winter-flowering Plants with Scented Flowers
1
, 2

Night-scented Flowering Plants
1
, 2

Scented Aquatic Plants
1


Plants with Scented Fruits
1


Plants with Scented Roots
1
, 2

Trees and Shrubs with Scented Wood
1


Trees and Shrubs with Scented Gums
1


Scented Cacti and Succulents
1


Plants bearing Flowers or Leaves of Unpleasant Smell
1
, 2
 

 

with more details below on the Perfume Groups

 

 

 

 

Now we do of course have WILDFLOWERS and these can be very useful to
BUTTERFLIES and their young

 

Butterfly
Usage of Plants
by Egg, Caterpillar, Chrysalis and Butterfly

Egg, Caterpillar, Chrysalis and Butterfly usage of
Plant A-C
Plant C-M
Plant N-W
Butterfly usage of Plant

 

 

and these wildflowers come from these
WILDFLOWER FAMILIES:-

WILD FLOWER FAMILY
PAGE MENU 1


(o)Adder's Tongue
Amaranth
(o)Arrow-Grass
(o)Arum
(o)Balsam
Bamboo
(o)Barberry
(o)Bedstraw
(o)Beech
(o)Bellflower
(o)Bindweed
(o)Birch
(o)Birds-Nest
(o)Birthwort
(o)Bogbean
(o)Bog Myrtle
(o)Borage
(o)Box
(o)Broomrape
(o)Buckthorn
(o)Buddleia
(o)Bur-reed
(o)Buttercup
(o)Butterwort
(o)Cornel (Dogwood)
(o)Crowberry
(o)Crucifer (Cabbage/Mustard) 1
(o)Crucifer (Cabbage/Mustard) 2
Cypress
(o)Daffodil
(o)Daisy
(o)Daisy Cudweeds
(o)Daisy Chamomiles
(o)Daisy Thistle
(o)Daisy Catsears
(o)Daisy Hawkweeds
(o)Daisy Hawksbeards
(o)Daphne
(o)Diapensia
(o)Dock Bistorts
(o)Dock Sorrels

WILD FLOWER FAMILY
PAGE MENU 2


(o)Clubmoss
(o)Duckweed
(o)Eel-Grass
(o)Elm
(o)Filmy Fern
(o)Horsetail
(o)Polypody
Quillwort
(o)Royal Fern
(o)Figwort - Mulleins
(o)Figwort - Speedwells
(o)Flax
(o)Flowering-Rush
(o)Frog-bit
(o)Fumitory
(o)Gentian
(o)Geranium
(o)Glassworts
(o)Gooseberry
(o)Goosefoot
(o)Grass 1
(o)Grass 2
(o)Grass 3
(o)Grass Soft Bromes 1
(o)Grass Soft Bromes 2
(o)Grass Soft Bromes 3 (o)Hazel
(o)Heath
(o)Hemp
(o)Herb-Paris
(o)Holly
(o)Honeysuckle
(o)Horned-Pondweed
(o)Hornwort
(o)Iris
(o)Ivy
(o)Jacobs Ladder
(o)Lily
(o)Lily Garlic
(o)Lime
(o)Lobelia
(o)Loosestrife
(o)Mallow
(o)Maple
(o)Mares-tail
(o)Marsh Pennywort
(o)Melon (Gourd/Cucumber)
 

WILD FLOWER FAMILY
PAGE MENU 3


(o)Mesem-bryanthemum
(o)Mignonette
(o)Milkwort
(o)Mistletoe
(o)Moschatel
Naiad
(o)Nettle
(o)Nightshade
(o)Oleaster
(o)Olive
(o)Orchid 1
(o)Orchid 2
(o)Orchid 3
(o)Orchid 4
(o)Parnassus-Grass
(o)Peaflower
(o)Peaflower Clover 1
(o)Peaflower Clover 2
(o)Peaflower Clover 3
(o)Peaflower Vetches/Peas
Peony
(o)Periwinkle
Pillwort
Pine
(o)Pink 1
(o)Pink 2
Pipewort
(o)Pitcher-Plant
(o)Plantain
(o)Pondweed
(o)Poppy
(o)Primrose
(o)Purslane
Rannock Rush
(o)Reedmace
(o)Rockrose
(o)Rose 1
(o)Rose 2
(o)Rose 3
(o)Rose 4
(o)Rush
(o)Rush Woodrushes
(o)Saint Johns Wort
Saltmarsh Grasses
(o)Sandalwood
(o)Saxifrage
 

WILD FLOWER FAMILY
PAGE MENU 4


Seaheath
(o)Sea Lavender
(o)Sedge Rush-like
(o)Sedges Carex 1
(o)Sedges Carex 2
(o)Sedges Carex 3
(o)Sedges Carex 4
(o)Spindle-Tree
(o)Spurge
(o)Stonecrop
(o)Sundew
(o)Tamarisk
Tassel Pondweed
(o)Teasel
(o)Thyme 1
(o)Thyme 2
(o)Umbellifer 1
(o)Umbellifer 2
(o)Valerian
(o)Verbena
(o)Violet
(o)Water Fern
(o)Waterlily
(o)Water Milfoil
(o)Water Plantain
(o)Water Starwort
Waterwort
(o)Willow
(o)Willow-Herb
(o)Wintergreen
(o)Wood-Sorrel
(o)Yam
(o)Yew

 

 

 

 

 

Perhaps FRAGRANT PLANTS might be useful to you:-

 

 

Sense of Fragrance from Roy Genders

Fragrant Plants:-
Trees and Shrubs with Scented Flowers 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6
Trees and Shrubs with Scented Leaves 1, 2, 3, 4, 5
Trees and Shrubs with Aromatic Bark 1, 2, 3
Shrubs bearing Scented Flowers for an
Acid Soil 1
, 2, 3, 4
Shrubs bearing Scented Flowers for a
Chalky or Limestone Soil 1
, 2, 3, 4
Shrubs bearing Scented Flowers for a
Sandy Soil 1
, 2, 3
Herbaceous Plants with Scented Flowers 1, 2, 3
Herbaceous Plants with Scented Leaves 1, 2, 3
Annual and Biennial Plants with Scented Flowers or Leaves 1, 2
Bulbs and Corms with Scented Flowers 1, 2, 3, 4, 5
Scented Plants of Climbing and Trailing Habit 1, 2, 3
Winter-flowering Plants with Scented Flowers 1, 2
Night-scented Flowering Plants 1, 2
Scented Aquatic Plants.
Plants with Scented Fruits.
Plants with Scented Roots 1, 2
Trees and Shrubs with Scented Wood.
Trees and Shrubs with Scented Gums.
Scented Cacti and Succulents.
Plants bearing Flowers or Leaves of Unpleasant Smell 1, 2

Flower Perfume Group:-
Miscellaneous Group with scents - Balm, Brandy, Cedar, Cloying, Cowslip, Cucumber, Damask Rose, Daphne, Exotic, Freesia, Fur-like, Gardenia, Hay-like, Heliotrope, Honeysuckle, Hops, Hyacinth, Incense-like, Jasmine, Laburnham, Lilac, Lily of the Valley, Meadowsweet, Mignonette, Mint, Mossy, Muscat, Muscatel, Myrtle-like, Newly Mown Hay, Nutmeg, Piercing, Primrose, Pungent, Resinous, Sandalwood, Sassafras, Seductive, Slight, Soft, Stephanotis, Sulphur, Starch, Sweet, Sweet-briar, Tea-rose, Treacle and Very Sweet.

Flower Perfume Group:-
Indoloid Group.
Aminoid Group with scent - Hawthorn.
Heavy Group with scents -
Jonquil and
Lily.
Aromatic Group with scents - Almond,
Aniseed, Balsamic,
Carnation, Cinnamon, Clove,
Spicy and
Vanilla.
Violet Group.
Rose Group.
Lemon Group with scent -
Verbena.
Fruit-scented Group with scents -
Apricot,
Fruity,
Green Apple,
Orange, Pineapple,
Ripe Apple , Ripe Banana and
Ripe Plum.
 

