Ivydene Gardens Plants:
Groundcover Plant
Name - I

The plants normally selected by most landscapers and designers are by nature low-growing, rampant, spreading, creep-crawly things and yet the concept of ground cover demands no such thing. The ideal description of a groundcover plant includes:-

  • a bold dense mass of leaves completely covering the ground most of the year; evergreens gain gold stars.
  • They should require little or no maintenance - if you have to give the plant more than its share of attention, you might as well save your money and spend the time weeding.
  • use the plant on ground areas that are difficult to maintain, such as steep banks or boggy patches.
  • use the plant to cover areas where not much will grow, such as deep shade or sandy soils.

Ground Cover a thousand beautiful plants for difficult places by John Cushnie (ISBN 1 85626 326 6) provides details of plants that fulfill the above requirements.

Using these groundcover plants in your planting scheme (either between your trees/shrubs in the border or for the whole border) will - with mulching your beds to a 4 inch depth and an irrigation system - provide you with a planted garden with far less time required for border maintenance.
Wildflower Flower Shape and Landscape Uses gallery provides Landscaping List by Use pages which include some of these ground-cover plants. Landscaping with Perennials by Emily Brown. 5th printing 1989 by Timber Press. ISBN 0-88192-063-0 provides the planting site pages for perennials, which include most plant types except Annuals and Biennials.

Plants for Ground-Cover by Graham Stuart Thomas. Published by J. M. Dent & Sons Ltd in 1970 - reprinted (with further revisions) in 1990. ISBN 0-460-12609-1. This gives details on many more ground cover plants with inclusion (in the Index) of figures denoting the Hardiness Zones for each species in the United States of America.

Plant Name

with link to page with photos and mail-order nursery in Comments Row

Type

with link to mail-order nursery in UK

Height x Spread in inches (cms)

Foliage

with link to mail-order nursery in USA

Flower Colour in Month(s).

Use Pest Control using Plants to provide a Companion Plant to aid your selected groundcover plant or deter its pests

Comments

United States Department of Agriculture Plant Hardiness Zone Map - This map of USA is based on a range of average annual minimum winter temperatures, divided into 13 of 10-degree F zones, that this plant will thrive in USA, Alaska, Hawaii and Puerto Rico. There are other Hardiness Zone Maps for the rest of the world including the one for Great Britain and Ireland of zones 7a to 10a. Zone 5-9 indicates that the minimum zone temperature this plant will grow is 5 and top minimum zone temperature is 9 - above this number is too hot or below 5 is too cold for the plant. If your zone in your area of your country is within that range or your zone number is greater, then you can grow it in your garden.

Iberis sempervirens 'Snowflake'

Evergreen Alpine below 24 inches (60 cms) in height

8 x 18
(20 x 45)

Dark Green

Snow-White
in May-June

"Evergreen Candytuft". Sub-Shrub
Full Sun
Zone 3-9
Good well-drained soil. Needs regular watering throughout the year. Old flowers should be cut away to encourage new growth.

It makes a good edging for walks and can also be used as a general small-scale cover. Try using in a rock garden or let it spill gracefully over a wall. The stems of the flowers are long enough to make bouquets.

Companions - bergenia, osmanthus, tulips, dicentra, aquilegia, alyssum, narcissus, aubretia, arabis. It is used as edger, in rock gardens, cascading over rocks and walls, or as a groundcover. Iberis sempervirens is a long-lasting cut flower.
Shear and shape lightly after blooming to stimulate new growth and maintain compactness.
Autumn trimming will result in no spring bloom.

Ilex aquifolium
'Ferox Argentea'

Evergreen Shrub above 72 inches (180 cms) in height

300 x 144 (750 x 360)

Glossy Dark Green with Cream margins

...

"Common Holly, English Holly".
Male. Native to Europe, North Africa and western Asia.
Full Sun
Zones 6-10
Deep, friable, well-drained soil with a high organic content. Water in hot, dry summers. Hollies do not like transplanting. Hollies make excellent hedges, border plants, tub plants or screens for privacy. Male and female plants must be grown together to obtain the red, yellow or black berries in summer, autumn or winter. Clusters of small, greenish-white flowers preceed them

Ilex aquifolium
'Handsworth New Silver'

Evergreen Shrub above 72 inches (180 cms) in height

300 x 180 (750 x 450)

Mid-Green with Creamy margins

White in
June

"Common Holly, English Holly". Female with Bright Red Berries.

Ilex aquifolium 'Pyramidalis'

Evergreen Shrub above 72 inches (180 cms) in height

240 x 180 (600 x 450)

Bright Green

White in
June

"Common Holly, English Holly". Female with Bright Red Berries.

Ilex crenata
'Bruns'

Evergreen Shrub 24-72 inches (60-180 cms) in height

36 x 60 (90 x 150)

Greyish Green

...

"Box-leaved Holly, Japanese Holly". Male. From Japan.
Zones 6-10

Ilex crenata
'Convexa'

Evergreen Shrub 24-72 inches (60-180 cms) in height

96 x 72 (210 x 180)

Glossy Mid to Dark Green

White in
June

"Box-leaved Holly, Japanese Holly".
Female with glossy Black berries.

Ilex crenata
'Golden Gem'

Evergreen Shrub above 72 inches (180 cms) in height

42 x 60 (105 x 150)

Golden Yellow turning Yellow-Green in Summer

White in
June

"Box-leaved Holly, Japanese Holly".
Female with Black berries.

Ilex x altaclerensis
'Golden King'

Evergreen Shrub above 72 inches (180 cms) in height

240 x 180 (600 x 450)

Mottled Grey-Green centres with broad bright Gold margins

...

"Highclere Holly". Female with a few Red berries.
Zones 6-10

Ilex x meserveae
'Blue Angel'

Evergreen Shrub above 72 inches (180 cms) in height

120 x 48 (300 x 120)

Bluish-Green

White in
June

"Blue Holly, Meserve Hybrid Holly".
Female with glossy Red fruit.
Zones 5-9

Ilex x meserveae
'Blue Prince'

Evergreen Shrub above 72 inches (180 cms) in height

120 x 48 (300 x 120)

Glossy Bright Green

...

"Blue Holly". Male

One or two holly plants together provide a striking accent anywhere in a landscape that conditions permit. When spaced 12 inches (30 cms) apart or less, hollies make excellent edgings along walks or adjacent to low stone walls. Planted closer together, they make fine hedges that can be trimmed for a more formal look.

The berries are poisonous.

Impatiens glandulifera

Annual

54 x 36 (135 x 90)

Light Green

Scented, Purple, Rose-Pink or White in
July-September

"Policeman's Helmet".

Inula helenium

Deciduous Rhizome Perennial 24-72 inches (60-180 cms) in height

48 x 36 (120 x 90)

Mid-Green

Bright Yellow in
August-September

"Elecampane". Needs plenty of space in a large border or informal area.
Full Sun
Zone 4-8
Deep, rich, moisture-retentive soil

Inula companions - ligularia, iris pseudacorus, trollius, acontum, potentilla recta 'Sulphurea', sanguisorba, filipendula ulmaria, carex elata, miscanthus sinensis. They make a good cut flower but must be handled carefully - their petals are very delicate. Provide heavy mulch of organic matter in winter and do not let them dry out in the summer or they get powdery mildew

Iris foetidissima

Evergreen Rhizome 24-72 inches (60-180 cms) in height

24 x 6
(60 x 15)

Dark Green

Purple tinged with Yellow in June-July

"Stinking Iris". Beardless - Large seedpods with orange seeds, self-sows and vigorous. Nativw to countries around the western Mediterranean, and North Africa.
Part Shade
Zone 6-9
Well-draining soil.

Iris companions - meconopsis, primula, hosta, aquilegia, paeonia, helleborus orientalis, ligularia, camassia. Slugs are always a problem for irises; Slugs are deterred by Lithocarpus densiflorus, rosemarinus officinalis, helleborus niger, artemesia absinthum, or artemesia frigida (see Pest Control
using Plants
). Snails can also present problems and they are deterred by borago officinalis, anthriscus cerefolium, hyssopus officinalis, urtica dioca, thymus vulgaris, artemisia absinthum and artemisia frigida.

