Case Studies

Companion Planting
...A, B, C, D, E,
...F, G, H, I, J, K,
...L, M, N, O, P, Q,
...R, S, T, U, V, W,
...X, Y, Z
...Pest Control
...using Plants

Garden Construction
Garden Design
...How to Use the Colour Wheel Concepts for Selection of Flowers, Foliage and Flower Shape
...RHS Mixed Borders
......Bedding Plants
......Her Perennials
......Other Plants Garden Maintenance
Offbeat Glossary
Plants Chalk (Alkaline) Soil
......A-F1, A-F2,
......A-F3, G-L, M-R,
......M-R Roses, S-Z Heavy Clay Soil
......A-F, G-L, M-R,
......S-Z Lime-Free (Acid) Soil
......A-F, G-L, M-R,
......S-Z Light Sand Soil
......A-F, G-L, M-R,
...Poisonous Plants
...Soil Nutrients
Tool Shed
Useful Data


Topic - Plant Photo Galleries
Plant with Photo Index of Ivydene Gardens
A 1, Photos
B 1, Photos
C 1, Photos
D 1, Photos
E 1, Photos
F 1, Photos
G 1, Photos
H 1, Photos
I 1, Photos
J 1, Photos
K 1, Photos
L 1, Photos
M 1, Photos
N 1, Photos
O 1, Photos
P 1, Photos
Q 1, Photos
R 1, Photos
S 1, Photos
T 1, Photos
U 1, Photos
V 1, Photos
W 1, Photos
X 1 Photos
Y 1, Photos
Z 1 Photos
Articles/Items in Ivydene Gardens
Flower Shape and Plant Use of
Evergreen Perennial
Herbaceous Perennial
Evergreen Shrub
Deciduous Shrub
Evergreen Tree
Deciduous Tree

Bedding Flower Shape

...Allium/ Anemone
...Colchicum/ Crocus
...Hippeastrum/ Lily
...Late Summer
...Each of the above ...Bulb Galleries has its own set of Flower Colour Pages
...Flower Shape
Deciduous Shrub
...Shrubs - Decid
Deciduous Tree
...Trees - Decid
Evergreen Perennial
...P-Evergreen A-L
...P-Evergreen M-Z
...Flower Shape
Evergreen Shrub
...Shrubs - Evgr
...Heather Shrub
Evergreen Tree
...Trees - Evgr

...P -Herbaceous
...Flower Shape
...RHS Wisley
......Mixed Border
......Other Borders
Odds and Sods
...RHS Wisley A-F
...RHS Wisley G-R
...RHS Wisley S-Z
...Rose Use
...Other Roses A-F
...Other Roses G-R
...Other Roses S-Z
Soft Fruit
Top Fruit


Wild Flower
with its
flower colour page,
Site Map page in its flower colour
NOTE Gallery
...Blue Note
...Brown Note
...Cream Note
...Green Note
...Mauve Note
...Multi-Cols Note
...Orange Note
...Pink A-G Note
...Pink H-Z Note
...Purple Note
...Red Note
...White A-D Note
...White E-P Note
...White Q-Z Note
...Yellow A-G Note
...Yellow H-Z Note
...Shrub/Tree Note
Wildflower Plants


Topic - Flower/Foliage Colour
Colour Wheel Galleries

Following your choice using Garden Style then that changes your Plant Selection Process
Garden Style
...Infill Plants
...12 Bloom Colours per Month Index
...12 Foliage Colours per Month Index
...All Plants Index
...Cultivation, Position, Use Index
...Shape, Form

you could use these Flower Colour Wheels with number of colours
All Flowers 53

......Use of Plant and
...Flower Shape
All Flowers per Month 12
with its
Explanation of
Structure of this Website with

...User Guidelines
All Bee-Pollinated Flowers per Month 12
Rock Garden and Alpine Flower Colour Wheel with number of colours
Rock Plant Flowers 53

...Rock Plant Index A, B, C, D, E, F, G, H, I, J, K, L, M, NO, PQ, R, S, T, UVWXYZ
...Rock Plant Photos

these Foliage Colour Wheels structures, which I have done but until I can take the photos and I am certain of the plant label's validity, these may not progress much further
All Foliage 212

All Spring Foliage 212
All Summer Foliage 212
All Autumn Foliage 212
All Winter Foliage 212

Flower Colour Wheel without photos, but with links to photos
12 Bloom Colours per Month Index
...All Plants Index


Topic - Wildlife on Plant Photo Gallery
Usage of Plants
by Egg, Caterpillar, Chrysalis and Butterfly

Egg, Caterpillar, Chrysalis and Butterfly usage of
Plant A-C
Plant C-M
Plant N-W
Butterfly usage of Plant

followed by all the Wild Flower Family Pages:-

There are 180 families in the Wildflowers of the UK and they have been split up into 22 Galleries to allow space for up to 100 plants per gallery.

Each plant named in each of the Wildflower Family Pages may have a link to:-

its Plant Description Page in its Common Name in one of those Wildflower Plant Galleries

and does have links:-

to external sites to purchase the plant or seed in its Botanical Name,

to see photos in its Flowering Months and

to read habitat details in its Habitat Column.


(o)Adder's Tongue
(o)Bog Myrtle
(o)Cornel (Dogwood)
(o)Crucifer (Cabbage/Mustard) 1
(o)Crucifer (Cabbage/Mustard) 2
(o)Daisy Cudweeds
(o)Daisy Chamomiles
(o)Daisy Thistle
(o)Daisy Catsears (o)Daisy Hawkweeds
(o)Daisy Hawksbeards
(o)Dock Bistorts
(o)Dock Sorrels


(o)Filmy Fern
(o)Royal Fern
(o)Figwort - Mulleins
(o)Figwort - Speedwells
(o)Grass 1
(o)Grass 2
(o)Grass 3
(o)Grass Soft Bromes 1
(o)Grass Soft Bromes 2
(o)Grass Soft Bromes 3
(o)Jacobs Ladder
(o)Lily Garlic
(o)Marsh Pennywort
(o)Melon (Gourd/Cucumber)


(o)Orchid 1
(o)Orchid 2
(o)Orchid 3
(o)Orchid 4
(o)Peaflower Clover 1
(o)Peaflower Clover 2
(o)Peaflower Clover 3
(o)Peaflower Vetches/Peas
(o)Pink 1
(o)Pink 2
Rannock Rush
(o)Rose 1
(o)Rose 2
(o)Rose 3
(o)Rose 4
(o)Rush Woodrushes
(o)Saint Johns Wort
Saltmarsh Grasses


(o)Sea Lavender
(o)Sedge Rush-like
(o)Sedges Carex 1
(o)Sedges Carex 2
(o)Sedges Carex 3
(o)Sedges Carex 4
Tassel Pondweed
(o)Thyme 1
(o)Thyme 2
(o)Umbellifer 1
(o)Umbellifer 2
(o)Water Fern
(o)Water Milfoil
(o)Water Plantain
(o)Water Starwort


It is worth remembering that especially with roses that the colour of the petals of the flower may change - The following photos are of Rosa 'Lincolnshire Poacher' which I took on the same day in R.V. Roger's Nursery Field:-


Closed Bud


Opening Bud


Juvenile Flower


Older Juvenile Flower


Middle-aged Flower - Flower Colour in Season in its
Rose Description Page is
"Buff Yellow, with a very slight pink tint at the edges in May-October."


Mature Flower


Juvenile Flower and Dying Flower


Form of Rose Bush

There are 720 roses in the Rose Galleries; many of which have the above series of pictures in their respective Rose Description Page.

So one might avoid the disappointment that the 2 elephants had when their trunks were entwined instead of them each carrying their trunk using their own trunk, and your disappointment of buying a rose to discover that the colour you bought it for is only the case when it has its juvenile flowers; if you look at all the photos of the roses in the respective Rose Description Page!!!!



Fragrant Plants adds the use of another of your 5 senses in your garden:-
Sense of Fragrance from Roy Genders

Fragrant Plants:-
Trees and Shrubs with Scented Flowers.

Trees and Shrubs with Scented Leaves.

Trees and Shrubs with Aromatic Bark.

Shrubs bearing Scented Flowers for an
Acid Soil

Shrubs bearing Scented Flowers for a
Chalky or Limestone Soil

Shrubs bearing Scented leaves for a
Sandy Soil

Herbaceous Plants with Scented Flowers.

Herbaceous Plants with Scented Leaves.

Annual and Biennial Plants with Scented Flowers or Leaves.

Bulbs and Corms with Scented Flowers.

Scented Plants of Climbing and Trailing Habit.

Winter-flowering Plants with Scented Flowers.

Night-scented Flowering Plants.

Scented Aquatic Plants.

Plants with Scented Fruits.

Plants with Scented Roots.

Trees and Shrubs with Scented Wood.

Trees and Shrubs with Scented Gums.

Scented Cacti and Succulents.

Plants bearing Flowers or Leaves of Unpleasant Smell.

Flower Perfume Group:-

Indoloid Group.

Aminoid Group with scent - Hawthorn.

Heavy Group with scents -
Jonquil and

Aromatic Group with scents - Almond,
Aniseed, Balsamic,
Carnation, Cinnamon, Clove,
Spicy and

Violet Group.

Rose Group.

Lemon Group with scent -

Fruit-scented Group with scents -
Green Apple,
Orange, Pineapple,
Ripe Apple , Ripe Banana and
Ripe Plum.

Animal-scented Group with scents -
Human Perspiration,
Ripe Apple and
Tom Cat.

Honey Group.

Unpleasant Smell Group with scents -
Stale Lint,
Sulphur and

Miscellaneous Group with scents -
Damask Rose, Daphne,
Heliotrope, Honeysuckle,
Incense-like, Jasmine,
Lily of the Valley, Meadowsweet, Mignonette,
Newly Mown Hay, Nutmeg,
Resinous, Sandalwood, Sassafras,
Treacle and
Very Sweet.