Flower Perfume Group:-
Animal-scented Group with scents -
Cat,
Dog,
Ferret,
Fox,
Goat,
Human Perspiration,
Musk,
Ripe Apple and
Tom Cat.
Honey Group.
Unpleasant Smell Group with scents -
Animal,
Fetid,
Fishy,
Foxy,
Fur-like,
Garlic,
Hemlock,
Manure,
Nauseating,
Perspiration,
Petrol,
Putrid,
Rancid,
Sickly,
Skunk,
Stale Lint
Sulphur and
Urinous,

 

Leaf Perfume Group:-
Turpentine Group.
Camphor and Eucalyptus Group.
Mint Group.
Sulphur Group.
Indoloid Group.
Aminoid Group.
Heavy Group.
Aromatic Group.
Violet Group.
Rose Group.
Lemon Group.
Fruit-scented Group.
Animal-scented Group.
Honey Group.

Scent of Wood, Bark and Roots Group:-
Aromatic Group.
Turpentine Group.
Rose Group.
Violet Group.
Stale Perspiration Group.

 

Scent of Fungi Group:-
Indoloid Group.
Aminoid Group.
Sulphur Group.
Aromatic Group.
Rose Group.
Violet Group.
Fruit Group.
Animal Group.
Honey Group

 

 

 

 

 

 

The proportion of sand, silt and clay is referred to as its texture and is described in What is Soil Texture?

If you only have Clay, Sand or Silt Loam as shown in the diagram below, then you will have difficulty in growing many different types of plants, so you would probably be advised to change the proportion towards the perfect soil for general use, which should be composed of 8.3% lime, 16.6% humus, 25% clay and 50% sand.
To provide the lime and humus on your garden beds, under your hedges or between your vegetables / fruit bushes / top fruit, why not create a 1-3 inch (2.5-7.5 cm) mulch depth of Spent Mushroom Compost - its formulation generally consists of a combination of wheat straw, dried blood, horse manure and ground chalk, composted together. It is an excellent source of humus, although much of its nitrogen content will have been used up by the composting and growing mushrooms. It remains, however, a good source of general nutrients (0.7% N, 0.3% P, 0.3% K plus a full range of trace elements), as well as a useful soil conditioner. However, due to its chalk content, it may be alkaline, and should not be used on acid-loving plants, nor should it be applied too frequently, as it will overly raise the soil's pH levels.

Each stage of the brewing process produces waste. For every 1,000 tonnes of beer produced, 137 to 173 tonnes of solid waste may be created in the form of spent grain, trub (an unwanted material generated during wort production), waste yeast and kieselguhr, main material used to filter the beer. Kieselguhr - typical chemical composition of oven-dried diatomaceous earth is 80–90% silica (silica is sand), with 2–4% alumina (attributed mostly to clay minerals) and 0.5–2% iron oxide. So, if you have clay soil, once the beer companies have removed what they want from it, why not add this waste material as a form of slurry brought by a cement mixer to your garden to change the texture of your soil to one more suitable for plants as well as provide them with organic matter of spent grain and yeast, instead of them sending it to landfill?

This could also be added to the fertiliser for the trees in the pavements and that would be another permanent way of using the product rather than using it for landfill. That would mean that all waste products from beer making would be used throughout the world.

 

Soil Texture

The proportion of sand, silt and clay is referred to as its texture as shown in the diagram below.

The gaps between the soil particles are called ‘soil pores’. These soil pores are used to provide the plants with water, air and nutrients dissolved in the water. The soil pores for sand (like the big gaps in a jumbled pile of bricks) are large and clay (like the small gaps in a loose pile of cement) pores are small.

 

Addition of Humus, Sand and Stone to improve the structure of Clay Soil

The Soil - The most important element to consider, when starting a planting plan, is the soil. Soil provides anchorage for plant roots and holds the water/nutrients that are necessary for maintaining life. It is made up of the following elements:-

  • ROCK PARTICLES - All soils except peat are mineral soils formed from rock particles. They have been ground out of the rocks on the planet's surface by the relentless action of rain, wind and frost. The size and shape of the particles vary according to the parent rock and the weather action, so that different types of soil are formed: clay, silt, sand and chalk. Each type of soil has different qualities of aeration, drainage and nutrient holding capacity.
  • HUMUS - The product of decayed and decaying plants and animals; humus or 'organic matter' is the magic ingredient which gives fertility to the soil. Humus improves the structure of the soil, making it dark brown and crumbly. It holds moisture without impeding drainage and is home to a wide range of bacteria and other micro-organisms that help the gardener by breaking down organic matter to release nutrients. Earthworms thrive in humus-rich soils, and their movement through the soil aids drainage and aeration. The proportion of humus to mineral particles varies in different soils. It can be added to poor soil in the form of well rotted manure, compost or leaf mould.
  • WATER - Entering the soil by precipitation (rain and snowfall), by absorption upwards from the water table underground and by seepage from rivers, lakes and ponds. Water is lost from the soil through natural drainage, through evaporation and through plants taking it up through their roots. Plants need access to water for the food-making process of photosynthesis.
  • AIR - Plants breathe through their roots, using the air trapped between the particles of rock and humus. Without air, soil becomes waterlogged suffocating most plant roots. The living organisms in the soil, on which plants depend, also need air.

ACID and ALKALINE SOIL - Soil with a high lime or chalk content is alkaline. When lime is not present, it is neutral or acid. Peat is acid. Acidity and alkalinity is measured in terms of the soil's pH level.

Neutral or nearly neutral (6.5-7.5) soils are ideal for most plants. At this pH level, nutrients are readily available. Some plants prefer alkaline soil and a few will only thrive in acid soils

 

The Soil Textural Triangle

 

x1soil12cultureindexgarnonswilliams

Types of Soil

  • CLAY SOIL - Slow to dry out after rain. A lump squeezed in the hand feels dense, sticky and pliable like the clay used in pottery. Clay soils are known as 'heavy' soils. Clay can be acid, neutral or alkaline.

    (Clay soils contain 50% of stiff unctuous clay)
     
  • SANDY SOIL - Dries out quickly. Disintegrates when handled. Sandy soils are 'light'. Nutrients and lime are washed away, so sandy soils tend to be acid.

    (Sandy soils contain upwards of 20 %, or thereabouts, of silica; that is, of the crumbling debris of granite or sandstone rock)
     
  • PEATY SOIL - Holds water like a sponge. Usually acid and not very fertile.

    (Peaty soils or vegetable mould, the richest of all garden soils, contains from 5-12% of humus; that is, decomposed vegetable and animal matter)
     
  • CHALKY SOIL - Drains rapidly washing nutrients away. Very alkaline; the white parent rock is often close to the surface.

    (Calcareous soils contain upwards of 20% of lime in their composition)
     
  • LIMESTONE SOIL - Drains rapidly. Numerous stones are present, from tiny ones to large rocks. Alkaline pH, but less so than chalk.

    (Marly soil is the debris of limestone rock, decomposed and reduced to a paste. It contains from 5-20% of carbonate of lime - calcium carbonate.)
     
  • PERFECT GARDEN SOIL - The best all-purpose soil is known as loam, It is a balanced mixture of clay and sand with plenty of humus and is nearly neutral (The interaction between clay domains, organic matter, silt and sand particles diagram shows how quartz grains - sand - are joined together by clay, organic matter and bacteria). Soils are usually described in terms of their relationship to this ideal, for instance sandy loam, clay loam, silty loam.

    (Loamy soil is soil in which the proportion of clay varies from 20-25%; sand, and various kinds of alluvium, making up the remainder.)

    Some recommendations below on how to improve your soil texture - I spent some months working on 5 acres of a new Care Home. The previous use for these 5 acres had been as a boys school. This had been demolished and the rubble then built on for the 5 new residential Care Buildings with its Administration/Kitchen Building. 5000 shrubs and trees were planted and at the end of the first year, I audited what remained - 2000 out those 5000 had died. The builders had generously added a 2 inches (5 cm) depth of topsoil before planting into that and the rubble under it. I did suggest putting a 4 inch mulch of bark on top of the ground in the beds at a trifling cost of £19,000, since digging up the plants and transfering them to a nursery bed, before excaving a further 12 inches (30 cm) and replacing the 14 inch (35 cm) depth with good soil mixed with manure; and then its plants; would have been extremely time consuming and expensive. This money was not forthcoming, so when I started cutting the lawns, I added the mowings to the beds as a mulch. I was told that this was unsightly and to stop doing that - at this point I resigned since the contract for the original planting only included making up the losses in the first year, I could not see that many of the plants would survive in the succeeding years.
     