Iris pseudacorus

Deciduous Rhizome Perennial 24-72 inches (60-180 cms) in height

60 x 12 (150 x 30)

Grey-Green

Yellow in
August-September

"Yellow Flag, french Flag - fleur-de-lis". self-sows, vigorous, spreader, will grow in water
Full Sun, Part Shade
Zone 4-9
Planted in water as a marginal aquatic, but also thrives in moist soil. Cn be invasive and is classed as a noxious weed in the northeast USA. Comes from Europe, west Russia and North Africa.

Iris sibirica

Deciduous Rhizome Perennial 24-72 inches (60-180 cms) in height

36 x 12 (90 x 30)

Green

Blue-Purple in
July

"Siberian Iris". Very adaptable with dark brown seedpods.
Full Sun, Part Shade
Zone 4-9
Moist soil

Isatis tinctoria

Biennial 24-72 inches (60-180 cms) in height

36 x 18 (90 x 45)

Grey-Green

Yellow in
July

"Woad".

Itea ilicofolia

Evergreen Shrub above 72 inches (180 cms) in height

120 x 120 (300 x 300)

Glossy Dark Green

Greenish catkins in
August-October

"Holly Sweetspire". From western China. Arching branches.
Part Shade
Zones 7-10
Moist, deep, rich soil

Itea yunnaniensis

Deciduous Shrub above 72 inches (180 cms) in height

144 x 120 (360 x 300)

Glossy Dark Green

White in
September-October

 

 

Height in inches (cms):-

25.4mm = 1 inch
304.8mm = 12 inches
12 inches = 1 foot
3 feet = 1 yard
914.4mm = 1 yard

I normally round this to
25mm = 1 inch
300mm = 30 cms = 12 inches
=1 foot,
900 mm = 3 feet = 1 yard and
1000mm = 100 cms = 1 metre
= 40 inches

 

Site design and content copyright ©December 2006. Page structure changed September 2012. Height x Spread in feet changed to Height x Spread in inches (cms) May 2015. Data added to existing pages December 2017. Zone and Companion Data added April 2022. Chris Garnons-Williams.

DISCLAIMER: Links to external sites are provided as a courtesy to visitors. Ivydene Horticultural Services are not responsible for the content and/or quality of external web sites linked from this site.  

Details of smaller Iberis, Ilex and Iris and which container to grow the plant in:-

  • A. The plant can be grown in sinks, trough, pans or scree beds
  • B. The plant is best accommodated in a trough or sink.
  • C. Suitable for peat beds and raised beds (suitable for alpine rhododendrons)

 

 

Light Sandy Soil is usually fairly infertile, and it also dries out quickly. In such cases, use drought-tolerant plants, such as ones that grow in dry soil conditions (see plants in the Dry section of the Moisture column of the soil type, aspect and moisture list page) and also do the following actions, since any nutrients in the soil are usually washed out very quickly.

Acid soil is most common in places that experience heavy rainfall and have moister environments. Areas in red have acidic soil, areas in yellow are neutral and areas in blue have alkaline soil in the World Map. Find Me Plants has further details on other plants for acidic soils, when you set Soil Type in Part 1: Surveying the planting area to Sandy/Gritty, or Light Sand or Stony/Sub-Soil.

Action to assist in Light Sandy soil maintenance:-

  • Mulch the beds with a 4 inch (100mm) deep layer of Spent Mushroom Compost to improve fertility and drainage; preferably in the Autumn in between the existing plants, and top it up each year after that with a Bark Mulch instead (available from garden centres or Gardenscape). This will stop the Light Sandy soil from drying out through the action of sun and wind on its surface, and to provide carbon to aid in soil formation and fertility. Adding clay in water solution as a spray will also greater improve the soil structure.
  • If starting a new lawn or bed, add the 4 inch layer of Spent Mushroom Compost mulch and rotovate that in. If you also add an inch deep of clay, before rotovating that in as well, then that will provide part of the glue in creating a better soil from the sand. Heel and rake the ground for a new turf (or to be seeded) lawn, before laying or seeding it. Insert plants in new bed, before installing the irrigation system and then applying a 4 inch layer of this mulch on top of it.
  • Spread 5Kg of Dolodust (Dolomitic Lime), with 2Kg of Maxicrop Seaweed Meal over a 25 square yard or 25 square metre lawn area, each April. This will improve the fertility of the lawn by providing calcium and the trace elements (See What is Soil Texture Page and How are chemicals stored and released from soil Page in the Soil Section for further details). Spreading the same amount of Dolomitic Lime and Maxicrop Seaweed Meal on the flower/vegetable beds at the same time would also be beneficial.


Sources of further information:-

  • Notcutts Catalogue of 1994 - retail catalogue of their plants for sale. It has Plants for a Purpose pages including one on Light sandy dry soil including trees for gravel workings.
     
  • The Royal Horticultural Society Gardeners' Encyclopedia of Plants and Flowers. Editor-in-Chief Christopher Brickell. Published by Dorling Kindsley Limited. Reprinted and updated 1990, 2/1990, 3/1990. ISBN 0-86318-386-7. The Planter's Guide suggests lists of plants that are suitable for growing in particular situations, or that have special uses or characteristics including Plants for Sandy Soil.
     

Gardening in Sandy Soil by C.L. Fornari. A very useful book and one you can have on a Kindle in December 2017. A Storey Country Wisdom Bulletin with this Index:-

  • The benefits of Sandy Soil
    • Drainage
    • Root Penetration
    • Air Circulation
    • Digging
  • The disadvantages of gardening in sand
    • Rapid water loss
    • Nutrient loss
  • Strategies for Success: using amendmentss
    • Soil amendments
    • Green amendments
    • Amending new beds
    • Amending established beds
  • Fertilizing
  • Mulch
    • Mulching materials
    • How much mulch
    • Problems with mulch
  • Choosing plants
    • Sandy soils and pH
    • Moisture-loving plants in sandy soil
    • Vegetables in sandy soil
  • Plants for sandy soils - I have bought the book and read it, but unfortunately I have not added its recommended plants.
    I would at least recommend that its list is carefully looked at by the Americans; for whom it was written.
    • Ground covers and Grasses
    • Annuals
    • Perennials
    • Shrubs and Trees

Action to assist in other soil types in:-

 

The following is from "A land of Soil, Milk and Honey" by Bernard Jarman in Star & Furrow Issue 122 January 2015 - Journal of the Biodynamic Association;_

"Soil is created in the first place through the activity of countlesss micro-organisms, earthworms and especially the garden worm (Lumbricus terrestris). This species is noticeably active in the period immediately before and immediately after mid-winter. In December we find it (in the UK) drawing large numbers of autumn leaves down into the soil. Worms consume all kinds of plant material along with sand and mineral substances. In form, they live as a pure digestive tract. The worm casts excreted from their bodies form the basis of a well-structured soil with an increased level of available plant nutrients:-

  • 5% more nitrogen,
  • 7% more phosphorous and
  • 11% more potasium than the surrounding topsoil.

Worms also burrow to great depths and open up the soil for air and water to penetrate, increasing the scope of a fertile soil.

After the earthworm, the most important helper of the biodynamic farmer is undoubetdly

  • the cow. A cow's digestive system is designed to make use of roughage such as grass and hay. Cow manure is arguably the most effective and long lasting of all the fertilizing agents at the farmer's disposal and has been found to have a carry over effect of at least 4 years. It is also one of the most balanced and it contains no grass seeds, since they have been completely digested.
  • Pig manure is rich in potassium, attractive to earthworms and beneficial on sandy soils.
  • Horse manure increases soil activity and stimulates strong healthy growth, but it does contain grass seed and other seeds."
     

Plant Combinations for Sandy Soil

Action to assist in Light Sandy soil maintenance is given in the row above and this is required annually.

Plants

Comments

Sun lovers - You can achieve a design with grey-leaved plants, interspersed with smaller or larger groups of taller perennials and a single shrub. Because the grey-leaved plants predominate they are used as a basis, with suggestions for plants which can be combined with them.