Ivydene Gardens Colour Wheel - Plant Use and Flower Shape Gallery:
Plant Use in Patio Pot (Go to Rose Use Gallery Page 1 , Rose Use Gallery Page 2 and Rose INDEX Page with Biennial for Patio)



Flowering Months range abbreviates month
to its first 3 letters (Apr-Jun is April, May and June).

Click on centre of thumbnail to move from this page to the
Plant Description Page of the Plant named in the Text box below that photo.

The Comments Row of that Plant Description
links to where you personally can purchase that plant via mail-order.

Bulb and Perennial Height from Text Border Colour

Brown =

Blue = 12-24 inches (30-60 cms)

Green = 24-36 inches (60-90 cms)

Red = 36-72 inches (90-180 cms)

Black = 72+ inches (180+ cms)

Bulb and Perennial Soil Moisture from Text Background

Wet Soil

Moist Soil

Dry Soil












































Height from Text Border Colour

Brown =

Blue = 12-36 inches (30-90 cms)

Green = 36-60 inches (90-150 cms)

Red = 60-120 inches (150-300 cms)

Black = 120+ inches (300+ cms)

Soil Moisture from Text Background

Wet Soil

Moist Soil

Dry Soil












































Height from Text Border Colour

Brown =

Blue = 240-480 inches (600-1200 cms)

Green = 480+ inches (1200+ cms)

Red = Potted

Black = Use in Small Garden

Soil Moisture from Text Background

Wet Soil

Moist Soil

Dry Soil












































Height from Text Border Colour


Blue = 0-36 inches (0-90 cms)

Green = 36-120 inches (90-300 cms)

Red = 120+ inches (180+ cms)


Soil Moisture from Text Background

Wet Soil

Moist Soil

Dry Soil












































Aquatic, Bamboo, Bedding, Conifer, Fern, Grass, Herb, Rhododendron, Rose, Soft Fruit, Top Fruit, Vegetable and Wildflower
Height from Text Border Colour


Blue = 0-24 inches (0-60 cms)

Green = 24-72 inches (60-180 cms)

Red =
72+ inches (180+ cms)


Aquatic, Bamboo, Bedding, Conifer, Fern, Grass, Herb, Rhododendron, Rose, Soft Fruit, Top Fruit, Vegetable and Wildflower
Soil Moisture from Text Background

Wet Soil

Moist Soil

Dry Soil









Anagalis 'Skylover' SUN Summer Bedding Light Green Foliage Blue Flowers Jun-Aug













































































































































































































































































































































































Balcony, Patio and Window Box Gardening by Leslie Johns. ISBN 0 903001 50 0. Published 1977.

"Patio plants are normally container grown and only moved outside to the patio or garden for the summer months. At other times they would be best kept in a frost free greenhouse or conservatory. Many patio plants are grown for their foliage colour or for ornamental or architectural effect rather than simply for their flowers. A good patio plant must be able to withstand full sun and be suitable for pot growing." from Burncoose Nurseries.

Patio Plants - Summer Patio Plants/Pot plants from Burncoose Nurseries.

Colour Wheel - Plant Use and Flower Shape Gallery

Site Map


Dark Tone
or Shades (Colours mixed with Black) is the outer circle of colours.

(Colours mixed with Grey) is the next circle of colours.

Pure Hue
(the Primary, Secondary or Tertiary Colour named) is the next circle of colours.

(Colours mixed with White) is the innermost circle of colours.


These 12 colour spokes of Dark Tone, Mid-Tone, Pure Hue and Pastel are split into:-


Primary Colour Name

Pure Hue Colour Name Used











Secondary Colour Name

Pure Hue Colour Name Used



Vitamin C








Tertiary Colour Name

Pure Hue Colour Name Used


Red Orange



Yellow Orange



Yellow Green

Lovely Lime


Blue Green

Light Teal


Blue Violet



Red Violet

Process Pagenta

Plant Bloom

Plant Bloom

Plant Bloom

There are other pages on Plants which bloom in each month of the year in this website:-









Click on Flower Colour above Colour Name to compare flowers of same colour and different plant types or 1,
then 2, 3, or 4 for following pages
































White 1, 2


White 3


White Wild-flower 1, 2

























, 2










































































































































Blood Red 1



































































Dried Blood





















Chocolate 1
























































Fuzzy Wuzzy 1









































































Heatland 1








Royal Purple



























Rusty Pelican














Red 1, 2


















































Process Pagenta























































Flat Pink





































Vitamin C 1



















, 2



























































Magenta Shift







Atomic Tangerine











































The Bands
























Buddha Gold

Browser Caramel 1





























































Off-White Blue














, 2









































































































, 2






















Baby Blue




















































Periwinkle 1












Pine Glade



















































Light Teal


Offwhite Green 1


Lovely Lime












Navy Blue
































Grass Stain





















































































Lime 1




Slimer 2













































































































































Blue Stone











Weak Green 1




Verdun Green
































































































































































Pakistan Green 1
















When you have reached the required Flower Colour Page, then click on Flowering Months of the required plant to compare this flower with others
from the same Plant Type - Bulbs, Climbers, Evergreen perennials - in that month
with others from the plants at RHS Wisley in that month

Plant Selection by Flower Colour

Blue Flowers

Evergr Per.
Evergr Shrub.
Wild Flower.

Orange Flowers


Wild Flower.

Other Colour Flowers


Evergr Per.
Evergr Shrub.
Wild Flower.

Red Flowers


Decid Shrub.
Evergr Per.
Evergr Shrub.
Herbac Per.
Wild Flower.

White Flowers


Decid Shrub.
Decid Tree.
Evergr Per.
Evergr Shrub.
Herbac Per.
Wild Flower.

Yellow Flowers

Decid Shrub.
Evergr Per.
Evergr Shrub.
Herbac Per.
Wild Flower.


Plant Index to all compared thumbnails of this flower colour in this page:-

Click on Flowering Period Month to compare this flower EITHER with others from the same Plant Type - Bulbs, Climbers, Evergreen Perennials - in that month OR with others from the plants at RHS Wisley in that month

Plant Name

Flower Colour with
Flower Thumbnail

with Link to Flower Colour Comparison Page in that month

Form Thumbnail

Height x Width in inches (cms) -
1 inch = 2.5 cms,
12 inches = 1 foot,
36 inches = 3 feet = 1 yard,
40 inches = 100 cms

Foliage Colour with Foliage Thumbnail

Plant Use


Full Sun is Direct Sunlight all day

Quarter-Shade is No direct Sun for a quarter of the day.

Half-Shade is No direct Sun for Half the Day

Three-quarters-Shade is No direct sun for three-quarters of the Day

Full Shade is No direct sun.

























































Herbaceous Perennials
























































Evergreen Perennials
























































Deciduous Shrub
























































Evergreen Shrub







Abutilon x hybridum


Flowers almost continuously


slim stems bear green maple-shaped leaves and bell-like flowers

Can be trained to any shape. In a hanging basket stop the side-shoots to develop a wide bushy shape. In an urn or pot stop the main shoot low down to allow about 5 shoots to fan out into a screen or, alternately, gradually nip out the side-shoots to make a standard like a parasol hung with coloured bells.

Evergreen upright shrub - Tree Mallow.
Avoid drying winds that cause flowers to drop and leaves to scorch.
Quarter to three-quarters Shade.
Prefers loam-based compost.
Primarily grown for its foliage.

Abutilon 'Canary Bird'

extra-large primrose yellow






Abutilon 'Ashford Red'

soft red bells






Abutilon 'Boule de Neige'

white flowers with yellow "striker"






Abutilon 'Souvenir de Bonn'

orange bells



white-edged leaves


Very vigorous

Abutilon 'Cannington Peter'

dark crimson



contrasting yellow mottled leaves



Abutilon 'Cannington Carol'




yellow mottled leaves


The neatest bush for baskets

Abutilon 'Orange Glow'






The most floriferous of the tall types

Abutilon 'Louis Marignac'






Tall growing with light, delicate silvery pink bells

Abutilon 'Cannington Sally'

bright orange-scarlet



yellow mottled leaves


Flowers in profusion

Abutilon mega-potamicum

yellow and crimson



slim leaves


In a basket will creep down

Abutilon suntense 'Violetta'






Flowers in late spring to mid-autumn, sunshine encourages flowers







































































Deciduous Tree
























































Evergreen Tree







Abies balsamea hudsonia 'Nana'



12 x
(30 x )

needles are grey-green, narrow, flat and leathery

Miniature landscape such as in a windowbox where a little mountain scene can be created with a few rocks and a contrasting ground-hugging carpet of bright green Soleirolia or Sedum album 'Coral Carpet'

Evergreen conifer - Dwarf balsam fir.
Place in Full Sun to Half-shade.
Good drainage required from Compost.

Abies concolor 'Glauca Compacta'



24 x
(60 x )

steel-blue needles

Use as replacement for above conifer

Evergreen conifer. Slow growing.

Abies koreana




Dark green needles

Use as replacement for above conifer

Evergreen conifer - Korean Fir - has a conical shape with fairly open branches. It is slow-growing and it can produce violet-blue cones that sit on the branches like candles when it is only a few years old





























Deciduous Climber
























































Evergreen Climber
























































Aquatic, Bamboo, Bedding, Conifer,
Soft Fruit,
Top Fruit, Vegetable and Wildflower





















Anagalis monellii 'Skylover Blue'



June, July, August

12 x 12
(30 x 30)

Light Green

Pots and Troughs.
Window Boxes.
Hanging Baskets.
Summer Bedding.

5 Petals.
Single Flower provides pollen for bees.
Sand for soil or Ericaceous Compost for containers. Full Sun





































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































Amaranthus albus
(White Pigweed,
White Amaranth,
Common Tumbleweed,
Prostrate Pigweed)



20 x
(50 x )


Cook and use it like spinach. Seeds eaten by birds.