Information in brackets in the 'Types of Soil' above comes from
"Beeton's New Book of Garden Management" by Samuel Orchart Beeton;
published in 1870 by Ward, Lock & Co., Limited.
ASIN: B000WG5WKK

 

The climate in the South of England is temperate, with up to 20" of rainfall and a minimum temperature of 20-30 degrees Fahrenheit, and so require draught tolerant frost hardy plants.

A 150mm deep mulch of mixed peat, sharp washed sand and horticultural grit was applied on top of a heavy clay soil to improve its structure, and stop the plants therein from drowning, at £10 a square metre. The mix was:

  • 4 cubic metres of Peat (to provide the Organic Polymers/Organic Matter and Carbon.)
  • 2 cubic metres of Sharp Washed Sand (to provide the sand for the production of microaggregates)
  • 2 cubic metres of Horticultural Grit (to provide larger particles for aggregation)
  • 25kg of Garden Lime (to provide Calcium for the plants and allow clay minerals to bond together to form domains. Once clay minerals are stacked together to form domains, they can then bond with organic matter to form microaggregates)
  • 25 kg of Sulphate of Iron (to provide Iron to act as a trace element and to create soil colloid for buffering chemical nutrients in the soil for later use by plants)
  • 25Kg of Sulphate of Potash ( to provide fertilizer for the plants)

The following was then sent to me:-

 

x1soil14garnonswilliams

and the following was sent to me in October 2004:-

An unsuccessful planting scheme had left bare areas of garden as plants failed to survive winter in the waterlogged clay soil. The loss of numerous plants and the cost of replacing them had left us disheartened. It was evident that remedial action was need in the form of a mixture of gravel, sand and peat to create an organic loam. Approximately six inches was added in April and left to settle and do its job. By July there was a noticeable difference in the quality of the soil and the plants. Shrubs with sparse, mottled leaves were looking glossy and robust, overall growth had increased (including the weeds!) and the soil was holding its moisture well. But the biggest difference came in the confidence it gave us to transform the garden. The borders used to be a no-go area between May and September as the clay baked and cracked, but the new soil was easy to handle and weeds could be successfully removed. We realised that there are no quick fixes - the key to a healthy garden is rich, nutritous soil. Once our plants began to thrive we were optimistic that, with good advice, we could create a garden to be proud of.

 

If the problem is a very Sandy Soil, then change the 2 cubic metres of Sharp Washed Sand in the above mixture for 2 cubic metres of Clay. Put the clay in the mixer first with 0.5 cubic metre of water to dissolve the clay. Then once the clay is liquefied, add the remaining ingredients except the peat and mix whilst still still keeping it liquid. Then add the peat and mix it in before filling the required transportation sacks. Transport these sacks as quickly as possible to their destination and mulch the ground with a 6 inch depth (15 cms) of this damp material. The ground should transform into a good loam within 4 months, providing that is not walked or driven on during that time.

 

Soils and their Treatment
(from Colour All The Year In My Garden: A selection of choice varieties - annuals, biennials, perennials, bulbs, climbers and trees and shrubs - that will give a continuity of colour in the garden throughout the year. Edited by C.H. Middleton. Gardening Book from Ward, Lock & Co published in 1938, provides plant data for a calendar of plants in bloom throughout the year and for those in the smallest garden.)
The perfect soil for general use should be composed of 8.3% lime, 16.6% humus, 25% clay and 50% sand. Soil containing constituents in these ratios will rarely be found, but many loams will not be far from the ideal, and with a little judicious improvement will furnish a compost in which most plants will thrive.

Soil Improvement
Water-logged soil will not allow the continual life of the majority of plants. Very sandy soil so unretentive of moisture is equally hopeless. What most plants require is a soil which, while efficiently drained and containing within a few feet of the surface no body of stagnant water, shall yet be of such a texture and shall include a sufficient proportion of organic material as to retain for an appreciable time a moderate degree of water. If the soil is naturally very heavy, that is to say, if it consists very largely of clay, and especially if it rests at a comparatively shallow depth below the surface on an almost impervious layer, it is almost certain to be more or less water-logged. And it is necessary in such a case to dig it deeply and to provide adequate drainage, and at the same time to lighten the upper layers of the soil by the addition of dsand, leaf-mould, and organic manures such as stable manure (I prefer cow manure since it contains no weed seeds). In a similar way very light, sandy soils should be improved by the liberal addition of clay, fibrous loam such as is obtained from the top spit of meadow-land, leaf-mould, and cow or pig manure. These latter, which, in the case of the heavy soils, serve to keep open the clay which would tend otherwise to form a solid block, help, in the case of sandy soils, to bind them together, and enable them to retain a greatly increased volume of water.

 

 

 

 

THE 2 EUREKA EFFECT PAGES FOR UNDERSTANDING SOIL AND HOW PLANTS INTERACT WITH IT OUT OF 15,000:-


Explanation of Structure of this Website with User Guidelines Page for those photo galleries with Photos
(of either ones I have taken myself or others which have been loaned only for use on this website from external sources)

 

 

 

Choose 1 of these different Plant selection Methods:-

 

1. Choose a plant from 1 of 53 flower colours in the Colour Wheel Gallery.

 

2. Choose a plant from 1 of 12 flower colours in each month of the year from 12 Bloom Colours per Month Index Gallery.

 

3. Choose a plant from 1 of 6 flower colours per month for each type of plant:-

Aquatic
Bedding
Bulb
Climber
Conifer
Deciduous Shrub
Deciduous Tree
Evergreen Perennial
Evergreen Shrub
Evergreen Tree
Hedging
Herbaceous Perennial
Herb
Odds and Sods
Rhododendron
Rose
Soft Fruit
Top Fruit
Wild Flower

 

4. Choose a plant from its Flower Shape:-

Shape, Form
Index

Flower Shape

 

5. Choose a plant from its foliage:-

Bamboo
Conifer
Fern
Grass
Vegetable

 

6. There are 6 Plant Selection Levels including Bee Pollinated Plants for Hay Fever Sufferers in
Plants Topic.

 

or

 

7. when I do not have my own or ones from mail-order nursery photos , then from March 2016, if you want to start from the uppermost design levels through to your choice of cultivated and wildflower plants to change your Plant Selection Process then use the following galleries:-

  • Create and input all plants known by Amateur Gardening inserted into their Sanders' Encyclopaedia from their edition published in 1960 (originally published by them in 1895) into these
    • Stage 1 - Garden Style Index Gallery,
      then
    • Stage 2 - Infill Plants Index Gallery being the only gallery from these 7 with photos (from Wikimedia Commons) ,
      then
    • Stage 3 - All Plants Index Gallery with each plant species in its own Plant Type Page followed by choice from Stage 4a, 4b, 4c and/or 4d REMEMBERING THE CONSTRAINTS ON THE SELECTION FROM THE CHOICES MADE IN STAGES 1 AND 2
    • Stage 4a - 12 Bloom Colours per Month Index Gallery,
    • Stage 4b - 12 Foliage Colours per Month Index Gallery with
    • Stage 4c - Cultivation, Position, Use Index Gallery and
    • Stage 4d - Shape, Form Index Gallery
    • Unfortunately, if you want to have 100's of choices on selection of plants from 1000's of 1200 pixels wide by up to 16,300 pixels in length webpages, which you can jump to from almost any of the pages in these 7 galleries above, you have to put up with those links to those choices being on
      • the left topic menu table,
      • the header of the middle data table and on
      • the page/index menu table on the right of every page of those galleries.

There are other pages on Plants which bloom in each month of the year in this website:-

 

 

Ivydene Gardens Plant with Photo Index Gallery:
Shape of Flower and Use of Plant Page 1
2. Why you are continually losing the SOIL STRUCTURE if you leave bare earth between plants so your soil - will revert to clay, chalk, sand or silt - unless you replace that lost humus with an organic mulch.