Grey Foliage with white and yellow flowers and plants that combine with these

  • Yarrow (Achillea chrysocoma),
  • pearl everlasting (Anaphalis),
  • mouse ear (Cerastium),
  • Raoulia,
  • catchfly (Silene uniflora 'Robin Whitebreast') and the
  • bunnies' ears (Stachys byzantina 'Silver Carpet')

all have grey leaves and either white, yellow or inconspicuous flowers.

If the above plants are planted together; the effect of different heights and size of leaf will be rather messy and unclear. Plant the above as the background ground cover and the ones in the next column within that background.

  • Acaena buchanii and Acaena magellanica being silver-leaved species of the pirri-pirri-bur form pretty vigorous ground cover. Add a few groups of grey-leaved grasses for their contrasting shape to make an interesting picture. The ground-covering Festuca glauca and Koeleria glauca are especially suitable, to which can be added the tall, also grey-leafed blue oat grass Helictotrichon sempervirens, for a striking feature.
  • Gypsophila, with its delicate flowers, can best be planted next to a plant which has a strong leaf structure, for example Geranium renardii.
  • For a taller feature among the grey-leafed ground cover you can choose one of the beautiful cultivars of the common German flag, Iris germanica. The tall, sword-shaped leaves which are grey-green, stand out very well here.
  • The Yucca has a similar structure, forming a stout clump of leaves with tall sprays of white flowers.
  • The tall mulleins, especially Verbascum bombyciferum, with splendid rosettes of grey, felty leaves and yellow flowers like huge torches that can easily reach 60 inches (150 cms), a real must.
  • Annuals that deserve a place in this predominantly grey planting include Gazania pinnata with yellow flowers and the white Senecio cineraria.

The above comes from Ground Cover. How to use flowering and foliage plants to cover areas of soil by Mineke Kurpershoek. Published by Rebo Productions Ltd in 1997. ISBN 1 901094 41 3

Contents

  • Chapter 1 What are ground-cover plants?
  • Chapter 2 Plant combinations for normal garden soil
  • Chapter 3 Plant combinations for sandy soil
  • Chapter 4 Plant combinations for clay soil
  • Chapter 5 Woodland, heaths and wet soil
  • Chapter 6 Shrubs for slopes and large beds
  • Chapter 7 The A to Z of plants for ground cover.
     

 

 

The Indoor Culture of Bulbs in unheated Greenhouse from early autumn to the spring.
"How much better it would be to devote the bulding, at any rate in winter, to those quite hardy or almost hardy bulbous plants which will bloom to perfection, and considerably earlier than out of doors with the shelter that such a greenhouse affords.

A house can be furnished best in this way by potting up a selection of carefully chosen bulbs in pots of varying sizes in early autumn in a compost consisting of 3 parts fibrous loam, 1 part leaf mould, and 1 part silver sand, carefully and thoroughly mixed together. Be sure that there is plenty of drainage. Fill the pots to within 1 inch (2.5 cm) of the rim with the mixture, and press the bulbs firmly into it. They should not be quite covered - Cotter likes to see the top exposed.

The potted bulbs should be stood in cool ashes in some sheltered place out of doors - like a coldframe with its top removed - until plenty of root growth is made. They may then, as soon as the top growth commences, be removed to the greenhouse, where they will require no further attention beyond watering.

If you are in possession of some ferns, so much the better. With their assistance a really beautiful effect in staging can be obtained - see which ones in the second table on the right.

There are a vast number of bulbs that can be grown in this manner. Here are some families of the best known varieties - sufficient to fill any structure:-