Member of Amaranth Wildflower family.
An annual of disturbed, nutrient-rich waste ground and rubbish tips, predominantly casual and very rarely naturalised. It is introduced with fibre, grain, oil- and bird-seed, and with bark for tanning. Lowland. Green flowers from August till the frosts. Up to 20 (50 cms) tall. Greenish flowers in clumps in the axils of the leaves. Prefers a well-drained fertile soil in a sunny position. Requires a hot sheltered position if it is to do well. It is in leaf from May to October, in flower from July to August, and the seeds ripen from September to October. Prefers well-drained soil in full sun and moist soil. Pollinated by the wind and self-fertile.











































Ivydene Horticultural Services logo with I design, construct and maintain private gardens. I also advise and teach you in your own garden. 01634 389677


Site design and content copyright ©July 2017. Chris Garnons-Williams.

DISCLAIMER: Links to external sites are provided as a courtesy to visitors. Ivydene Horticultural Services are not responsible for the breakage of the link to the Safety Regulations for man walking with Red Flag before Automobile.  





This Gallery compares the use and flower shape of plants in this website combined with those already compared in
Bedding, Bulb, Evergreen Perennial, Herbaceous Perennial and Roses pages as linked to in the table at the end of this page.









Number of Flower Petals







Above 5









Flower Shape - Simple

Stars with Single Flowers


Cups and Saucers


Goblets and Chalices








Rose Petal Count from Rose Use Gallery

1-7 Petals

8-15 Petals

Flower Shape - Simple





Page 1
Page 2
16-25 Petals

26-40 Petals

Very Full:
40+ Petals









Flower Shape - Elabor-ated

Tubes, Lips and Straps

Slippers, Spurs and Lockets

Hats, Hoods and Helmets

Stan-dards, Wings and Keels

Discs and Florets


Tufts and Petal-less Cluster







Rose Bloom Shape from Rose Use Gallery



Flower Shape - Elabor-ated



Buttons with Double Flowers


Stars with Semi-Double Flowers













Natural Arrange-ments

Bunches, Posies and Sprays (Group)

Columns, Spikes and Spires

Whorls, Tiers and Cande-labra

Plumes and Tails

Chains and Tassels

Clouds, Garlands and Cascades

Sphere, Dome (Clusters), Drumstick and Plate

Plant Use

Bedding Out and Bedding Out of Roses

Bedding for Filling In

Bedding for Screening

Bedding for Pots and Troughs

Bedding in Window Boxes

Bedding in Hanging Baskets

Bedding Foliage

Bedding:- Spring



Foliage Only

Other than Green Foliage

Trees in Lawn

Trees in Small Gardens

Wildflower Garden

Attract Bird
Attract Butterfly
, 2

Climber on House Wall

Climber not on House Wall

Climber in Tree



Pollution Barrier

Part Shade

Full Shade

Single Flower provides Pollen for Bees
, 2, 3




Covering Banks

Patio Pot

Edging Borders

Back of Border


Adjacent to Water

Bog Garden

Tolerant of Poor Soil



Not Fragrant


Standard Plant is 'Ball on Stick'

Upright Branches or Sword-shaped leaves

Plant to Prevent Entry to Human or Animal

Coastal Con-ditions

Tolerant on North-facing Wall

Cut Flower

Potted Veg Outdoors

Potted Veg Indoors


Raised Bed Outdoors Veg

Grow in Alkaline Soil A-F, G-L, M-R, S-Z

Grow in Acidic Soil

Grow in Any Soil

Grow in Rock Garden

Grow Bulbs Indoors

Potted Fruit Outdoors

Potted Fruit Indoors

Fruit Outdoors

Plants for Outdoor
Containers Index





The Complete Book of Container Gardening . Consultant Editor: Alan Toogood. Authors: Peter McHoy, Tom Miles , Roy Cheek. Published 1991. ISBN 0-7472-0415-2.

The plants for the containers are split into the following Planting Plans:-

  • Alpines and Miniatures
  • Attracting Wildlife
  • Containers for All Seasons
  • Containers for Scent
  • Country Containers
  • Fruit in Containers
  • Functional Containers
  • Summer Baskets
  • Summer Boxes and Troughs
  • Summer Pots, Tubs and Urns
  • The Exotic Look
  • The Oriental Influence
  • Vegetables and Herbs
  • Water Displays
  • Winter and Spring Displays

For the number of each plant required in these planting plans consult the book.

The plants for the containers are split into the following Planting Plans:-

For the Characteristics, Position, Compost and Special Maintenance of the plants in the Plants for Containers Index Pages, consult the book.

Planting Plan














Alpines and Miniatures

Alpines are plants on a mountain which naturally occur between the tree line and the zone of permanent snow. The term miniature describes both small plants and others which can be used to create wonderful little landscapes. Alpines and miniatures are best grown where they can be viewed at close quarters so that their exquisite beauty can be fuly appreciated.
Some planting ideas on Pages 94-95:-

Alpines in a stone trough of 16 x 24 inches (40 x 60 cms)

Dionysia tapetodes

Sedum acre 'Aureum' (golden stonecrop)

Saxifraga burseriana

Narcissus triandrus albus (angel's tears)

Raoulia ltescens

Sempervivum montanum (mountain houseleek)

tufa rock







Alpines in a strawberry pot of 12 inches (30 cms)

Sempervivum 'Commander Hay'

Saxifraga x apiculata

Lewisia Cotyledon Hybrid

Saponaria ocymoides

Erigeron mucronatus

Saxifraga x urbium (London Pride)

Varieties of Trifolium, Sedum, Phlox, Armeria and Arabis

could be planted in the pockets at the rear of the pot






Alpines in a two-tiered trough of 24 x 36 inches (60 x 90 cms). This system allows the more vigorous plants to be grown at a lower level, so that they are less likely to smother the slower growers above.

Saxifraga burseriana

Sempervivum 'Commander Hay'

Sedum spathulifolium 'Cape Blanco'

Raoulia australis

Aubretia deltoidea

Iberis sempervirens

Phlox douglasii

Juniperus squamata
'Blue Star'

tufa rock





A miniature Garden - Pebbles, rock and water form the hard landscape for a 30 inch (90 cm) bowl.

Sorbus reducta

Chamae-cyparis lawsoniana 'Green Pillar'

Abies balsamea hudsonia

Cryptomeria japonica

Rhodo-dendron calostrotum keleticum

Salix hastata 'Wehrhahnii'

Chamae-cyparis pisifera 'Aurea Nana'

Jasminum parkeri

Pratia penduncalata

Cotoneaster microphylllus thymifolius

Thymus x ctriodorus 'Silver Queen'



Alpine window box - 40 x 12 inch (100 x 30 cm) trough.

tufa rock

Sempervivum 'Commander Hay'

Raoulia lutescens

Linum arboreum

Chamae-cyparis obtusa 'Nana Aurea'

Diascia cordata

Gypsophila repens

Arabis albida

Armeria caespitosa (thrift)

Phlox subulata

Heliant-hemum 'Raspberry Ripple'

Saponaria ocymoides

Erigereon mucronatus

Polygonum vacciniolium













Turn to stone - A group of containers and a raised bed are able to host a large number of plants in a small area.

The bue-flowered Campanula and

the White Gypsophila form a distinct contrast to the smaller species.

This arrangement helps to ensure that the former more vigorous plants do not smother the latter.

The gravel and natural rock provide the perfect setting.










Attracting Wildlife

See Plant Use is Attracting Birds Page and Plant Use is Attracting Butterflies Page for these plants.

Containers for All Seasons

The busy gardener with precious little time to spare can use pot plants to achieve colourful and dramatic effects in an instant. Flowering or foliage pot plants are now obtainable through many outlets such as supermarkets and petrol stations. Rather than buy a number of plants to fill a container at one time, why not purchase a new pot plant every 2 weeks or so to replace older plants as they fade? The designs feature 2 permanent residents, a conifer and an ivy, around which the the displays are formed. Although 6 seasonal designs are shown, there would be interim stages as the individual plants are exchanged. It is preferable to remove the pots before planting as this makes it easier to keep the roots moist. Arrange the plants as desired, firming the compost around them to aid stability. During the summer months many houseplants are suitable for inclusion in these designs. In winter, or during cold spells, this type of display only succeeds in a protected site.

Autumn into winter

Chamaecyparis lawsoniana 'Green Pillar' (Lawson cypress)

Hedera helix 'Glacier' (ivy)

Pot chrysan-themums

Erica gracilis (Cape heath)

Solanum capsicastrum (winter cherry)









Early winter and Christmas

Chamaecyparis lawsoniana 'Green Pillar' (Lawson cypress)

Hedera helix 'Glacier' (ivy)

Narcissus 'Paper White'

Primula vulgaris (primrose)

Cyclamen persicum (florist's cyclamen)

Euphorbia pulcherrima (poinsettia)

Hyacinthus orientalis (hyacinth)

Some tinsel could be added for seasonal effect






Mid winter

Chamaecyparis lawsoniana 'Fletcheri' (Lawson cypress)

Hedera helix 'Glacier' (ivy)

Primula vulgaris (primrose)

Senecio multiflora

Hyacinthus orientalis (hyacinth)

Calceolaria herbeo-hybrida (slipper flower)








Spring and Easter

Chamaecyparis lawsoniana 'Green Pillar' (Lawson cypress)

Hedera helix 'Glacier' (ivy)

Narcissus (daffodil)

Saxifraga stolonifera (mother of thousands)

Senecio x hybridus

Hydrangea macrophylla 'Blue Wave'

Lilium longiflorum (Easter lily)







Spring into summer

Chamaecyparis lawsoniana 'Green Pillar' (Lawson cypress)

Hedera helix 'Glacier' (ivy)

Campanula isophylla alba (white bellflower)

Pelargonium 'Sensation'

Browallia speciosa

Rosa (patio rose)

Campanula isophylla (bellflower)

Tolmeia menziesii (pick-a-back plant)






Summer into autumn

Chamaecyparis lawsoniana 'Fletcheri' (Lawson cypress)

Hedera helix 'Glacier' (ivy)

Asparagus sprengeri

Argy-ranthemum frutescens (Marguerite)

Celosia plumosa

Impatiens 'Tango' (busy lizzie)








A collection of houseplants - These make a fine display for the doorstep or patio and a spell out of doors in summer will often rid a plant of pests. Most houseplants are tolerant of shade, but avoid cold winds.