 

As photos are added to this index, then if the plant has the relevant photos to be included in the comparison pages in this table, then they shall be included in the relevant Flower Shape and Plant Use gallery below for

  • Bedding
  • Bulb
  • Evergreen Perennial
  • Herbaceous Perennial
  • Rose
  • Evergreen Shrub
  • Deciduous Shrub
  • Evergreen Tree
  • Deciduous Tree

Ivydene Gardens Evergreen Perennials and Alpine Evergreen Perennials Flower Shape Gallery:
Site Map

EVERGREEN PERENNIAL FLOWER SHAPE - Click on Text link in row below thumbnail

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

lessershapemeadowrue1

berberisdarwiniiflower10h3a14c1a

berberisdarwiniiflower10h3a14c2a

berberisdarwiniiflower10h3a14d1a

aethionemacfloarmenumfoord2

anemonecflo1hybridafoord1a

anemonecflo1blandafoord1

Number of Flower Petals

Petal-less

1

2

3

4

5

Above 5

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

anthericumcfloliliagofoord1b

berberisdarwiniiflower10h3a14k1c

geraniumflocineremuballerina1a

berberisdarwiniiflower10h3a14k1a1

berberisdarwiniiflower10h3a14k1b1

acantholimoncfloglumaceumfoord1b

stachysflotmacrantha

Flower Shape - Simple

Stars

Bowls

Cups and Saucers

Globes

Goblets and Chalices

Trumpets

Funnels

 

berberisdarwiniiflower10h3a14q1a

berberisdarwiniiflower10h3a14r1a

berberisdarwiniiflower10h3a14s1a

phloxflotsubulatatemiskaming

 

 

 

Flower Shape - Simple

Bells

Thimbles

Urns

Salverform

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

prunellaflotgrandiflora2

aquilegiacfloformosafoord2

berberisdarwiniiflower10h3a14u1a

berberisdarwiniiflower10h3a14v1a

brachyscomecflorigidulakevock1a

berberisdarwiniiflower10h3a14x1a

berberisdarwiniiflower10h3a14y1a

Flower Shape - Elabor-ated

Tubes, Lips and Straps

Slippers, Spurs and Lockets

Hats, Hoods and Helmets

Stan-dards, Wings and Keels

Discs and Florets

Pin-Cushions

Tufts

 

androsacecforyargongensiskevock1

androsaceflorigidakevock

berberisdarwiniiflower10h3a1428a1

armeriaflomaritimakevock

 

 

 

Flower Shape - Elabor-ated

Cushion

Umbel

Buttons

Pompoms

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

bergeniamorningredcforcoblands

ajugacfloreptansatropurpurea1a

berberisdarwiniiflower10h3a1431a1

berberisdarwiniiflower10h3a1432a1

berberisdarwiniiflower10h3a1433a1

berberisdarwiniiflower10h3a1434a1

androsacecfor1albanakevock1

Natural Arrange-ments

Bunches, Posies and Sprays

Columns, Spikes and Spires

Whorls, Tiers and Candle-labra

Plumes and Tails

Chains and Tassels

Clouds, Garlands and Cascades

Spheres, Domes and Plates

 

 


HERBACEOUS FLOWER SHAPE Gallery Comparison Pages
 

 

lessershapemeadowrue2a1a1a1a

berberisdarwiniiflower10h3a14c1a1a1a

berberisdarwiniiflower10h3a14c2a1a1

irisflotpseudacorus1a1

aethionemacfloarmenumfoord1a1

anemonecflo1hybridafoord1a1

anemonecflo1blandafoord1a1

Number of Flower Petals

Petal-less

1

2

3

4

5

Above 5

 

anthericumcfloliliagofoord1a1a1

berberisdarwiniiflower10h3a14k1a1a1

geraniumflocineremuballerina1a1a1a1a1a

paeoniamlokosewitschiiflot1a1a

paeoniaveitchiiwoodwardiiflot1a1

acantholimoncfloglumaceumfoord1a1a1

stachysflotmacrantha1a1a

Flower Shape - Simple

Stars

Bowls

Cups and Saucers

Globes

Goblets and Chalices

Trumpets

Funnels

 

digitalismertonensiscflorvroger1a1

fuchsiaflotcalicehoffman1a1a

ericacarneacflosspringwoodwhitedeeproot1a1

phloxflotsubulatatemiskaming1a1a

 

 

 

Flower Shape - Simple

Bells

Thimbles

Urns

Salverform

 

 

 

 

prunellaflotgrandiflora1a1

aquilegiacfloformosafoord1a1

acanthusspinosuscflocoblands1a1

lathyrusflotvernus1b1

brachyscomecflorigidulakevock1a1

echinaceacflo1purpurealustrehybridsgarnonswilliams1a1a

centaureacfloatropurpureakavanagh1a1

Flower Shape - Elabor-ated

Tubes, Lips and Straps

Slippers, Spurs and Lockets

Hats, Hoods and Helmets

Stan-dards, Wings and Keels

Discs and Florets

Pin-Cushions

Tufts

 

androsacecforyargongensiskevock1a1

androsacecflorigidakevock1a1

argyranthemumflotcmadeiracrestedyellow1a1

armeriacflomaritimakevock1a1

 

 

 

Flower Shape - Elabor-ated

Cushion

Umbel

Buttons

Pompoms

 

 

 

 

bergeniamorningredcforcoblands1a1a

ajugacfloreptansatropurpurea1a1

lamiumflotorvala2a1a

astilbepurplelancecflokevock1a1a

berberisdarwiniiflower10h3a1433a1a1a1a

berberisdarwiniiflower10h3a1434a1a1a1a

androsacecfor1albanakevock1a1

Natural Arrange-ments

Bunches, Posies and Sprays

Columns, Spikes and Spires

Whorls, Tiers and Cande-labra

Plumes and Tails

Chains and Tassels

Clouds, Garlands and Cascades

Spheres, Domes and Plates

 

 

 

Ivydene Gardens Rose Use Gallery: Site Map

Flower Colour

Other Colours

Orange

Pink

Red

White

Yellow

2 or More Colours Page 1

2 or More Colours Page 2

Produces Hips

Rose Use

Bedding

Climber /Pillar

Cut-Flower

Exhibition, Speciman

Ground-Cover

Grow In A Container

Hedge

Climber in Tree

Woodland

Edging Borders

Tolerant of Poor Soil

Tolerant of Shade

Back of Border

Adjacent to Water

On North-Facing Wall

Page for rose use as ARCH ROSE, PERGOLA ROSE, COASTAL CONDITIONS ROSE, WALL ROSE, STANDARD ROSE, COVERING BANKS or THORNLESS ROSES.

FRAGRANT ROSES - The roses inserted into this page are described as Moderately Fragrant or Very Fragrant in the relevant Rose Plant Description Page.

NOT FRAGRANT ROSES - The roses inserted into this page are described as Slightly Fragrant or nothing mentioned about fragrance in the relevant Rose Plant Description Page.
 

Rose Bloom Shape

rosaacapulcocflo1a1a
High Centred

rosaamberqueenflomidcgarnonswilliams1a1a1
Cupped

rosaballerinacflorogerltd1a1
Flat

rosahenrimartincflorogerltd1a1
Globular

rosabuffbeautyCflorogerltd1a1
Pompon

rosaprosperitycflorogerltd1a1
Rosette

 

Click on thumbnail to change to Plant Description Page of the Rose Plant named in the text below that photo where its text border is Cyan, Green or Pink.
The Comments Row of that Rose Plant Description Page details where that Rose Plant is available from.

Rose Petal Count

rosacantabrigiensiscflorogerltd1a1
Single:

1-7
Petals

rosafragrantdelightcflo1a1a
Semi-double: 8-15 Petals

rosaarthurbellcflomid2garnonswilliams1a1a
Double:

16-25 Petals

rosagoldenramblercflorogerltd1a
Full:

26-40 Petals

rosabobwoolleycflorogerltd1a
Very Full:

40+ Petals

 

Rose Plant Height from Text Border
(1 inch = 2.5 cms,
12 inches = 1 foot = 30 cms,
24 inches = 2 feet)

Blue = 0-24 inches (0-60 cms)
Cyan = 0-24 inches (0-60 cms)

Green=24-72 inches (60-180 cms)
Green=24-72 inches (60-180 cms)

Red = 72+ inches (180+ cms)
Pink = 72+ inches (180+ cms)

Rose Plant Soil Moisture from Text Background

Wet Soil

Moist Soil

Dry Soil

Click on thumbnail to add the Rose Plant Description Page of the Rose Plant named in the Text box below that photo - or - click that Rose Plant name in the relevant "Roses in this Gallery Link Index" menu for non-users of pop-up windows such as for IPHONE users, where the text border is Blue, Green or Red.