  • Bulbocodium - Spring Meadow Saffron.
    Its rosy purple funnel-shaped flowers commence to appear as early as January and remain to give their company to the Snowdrops. Afterwrds the leaves appear. Any good garden soil, and a position in the sun or shade will suit the Bulbocodiums. Plant in full sun within the greenhouse, since the amount of sunlight is 100% outside but only 90% inside the greenhouse. They should be planted in September or October, 4 inches (10 cms) deep in the garden in large colonies, and may be unleft undistturbed for some years. Slugs are very fond of the young growths, so use Pest Control using Plants to provide a Companion Plant to aid your selected groundcover plant or deter its pests.
  • Chionodoxa - Glory of the Snow.
    They will thrive in any good garden soil, and in any position, even under trees. To obtain the full benefit of their brilliant blue starry flowers, they should be planted in hundreds and thousands as possible. A very fine effect is obtained by carpeting the ground with Chionodoxas where bulbs such as Narcissi are naturalized in grass. September is the ideal month for planting these bulbs if an early display is the object in view for the garden; otherwise they may be planted right up to November and December without any detriment.
    For indoor culture 12 bulbs may be planted in a 4 inch (10cm) pot in a compost consisting of equal parts peat, loam, leaf mould and sand. September is the best month for potting. Ordinary cold greenhouse methods should be carried out. Chionodoxas may be propagated by seeds or offsets.
  • Spring Crocuses.
    It is equally adaptable for culture out of doors in beds, edgings, or naturalised in grass, or for pots, bowls, and similar receptacles indoors.
    When grown outdoors, any well-drained soil will prove suitable. Those varieties which flower in the spring should be planted in October and November, while autumn varieties should be planted in August and September. The larger the masses in which Crocuses are planted the more effective will be the result.
    For indoor culture a light sandy soil is the most suitable, or the corms may be forced in coconut fibre. October, November and December are the best months for potting, and the future treatment is that recomended for all hardy or cold greenhouse bulbous plants and tubers, plunge the pots in ashes out of doors until growth has commenced, then remove to their flowering quarters. Water may be applied freely while plants are in full growth, but must be discontinued after the flowers fade.
    Crocus corms that have been forced are not suitable for cultivation indoors a second season, and should be planted out in the shrub bed, where they will in due course recover.
  • Erythronium - Dog's Tooth Violet'.
    They bear yellow, pink, purple and white blossoms in March and April.
    They will succeed in any good well drained garden soil, but the ideal compost is equal parts loam, peat, leaf mould and sand. The bulbs should be planted in August in a shady position in beds, rock gardens, edgings or under trees. Once planted, they need not be disturbed for many years.
    For indoor culture the bulbs should be planted 1 inch (2.5 cm) deep and half an inch (1.25 cm) apart in pots in August in the same compost as that recommended for outdoor cultivation. The pots should be placed in a cold frame, watered very little until February, and then placed in a sunny window to flower in March. Propagation is best effected by means of offsets in August.
  • Fritillaria -Fritillary, Crown Imperial, Chequered Daffodil, Snake's Head, Persian Lily.
    The 2 members of the genus most suitable for ordinary cultivation are Fritillaria imperialis and Fritillaria meleagris.
    Fritillarias do well in any good rich garden soil, but although classed as hardy bulbs it is advisable, except in the most southern parts of England and Ireland, to choose a site for them which is dry and well sheltered, such as the base of south and west walls. They appreciate shade, which fact should be borne in mind when choosing a site for them. The bulbs should be planted from September to November 4 inches (10 cms) deep and 6 inches (15 cms) apart, and may be left undisturbed for 3 or 4 years.
    For indoor culture a composition of equal parts of loam, peat, leaf mould and sand has been found to be the most suitable. The pots may be potted from September to October in pots, varying according to the size of the bulbs, from 6 to 8 inches (15-20 cms). Very little water should be given until growth is well advanced, and then only moderately. As soon as the foliage begins to die down, water should be gradually withheld until the soil is quite dry.
  • Galanthus nivalis - Snowdrop.
    For cultivation out of doors, any good ordinary soil will satisfy the Snowdrop, nor is it at all particular as to situation, though it prefers shade to full sunlight. It looks particularly well massed in large colonies in the grass under trees in the lawn or park. The bulbs should be planted 2 inches (5cm) deep and 1 inch (2.5cm) apart from September to December, and need not be again disturbed unless they show signs of deterioration.
    The Snowdrop is particularly well adapted for culture indoors, either in bowls or pots, in soil or coconut fibre. When soil is the medium chosen, the most suitable has been found to one consisting or 2 parts ordinary soil, one part leaf mould and sand. Potting should be carried out from September to November placing the blbs 1 inch (2.5 cms) deep and 1 inch apart in the chosen receptacle. The pots should then be placed in a cold frame, plunged in ashes or fibre until growth has well commenced, when they may be removed to the cold greenhouse and flowered there, or forced in a warmer temperature. After flowering, water should be gradually withheld until the foliage has completely died down, when the bulbs may be planted out of doors in some out of the way place to recover for a couple of years.
  • Hyacinthus - Hyacinth.
    See bottom row of Plant Name H Page.
  • Muscari - Grape Hyacinth.
    All the varieties of the Muscari thrive in any good rich soil and in any position, but nowhere Cotter thinks that they are seen to better advantage as when planted in large colonies on some grassy bank or in the lawn.The bulbs may be planted from August to November, 2 inches (5 cms) deep and 1 inch (2.5 cms) apart and need not be disturbed for 3 or 4 years, when they should be lifted and divided.
    Cultivated in pots, bowls or pans, Grape Hyacinths help to add considerably to the decoration of the conservatory. They should be potted from August to November in a compost consisting of 2 parts sandy loam, 1 part leaf mould and 1 part coarse sand, and given ordinary cold greenhouse treatment. After the foliage fades, the bulbs should be gradually dried off, and should not be grown indoors a second season.
  • Leucojum - Snowflake, Summer Snowdrop.
    Flowering in February and May, with the exception of Leucojum autumnalis which flowers in October. Their flowers give forth an intensely sweet perfume. Any rich ordinary soil suits them to perfection, and they are very accommodating with regard to position, thriving equally well in either the open border (edge) or shady shrub beds. The bulbs should be planted 4 inches (10 cm) deep and 3 inches (7.5 cm) apart from August to November, and need not be disturbed for several years.
  • Narcissus of many sorts - Daffodil.
    See culture of bulbs in a greenhouse at the top of this table cell.
  • Puschkinia - Striped Squill.
    These little plants may be grown in any good light, ordinary soil, preferably of a sandy nature. A warm sheltered position should be chosen, and the bulbs be planted 3 inches (7.5 cm) deep in September or October; on no account should the work be deferred after October. Once planted the bulbs need not be disturbed for 3 years.
  • Freesia -- Freezia.
    They have sweet scented flowers from May until August. They are very good for greenhouse and indoor decoration. For outdoor culture - in the warmest areas of southern England - any light rich sandy soil will suffice, and the bulbs should be planted 2 inches (5cm) deep and 2 inches apart in August and September.
    In the case of indoor culture, the bulbs should be planted as soon as possible in August and from then on in fortnightly batches until the end of September. Cotter always grew his Freesias in this manner, and thereby ensured a good succession from Christmas onwards for some weeks. 5 inch (12.5 cm) pots are the most suitable, and some 6-8 bulbs may be planted in a pot in a compost consisting of 2 parts sandy loam, 1 part leaf mould, 1 part decayed manure, and a liberal admixture of silver sand. In the case of very small or young bulbs as many as 12 may be planted in each pot.
    After potting, the bulbs should be plunged in a cold frame in ashes or fibre refuse until growth commences, which will usually be in about a month. Water should be given sparingly at first, but as soon as growth is really active these plants like an abundant supply. As soon as the buds begin to form; weak liquid manure may be given once a month. As the flowers fade water should be gradually withheld, and the bulbs permitted to ripen off. When the foliage has quite died down the pots should be stood on their sides in full on some temporary shelf erected near the roof of the greenhouse or some similar structure in order to allow the bulbs to receive a thorough roasting. Cotter feels sure that this is one of the most essential points in connection with the culture of Freesias. The bulbs may be left in the pots until August, then shaken out and carefully sorted, the largest being planted together to supply the coming season's bloom, the smaller grown on to form bulbs for the coming season.
  • Scilla - Squill.
    Greenhouse and hardy bulbous plants flowering in April and May. The best known variety of the hardy varieties is the Common Bluebell. Any soil and position will suit all the hardy varieties. Scillas can be naturalised in large colonies in grass and in woodlands. The bulbs may be planted from August to November, 4 inches (10 cm) deep and 2 inches (5 cm) apart. Scilla Amoena, although classed among the hardy varieties, prefers a warm sheltered position. A sheltered sunny nook on a rock garden is an ideal situation for this plant.
    The half-hardy varieties had better be grown indoors, potting up the bulbs from August to December in a compost consisting of 2 parts sandy loam, 1 part decayed manure and sand. The pots should be plunged in a cold frame until growth has well advanced, and may then be removed to the cool greenhouse. Water may be given freely during the period of growth, but should be discontinued as soon as the flowers fade.
  • Sternbergia - Winter Daffodil, Yellow Star Flower.
    Hardy bulbous plant flowering in October. The bulbs may be planted in any good, rich sandy soil in October or November, and when the climate is equable will require no protection whatever. In cold districts a little organic plant litter is advisable as a protection, or the covering of the soil with some close growing saxifrage.
  • certain Irises - The 2 best known varieties are the Spanish Iris - Iris Xiphium - and the English Iris - Iris Xiphioides or Iris latifolia.
    Bulbous Irises should be planted as soon as they can be purchased, usually in the latter part of August or early in September. Cotter considers this a very important factor towards success. The English variety thrive in any good garden soil, and in any situation. They should be planted from 2-3 inches (5-7.5 cm) deep, according to the size of the bulbs, and about 6 inches (15 cms) apart. To obtain the best advantage they should be planted in large colonies.
    The Spanish variety are very similar in every respect to the English. They are earler blooming. Cotter planted English and Spanish Irises in the same bed placing the bulbs alternatively, obtaining by this means a brilliant show lasting for several weeks. Spanish Irises rather prefer a more porous soil than the English variety, and like a sunny position.
    The various other kinds of bulbous Irises will do well in any good garden soil, but they all like sand.
    For cultivation indoors of bulbous Irises, a compost consisting of equal parts light loam, leaf mould and silver sand, has been found to give the most satisfactory results. The number of bulbs to a pot must be determined by their size, but it has been found that usually 5 bulbs can be comfortably accommodated in a 5-inch (12.5 cm) pot. The pots should be placed in a cold frame until growth is well under way, then they may be removed to the cold greenhouse or left to flower in a frame. It is a pity to take them to the conservatory or any warmer temperature, as the period of their florescence is greatly curtailed. Water may be given in moderation when growth has commenced, and should be withheld as soon as the leaves begin to decay.
  • Tulipa - the majority of Tulips
    Read How to grow Tulips by Sarah Raven for cultivation instructions.
    "Manuring
    Tulips like a rich soil, but like other bulbs are intolerant of actual contact with manure. Sir Cotter after the initial preparation of ground never previously devoted to bulb culture, never used farmyard manure. He used bone meal as his chief stand by, used at the rate of a double handful to the square yard. When the soil was very deficient in lime he used basic slag as an autumn dressing, or superphosphate of lime as a spring one, applied at the same rates.
    Plant Combination
    It would not perhaps be out of place here to mention one way in which Sir J.L. Cotter utilised both Daffodils and Tulips, where a spring show of bloom and a summer one as well had to be maintained, and at the same time an eye on economy. In front of a house where Sir Cotter resided some years ago, there were several large beds which always caused a considerable amount of difficulty, and no little expense, to keep in constant or nearly continuous bloom. Finally he hit on the plan of planting them out with dwarf polyantha roses, one variety to a bed, 9 inches (23 cms) apart, and in the intervening spaces Daffodils or Tulips , chosen so that all the beds were in flower, the roses were pruned so closely to the ground as to be quite unnoticeable. Afterwards, when the bulbs were over, the roses had attained their full size of 12 inches (30 cms) or more, and closely covering the beds with their foliage, completely hid the dying leaves of the bulbs. The beds are in bloom for practically the whole season. There is a vast economy in labour." from The Culture of Bulbs, Bulbous Plants and Tubers Made Plain by Sir J. L. Cotter. Published by Hutchinson & Co.
  • and Tecophilaea - Chilean Crocus.
    Half-hardy bulbous plants, natives of Chile, flowering in spring with strong sweet perfume. In the milder parts of the UK it may be planted out of doors in well drained sandy soil from August to November, and afforded some protection in the form of ashes or organic plant litter during the winter months.
    For indoor cultivation the bubs may be potted from August to October in a compost consisting of equal parts sandy loam, sand, and decayed cow manure, and should be plunged in a cold frame until growth commences, after which they may be removed to the cold greenhouse. No artificial heat should be admitted to these subjects. Water may be given in moderation until the foliage turns yellow and then be discontinued until growth recommences.