Cyperus alternifolius (umbrella plant)

Chloro-phytum comosum 'Vittatum' (spider plant)

Coleus blumei

Asparagus sprengeri






Winter glow - The red buds of Skimmia (centre) and the orange-red Erica are illuminated by the sun. When past their best both could be planted in the garden, while the background Lawson cypress conifer remains in situ.











Containers for Scent

The presence of scent in the garden is often undervalued. Many plants can offer at least a hint of perfume, but carefully chosen varities will provide some delightful effects.
Flowers are by no means the only purveyors of scent. The leaves of various plants provide some of the most pleasant aromas when crushed between the fingers or merely brushed against. Some plants have a scent so strong it fills a garden on a still evening, but most perfumes are intimate and are best encountered at close quarters. For this reason scented plants should be thoughfully positioned, so that they can easily and regularly appreciated. The windowsill, the patio and, in particular, the entrance area are prime sites.

There are many other scented plants in the table on the left in the Fragrant Plants and Flower Perfume Groups.

Patio Perfumes - The central lily flanked by pot-grown Daturas creates a deliciously fragrant combination. The aroma of the silver-leaved Helichrysum italicum (curry plant) in the front completes the triangle and will also enrich the evening air.










A scented doorway - This design will provide a succession of different and very desirable scents intermittently throughout the year from a 20 inch (50 cm) tub each side of the front door.

Add the following bulbs to complete the design: Hyacinthus, Narcissus 'Cheerfulness' (see Narcissus gallery for other daffodils; all of which can be grown in containers), Convallaria majalis (lily of the valley).

Lonicera periclymenum
(common honeysuckle)

Jasminum polyanthum

Thymus x citriodorus 'Aureus'
(golden lemon-scented thyme)

Daphne odora 'Aureo-marginata)

Lavandula angustifolia 'Munstead'

Mahonia aquifolium (oregon grape)

Choisya ternata (mexican orange blossom)

Trachelo-spremum jasminoides (star jasmine)

Rosa 'Alberic Barbier'

A scented pot for late spring - within an 18 inch (45 cm) pot

This pot with the succeding 4 pots will provide scent from late spring to early autumn:-

Narcissu white 'Cheer-fulness'

Myosotis alpestris

Convallaria majalis (lily of the valley)

Primula polyantha (polyanthus)

Dianthus barbatus 'Giant Auricula Eyed'
(sweet william)

Cheiranthus cheiri (wallflower)




Scent at a pinch - A group of plants with aromatic leaves in a 20 inch (50 cm) pot

Thuya plicata 'Zebrina'

Salvia rutilans (pineapple sage)

Thymus x citriodorus 'Aureus'
(golden lemon-scented thyme)

Lavandula stoechas
(French lavender)

Pelargonium tomentosum
(peppermint geranium)

Eucalyptus citriodora
(lemon-scented gum




Summer scents - in a 15 inch (38 cm) pot

Lantana camara

Heliotropium peruvianum (cherry pie)

Alyssum maritimum

Verbena 'Silver Anne'

Matthiola bicornis (night-scented stock), sow a few pinches of seed after pot is planted.





Sweet summer perfumes - in a 20 inch (50 cm) pot

Hedychium gard-nerianum
(ginger lily)

Lilium auratum

Nicotiana alata white
(tobacco plant)

Heliotropium peruvianum (cherry pie)

Lathyrus odoratus 'Bijou Mixed' (sweet pea)





Heady evening scent - in a 244 inch (60 cm) pot

Datura 'Grand Marnier' will fill the evening air with its delicious fragrance

Alyssum 'Wonderland' adds colour and daytime scent at low level.








Country Containers

A sense of fun and an apparent lack of organisation are the hallmarks of the country garden. A hotch-potch of well-worn containers givs an ideal framework, while a softer style of planting completes the picture. Beyond these guidelinereaders can experiment to their heart's content. There is infinite scope but try to include some scented plants, and some varieties which wll extend the display beyond the summer months.

A summer barrel - a 24 inch (60 cm) barrel.

Althaea rosea (hollyhock)

pink Penstemon

Nicotiana 'Domino Mixed'

Alchemilla mollis (lady's mantle)

Fragaria (strawberry)

pink Diascia

Saxifraga stolonifera 'Tricolor'

Aster amellus 'King Geourge'

Lilium auratum 'Apollo'

Foeniculum vulgare (fennel)




An old terracotta pot in summer - A small and simple combination of plants can be very effective in a 16 inch (40 cm) diameter pot.

Yellow Argy-ranthemum

Gypsophila repens 'Rosea'

Lavandula stoechas

Alchemilla mollis (lady's mantle)

pink Penstemon





Windowbox with picket fence - Gives a hint of country fun to a townhouse. A windowbox 40 inches (100cm) long which is fronted by a white painted picket fence the height and length of the windowbox.

Amaranthus caudatus


Lathyrus (sweet pea)

Tropaeolum majus (nasturtium)

Viola (pansy)

Nicotiana 'Domino Mixed'

mixed Antirrhinum (snap-dragon)



Watering can - Blue trailing Lobelia acts as a floral substitute for the usual contents in a metal watering can.










A wicker basket full of London Pride - Saxifraga x urbium (London Pride). The contents can be changed for different potted plants as they come into flower.










An old chimney pot - This provides a raised position from which Convolvulus mauritanicus cascades down.










Al old-style wooden wheelbarrow - This makes a fine feature by a front door. Wooden barrels and other rustic containers play an important part in creating a country atmosphere.

Tagetes pumila 'Star Fire Mixed'

Erigeron mucronatus

Petunia 'Mirage Velvet'

Convolvulus mauritanicus

Tropaeolum majus 'Alaska'

variegated Pelargonium

Fuchsia 'Mrs Popple'



Colourful bonanza - Vibrant flowers sring from every conceivable fitting. Ivy-leaved Pelargoniums, Tropaeolium (nasturtiums) and Petunia dominate the scene and thrive on this sunny wall. Since some of these pots are above head height, it would be sensible to install an irrigation system, which will water all the pots or troughs.










Fruit in Containers

It is advisable to grow only a single fruit plant in a container, as additional plants would compete for food and water. Therefore the designs below demonstrate the various shapes and forms in which a range of fruits can be grown. There is more than 1 way of training each type, so choose the method most suited to the situation.
Consult the fruit expert like Ken Muir Ltd - also at the nursery or garden centre - for which method to choose.
Ken Muir Ltd, Honeypot Farm, Rectory Road, Weeley Heath, Clacton-on-Sea, Essex. CO16 9BJ. Tel: 08707 479111. Email: Website: grow soft fruit and top fruit plants. They provide a 175 page handbook packed with the most up-to-date comprehensive information on all aspects of fruit growing free with the first fruit stocks order (Grow Your Own Strawberries will be supplied instead with your order of strawberry plants).

Fan-trained nectarine (Prunus persica) - A method ideally suited to growing this sun-loving fruit against a wall, although most fruit will benefit from the extra warmth afforded by such a position. As well as improving the flavour of peaches, apricots and pears, their early blossom will be protected from crop-depleting frosts as the wall acts as a storage heater giving off warmth accumulated during the night.










Standard gooseberry (Ribes uva-crispa) - This method of training is particularly suited to this thorny subject for the container is easily accessible for watering, weeding and feeding.










Triple-cordon redcurrant (ribes rubrum 'Red Lake') - Triple cordon refers to the 3 vertical growths, double (2 uprights) and single cordons are also popular. This method allows intensive production in a small area. Many different fruits can be grown this way including apples, pears, gooseberries, cherries and plums.










Bush blueberry (Vaccinium corymbosum) - This up and coming fruit is related to the rhododendron, the bush shape being its normal habit of growth. Most soft fruit will assume a bush form if left unattended although correct pruning will lead to greater productivity.










Espalier pear (Pyrus) - Along with cordons this is one of the classic forms of training fruit. Unlike cordons the growth is horizontal although the principles involved in training and pruning are the same; so too are the types of fruit suited to this method (See Triple-cordon redcurrant)










Dwarf peach (Prunus persica 'Garden Lady') - This and other specially bred varieties are not quite as flavoursome as the standard types, but offer an option for growing in very small areas and are easier to protect in winter.










Bush apple (Malus) - Apples are also available as dwarfs, in this case the flavour and quality are not sacrificed as the best varieties are grafted onto a dwarfing rootstock, such as M9 or M27. 'Pixie' is a dwarfing rootstock which offers a similar advantage to plums, apricots, peaches and nectarines.










"Stepover" apple (Malus) - Using a dwarfing rootstock (M27), apple trees are particularly suited to this form. Branches are trained horizontally as near to the ground as possible. They look most attractive lining either side of a path.










Alpine strawberries (Fragaria vesca 'Semperflorens') - These will fruit over a long period when grown in a windowbox. They are at a convenient height to be picked and eaten fresh.










Grape vine (Vitis) - Revelling in a sunny position a vine can be left to its own devices, but is less productive than if pruned and trained correctly when it can fruit prolifically. Kiwi fruit (Actinidia chinensis) require similar conditions but detests an exposed site. In addition both are first-class ornamental plants.