 

 

IVYDENE GARDENS COLOUR WHEEL PLANT USE AND FLOWER SHAPE GALLERY PAGES

 

Additions to Ivydene Gardens Colour Wheel Uses Gallery from this Index

  • will compare the use and flower shape of the to be added shrubs and trees, since currently until August 2019 there is no comparison pages for uses of shrubs and trees,
  • will compare the uses of the to be added evergreen and herbaceous perennials, since currently until August 2019 there is no comparison pages for uses of perennials.
  • The above additions will be combined with those already compared from Bedding, Bulb, Evergreen Perennial, Herbaceous Perennial and Roses pages.
    Bedding, Bulb, and Roses currently in August 2019 have comparison pages for both use and flower shape.
     

PLANTS FLOWER SHAPE GALLERY PAGES

lessershapemeadowrue2a1a1a1a1a1a1a

alliumcflohaireasytogrowbulbs1a1a1a1

berberisdarwiniiflower10h3a14c2a1a1a1a1a

irisflotpseudacorus1a1a1a1a1a

aethionemacfloarmenumfoord1a2a1a1a1

anemonecflo1hybridafoord1a2a1a1a1

anemonecflo1blandafoord1a1a1a1a1

Number of Flower Petals

Petal-less

1

2

3

4

5

Above 5

 

anthericumcfloliliagofoord1a1a1a1a1a1

alliumcflo1roseumrvroger1a1a1a

geraniumflocineremuballerina1a1a1a1a1a1a1a1a1

paeoniamlokosewitschiiflot1a1a1a1a1a1

paeoniaveitchiiwoodwardiiflot1a1a1a1a1

acantholimoncfloglumaceumfoord1a1a1a1a1a

stachysflotmacrantha1a1a1a1a1a

Flower Shape - Simple

Stars with Single Flowers

Bowls

Cups and Saucers

Globes

Goblets and Chalices

Trumpets

Funnels

 

digitalismertonensiscflorvroger1a2a1a1a1

fuchsiaflotcalicehoffman1a1a1a1a1a

ericacarneacflosspringwoodwhitedeeproot1a1a1a1a1a1

phloxflotsubulatatemiskaming1a1a1a1a1a

 

 

 

Flower Shape - Simple

Bells

Thimbles

Urns

Salver-form

 

 

 

 

prunellaflotgrandiflora1a1a1a1a1

aquilegiacfloformosafoord1a2a1a1a

acanthusspinosuscflocoblands1a2a1a1a

lathyrusflotvernus1a2a1a1a

anemonecflo1coronariastbrigidgeetee1a1a1a

echinaceacflo1purpurealustrehybridsgarnonswilliams1a2a1a1a

centaureacfloatropurpureakavanagh1a1a1a1a

Flower Shape - Elabor-ated

Tubes, Lips and Straps

Slippers, Spurs and Lockets

Hats, Hoods and Helmets

Stan-dards, Wings and Keels

Discs and Florets

Pin-Cushions

Tufts and Petal-less Cluster

 

androsacecforyargongensiskevock1a1a1a1

androsacecflorigidakevock1a1a1a1

argyranthemumflotcmadeiracrestedyellow1a1b1a1

armeriacflomaritimakevock1a1a1a1

anemonecflonemerosaalbaplenarvroger1a1a1a1

 

 

Flower Shape - Elabor-ated

Cushion

Umbel

Buttons with Double Flowers

Pompoms

Stars with Semi-Double Flowers

 

 

 

bergeniamorningredcforcoblands1a1a1a1a1

ajugacfloreptansatropurpurea1a1a1a1a

lamiumflotorvala2a1a1a1a1

astilbepurplelancecflokevock1a1a1a1a1

berberisdarwiniiflower10h3a1433a1a1a1a1a1a1

berberisdarwiniiflower10h3a1434a1a1a1a1a1a1

androsacecfor1albanakevock1a1a1a1a

Natural Arrange-ments

Bunches, Posies and Sprays (Group)

Columns, Spikes and Spires

Whorls, Tiers and Cande-labra

Plumes and Tails

Chains and Tassels

Clouds, Garlands and Cascades

Sphere, Dome (Clusters), Drumstick and Plate

Plant Use

Foliage Only

Other than Green Foliage

Trees in Lawn

Trees in Small Gardens
 

Wildflower Garden

Attract Bird
Attract Butterfly
1
, 2

Climber on House Wall

Climber not on House Wall

Climber in Tree

Rabbit-Resistant
 

Woodland

Pollution Barrier

Part Shade

Full Shade

Single Flower provides Pollen for Bees
1
, 2, 3

Ground-Cover
<60
cm
60-180cm
>180cm

Hedge

Wind-swept

Covering Banks

Patio Pot

Edging Borders

Back of Border

Poisonous

Adjacent to Water

Bog Garden
 

Tolerant of Poor Soil

Winter-Flowering
 

Fragrant

Not Fragrant

Exhibition

Standard Plant is 'Ball on Stick'

Upright Branches or Sword-shaped leaves

Plant to Prevent Entry to Human or Animal

Coastal Con-ditions

Tolerant on North-facing Wall

Cut Flower

Potted Veg Outdoors

Potted Veg Indoors
 

Thornless

Raised Bed Outdoors Veg
 

Grow in Alkaline Soil A-F, G-L, M-R, S-Z

Grow in Acidic Soil

Grow in Any Soil

Grow in Rock Garden

Grow Bulbs Indoors

 

 

IVYDENE GARDENS PLANTS and EXTRA PAGES OF PLANTS
Ivydene Gardens Plants Introduction Page provides you with a method of choosing plants for your garden.

Ivydene Gardens Plants Map Page provides you with another method of choosing plants for your garden using 6 plant selection levels.

  • These 2 topics have no photos in their pages for comparison purposes, but do have have lists of plants. They were written before I had any photos of plants to use in the website and therefore before any Photo Galleries were created. I started with digitising 100 Kodachrome slides per week; for some years. The slides were taken by Mr and Mrs Foord in the 1960's and 70's. The images were then used within the creation of the Photo Galleries
  • Where it states Photos - , then this links to a Photo Gallery where photos of the relevant plants are compared.
  • The IVYDENE GARDENS COLOUR WHEEL PLANT USE AND FLOWER SHAPE GALLERY PAGES above will
    • first have the uses of all the plants in the Photo Galleries i.e Aquatic, Bulb, Bamboo, Perennials, Shrubs, Trees, Roses, Vegetables, Top fruit, Soft fruit, wildflowers etc added to them, then
    • the current plants shown in the Camera Photo Galleries will be added to the relevant pages,
    • before adding more Camera Photo Galleries and then repeating the previous action.

PLANTS PAGE
MENU
Introduction
Site Map
 

PLANT USE
Plant Selection
Level 1
Bee Forage Plants
Attracts Bird/Butterfly
Photos - Butterfly

Bee Pollinated Plants for Hay Fever Sufferers
0-24 inches
(0-60 cms)
24-72 inches
(60-180 cms)
Above 72 inches
(180 cms)
Photos -
Bloom per Month
Blooms Nov-Feb
Blooms Mar-May
Blooms Jun-Aug 1, 2
Blooms Sep-Oct

Groundcover Height
0-24 inches
(0-60 cms)
1, 2, 3
24-72 inches
(60-180 cms)
4, 5, 6
Above 72 inches
(180 cms)
7
 

Poisonous Cultivated and UK Wildflower Plants with Photos
or
Cultivated Poisonous Plants

or
Wildflower Poisonous Plants


Rabbit-Resistant Plant
Flower Arranging
Wildflower
Photos - Wildflowers

 


PLANTS FOR SOIL
Plant Selection
Level 2
Info - Any Soil
Any Soil A-F
Any Soil G-L
Any Soil M-R
Any Soil S-Z

Info - Chalky Soil
Chalky Soil A-F 1
Chalky Soil A-F 2
Chalky Soil A-F 3
Chalky Soil G-L
Chalky Soil M-R
Chalky Soil Roses
Chalky Soil S-Z
Chalky Soil Other

Info - Clay Soil
Clay Soil A-F
Clay Soil G-L
Clay Soil M-R
Clay Soil S-Z
Clay Soil Other

Info - Lime-Free (Acid) Soil
Lime-Free (Acid)
A-F 1

Lime-Free (Acid)
A-F 2

Lime-Free (Acid)
A-F 3

Lime-Free (Acid) G-L
Lime-Free (Acid) M-R
Lime-Free (Acid) S-Z

Info - Sandy Soil
Sandy Soil A-F 1
Sandy Soil A-F 2
Sandy Soil A-F 3
Sandy Soil G-L
Sandy Soil M-R
Sandy Soil S-Z