" from The Culture of Bulbs, Bulbous Plants and Tubers Made Plain by Sir J. L. Cotter. Published by Hutchinson & Co.

PLANTS PAGE
MENU
Introduction
Site Map
 

PLANT USE
Plant Selection
Level 1
Bee Forage Plants
Attracts Bird/Butterfly
Photos - Butterfly

Bee Pollinated Plants for Hay Fever Sufferers
0-24 inches
(0-60 cms)
24-72 inches
(60-180 cms)
Above 72 inches
(180 cms)
Photos - Bloom per Month
Blooms Nov-Feb
Blooms Mar-May
Blooms Jun-Aug 1, 2
Blooms Sep-Oct
 

Poisonous Cultivated and UK Wildflower Plants with Photos
or
Cultivated Poisonous Plants

or
Wildflower Poisonous Plants


Rabbit-Resistant Plant
Flower Arranging
Wildflower
Photos - Wildflowers

 


PLANTS FOR SOIL
Plant Selection
Level 2
Info - Any Soil
Any Soil A-F
Any Soil G-L
Any Soil M-R
Any Soil S-Z

Info
- Chalky Soil
Chalky Soil A-F 1
Chalky Soil A-F 2
Chalky Soil A-F 3
Chalky Soil G-L
Chalky Soil M-R
Chalky Soil Roses
Chalky Soil S-Z
Chalky Soil Other

Info - Clay Soil
Clay Soil A-F
Clay Soil G-L
Clay Soil M-R
Clay Soil S-Z
Clay Soil Other

Info - Lime-Free (Acid) Soil
Lime-Free (Acid) A-F 1
Lime-Free (Acid) A-F 2
Lime-Free (Acid) A-F 3
Lime-Free (Acid) G-L
Lime-Free (Acid) M-R
Lime-Free (Acid) S-Z

Info - Sandy Soil
Sandy Soil A-F 1
Sandy Soil A-F 2
Sandy Soil A-F 3
Sandy Soil G-L
Sandy Soil M-R
Sandy Soil S-Z

Info - Peaty Soils
Peaty Soil A-F
Peaty Soil G-L
Peaty Soil M-R
Peaty Soil S-Z

Following parts of Level 2a,
Level 2b,
Level 2c and
Level 2d are included in separate columns
together with
Acid Soil,
Alkaline Soil,
Any Soil,
Height and Spread,
Flowering Months and
Flower Colour in their Columns,
and also
Companion Plants to aid this plant Page,
Alpine Plant for Rock Garden Index Page
Native to UK WildFlower Plant in its Family Page in this website

and/or
Level 2cc
in the Comment Column
within each
of the Soil Type Pages of
Level 2

Explanation of Structure of this Website with User Guidelines Page for those photo galleries with Photos (of either ones I have taken myself or others which have been loaned only for use on this website from external sources)

PLANTS PAGE MENU

Plant Selection by Plant Requirements
Level 2a
Sun aspect, Moisture


Plant Selection by Form
Level 2b
Tree Growth Shape
Columnar
Oval
Rounded / Spherical
Flattened Spherical
Narrow Conical
Broad Pyramidal
Ovoid / Egg
Broad Ovoid
Narrow Vase
Fan
Broad Fan
Narrow Weeping
Broad Weeping
Single-stem Palm
Multi-stem Palm
Shrub/Perennial Growth Habit
Mat
Prostrate / Trailing
Cushion / Mound
Spreading / Creeping
Clump
Stemless
Erect or Upright
Climbing
Arching


Plant Selection by Garden Use
Level 2c
Bedding
Photos - Bedding
Bog Garden
Coastal Conditions
Containers in Garden
Front of Border
Edibles in Containers
Hanging Basket
Hedge
Photos - Hedging
Pollution Barrier 1, 2
Rest of Border
Rock Garden
Photos - Rock Garden
Thorny Hedge
Windbreak
Woodland


Plant Selection by Garden Use
Level 2cc Others
Aquatic
Back of Shady Border
Crevice Garden
Desert Garden
Raised Bed
Scree Bed
Specimen Plant
Trees for Lawns
Trees for Small Garden
Wildflower
Photos - Wildflowers


Plant Selection by Plant Type
Level 2d
Alpine
Photos - Evergr Per
Photos - Herbac Per
Photos - RHS Herbac
Photos - Rock Garden
Annual
Bamboo
Photos - Bamboo
Biennial

Bulb
Photos - Bulb
Climber
Photos - Climber
Conifer
Deciduous Rhizome
Deciduous Shrub
Photos - Decid Shrub
Evergreen Perennial
Photos - Evergr Per

Evergreen Shrub
0-24 inches 1, 2, 3
24-72 inches 1, 2, 3
Above 72 inches 1, 2

Semi-Evergreen Shrub
Photos - Evergr Shrub
Fern
Photos - Fern
Fruit Plant
Grass
Herb
Herbaceous Perennial
Photos - Herbac Per
Remaining Top Fruit
Soft Fruit
Sub-Shrub
Top Fruit
Tuber
Vegetable
Photos - Vegetable

 

Photos - with its link; provides a link to its respective Plant Photo Gallery in this website to provide comparison photos.
Click on required comparison page and then centre of selected plant thumbnail. Further details on that plant will be shown in a separate Plant Description webpage.
Usually the Available from Mail Order Plant Nursery link will link you to the relevant page on that website.
I started this website in 2005 - it is possible that those particular links no longer connect, so you may need to search for that plant instead.

When I started, a click on the centre of the thumbnail ADDED the Plant Description Page, now I CHANGE the page instead. Mobile phones do not allow ADDING a page, whereas stand alone computers do. The User Guidelines Page shows which Plant Photo Galleries have been modified to CHANGE rather than ADD.

PLANTS PAGE MENU

REFINING SELECTION
Plant Selection by
Flower Colour
Level 3a

Blue Flowers
Photos -
Bedding
Bulb
Climber
Evergr Per
Evergr Shrub
Wild Flower

Orange Flowers
Photos -
Bedding
Wild Flower

Other Colour Flowers
Photos -
Bedding
Bulb
Climber
Evergr Per
Evergr Shrub
Wild Flower

Red Flowers
Photos -
Bedding
Bulb
Climber
Decid Shrub
Evergr Per
Evergr Shrub
Herbac Per
Rose
Wild Flower

White Flowers
Photos -
Bedding
Bulb
Climber
Decid Shrub
Decid Tree
Evergr Per
Evergr Shrub
Herbac Per
Rose
Wild Flower

Yellow Flowers
Photos -
Bedding
Bulb
Climber
Decid Shrub
Evergr Per
Evergr Shrub
Herbac Per
Rose
Wild Flower


Photos - 53 Colours in its Colour Wheel Gallery

Photos - 12 Flower Colours per Month in its Bloom Colour Wheel Gallery


Plant Selection by Flower Shape
Level 3b

Photos -
Bedding
Evergr Per
Herbac Per


Plant Selection by Foliage Colour
Level 3c

Aromatic Foliage
Finely Cut Leaves
Large Leaves
Other
Non-Green Foliage 1
Non-Green Foliage 2
Sword-shaped Leaves


PRUNING
Plant Selection by Pruning Requirements
Level 4

Pruning Plants


GROUNDCOVER PLANT DETAIL
Plant Selection Level 5

Plant Name - A from Ground Cover a thousand beautiful plants for difficult places by John Cushnie
ISBN 1 85626 326 6

Plant Name - B
Plant Name - C
Plant Name - D with Ground Cover. How to use flowering and foliage plants to cover areas of soil by Mineke Kurpershoek.
ISBN 1 901094 41 3
Plant combinations for normal garden soil.
Plant combinations for sandy soil.
Plant combinations for clay soil.
Plant combinations for Woodland, heaths and wet soil.
Shrubs for slopes and large beds.