Functional Containers

Container plants can be functional and pleasing, use them to mark boundaries beautifully, highlight good views or screen unsightliness. As well as brightening up daily life plants are often used for practical purposes. They make a pleasant alternative to visually hard features such as fences or walls, and usually prove less expensive. Unsightly boundary screens are often inherited and need to be softened or disguised. On the other hand, it may be desirable to highlight certain areas or features such as an entrance-way or vista. The following demonstrate how container-grown plants can be used effectively to perform these functions.

Plant announcements - A pair of clipped Buxus sempervirens (box) and their containers stand out like beacons in these herbaceous borders. A clear statement that something of interest lies within. In this case a paved area with seat by the backing evergreen hedge.










Highlight an entrance - A pair of narrow growing conifers gives this door a more inviting appearance. Each conifer within its own 20 inch (50 cm) diameter tub

Juniperus scopulorum 'Skyrocket'

Hedera helix 'Goldheart' (ivy)








A well-framed window - 2 Pyracantha atalantioides (firethorn) in 20 inch (50 cm) diameter tubs. Two main stems from each plant, one vertical and one horizontal, are trained along wires or canes. Regular pruning maintains their formal shape.










2 schemes for large troughs and a matching windowbox - These contrasting styles are both effective methods of separating different areas.

A formal design - Buxus sempervirens (box) and Taxus baccata (yew) are both paricularly suited to clipping into a formal hedge. With care and patience more elaborate shapes can be created (see Topiary below)










An informal design - same troughs and windowbox as above with the following plants surrounding 3 sides of the other lawn with the fourth side being the path to the front door.

Chamaec-yparis pisifera 'Boulevard' makes a strong feature

Hedera helix 'Goldheart' (ivy)

Choisya ternata (Mexican orange blossom)

Hebe x franciscana 'Variegata'

Fuchsia 'Mrs Popple'

Senecio 'Sunshine'

Aucuba japonica japoinica 'Crotonifolia'

Ceanothus 'Puget Blue'
(Californian lilac)

Hedera helix 'Glacier' (silver-variegated ivy)

Topiary - The clipping of plants into fantastic shapes is an age-old art. Being by nature very eye-catching, topiary is of great value in landscape design. Ideal as a focal point it can be used to attract people to a certain area or lure them around a desried route. Growing a specimen from scratch takes time and patience; for the less patient there is now available a good range of "ready-grown" shapes. Specimens range from the very formal to birds, ships and even giant chess pieces. A suitable contrasting background will show off the shapes to the full. Buxus sempervirens (box) and Taxus baccata (yew) are excellent for topiary work.



Screening a fence or wall - A run of troughs is planted with climbers which are supported by a wrire fence or trelliswork. As climbers are, by nature, sparsely clad at the base, lower growing plants are used to furnish this area. Plants for a 120 inch (300 cm) set of troughs with a trelliswork support behind it will adter 2 more growing seasons form a dense wall of intermingled plants.

Lonicera x brownii
(scarlet trumpet honeysuckle)

Clematis armandii

Solanum jasminoides 'Album' (white-flowered potato vine)

Passiflora caerulea (blue passion flower)

Hedera helix 'Glacier' (silver variegated ivy)

Hebe x franciscana 'Variegata'

Diascia cordata



A free-standing screen - A large wooden barrel, 32 inch (80 cm) across, with the top removed and a trellis supported by a central post.

Hedera colchica 'Dentata Variegata'
(variegated elephant's ear ivy)

Clematis 'Jackmanii x Superba'

Eccremo-carpus scaber (Chilean glory flower)

Vinca major 'Variegata'
(variegated greater periwinkle)

Lonicera japonica 'Aureo- reticulata'
(variegated Japanese honeysuckle)





Bamboo curtain - A windowbox provides some privacy for a large room using a 48 inch (120 cm) trough.

Phyllo-stachys nigra (bamboo) is sparse enough to allow light into the room

Hedera helix 'Goldheart'
(gold-variegated ivy) visually softens the container








Cover up - This well-fitted square tank disguises a manhole cover superbly. The container can easily be moved to allow access for maintenance.










Plants for a purpose - The Vitis and Convolvulus cneorum occupy pot 1 at end of pergola with cross-struts every 36 inches to be covered by this Vitis. After 72 inch (180 cm) gap pot 2 contains the Juniperus and Diascia. Then pots 3 and 4 (which only has the Hedera in it) are backed by a trellis or wire netting from the earth to the cross-struts for 60 inches (150 cm) to the last post of the pergola.

Vitis 'Brant'
(grapevine) spreads over the trellis to provide dappled shade on a hot summer's day.

Convolvulus cneorum spills over the edge of the 20 inch (50 cm) pot. It is also sun lover

Juniperus scopulorum 'Skyrocket' forms a strong pillar completing the archway started by the vine. Between them they define the entrance clearly.

Diascia cordata flows out of the pot

Fremont-odendron 'California Glory' makes a floriferous yet open and airy screen in pot 3

Convolvulus mauritanicus has a lax habit and blue flowers which contrast superbly in pot 3

Hedera helix 'Goldheart'
(gold-hearted variegated ivy) forms a visually solid corner to the area whilst its irregular growth habit "breaks up" the strong outline of the structure.

















Practical Tips

1. Rain water is naturally shed from the perimeter of the plants, so very little gets into the compost. Be sure to check compost moisture levels even during wet weather. 2. Feeding benefits most plants. The bigger a container-grown plant becomes the more nutrients it will require. So apply a general feed in spring but, better still, apply a slow-release fertilizer which will last all season. A 1 inch (2.5 cm) deep mulch of grass mowings and bark will also keep the moisture in and provide other food for the plants. 3. Prune and clip flowering shrubs and fruit bushes to shape, and to promote healthy growth. Precise timimg differs from species to species.















Summer Baskets

As well as the traditional hanging basket, wall baskets, corner baskets and mangers all provide the opportunity to lift colour above ground level. Trailing varieties are particularly valuable as they greatly contribute to the character and charm of a hanging container. Before planting a basket remember it will need to be watered regularly - ensure that you leave an inch (2.5 cms) of liner at the top free of compost and the compost surface slopes down to the middle not up. The space above will be occupied by the plants but the water can then reach more of the roots during the growing season. The more the plants grow, the more water they'll consume. Walls and other buildings shelter baskets from rain. Remember to water these baskets even in wet weather. Consider installing an irrigation system for your baskets - it will make an amazing difference.
Some planting ideas on Pages 78-83:-

Simply bright - a combination of startling contrasting colours in a 14 inch (35 cm) basket

Verbena 'Sissinghurst'

Yellow pendulous Begonia x tuberhybrida planted in top only












Softly softly - subtle effects are soothing to the eye, when you want to relax using a 14 inch (35 cm) basket to create a ball effect

Brachycome iberidifolia (Swan River Daisy)

Impatiens 'Salmon Blush' (busy Lizzie)

alternately planted











Blue 'n' Pink - a small range of colours using several plants can provide a delicate effect in a 14 inch (35 cm) basket

pink Impatiens (busy Lizzie)

red- and white-flowered ivy-leaved Pelargonium

blue trailing Verbena 'Blue Knight'

white Allysum

blue Petunia x hybrida









Lighting up a wall using a 14 inch (35 cm) half basket for a shady spot

Begonia 'Illumination'

Pelargonium Sensation 'Lavender'

blue trailing Lobelia

silver-leaved Helichrysum petiolare










Subtle blend - these 2 combine wonderfully to produce an air of tranquillity in a vertical series of baskets

white-flowered ivy-leaved Pelargonium 'L'elegante'

lilac blue Brachycome iberidifolia (Swan River daisy)












Cool and refreshing - a blend of blues, greys and whites suitable for a sunny or lightly shaded position in a 18 inch (45 cm) basket

Impatiens (busy Lizzie)

Felicia amelloides

'Malibu Ivory'

white Alyssum

Glechoma hederacea 'Variegata'
(variegated ground ivy)

Helichrysum microphyllum

light blue trailing Lobelia

white pendulous Begonia

Senecio 'Silver Dust'





A delectable range of pinks - sprinkled with blues and silver in a 18 inch (45 cm) basket

Lobelia 'Lilac Cascade'

Impatiens 'Salmon Blush' (busy Lizzie)


Pelargonium 'Rose'

pink trailing Fuchsia

Brachycome 'Tinkerbell'

pink Diascia

lilac Petunia






A traditional design - Only the top is planted making this display suitable for the solid type of basket. Trailing plants take the eye away from the hard lines of the container of a 14 inch (35 cm) basket

purple Impatiens (busy Lizzie)

Lobelia 'Sapphire'

red- and white-flowered ivy-leafed Pelargonium

Helichrysum petiolare 'Limelight'

white Begonia semperflorens

Petunia 'Sky Blue'

Pelargonium Sensation 'Lavender'







A semi-drought resistant scheme - although still requiring water to flourish, the plants included are more tolerant of sporadic watering than most in a 16 inch (40 cm) basket

Pelargonium Sensation Mixed

Convolvulus mautritanicus


Hedera helix 'Glacier' (ivy)

white-flowered ivy-leaved Pelargonium

Sedum lineare








A basket for dry shade - several houseplants are suitable for outdoor use in summer in a 14 inch (35 cm) wall basket

Impatiens mixed (busy Lizzie)

Asparagus sprengeri

Chlorophytum (spider plant)

Hedera helix (ivy)

Tradescantia (wandering jew)









Colourful cascade - the sprawling plants used will allow a container to furnish quite a large area of wall using a 16 inch (40 cm) wall basket

pink Diascia

Verbena 'Sissinghurst'

white-flowered ivy-leaved Pelargonium

Plectranthus hirtus 'Variegatus'

trailing white Lobelia

Petunia 'Daddy Mixed'

white Impatiens (busy Lizzie)

variegated Pelargonium






The blues - some very delicate effects cab be achieved by using a selection of shades and textures in blue in a 16 inch (40 cm) three-quarter or corner basket

Brachycome iberidifolia 'Tinkerbell'

dark blue trailing Lobelia

'Blue Pearl' (busy Lizzie)

variegated Glechoma

mauve-flowered ivy-leafed Pelargonium

Verbena 'Blue Knight'

blue Petunia

Felicia amelloides






Sunshine collection - this mixture of yellows and oranges will certainly stand out from the crowd in a 16 inch (40 cm) basket.