Info - Peaty Soils
Peaty Soil A-F
Peaty Soil G-L
Peaty Soil M-R
Peaty Soil S-Z

Following parts of Level 2a,
Level 2b,
Level 2c and
Level 2d are included in separate columns
together with
Acid Soil,
Alkaline Soil
,
Any Soil,
Height and Spread,
Flowering Months and
Flower Colour in their Columns,
and also
Companion Plants to aid this plant Page,
Alpine Plant for
Rock Garden Index Page
Native to UK WildFlower Plant in its Family Page in this website

and/or
Level 2cc
in the Comment Column
within each
of the Soil Type Pages of
Level 2

Explanation of Structure of this Website with User Guidelines Page for those photo galleries with Photos (of either ones I have taken myself or others which have been loaned only for use on this website from external sources)

PLANTS PAGE MENU

Plant Selection by Plant Requirements
Level 2a
Sun aspect, Moisture


Plant Selection by Form
Level 2b
Tree Growth Shape
Columnar
Oval
Rounded / Spherical
Flattened Spherical
Narrow Conical
Broad Pyramidal
Ovoid / Egg
Broad Ovoid
Narrow Vase
Fan
Broad Fan
Narrow Weeping
Broad Weeping
Single-stem Palm
Multi-stem Palm
Shrub/Perennial Growth Habit
Mat
Prostrate / Trailing
Cushion / Mound
Spreading / Creeping
Clump
Stemless
Erect or Upright
Climbing
Arching


Plant Selection by Garden Use
Level 2c
Bedding
Photos - Bedding
Bog Garden
Coastal Conditions
Containers in Garden
Front of Border
Edibles in Containers
Hanging Basket
Hedge
Photos - Hedging
Pollution Barrier 1, 2
Rest of Border
Rock Garden
Photos - Rock Garden
Thorny Hedge
Windbreak
Woodland


Plant Selection by Garden Use
Level 2cc Others
Aquatic
Back of Shady Border
Crevice Garden
Desert Garden
Raised Bed
Scree Bed
Specimen Plant
Trees for Lawns
Trees for Small Garden
Wildflower
Photos - Wildflowers


Plant Selection by Plant Type
Level 2d
Alpine
Photos - Evergr Per
Photos - Herbac Per
Photos - RHS Herbac
Photos - Rock Garden
Annual
Bamboo
Photos - Bamboo
Biennial

Bulb
Photos - Bulb
Climber
Photos - Climber
Conifer
Deciduous Rhizome
Deciduous Shrub
Photos - Decid Shrub
Evergreen Perennial
Photos - Evergr Per

Evergreen Shrub
0-24 inches 1, 2, 3
24-72 inches 1, 2, 3
Above 72 inches 1, 2

Semi-Evergreen Shrub

Photos - Evergr Shrub
Fern
Photos - Fern
Fruit Plant
Grass
Herb
Herbaceous Perennial
Photos - Herbac Per
Remaining Top Fruit
Soft Fruit
Sub-Shrub
Top Fruit
Tuber
Vegetable
Photos - Vegetable

 

Photos - with its link; provides a link to its respective Plant Photo Gallery in this website to provide comparison photos.
Click on required comparison page and then centre of selected plant thumbnail. Further details on that plant will be shown in a separate Plant Description webpage.
Usually the Available from Mail Order Plant Nursery link will link you to the relevant page on that website.
I started this website in 2005 - it is possible that those particular links no longer connect, so you may need to search for that plant instead.

When I started, a click on the centre of the thumbnail ADDED the Plant Description Page, now I CHANGE the page instead. Mobile phones do not allow ADDING a page, whereas stand alone computers do. The User Guidelines Page shows which Plant Photo Galleries have been modified to CHANGE rather than ADD.

PLANTS PAGE MENU
 

 


REFINING SELECTION
Plant Selection by
Flower Colour
Level 3a
Blue Flowers
Photos -
Bedding

Bulb
Climber
Evergr Per
Evergr Shrub
Wild Flower

Orange Flowers
Photos -
Bedding

Wild Flower

Other Colour Flowers
Photos -
Bedding
Bulb
Climber
Evergr Per
Evergr Shrub
Wild Flower

Red Flowers
Photos -
Bedding

Bulb
Climber
Decid Shrub
Evergr Per
Evergr Shrub
Herbac Per
Rose
Wild Flower

White Flowers
Photos -
Bedding

Bulb
Climber
Decid Shrub
Decid Tree
Evergr Per
Evergr Shrub
Herbac Per
Rose
Wild Flower

Yellow Flowers
Photos -
Bedding

Bulb
Climber
Decid Shrub
Evergr Per
Evergr Shrub
Herbac Per
Rose
Wild Flower


Photos - 53 Colours in its Colour Wheel Gallery

Photos - 12 Flower Colours per Month in its Bloom Colour Wheel Gallery


Plant Selection by Flower Shape
Level 3b
Photos -
Bedding
Evergr Per
Herbac Per


Plant Selection by Foliage Colour
Level 3c
Aromatic Foliage
Finely Cut Leaves
Large Leaves
Other
Non-Green
Foliage 1

Non-Green
Foliage 2

Sword-shaped Leaves

 


PRUNING
Plant Selection by Pruning Requirements
Level 4
Pruning Plants

 


GROUNDCOVER PLANT DETAIL
Plant Selection Level 5
Plant Name - A
Plant Name - B
Plant Name - C
Plant Name - D
Plant Name - E
Plant Name - F
Plant Name - G
Plant Name - H
Plant Name - I
Plant Name - J
Plant Name - K
Plant Name - L
Plant Name - M
Plant Name - N
Plant Name - O
Plant Name - P
Plant Name - Q
Plant Name - R
Plant Name - S
Plant Name - T
Plant Name - U
Plant Name - V
Plant Name - W
Plant Name - XYZ

 


Then, finally use
COMPANION PLANTING to
aid your plant selected or to
deter Pests
Plant Selection Level 6

 

 

Soil Structure - this describes the way in which sand, silt and clay particles are bonded together in larger units called ‘aggregates’ and is described in What is Soil Structure?

Once microaggregates have formed, they can then coalesce to form macroaggregates. In soils that have low concentrations of clay, macroaggregate stability is highly dependent on organic matter.

If microaggregates do not have a continuing supply of organic matter, then they will break up so that soil particles simply return to being sand, silt or clay,

and that is why you need an organic mulch to provide the 'temporary' and 'transit' stabilising agents in the soil.

 

 

Soil Structure

This describes the way in which sand, silt and clay particles are bonded together in larger units called ‘aggregates’.

These are formed when the soil is subjected to shrinking and swelling, plant-root penetration or freezing. All these processes tend to break the soil into discrete units. Aggregates are said to be stable when they are able to resist pressures caused by processes such as compaction and sudden wetting. Rapid wetting is a process in breaking up unstable aggregates, because when dry aggregates are suddenly exposed to water, pores near the surface of the aggregate become filled with water, trapping air inside the aggregate; the resulting pressure can sometimes be enough to break the aggregate apart, and this is called ‘slaking’. Aggregates are divided into microaggregates (less than 250 millionths of a metre) and macroaggregates (greater than 250 millionths of a metre).

Before microaggregates can form, microscopic clay minerals need to be grouped together in small stacks called ‘domains’. When clays are bonded together in this way, they are termed ‘flocculated’.

The most important factor influencing flocculation is the presence of ions with more than 1 charge. When clay minerals are covered with singly charged ions they disperse and become deflocculated (i.e. they will absorb a great deal of water without it draining).

 

However, not all ions carry only 1 charge.

For example, calcium (Ca2+) in lime or chalk, Magnesium (Mg2+) and aluminium (Al3+) are 3 very common ions in soils. Ions with multiple charges allow clay minerals to bond together to form domains. Once clay minerals are stacked together to form domains, they can then bond with organic matter to form microaggregates.
Lime (Calcium), Magnesia (Magnesium) and Alumina (Aluminium) are 3 of the 11 chemicals with ions in the soil and are further detailed below followed by their affect on their lack or not; in Sandy, Calcareous and Clay soils.

 

The interaction between clay domains, organic matter, silt and sand particles diagram.

x1soil15cultureindexgarnonswilliams

 

Once microaggregates have formed, they can then coalesce to form macroaggregates. In soils that have low concentrations of clay, macroaggregate stability is highly dependent on organic matter.