Plant Name - E
Plant Name - F
Plant Name - G
Plant Name - H
Plant Name - I How about using staging in your unheated greenhouse and stock it with bulbs and ferns for looking at from the house from autumn to spring, before using it for salads during the spring/summer from The Culture of Bulbs, Bulbous Plants and Tubers Made Plain by Sir J. L. Cotter.
Plant Name - J
Plant Name - K
Plant Name - L If you have no garden but only a concrete or tarmac area why not use 1 of the 8 Garden on a Roll garden borders and then maintain your garden using their Maintaining your border instructions.
Plant Name - M Importance of providing a mulch with the ground cover
Plant Name - N
Plant Name - O
Plant Name - P
Plant Name - Q
Plant Name - R
Plant Name - S
Plant Name - T
Plant Name - U
Plant Name - V
Plant Name - W
Plant Name - XYZ with 14 Special Situations. Ground cover plants for:-
1 Dry Shade
2 Damp Shade
3 Full Sun
4 Banks and Terraces
5 Woodland
6 Alkaline Sites
7 Acid Sites
8 Heavy Clay Soil
9 Dry Sandy Soil
10 Exposed Sites
11 Under Hedges
12 Patios and Paths
13 Formal Gardens
14 Swimming Pools and Tennis Courts
Why grass/lawn should never be used as a groundcover
and
Why seaweed is a necessary ingredient for gardens

Groundcover Height
0-24 inches
(0-60 cms)
1,2,3
24-72 inches
(60-180 cms)
4,5,6
Above 72 inches
(180 cms)
7


Then, finally use
COMPANION PLANTING to

aid your plant selected or to
deter Pests
Plant Selection Level 6

 

To locate mail-order nursery for plants from the UK in this gallery try using search in RHS Find a Plant.

To locate plants in the European Union (EU) try using Search Term in Gardens4You and Meilland Richardier in France.

To locate mail-order nursery for plants from America in this gallery try using search in Plant Lust.

To locate plant information in Australia try using Plant Finder in Gardening Australia.

To see what plants that I have described in this website see
Plant Botanical Index
...A, B, C, D, E,
...F, G, H, I, J, K,
...L, M, N, O, P, Q,
...R, S, T, U, V, W,
...X, Y, Z

 

 

Top ten plants that are bad for bees from Countryfile Magazine

"Lavender, alliums, fuschias, sweet peas - keen gardeners know the very best flowers to entice bees to their gardens. But what about plants that are  bad for bees? Here is our expert guide to the top ten plants that you should avoid to keep bees happy and buzzing, plus the perfect alternatives.

1. Rhododendron
Spectacular and beautiful, not many people know the common rhododendron hides a poisonous secret – its nectar is toxic to bees. It’s common practice for beekeepers to keep their hives closed until the flowering season is over. The resulting honey from rhododendrons has also been known to contaminate honey, making it unsafe for humans to eat.
Alternative: Clematis have beautiful, wide flowers and are 100 per cent bee-friendly.

2. Azalea
Rhododendron’s sister, azaleas are also toxic to bees.
Alternative: Foxgloves (Digitalis) are a bee favourite and despite being poisonous if consumed by humans, they are both honey and bee safe.

3. Trumpet flower, or angel’s trumpet (Brugmansia suaveolens)
Though ornamental and sweet smelling, the trumpet flower’s nectar can cause brood death in bees and is best avoided.
Alternative: Try honeysuckle (Lonicera) instead for deliciously scented results.

4. Oleander (Nerium oleander)
Harmful to butterflies as well as bees, oleander has a severe effect on hives. Nectar taken to the hive concentrates as it dries out, which increases the amount of toxins and usually results in a mass hive wipeout. 
Alternative: Snapdragons (Antirrhinum majus) are equally as bright and arguably more attractive in small or large gardens.

5. Yellow Jessamine (Gelsemium sempervirens)
Pleasantly aromatic and attractive as they are, bees are often poisoned by the vines and flowers of the yellow jessamine and its toxins are said to be as severe as hemlock.
Alternative: Plant Black-eyed Susans (Rudbeckia hirta) in tubs and along fences for a pretty, easy-to-grow substitute.

6. Mountain Laurel (Kalmia latifolia)
Part of the blueberry family, the mountain laurel is an evergreen shrub with sweet, white or pink flowers when in bloom. Pretty they may be, but the honey produced by mountain laurel is toxic to humans and is often bitter tasting.
Alternative: Lilacs (Syringa) are both beautiful and wonderfully sweet smelling. Easy to grow and are loved by bees and butterflies. 

7. Stargazer lily (Lilium 'Stargazer')
Stunning but deadly to cats, stargazer lilies’ pollen is poisonous to bees.
Alternative: Hollyhocks (Alcea) are impressive and just as beautiful as the stargazer but bee-friendly.

8. Heliconia Exotic and interesting, heliconia, or lobster-claws as its sometimes called, is very toxic to bees. You should not prune your heliconias, as the 'stem' is actually made up of rolled leaf bases and the flowers emerge from the top of these 'pseudostems'. However, each stem will only flower once, so after flowering you can cut that stem out. This is recommended, to encourage more flowering, to increase airflow in between the stems of your plant, and also to generally tidy it up and improve the appearance.
Alternative: Although not quite as exotic, hyacinths are fragrant, gorgeous and easy to grow. Hyacinth bulbs are poisonous; they contain oxalic acid. Handling hyacinth bulbs can cause mild skin irritation. Protective gloves are recommended.

9. Bog rosemary (Andromeda polifolia -
All parts of the plant contain andromedotoxin and are considered poisonous)
Not to be confused with the herb, bog rosemary is acutely poisonous and the honey produced from the nectar of Andromeda polifolia contains high enough levels of grayanotoxin to cause full body paralysis and potentially fatal breathing difficulties due to diaphragm paralysis.
Alternative: Why not try planting a classic rosemary bush (Rosmarinus officinalis) – aromatic, resilient and favoured by bees.

10. Amaryllis (Hippeastrum)
Now most commonly recognised as decorative Christmas flowers, amaryllis are gorgeous in bloom but their pollen produces toxic honey. Bulbs, chewing or ingestion of the bulbs, leaves or flowers poisons goats and sheep with Lycorine (An emetic) and small amounts of alkaloids.
Alternative: Dahlias are a highlight of late summer gardens. Beautiful and simple to grow, dahlias often flower until the first frosts of the year."

This is another list of Plants toxic to bees, which includes:-
Aesculus californica,
Astralagus species,
Cuscuta species,
Cyrilla racemiflora,
Solanum nigram,
Veratrum cailfornicum,
Zygadenus cenesosus,
Corynocarpus laevigata,
Angelica triqueta,
Astralagus lentiginosus,
Camellia thea,
Ochrama lagopus,
Sophora microphylla,
Tillia species,
Verartrum californicum,
Asclepias species,
Astralagus miser v. serotibus.

 

The following details come from Cactus Art:-

"A flower is the the complex sexual reproductive structure of Angiosperms, typically consisting of an axis bearing perianth parts, androecium (male) and gynoecium (female).    

Bisexual flower show four distinctive parts arranged in rings inside each other which are technically modified leaves: Sepal, petal, stamen & pistil. This flower is referred to as complete (with all four parts) and perfect (with "male" stamens and "female" pistil). The ovary ripens into a fruit and the ovules inside develop into seeds.

Incomplete flowers are lacking one or more of the four main parts. Imperfect (unisexual) flowers contain a pistil or stamens, but not both. The colourful parts of a flower and its scent attract pollinators and guide them to the nectary, usually at the base of the flower tube.

partsofaflowersmallest

 

Androecium (male Parts or stamens)
It is made up of the filament and anther, it is the pollen producing part of the plant.
Anther This is the part of the stamen that produces and contains pollen. 
Filament This is the fine hair-like stalk that the anther sits on top of.
Pollen This is the dust-like male reproductive cell of flowering plants.

Gynoecium (female Parts or carpels or pistil)
 It is made up of the stigma, style, and ovary. Each pistil is constructed of one to many rolled leaflike structures.
Stigma
This is the part of the pistil  which receives the pollen grains and on which they germinate. 
Style
This is the long stalk that the stigma sits on top of ovary. 
Ovary
The part of the plant that contains the ovules. 
Ovule
The part of the ovary that becomes the seeds. 

Petal 
The colorful, often bright part of the flower (corolla). 
Sepal 
The parts that look like little green leaves that cover the outside of a flower bud (calix). 
(Undifferentiated "Perianth segment" that are not clearly differentiated into sepals and petals, take the names of tepals.)"