Tagetes 'Star Fire Mixed' (French Marigold)

Santvitalis procumbens (creeping zinnia)

orange pendulous Begonia x tuberhybrida


Helichrysum petiolare 'Variegatum'

orange Impatioens (busy Lizzie)

Calceolaria rugosa 'Sunshine'

Thunbergia alata (black-eyed Susan)






Brighten up a shady corner - a cheerful selection of bright colours, but water generously for good results in a 20 inch (50 cm) quarter or hay basket

silver-leaved Helichrysum petiolare

rose-pink-flowered ivy-leaved Pelargonium

'Malibu Mixed'

Pelargonium Sensation Mixed










Tone it down - bright yellow and orange are diluted by pastel shades to give a soft appearance in a 16 inch (40 cm) pot

Lobelia 'Lilac Fountain'

yellow pendulous Begonia x tuberhybrida

'Malibu Orange'

blue Petunia

Brachycome iberidifolia 'Tinkerbell'

trailing blue Verbena 'Blue Knight'

Impatiens 'Salmon Blush' (busy Lizzie)

silver Helichrysum petiolare

Bidens ferulifolia





Anything goes - a blitz of colour with no particular theme

Verbena 'Sissinghurst'

pink trailing Fuchsia

Impatiens mixed (busy Lizzie)

'Daddy Mixed'

mixed trailing Lobelia

Brachycome iberidifolia 'Tinkerbell'

Calceolaria rugosa 'Sunshine'

Bidens ferulifolia

ivy-leafed Pelargonium

Felicia amelloides

Helichrysum petiolare 'Limelight'

Cordyline australis


Uplifting colour - without hanging baskets, this display of pots would seem rather flat; however, in combination they provide a stunning 84 inch (210 cm) high extravaganza.

An abundance of blue trailing Lobelia

helps to link the Petunias at the lower level

with the ivy-leaved Pelargoniums in the baskets.

A common colour theme throughout unifies the display.










Summer Boxes and Troughs

Windowsill gardening can feature anything from tomatoes to conifers, but colourful floral dislays are always admired. Most of the designs shown in the planting ideas pages 84-87 follow a simple formula using a generous helping of trailing plants to hang over the edge. Upright plants are used towards the back and the more spreading subjects fill in between "Architectural" of "dot" plants are sometimes incorporated to add emphasis. These basic principles aside, the designs can be simple or complex as desired.

Brighten up a dull spot - Yellows and oranges certainly stand out from the crowd, blue tones down the overall effect in a 30 inch (75cm) trough.

yellow Tagetes erecta (African Marigold)

mixed Tagetes patula (French Marigold)

Bidens ferulifolia

Convolvulus mauritanicus










Tried and trusted - Three good "doers" used in a simple design of mixed colours in a 36 inch (90cm) trough.

Impatiens (busy lizzie)

Pelargonium 'Sensation Mixed'

mixed trailing Lobelia











A predominance of red and pink - Toned down with whites and a blue, this is a collection of reliable varieties in a 30 inch (75 cm) trough

mixed Begonia semperflorens (fibrous-rooted begonia)

Pelargonium 'Apple Blossom'

Lobelia erinus 'Red Cascade'

Brachycome iberidifolia

Ivy-leaved Pelargonium 'Sugar Baby'

white Petunia








Foliage finesse - Fuchsia, Tropaeolum (nasturtium) and Pelargonium (geranium). Effective displays can be created by carefully combining plants with striking leaves. Although most will produce flowers these are normally regarded as a bonus but beware, they might spoil the colour scheme or steal the show.

Golden sunshine - Brighten up even the the dullest spots with the riotous yellow of Tagetes and trailing Bidens. A red brick wall provides an ideal contrast to the flowers.










A window framed - A conventional windowbox is complemented by trelliswork at each end allowing climbing plants to furnish either side of the window from a 40 inch (100 cm) trough.

Petunia 'Express Plum'

bush Fuchsia

Lobelia 'Lilac Fountain'

white-flowered ivy-leaved Pelargonium


trailing Fuchsia

Brachycome iberidifolia

Ipomoea Rubro-caerulea 'Heavenly Blue'

Impatiens 'Salmon Blush' (busy lizzie)


A two-tiered trough - The arrangement gives the display increased height and depth to create a more striking effect than on one level. The trailing ivies in this design could be left in situ and the flowering plants changed seasonally in this pair of 36 inch (90 cm) of troughs

Salvia splendens

mixed Impatiens (busy lizzie)

Petunia 'Daddy Mixed'

Hedera helix 'Glacier' (silver-variegated ivy)

Begonia x tuberhybrida 'Non-Stop White'






Floral waterfall - Trailing fuchsia, Lobelia and Bidens lead the way in this cascade of floral delight. The trough from which they grow will be obscured very quickly.











Design for a hot spot - The plants used are more tolerant of dry compost than most - but they still need regularl watering to do well in this 40 inch (100 cm) trough.

Antirrhinum 'Floral Showers'

Pelargonium 'Sensation Mixed'

white Argy-ranthemum frutescens (marguerite)

Convolvulus mauritanicus

Sedum lineare 'Variegatum'

pink-flowered ivy-leaved Pelargonium

Bidens ferulifolia

mixed Portulaca grandiflora



Cheap and very cheerful - All these plants are grown from seed sown directly into the compost. Designs can be simple or complex as desired in a 40 inch (100 cm) trough.

mixed Calendula officinalis
(pot marigold)

Alyssum maritimum (sweet alyssum)

Tropaeolum majus 'Alaska'

Amaranthus 'Foxtails'

Nicotiana 'Domino White'

Tagetes tenuifolia 'Tangerine Gem'

Antirrhinum 'Floral Showers'

Sanvitalia procumbens (creeping zinnia)



Selected for shade - Many bedding plants will perform reasonably well in shade but this selection will do better than most, in a 30 inch (75 cm) trough.

Chlorophytum comosum 'Vittatum'
(spider plant)

Asparagus sprengeri

ivy-leaved Pelargonium

Tradescantia (wandering Jew)

Hedera (ivy)

silver-leaved Helichrysum petiolare

mixed Impatiens (busy lizzie)




A luxuriant display - this large box or raised bed features a wide variety of foliage and flowering plants blended together in a 84 x 36 inch (210 x 90 cm) container.

Canna x generalis

white Nicotiana

Lobelia cardinalis

Salvia farinacea 'Victoria'

bush Fuchsia

pink Osteo-spermum

Begonia x tuberhybrida 'Non-Stop Mixed'

trailing Verbena 'Blue Knight'

Heliotropium peruvianum (cherry pie)

Convolvulus mauritanicus

Diascia 'Ruby Field'

white Argy-ranthemum frutescens (marguerite)

Felicia amelloides

mixed Impatiens (busy lizzie)

Amaranthus 'Foxtails'

blue Plumbago capensis

Tanacetum ptarmiciflorum




Multi-tiered troughs - A number of containers is combined to create a bank of colour supplied by Alyssum, Petunia and Hedera (ivy). The display is in scale with the buildings, whereas a single run of troughs would have been too insignificant to make an impact.







Distinctive and elegant - This 156 inch (420 cm) long set of troughs makes a real impact.


mixed Impatiens (busy lizzie)

Pelargonium Sensation Mixed

mixed Petunia

trailing Fuchsia

mixed pendulous Begonia x tuberhyrbida

blue trailing Lobelia

Brachycome iberidifolia


Lotus berthelotii

Vernena 'Sissinghurst'

Calceolaria 'Sunshine'

Summer Pots, Tubs and Urns

Flower-filled pots, timber barrels and stately urns provide some of the most sumptuous of summer displays to brighten the dullest garden corner. A movable pot or urn can be found to suit nearly every situation and a planting scheme chosen to match. Tall plants will add height; place them in the centre of a free-standing container, towards the rear if it is positioned against a wall. in ornate pots trailing plants can be used sparingly so as to slightly obscure the pattern - otherwise standard containers can be virtually concealed by flowers and foliage. Timber half barrels can also be put to good use as sturdy containers for plants whose foliage and flowers show up well against the barrel's stained wood. Always ensure there are drainage holes drilled in the base of barrels before planting them up.

Architectural shapes - Urns can enhance hard features such as steps or walls.

Urn 1

A cordyline in a raised urn forms a fine silhouette against the sky

a mixture of red ivy-leaved Pelargonium and

blue trailing Verbena form the low carpet

Urn 2

white-flowered Argy-ranthemum

red ivy-leaved Pelargonium

Urn 3

Tanacetum ptarm-iciflorum (silver feather) gives height and colour contrast

Pelargonium 'Sensation'




Summer shiner - The competition created by dense planting encourages long trailing growth. The half-barrel is compeletely hidden by its own plants: Bidens, training Lobelia, Begonia and Mimulus do the job superbly. A contrast in height is provided by Abutilon, Fuchsia and Argyranthemums







A stately purple-leaved Cordyline - The cordyline is underplanted with a vigourous mixture of Vernea 'Sissinghurst' and Helichrysum petiolare whose silver foliage contrasts superbly with the pink flowers. They are of similiar vigour so neither gets swamped by the other. Use a 28 inch (70 cm) diameter tub.







Small pots with simple designs - these can be as impressive as larger displays as long as they are in scale with their surroundings.