The type of organic matter associated with macroaggregates is slightly different from the persistent organic material found in microaggregates. Type one are those stabilising agents that are referred to as ‘temporary’. These consist of microbial and plant by-products, the most important of which are the ‘polysaccharide gums’ that are simply long chains of sugar molecules. Secondly, there are ‘transient’ stabilising agents, which include the fine plant roots and fungal hyphae.

Both stabilising compounds are vulnerable to microbial attack so need to be replenished continuously through inputs of fresh soil organic matter.

If microaggregates do not have a continuing supply of organic matter, then they will break up so that soil particles simply return to being sand, silt or clay:-

  • A combination of Green Manure and Spent Mushroom Compost Mulch will provide the continuing supply of organic matter for alkaline chalky or clay soil.
  • A combination of Green Manure with leaf mould, bark chippings, pine needles, ericaceous compost or your own garden compost as a mulch will provide the continuing supply of organic material for acidic sandy or clay soil.
    Unfortunately Monty Don's method of creating garden compost is only suitable for a very large garden with its own set of permanent gardeners, since to fill a 72 x 72 inch (180 x 180 cm) compost bin would take a very long time for you in your small garden and the longer in between adding a small amount each time, then you will end up with a mess. This is still true when you use an upended dustbin system - my solution in client's gardens was to do the pruning and put it on the lawn, then the weeding and put on the prunings and then mow the lawn. If the weeds were couch grass or bindweed, then these were generously donated to the council via its brown wheelie system as was the prunings that were too thick for a rotary mower to chop up. Put the resulting mixture as a mulch under the shrubs or hedges. The earthworms will take it into the ground and it will compost in situ. If you get the client to put their vegetable peelings, coffee grounds and tea bags into a small bucket, then you apply that as a mulch before covering it with the grass mowings. They could use worm composting instead and give you the results or use it themselves on their pots within the house. You are then re-using your waste organic material instead of getting somebody else to deal with it.
  • Green manures are fast-growing plants sown to cover bare soil. Often used in the vegetable garden, their foliage smothers weeds and their roots prevent soil erosion. When dug into the ground while still green, they return valuable nutrients to the soil and improve soil structure. There are different green manures for different soils as pointed out in this RHS article.
  • You can provide a free service to the council by going out with your rotary mower - setting its cutting height to the maximum - and collect the autumn leaves from the turf or tarmac under them in tree-lined streets. This will provide shreded leaves for you to use for free as a mulch in your garden and save the council from spending your money to do the same collection.
  • All the above helps to reduce climate change.

 

 

The following information comes from pages 30-34 of the 844 in
"Beeton's New Book of Garden Management" by Samuel Orchart Beeton;
published in 1870 by Ward, Lock & Co., Limited.
ASIN: B000WG5WKK.

Soils may be said to consist of a mechanical mixture of 4 substances -

  • 1. Silica, silicious sand, or gravel,
  • 2. Clay,
  • 3. Lime and
  • 4. Humus,

with many of the following 11 chemical substances, in varying proportions:-

 

Chemical

is contained in or made from

Benefit

Potash - is the common term for nutrient forms of the element potassium (K)

This substance is obtained by burning wood, small branches, or leaves, the ash being washed in water, and evaporated in an iron pot and calcined. Add a small quantity of water, decant the liquid, and evaporate to dryness, and pearl-ash is obtained, which is an impure form of potash in combination with carbonic acid, or crude carbonate of potash. When this is boiled with newly-slaked quicklime, it is deprived of carbonic acid, which enters into combination with the lime, and the carbonate of potash is thus converted into pure or caustic potash, which can be separated into a silvery-white soft, metallic substance, potassium, and a gaseous element, oxygen.

The combination in which potash is found in soils is chiefly as silicates of potash. Some kinds of felspar, mica, and granite contain large proportions, as much as 15-20%. Iit also enters into the composition of trap-rock, basalt, and whinstone, though in smaller proportions.

Many plants require a large amount of potash for their food, the only source from which it can be obtained being the soil. This accounts for the fact that wood ashes, which contain carbonate of potash, are so conducive to the healthy growth of clover, beans, potatoes, and other plants whose ashes yield potash in return.

As the rock crumbles, silicates of potash are set free, and rendered available for the plants. Clay, which is chiefly derived from felspar, invariably contains it; and it is partly for this reason that light land, in which potash is usually deficient, is benefitted by claying.

Soda - caustic soda is sodium hydroxide

This is obtained by burning seaweed; and plants growing on the sea-shore are rendered caustic by the same process.

Its most common form, however, is sea-salt, or chloride of sodium. Seakale, asparagus, and similiar plants are benefitted by its use.

Lime - is a calcium-containing (Ca2+) inorganic material in which carbonates, oxides and hydroxides predominate.

Chalk, marble, and limestone are carbonates of lime. Under heat, the carbonic acid is driven out, and pure or caustic lime (Calcium oxide, CaO) remains.

Quicklime sprinkled with water absorbs it; heat is evolved, and it falls to powder, or is slaked. Slaked lime is a white powder, dry to appearance, but contains, in reality, water in an invisible form, chemically combined with lime. If exposed to the air, it attracts carbonic acid from the atmosphere, and becomes partially changed into carbonate of lime.

In its effects on animal and vegetable matters this pure or caustic lime resembles potash and soda, is slower in action, and is used most beneficially on peat land; its excess of organic matter is thus gradually destroyed, and converted into nutritious food for plants.

Salts of lime are found in all ashes of plants; soils, therefore, capable of sustaining vegetable life, must contain lime in some form or other.

Magnesia - a natural mineral of magnesium oxide (Magnesium Mg2+)

The ingredient is never wanting in fertile soils. Magnesian limestone, which is a natural compound of the carbonates of lime and magnesia, contains 30-40%; and in this form it exists in all dolomite and many other solid rocks. Soils containing much carbonate of magnesia absorb moisture with great avidity, and are generally cold soils. Silicate of magnesia enters largely into the composition of serpentine rocks. Soapstone and limestone frequently contain it. Compounds of sulphuric acid and muriatic acid with magnesia are also found in many mineral waters.

Suphate of magnesia, which is the name of the familiar Epsom salts, is formed from the decomposition of dolomitic rocks.

Alumina - Aluminium oxide (Al2O3).
Aluminium is Al3+, so each aluminium ion carries 3 charges.

This is the compound of the metal aluminium with oxygen, or, in other words, oxide of aluminium. It occurs very abundantly in the mineral kingdom, both free and in combination with acids. In its crystallized state it forms the hard mineral known as corundum, and, in combination with oxide of chromium, the saphire and the ruby; and emery is a dark-coloured granular variety of it. In an uncrystallized state it is a white, tasteless, powdery substance, obtained by adding a solution of carbonate of soda to alum.

It constitutes a large proportion of shale and slate rocks, and is a principle ingredient, in combination with silica, in pipe, porcelain, and agricultural clays, to which it gives tenacity and stiffness. It is rarely found in the ashes of plants, and therefore not considered as directly contributing to their nourishment, although useful as a mechanical agent in absorbing ammonia from the atmosphere, and in detaining the volatile as well as the alkaline salts of manures, which would otherwise be dissolved by the first heavy shower, and carried into the subsoil beyond the reach of the roots of the plant.

Iron - is a chemical element with symbol Fe (from Latin: ferrum). Iron compounds are called ferrous.

This metal, both in the black or protoxide, and the red or peroxide state, abounds in all soils, the red being most abundant, and easily observable from the red colour it communicates. Even soils in which the protoxide obtains, which are a bluish-grey colour when brought to the surface, are changed to the red colour by the atmosphere, oxygen uniting with and acting on it. Oxide of iron is found in the ashes of all plants and in the blood of animals.

The presence of iron is easily detected in soils by the ochry deposits in the beds of springs and ditches, where the oxide dissolved in carbonic acid produces the metallic-coloured deposit in question.

Sulphate of iron also occurs in some soils, produced from iron pyrites: such soils are unproductive; for it is a compound of sulphuric acid with protoxide of iron, better known under the name of green vitriol. Lime added to such soils combines with the sulphuric acid, forming gypsum; and sweetens them and removes the injurious properties.

Manganese - Manganese is a chemical element with symbol Mn. It is not found as a free element in nature; it is often found in combination with iron, and in many minerals.