 

 

 

The following details come from Nectary Genomics:-

"NECTAR. Many flowering plants attract potential pollinators by offering a reward of floral nectar. The primary solutes found in most nectars are varying ratios of sucrose, glucose and fructose, which can range from as little a 8% (w/w) in some species to as high as 80% in others. This abundance of simple sugars has resulted in the general perception that nectar consists of little more than sugar-water; however, numerous studies indicate that it is actually a complex mixture of components. Additional compounds found in a variety of nectars include other sugars, all 20 standard amino acids, phenolics, alkaloids, flavonoids, terpenes, vitamins, organic acids, oils, free fatty acids, metal ions and proteins.

NECTARIES. An organ known as the floral nectary is responsible for producing the complex mixture of compounds found in nectar. Nectaries can occur in different areas of flowers, and often take on diverse forms in different species, even to the point of being used for taxonomic purposes. Nectaries undergo remarkable morphological and metabolic changes during the course of floral development. For example, it is known that pre-secretory nectaries in a number of species accumulate large amounts of starch, which is followed by a rapid degradation of amyloplast granules just prior to anthesis and nectar secretion. These sugars presumably serve as a source of nectar carbohydrate.

WHY STUDY NECTAR? Nearly one-third of all worldwide crops are dependent on animals to achieve efficient pollination. In addition, U.S. pollinator-dependent crops have been estimated to have an annual value of up to $15 billion. Many crop species are largely self-incompatible (not self-fertile) and rely almost entirely on animal pollinators to achieve full fecundity; poor pollinator visitation has been reported to reduce yields of certain species by up to 50%."

 

The following details about DOUBLE FLOWERS comes from Wikipedia:-

"Double-flowered" describes varieties of flowers with extra petals, often containing flowers within flowers. The double-flowered trait is often noted alongside the scientific name with the abbreviation fl. pl. (flore pleno, a Latin ablative form meaning "with full flower"). The first abnormality to be documented in flowers, double flowers are popular varieties of many commercial flower types, including roses, camellias and carnations. In some double-flowered varieties all of the reproductive organs are converted to petals — as a result, they are sexually sterile and must be propagated through cuttings. Many double-flowered plants have little wildlife value as access to the nectaries is typically blocked by the mutation.

 

There is further photographic, diagramatic and text about Double Flowers from an education department - dept.ca.uky.edu - in the University of Kentucky in America.

 

"Meet the plant hunter obsessed with double-flowering blooms" - an article from The Telegraph.

 

THE 2 EUREKA EFFECT PAGES FOR UNDERSTANDING SOIL AND HOW PLANTS INTERACT WITH IT OUT OF 10,000:-


Explanation of Structure of this Website with User Guidelines Page for those photo galleries with Photos
(of either ones I have taken myself or others which have been loaned only for use on this website from external sources)

Choose 1 of these different Plant selection Methods:-

 

1. Choose a plant from 1 of 53 flower colours in the Colour Wheel Gallery.

 

2. Choose a plant from 1 of 12 flower colours in each month of the year from 12 Bloom Colours per Month Index Gallery.

 

3. Choose a plant from 1 of 6 flower colours per month for each type of plant:-

Aquatic
Bedding
Bulb
Climber
Conifer
Deciduous Shrub
Deciduous Tree
Evergreen Perennial
Evergreen Shrub
Evergreen Tree
Hedging
Herbaceous Perennial
Herb
Odds and Sods
Rhododendron nectar and the nectar from the plants in the fifth row above are toxic to bees
Rose
Soft Fruit
Top Fruit
Wild Flower

 

4. Choose a plant from its Flower Shape:-

Shape, Form
Index

Flower Shape

 

5. Choose a plant from its foliage:-

Bamboo
Conifer
Fern
Grass
Vegetable

 

6. There are 6 Plant Selection Levels including Bee Pollinated Plants for Hay Fever Sufferers in Plants Topic.

 

or

 

7. when I do not have my own or ones from mail-order nursery photos , then from March 2016, if you want to start from the uppermost design levels through to your choice of cultivated and wildflower plants to change your Plant Selection Process then use the following galleries:-

  • Create and input all plants known by Amateur Gardening inserted into their Sanders' Encyclopaedia from their edition published in 1960 (originally published by them in 1895) into these
    • Stage 1 - Garden Style Index Gallery,
      then
    • Stage 2 - Infill Plants Index Gallery being the only gallery from these 7 with photos (from Wikimedia Commons) ,
      then
    • Stage 3 - All Plants Index Gallery with each plant species in its own Plant Type Page followed by choice from Stage 4a, 4b, 4c and/or 4d REMEMBERING THE CONSTRAINTS ON THE SELECTION FROM THE CHOICES MADE IN STAGES 1 AND 2
    • Stage 4a - 12 Bloom Colours per Month Index Gallery,
    • Stage 4b - 12 Foliage Colours per Month Index Gallery with
    • Stage 4c - Cultivation, Position, Use Index Gallery and
    • Stage 4d - Shape, Form Index Gallery
    • Unfortunately, if you want to have 100's of choices on selection of plants from 1000's of 1200 pixels wide by up to 16,300 pixels in length webpages, which you can jump to from almost any of the pages in these 7 galleries above, you have to put up with those links to those choices being on
      • the left topic menu table,
      • the header of the middle data table and on
      • the page/index menu table on the right of every page of those galleries.

There are other pages on Plants which bloom in each month of the year in this website:-

 

 

Topic - Over 1060 links in this table to a topic in a topic folder or page within that folder of this website
Case Studies
...Drive Foundations
Ryegrass and turf kills plants within Roadstone and in Topsoil due to it starving and dehydrating them.
CEDAdrive creates stable drive surface and drains rain into your ground, rather than onto the public road.
8 problems caused by building house on clay or with house-wall attached to clay.
Pre-building work on polluted soil.

Companion Planting
A ,B ,C ,D ,E ,
F ,G ,H ,I ,J ,K ,
L ,M ,N ,O ,P ,Q ,
R ,S ,T ,U ,V ,W ,
X, Y, Z
...Pest Control
...using Plants
to provide a Companion Plant to aid your selected plant or deter its pests

Garden
Construction

with ground drains
Garden Design
...How to Use the Colour Wheel Concepts for Selection of Flowers, Foliage and Flower Shape
...RHS Mixed
Borders

......Bedding Plants
......Her Perennials
......Other Plants
......Camera photos of Plant supports
Garden
Maintenance

Glossary with a tomato teaching cauliflowers
Home
Library of over 1000 books
Offbeat Glossary with DuLally Bird in its flower clock.

Plants
...Groundcover A,
B, C, D, E, F, G, H,
I, J, K, L, M, N, O,
P, Q, R, S, T, U, V,
W, XYZ with 14 Special Situations.
...in Chalk (Alkaline) Soil A-F1, A-F2,
A-F3, G-L, M-R,
M-R Roses, S-Z
...in Heavy Clay Soil A-F, G-L, M-R, S-Z
...in Lime-Free (Acid) Soil A-F, G-L, M-R,
S-Z
...in Light Sand Soil
A-F, G-L, M-R, S-Z.
...Poisonous Plants.
...Extra Plant Pages
with its 6 Plant Selection Levels

Soil
...
Interaction between 2 Quartz Sand Grains to make soil
...
How roots of plants are in control in the soil
...
Without replacing Soil Nutrients, the soil will break up to only clay, sand or silt
...
Subsidence caused by water in Clay
...
Use water ring for trees/shrubs for first 2 years.