20 inch
(50 cm) diameter pot

Tagetes 'Starfire Mixed'

Amaranthus 'Foxtails'

18 inch
(45 cm) diameter pot

variegated Pelargonium in a tight group


Contrasting foliage - The large bronze leaves of a Canna x generalis are set off against the fine blue-green foliage of Argyranthemum gracile 'Chelsea Girl' which produces only the occasional flower in a 30 inch (75 cm) diameter half barrel.







Sophisticated pot on a pedestal - This gives the opportunity to use the luxurious effect of long trailing plants. In this design a predominance of yellow is toned down by blues and white in a 20 inch (50 cm) diameter pot.

Calceolaria 'Sunshine'

Begonia x tuberhybrida 'Non-Stop Apricot'


Hedera helix 'Buttercup'
(golden-leaved ivy)

yellow pendulous Begonia x tuberhybrida


Petunia 'Light Blue'

Felicia amelloides

Phygelius aequalis 'Yellow Trumpet'

Two designs for a shady spot - All but the deepest shade will allow these 2 pots to thrive, provided the compost is kept moist. Pot 1 is a 24 inch (60 cm) diameter tub.

a tight group of Lobelia cardinalis as a centrepiece

mixed Impatiens
(busy lizzie)

silver-leaved Helichrysum petiolare

A more elaborate arrangement to brighten a dark corner with a 26 inch (65 cm) diameter tub

white Nicotiana

Begonia x tuberhybrida 'Non-Stop White'

pink Impatiens (busy lizzie)

Lysimachia nummularia 'Aurea'

white ivy-leaved Pelargonium

Mimulus 'Malibu Ivory'

mixed Begonia semperflorens

Senecio bicolor cineraria 'Silver Dust'

A well-furnished half barrel - The dark-stained wood sets off a vigorous skirt of silver-yellow Helichrysum, with a decorative display of deep blue and pink blue in a 24 inch (60 cm) diameter half barrel.

a tight central group of Salvia farinacea 'Victoria'

Brachycome 'Purple Splendour'

Impatiens 'Salmon Blush' ( busy lizzie)

variegated Helichrysum



Fuchsia centrepiece - Plenty of water will help this combination to flourish within an 18 inch (45 cm) diameter barrel

bush Fuchsia

pendulous Begonia x tuberhybrida 'Chanson Mixed'

trailing Lobelia to soften the edge
























Practical Tips - 1. Allow at least a 1 inch (2.5cm) gap between the top of the container and the top of the compost to allow water to be applied easily. 2. Remove dead flowers and seedheads; as well as tidying the plants this will also promote extra flower production. 3. Renew the top 12 inches (30 cm) of compost each spring as planting schemes are changed. 4. Ensure that the compost and containers are free-draining. 5. Use only fresh, weed-free compost. 6. Control vigorous varieties which may swamp smaller plants.















The Exotic Look

The popular definition of "exotic" conjures up images of South Sea Islands and tropical forests, although, strictly speaking, an exotic plant could be an uninspiring specimen from the Arctic.
By introducing 2 or 3 carefully chosen specimens it is well within anyone's grasp to simulate these most desirable effects, automatically associated with sunny climes. So it could be said that these are "warm" plants, as opposed to the many conifers which tend to suggest a cold, snowy mountain top.
All the plants including in the following designs have a very strong outline which helps give them their"exotic" character. For this reason, the designs are simple and use low growing plants to "set off" these shapes, rather than taller plants which would detract from them. These strong designs also make the designs most suitable to act as focal points within the garden.

Going bananas - Musa ensete (Abyssinian banana) has huge and wonderful leaves. A large container 36 x 36 inches (90 x 90 cm) supports a good sized specimen. Intermingled Helichrysum petiolare 'Lielight' and Felicia amelloides form a colourful base and soften the hard lines of the container.











The Canary Island palm (Phoenix canariensis - Slower growing than the banana but the classical palm shape is of great landscape value. Here the basal planting is white-flowered Argyranthemum frutescens (marguerite) in a 30 inch (75 cm) pot.











Large scale exotica - big container-grown Trachycarpus fortunei (Chusan palm) dominate the area and create a warm subtropical atmosphere. The scene is further enhanched by white walls and terracotta pots with white-slabbed steps leading down to the lowest level of the garden patio covered in white gravel.











Bold and upright - This Phormium tenax in a 24 inch (60 cm) pot, is set off by the blue sea of Convolvulus mauritanicus beneath.











The Chusan Palm (Trachycarpus fortunei) - has a truly exotic flavour. The underplanting of this 24 inch (60 cm) pot with the succulent Portulaca grandiflora 'Sundance' accentuates the feel of this container.











A carefully chosen group - Plants with varying growth habit and leaf texture contrast exquisitely with one another to create a sub-tropical atmosphere in this triangle of 3 24 inch (60cm) pots.

Back pot

Arundinaria murielae

Left pot

Fatsia japonica (Japanese aralia)

Front right pot

Phormium 'Dazzler'
(mountain flax)

Underplanted with Hedera helix 'Glacier'
(silver-variegated ivy)




The Oriental Influence

The Chinese and Japanese have for centuries used their gardens for contemplation and repose. We in the West have learned much from their style which has developed from using basic natural materials. Much thought, however, goes into positioning all the elements within the arrangement to give a well-balanced and meaningful display. The gardener can adjust these ingredients to reflect his or her feelings at a particular time. The gravel, for instance, which is usually used to represent water, can be raked into different patterns. The stones and plants, which may represent islands, can also be rearranged.
A careful choice of materias is vital for full effect. Look for plants, containers and stones with a particular character of their own.

A miniature oriental landscape - In a simple raised bed 120 x 72 x 10 inches (300 x 180 x 25 cm) deep the rocks provide the backbone, whele the gravel represents a stream running down into a pond. The Oki-Gata lantern leaves little doubt that this arrangement is inspired by the Orient.

Pinus parviflora 'Adcock's Dwarf'

Aucuba japonica 'Crotonifolia'

Camellia japonica

Acer palmatum

Rhododendron (azalea)

Juniperus sabina 'Tamarisci-folia'

Soleirolia soleirolii (mind your own business)




Bonsai - A style of gardening practised in Japan over many centuries. The plants are given only a very restricted root run in small, often ornate containers. Hollow rock or wood is sometimes used. Some highly prized specimens are known to be hundreds of years old but the inexperienced bonsai gardener should not be over ambitious. Care of bonsai, although not difficult, is an acquired skill. Learn your trade on smaller plants and gradually become more adventurous.











A timeless scene of the Orient - A gravel base with rocks provides the setting for a simple but meaningful display. The plants go in the corners with the Phyllostachys and Soleirolii in the same rock container (trough). The gravel river flows from the left side to the middle and bottom side with unraked gravel round the Acer and then from the river edge round from the top , the right to the bottom edge.

Acer palmatum

Pinus mugo
(mountain pine)

Phyllostachys nigra (black bamboo)

Rhododendron (azalea)

Soleirolia soleirolii
(mind your own business)






A pot of bamboo - The simple combination of Phyllostachys nigra (black bamboo) and a carefully chosen ornate pot creates an oriental atmosphere.











Ornamental pot - Pot and shrub perfectly complement each other in this attractive arraangement of horizontally branched evergreen tree which overflows the pot towards the circle of stone slabs surrounded by upended clay roof tiles and that by another circular band of the same stone slabs.











Vegetables and Herbs

To maximise on available space, it is advisable to choose edible vegetable crop varieties which can be harvested over as long a period as possible.
While herbs virtually look after themselves, the successful vegatable gardener must be prepared to supply ample water and feed, undertake pest control, and work to a programme of successional planting, in order to give continuity of cropping.
See Use as Potted Veg Outdoors Page for these plants.

Water Displays

As one of the basic needs of life, water has almost magnetic attraction to all living things. Huge waterfalls, cascades and fountains have for centuries formed magnificient central features in many a grand garden. Yet even in the smallest garden it is quite possible to experience the magical effects of water. Reflected images or the cool and refreshing feel of water are just 2 experiences offered.
Some plants are particularly fond of water and flourish when their roots are waterlogged - a characteristic which can be put to good use in the container garden.
A simple water feature accompanied by some well-chosen plants will enrich virtually any garden, whatever its size.

Focal point - An ornamental birdbath is the dominant feature in this raised water garden above the plants in the rest of the flower bed. White-flowered arum lilies thrive with their "feet" in water, while ivy softens the hard stone.











A living umbrella

The huge rhubarb-like leaves of Gunnera manicata form a marvellous spreading canopy to provide shelter from rain or sun

Myosotis palustris (water forget-me-not) spills over the edge of the large full barrel.

Both plants are lovers of moist soil so drainage from the container should be minimal.








A miniature water garden for a 16 inch (40 cm) half-barrel

Carex oshimensis 'Evergold'

Iris laevigata 'Vaiegata'

Nymphaea pygmaea 'Alba'
(miniature water lily)

Myosotis palustris (water forget-me-not)







Floating flowers - Passiflora caerulea (blue passion flower) twines around a pink-flowered Camellia within a 20 inch (50 cm) pot. The flowers of both plants resemble water lilies when floated on the water of the adjacent larger stone pool











A patio pool - Water creates a refreshing centre-piece to this split-level paved area. Container-grown plants such as white Astilbe provide a "splash" of colour, while the grasses within the pond are a perfect complement to the brick work round that pond.











Summer plunge pot - a 20 inch (50 cm) pot for standing in margins of a larger water feature such as a pond.