Manganese is also important in photosynthetic oxygen evolution in chloroplasts in plants. The oxygen-evolving complex (OEC) is a part of photosystem II contained in the thylakoid membranes of chloroplasts; it is responsible for the terminal photooxidation of water during the light reactions of photosynthesis, and has a metalloenzyme core containing four atoms of manganese. For this reason, most broad-spectrum plant fertilizers contain manganese.

This metal, in combination with oxygen, associated with oxide of iron, occurs naturally in many soils.

In the ashes of plants traces of it are also found; but iron usually predominates. The ash of the horse chestnut and oak bark is rich in manganese, with no trace of iron.

Silica or Silex - Silicon dioxide, also known as silica (from the Latin silex), is a chemical compound that is an oxide of silicon with the chemical formula SiO2.

This mineral occurs abundantly in nature, either in a free state or in the form of sand, sandstones, flint, chalcedony, rock-crystal, or quartz, and in combination with lime, magnesia, iron, potash, soda, and other minerals. Silica is

  • insoluble in hot or cold water, and resists the action of some strong acids; but hydrofluoric acid dissolves it,
  • when mixed with soda or potash, and exposed to the heat of a glass furnace.

Silica is dissolved, or rather enters into combination with the alkali, and forms glass; or when the alkali is in excess, it dissolves into water. On the addition of muriatic acid, or sulphuric acid, to a solution of this silicate of potash, the silcate separates into a gelatinous mass, in which form it is soluble in water, and thus becomes the food of plants.

Sulphur - sulphur (sulfur) is a chemical element with symbol S.

Sulphur is an essential element for all life, but almost always in the form of organosulfur compounds or metal sulfides.

Sulfur is increasingly used as a component of fertilizers. The most important form of sulfur for fertilizer is the mineral calcium sulfate. Elemental sulfur is hydrophobic (that is, it is not soluble in water) and, therefore, cannot be directly utilized by plants. Over time, soil bacteria can convert it to soluble derivatives, which can then be utilized by plants. Sulfur improves the use efficiency of other essential plant nutrients, particularly nitrogen and phosphorus. Biologically produced sulfur particles are naturally hydrophilic due to a biopolymer coating. This sulfur is, therefore, easier to disperse over the land (via spraying as a diluted slurry), and results in a faster release.

Plant requirements for sulfur are equal to or exceed those for phosphorus. It is one of the major nutrients essential for plant growth, root nodule formation of legumes and plants protection mechanisms. Sulfur deficiency has become widespread in many countries in Europe.

This compound, in the form of sulphuric acid, enters into the composition of all cultivated soils, chiefly in combination with limestone, magnesia, potash, and other bases.

With hydrogen it forms sulhuretted hydrogen, a remarably disagreeable-smelling gas, the product of the decompostion of organic matter contained in the soil and impregnating many medicinal waters, as at Harrogate in North England.

Phosphorus - Phosphorus is a chemical element with symbol P .

Phosphorus is essential for life. Phosphates (compounds containing the phosphate ion, PO4−3) are a component of DNA, RNA, ATP, and also the phospholipids, which form all cell membranes. Demonstrating the link between phosphorus and life, elemental phosphorus was first isolated from human urine, and bone ash was an important early phosphate source. Phosphate minerals are fossils. Low phosphate levels are an important limit to growth in some aquatic systems. Phosphate is needed to replace the phosphorus that plants remove from the soil, and its annual demand is rising nearly twice as fast as the growth of the human population.

This ingredient is a soft, wax-like, highly inflammable substance, which combines with atmospheric oxygen, giving rise to phosphoric acid, which enters into the composition of all our cultivated plants, and is essentially necessary to a healthy condition of vegetable life.

Phosphorus exists in trap-rock, granite, basalt and other igneous rocks, and in lime, ironstone and most minerals.

Chlorine - Chlorine is a chemical element with symbol Cl. In the form of chloride ions, chlorine is necessary to all known species of life. Chloride is one of the most common anions in nature.

This is a highly-noxious, suffocating, yellowish, gaseous element, particularly disagreeable in smell.

In soils it is found in combination with such bases as chloride of sodium, or common salt. It is more necessary as a plant-food to root crops rather than to cereals.

 

Some of the affects of the above 11 chemicals on the following soils:-

 

Sandy Soils - If you try to adjust the soil texture by adding silt or clay to a sandy soil, you’ll see some improvement, but most of it will just flush through the soil. There’s not enough organic matter to keep these fine-textured soil components from washing out. Increasing soil organic matter is the key to gardening in sandy soil. You have to make the soil more “sticky”, so water and nutrients don’t just flush through every time it rains.

My suggestion:-
If you fill 30% of cement mixer with water, add 20% of clay and mix till a slurry. Add organic matter and your sandy soil and mix, keeping it as a slurry. Pour into wheelbarrow and move to where it is required and tip the wheelbarrow, spread the result with a rake, before repeating the process for the rest of the ground to be altered. The worms and rain will transport this material down and that will create a loam which is best for your plants as shown in the diagram at the top of this page.

Sandy soils are loose, friable, open and dry, and for that reason easily cultivated. They rest chiefly on the old red sandstone, and granite and coal formations.

Where alumina and calcareous matter are absent, however, they are nearly barren, they absorb manures without benefit to the land.

Where alumina and lime exist, they are more compact and adhesive, and grow good crops of beans, peas, spring wheat, and turnips.

They are capable of improvement by admixture with clay, marl, chalk, and other adhesive soils, which communicate their constituent properties to them

Calcareous Soils - Calcareous soils have often more than 15% CaCO3 (Calcium carbonate) in the soil. Phosphorous is often lacking in calcareous soils. Calcareous soils usually suffer from a lack of micronutrients, especially zinc and iron. Heavy applications of animal manure are helpful in preventing deficiency of iron and zinc.

Calcareous is an adjective meaning "mostly or partly composed of calcium carbonate", in other words, containing lime or being chalky. Calcareous soils are relatively alkaline, in other words they have a high pH.

The availability of N, P, K, Mg, Mn, Zn, and Fe to citrus decreases when soil CaCO3 concentration increases to more than about 3% by weight. These soils generally have a pH value in the range of 7.6 to 8.3. Phosphorus fertilizer applied to calcareous soils becomes fixed in sparingly soluble compounds over time. To maintain continuous P availability, P fertilizer should be applied on a regular, but not necessarily frequent, basis.

Calcareous soils resting on the upper chalk formation are usually deep, dry, loose, friable, and fertile in their nature, but others, resting on the shaly oolite, are stony, poor, thin soils.

Where pure clay is present in such soils, they are called loams or calcareous clays; where silica is in excess, they are termed calcareous sandy soils.

Leguminous plants, as peas, beans, vetches, saintfoin, and clover, do well on such soils, lime being essential to their growth.

Clay Soils - Interesting 4 page article applying compost etc to improve clay soil.

To improve that soil as the quickest solution, I would add a 1 cm (0.5 inch) depth of sharp washed sand, a 1 cm depth of chalk (lime) and 10 cm (4 inch) depth of organic compost and leave it to work itself in from that application in early spring. 2 months later add 3 inches (7.5 cm) depth of cow manure to provide further nutrients.

Clay soils are characterised by stiffness, impenetrability, great power of absorbing and retaining moisture, and great specific gravity; they are, consequently, cold, stiff, heavy, and impervious, costly to cultivate, and often unproductive.

Perfect drainage,
burning the soil with wood faggots, branches of trees, grass sods, and vegetable refuse, and
mixing chalk and sand,
are the only remedies. Burning is the most efficient remedy; the burnt clay acting chemically as a manure, its contstituents being rendered more soluble. Provided a moderate heat has been applied to the process, the potash is rendered soluble, and liberated from the clay in which it occurs in an insoluble combination. Thus treated, clay soils become the most fertile for all heavy crops.

 

 

Weeds indicate what the soil is that they naturally grow on
as detailed in Encyclopedia of Gardening by J.C. Loudon and published in 1827; as shown in
What is Soil Structure? page.

 

You never know that reviewing the situation about your gardening knowledge through reading the Soil pages might be useful.

 

 

 

 

 

 

To locate mail-order nursery for plants from the UK in this gallery try using search in
RHS Find a Plant.

To locate plants in the European Union (EU) try using
Search Term in Gardens4You and
Meilland Richardier in France.

To locate mail-order nursery for plants from America in this gallery try using search in
Plant Lust.

To locate plant information in Australia try using
Plant Finder in Gardening Australia.

 

 

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