Canna x generalis (Indian shot)

Cyperus alternifolius
(umbrella plant)

Carex elata 'Aurea'

Myosotis palustris (water forget-me-not)

Carex oshimensis 'Evergold'






Winter and Spring Displays

"Autumn-planted designs should include bright evergreen plants to provide instant impact and form a solid framework. Some may be flowering shrubs but most winter and spring blooms will come from bedding plants and bulbs; together with the introduction of winter-flowering pansies. Some shrubs and ivies can be left in situ for several years, being equally suitable companions for the summer.
Some planting ideas on Pages 74-77:-"

Evergreen shrubs give a backbone to a display - 2 36 inch (90 cm) troughs in late winter/early spring

Skimmia japonica 'Rubella'

Hebe x franciscana 'Variegata'

Viola 'Universal Mixed'
(winter-flowering pans)

Narcissus 'February Gold' (daffodil)

Hedera helix 'Buttercup'

Tulipa 'Colour Cardinal'








Aucuba japonica 'Crotonifolia'

Hebe x franciscana 'Variegata'

Solanum capsicastrum (winter cherry)

Crocus 'Whitewell Purple'

Hedera helix 'Glacier' (silver-variegated ivy)

Viola 'Universal Red Wing' (winter-flowering pansy)

Tulipa 'Princess Irene'







A colourful yet simple urn of 20 inches (50 cm)

Chamaecyparis pisifera 'Boulevard' forms an evergreen centre-piece

Tulipa turkestanica

'Universal Orange'
(winter-flowering pansy)











Winter shiner in a 16 inch (40 cms) pot

Skimmia japonica 'Rubella' forms the centrepiece

Euonymus fortunei 'Emerald 'n' Gold' forms a bright carpet

Iris reticulata peeps through the carpet.

Tulipa 'Princess Irene'










Brimming with colour in late spring in an 18 inch (45 cm) pot

Thuja plicata 'Zebrina' gives the display height

Anemone coronaria De Caen

Primula polyantha (polyanthus)

Myosotis alpestris (forget-me-not)










A subtle blend of purple and pink in a 16 inch (40 cm) pot

Phormium 'Dazzler' (New Zealand flax) forms centre-piece

Erica carnea 'Springwood Pink' creates a low carpet

Any of a wide variety of bulbs could be included to provide colour later in the season











Busy little pots - many plants can be squeezed into a small space to provide plenty of interest through winter into spring


Narcissus (daffodil)


Hedera (ivy)


Erica (heather)








Elaborate but informal in a 40 inch (100 cm) trough

Chamaecyparis lawsoniana 'Ellwood's Gold' (golden Lawson cypress)

Skimmia japonica 'Rubella'

Hebe x franciscana 'Variegata'

Hedera helix 'Glacier' (silver-variegated ivy)

Juniperus sabina 'Tamariscifolia'

Erica carnea 'Springwood Pink'

Primula vulgaris (primrose)

Viola 'Universal Yellow' (winter-flowering pansy)

Viola 'Uiversal Blue' (winter-flowering pansy)

Hyacinthus 'Pink Pearl'

Erica carnea 'Springwood White'

Narcissus (daffodil)

Tulipa (mid-season tulip)

Muscari armeniacum (grape hyacinth)

An elaborate formal scheme in a 40 inch (100 cm) trough

Chamaecyparis lawsoniana 'Ellwood's Gold' (Golden Lawson Cypress)

Skimmia japonica 'Rubella'

Erica carnea 'Springwood Pink'

Hedera helix 'Glacier' (silver-variegated ivy)

Euonymus fortunei 'Emerald 'n' Gold'

Juniperus sabina 'Tamarisc-ifolia'

Solanum capsicastrum (winter cherry)

Viola 'Universal Light Blue' (winter-flowering pansy)

White-flowered Cyclamen persicum





Well-furnished for spring in a 20 inch (50 cm) pot

Thuja plicata 'Zebrina' at back of pot

Skimmia japonica 'Rubella'

Purple-flowered Erica (heather)

Hedera helix 'Buttercup' (ivy)

Juniperus sabina 'Tamariscifolia'

Erica carnea 'Springwood Pink'

Tulipa 'Apricot Beauty'

Euonymus fortunei 'Emerald 'n' Gold'

Cheiranthus cheiri 'Scarlet Bedder'





Substantial and imposing in an extra wide trough of 40 x 12 inch (100 x 30 cm)

Chamaecyparis lawsoniana 'Ellwood's Gold' (golden Lawson cypress)

Aucuba japonica 'Crotonifolia'

Skimmia japonica 'Rubella'

Juniperus sabina 'Tamaris-cifolia'

Euonymus fortunei 'Emerald 'n' Gold'

Iberis sempervirens (candytuft)

Rosmarinus lavand-ulaceus (prostrate rosemary)

Erica carnea 'Springwood Pink'

Hedera helix 'Glacier' (silver-variegated ivy)

Erica carnea 'Springwood White'

Solanum capsicastrum (winter cherry)

Alyssum saxatile

Narcissus 'Minnow'

Viola 'Universal Blue' (blue winter-flowering pansy)

Vinca major 'Variegata'
(variegated periwinkle)

white Hyacinthus (hyacinth)

pink Tulipa (tulip)










Massed shrubs, bulbs and bedding - heaps of colour in a king-size 32 inch (80 cm) tub

Chamaec-yparis lawsoniana 'Green Pillar' (Lawson cypress) at back of pot

Camellia 'Inspiration'

japonica 'Crotonifolia'

Hedera helix 'Glacier' (silver-variegated

Euonymus fortunei 'Emerald 'n' Gold'

Juniperus sabina 'Tamis-cifolia'

Solanum capsicastrum (winter cherry)

Erica carnea 'Springwood Pink'

Viola 'Universal Blue' (winter-flowering pansy)

Narcissus (daffodil)

Skimmia japonica 'Rubella'

Iris reticulata

Anemone coronaria

Hyacinthus 'Anne Marie'

Crocus 'Whitewell Purple'












A distinguished winter combination for a 24 inch (60 cm) tub"

Camellia reticulata 'Zaotaohung'

Skimmia japonica 'Rubella'

Coronilla glauca

Ilex aquifolium 'Handsworth New Silver' (silver holly)

Nandina domestica 'Firepower'
(dwarf sacred bamboo)

Junperus squamata 'Blue Star'

Cytisus x kewensis

Hedera helix 'Goldheart' (ivy)

Aubretia deltoidea

Erica carnea 'Springwood Pink'

Rosmarinus lavand-ulaceus (prostrate rosemary)

Viola 'Universal White' (winter-flowering pansy)

Eranthis hyemalis (winter aconite)

Anemone coronaria De Caen mixed

Narcissus (daffodil

Iris reticulata

























item1 item1 item77a1a1a item77a1a1a item84a1a1a item84a1a1a item86a1a1a item86a1a1a item88a1a1a item88a1a1a item61a1a1 item61a1a1 item96a1a1a item96a1a1a item90a1a1a item90a1a1a item63a1a1 item63a1a1 item52a1a1 item52a1a1 item104a1a1a item104a1a1a item92a1a1a item92a1a1a item54b1a item54b1a item100a1a1a item100a1a1a item106a1a1a item106a1a1a item94a1a1a item94a1a1a item56a1a1 item56a1a1 item108a1a1a item108a1a1a item67a1a1 item67a1a1 item102a1a1a item102a1a1a item58a1a1 item58a1a1 item110a1a1a item110a1a1a item44b1a item44b1a item46b1a item46b1a item48b1a item48b1a item50b1a item50b1a item116a1a1a item116a1a1a item114a1a1a item114a1a1a item112a1a1a item112a1a1a item11b1a item11b1a item40b1a item40b1a item9b1a item9b1a item34b1a item34b1a item19b1a item19b1a item38b1a item38b1a item7a1a2a item7a1a2a item27b1a item27b1a item17b1a item17b1a item36b1a item36b1a item4a1a2a item4a1a2a item25b1a item25b1a item15b1a item15b1a item29b1a item29b1a item23b1a item23b1a item13b1a item13b1a item21b1a item21b1a item1b1a1a1a1a1a item1b1a1a1a1a1a item2a2a1b1a1a item2a2a1b1a1a item33a1b1a1a1a1 item33a1b1a1a1a1 item30a1a1a1a1a item30a1a1a1a1a item31b1a1a1a1a1a item31b1a1a1a1a1a item32b1a1a1a1a1 item32b1a1a1a1a1 item36a1a1a1a1a1a item36a1a1a1a1a1a item1a1b1b1a1 item1a1b1b1a1 item1b2a1a1a1a1a1 item1b2a1a1a1a1a1 item38a1a1b1a1a1a item38a1a1b1a1a1a item37a1a1a1a1a1 item37a1a1a1a1a1 item34a1a1a1a1a1a1 item34a1a1a1a1a1a1 item35a1a1a1a1a1 item35a1a1a1a1a1 item40a1a2a1a1a1a item40a1a2a1a1a1a item45a1a1a1a1a1a1 item45a1a1a1a1a1a1 item43a1a1a1a1a1a item43a1a1a1a1a1a item44a1a1a1a1a1a item44a1a1a1a1a1a item46a1a1a2a1a item46a1a1a2a1a item47a1a1a2a1a item47a1a1a2a1a item1c1a1a1a1a item1c1a1a1a1a item1d1a1a1a1a1 item1d1a1a1a1a1 item3a1a1a1a1 item3a1a1a1a1 item32a1a1a1b1a1 item32a1a1a1b1a1 item31a1a1a1a1a item31a1a1a1a1a item49a1a1a1a1 item49a1a1a1a1 item50a1a1a1a1 item50a1a1a1a1 item52a1a2a1a item52a1a2a1a item51a1a1a1a1 item51a1a1a1a1 item11a1a1a1a1a item11a1a1a1a1a item3b1a1a1a1a1 item3b1a1a1a1a1 item1g1a1a1a1a1 item1g1a1a1a1a1 item1e1a1a1a1a1 item1e1a1a1a1a1 item1f1a1a1a1a1a item1f1a1a1a1a1a item2t1a1a1a1a item2t1a1a1a1a