Tool Shed with 3 kneeling pads
Useful Data with benefits of Seaweed

Topic -
Plant Photo Galleries
with Plant Botanical Index

...A, B, C, D, E,
...F, G, H, I, J, K,
...L, M, N, O, P, Q,
...R, S, T, U, V, W,
...X, Y, Z

If the plant type below has flowers, then the first gallery will include the flower thumbnail in each month of 1 of 6 or 7 flower colour comparison pages of each plant in its subsidiary galleries, as a low-level Plant Selection Process
Aquatic
Bamboo
Bedding
...by Flower Shape


Bulb Index
A1, 2, 3, B, C1, 2,
D, E, F, G, Glad,
H, I, J, K, L1, 2,
M, N, O, P, Q, R,
S, T, U, V, W, XYZ
...Allium/ Anemone
...Autumn
...Colchicum/ Crocus
...Dahlia
...Gladiolus with its 40 Flower Colours
......European A-E
......European F-M
......European N-Z
......Eur Non-classified
......American A
......American B
......American C
......American D
......American E
......American F
......American G
......American H
......American I
......American J
......American K
......American L
......American M
......American N
......American O
......American P
......American Q
......American R
......American S
......American T
......American U
......American V
......American W
......American XYZ
......Ame Non-classified
......Australia - empty
......India
......Lithuania
...Hippeastrum/ Lily
...Late Summer
...Narcissus
...Spring
...Tulip
...Winter
...Each of the above ...Bulb Galleries has its own set of Flower Colour Pages
...Flower Shape
...Bulb Form

...Bulb Use

...Bulb in Soil


Further details on bulbs from the Infill Galleries:-
Hardy Bulbs
...Aconitum
...Allium
...Alstroemeria
...Anemone

...Amaryllis
...Anthericum
...Antholyzas
...Apios
...Arisaema
...Arum
...Asphodeline

...Asphodelus
...Belamcanda
...Bloomeria
...Brodiaea
...Bulbocodium

...Calochorti
...Cyclobothrias
...Camassia
...Colchicum
...Convallaria 
...Forcing Lily of the Valley
...Corydalis
...Crinum
...Crosmia
...Montbretia
...Crocus

...Cyclamen
...Dicentra
...Dierama
...Eranthis
...Eremurus
...Erythrnium
...Eucomis

...Fritillaria
...Funkia
...Galanthus
...Galtonia
...Gladiolus
...Hemerocallis

...Hyacinth
...Hyacinths in Pots
...Scilla
...Puschkinia
...Chionodoxa
...Chionoscilla
...Muscari

...Iris
...Kniphofia
...Lapeyrousia
...Leucojum

...Lilium
...Lilium in Pots
...Malvastrum
...Merendera
...Milla
...Narcissus
...Narcissi in Pots

...Ornithogalum
...Oxalis
...Paeonia
...Ranunculus
...Romulea
...Sanguinaria
...Sternbergia
...Schizostylis
...Tecophilaea
...Trillium

...Tulip
...Zephyranthus

Half-Hardy Bulbs
...Acidanthera
...Albuca
...Alstroemeri
...Andro-stephium
...Bassers
...Boussing-aultias
...Bravoas
...Cypellas
...Dahlias
...Galaxis,
...Geissorhizas
...Hesperanthas

...Gladioli
...Ixias
...Sparaxises
...Babianas
...Morphixias
...Tritonias

...Ixiolirions
...Moraeas
...Ornithogalums
...Oxalises
...Phaedra-nassas
...Pancratiums
...Tigridias
...Zephyranthes
...Cooperias

Uses of Bulbs:-
...for Bedding
...in Windowboxes
...in Border
...naturalized in Grass
...in Bulb Frame
...in Woodland Garden
...in Rock Garden
...in Bowls
...in Alpine House
...Bulbs in Greenhouse or Stove:-
...Achimenes
...Alocasias
...Amorpho-phalluses
...Arisaemas
...Arums
...Begonias
...Bomareas
...Caladiums

...Clivias
...Colocasias
...Crinums
...Cyclamens
...Cyrtanthuses
...Eucharises
...Urceocharis
...Eurycles

...Freesias
...Gloxinias
...Haemanthus
...Hippeastrums

...Lachenalias
...Nerines
...Lycorises
...Pencratiums
...Hymenocallises
...Richardias
...Sprekelias
...Tuberoses
...Vallotas
...Watsonias
...Zephyranthes

...Plant Bedding in
......Spring

......Summer
...Bulb houseplants flowering inside House during:-
......January
......February
......March
......April
......May
......June
......July
......August
......September
......October
......November
......December
...Bulbs and other types of plant flowering during:-
......Dec-Jan
......Feb-Mar
......Apr-May
......Jun-Aug
......Sep-Oct
......Nov-Dec
...Selection of the smaller and choicer plants for the Smallest of Gardens with plant flowering during the same 6 periods as in the previous selection


Climber in
3 Sector Vertical Plant System
...Clematis
...Climbers
Conifer
Deciduous Shrub
...Shrubs - Decid
Deciduous Tree
...Trees - Decid
Evergreen Perennial
...P-Evergreen A-L
...P-Evergreen M-Z
...A,B,C,D,E,F,G,
...H,I,J,K,L,M,N,
...O,P,Q,R,S,T,U,
...V,W,X,Y,Z
...Flower Shape
Evergreen Shrub
...Shrubs - Evergreen
...Heather Shrub
...Heather Index
......Andromeda
......Bruckenthalia
......Calluna
......Daboecia
......Erica: Carnea
......Erica: Cinerea
......Erica: Others
Evergreen Tree
...Trees - Evergreen
Fern
Grass
Hedging
Herbaceous
Perennial

...A1,2,B,C,D,E,F,G,
...H,I,J,K,L,M,N,
...O,P1,2,Q,R,S,T,U,
...V,W,XYZ,
...Diascia Photo Album,
...UK Peony Index

...P -Herbaceous
...Peony
...Flower Shape
...RHS Wisley
......Mixed Border
......Other Borders
Herb
Odds and Sods
Rhododendron

Rose
...RHS Wisley A-F
...RHS Wisley G-R
...RHS Wisley S-Z
...Rose Use - page links in row 6. Rose, RHS Wisley and Other Roses rose indices on each Rose Use page
...Other Roses A-F
...Other Roses G-R
...Other Roses S-Z
Pruning Methods
Photo Index
R 1, 2, 3
Peter Beales Roses
RV Roger
Roses

Soft Fruit
Top Fruit
...Apple

...Cherry
...Pear
Vegetable
Wild Flower and
Butterfly page links are in next row


Topic -
Butterflies in the UK mostly use native UK wildflowers.

Butterfly Species.

Egg, Caterpillar, Chrysalis and Butterfly Usage
of Plants.

Plant Usage by
Egg, Caterpillar, Chrysalis and Butterfly.

Wild Flower
...Flower Shape and Landscape Uses


with its
flower colour page,
space,
Site Map page in its flower colour NOTE Gallery
...Blue Note
...Brown Botanical Names
...Cream Common Names
...Green Note
...Mauve Note
...Multi-Cols Note
...Orange Note
...Pink A-G Note
...Pink H-Z Note
...Purple Note
...Red Note
...White A-D Note
...White E-P Note
...White Q-Z Note
...Yellow A-G Note
...Yellow H-Z Note
...Shrub/Tree Note

Poisonous
Wildflower Plants.


You know its name, use
Wild Flower Plant Index a-h, i-p, q-z.
You know which habitat it lives in, use
on
Acid Soil,
on
Calcareous
(Chalk) Soil
,
on
Marine Soil,
on
Neutral Soil,
is a
Fern,
is a
Grass,
is a
Rush, or
is a
Sedge.
You have seen its flower, use Comparison Pages containing Wild Flower Plants and Cultivated Plants in the
Colour Wheel Gallery.

Each plant named in each of the 180 Wildflower Family Pages within their 23 Galleries may have a link to:-
1) its Plant Description Page in its Common Name column in one of those Wildflower Plant Galleries and will have links,
2) to external sites to purchase the plant or seed in its Botanical Name column,
3) to see photos in its Flowering Months column and
4) to read habitat details in its Habitat Column.

WILD FLOWER FAMILY PAGE MENU
(o)Adder's Tongue
Amaranth
(o)Arrow-Grass
(o)Arum
(o)Balsam
Bamboo
(o)Barberry
(o)Bedstraw
(o)Beech
(o)Bellflower
(o)Bindweed
(o)Birch
(o)Birds-Nest
(o)Birthwort
(o)Bogbean
(o)Bog Myrtle
(o)Borage
(o)Box
(o)Broomrape
(o)Buckthorn
(o)Buddleia
(o)Bur-reed
(o)Buttercup
(o)Butterwort
(o)Cornel (Dogwood)
(o)Crowberry
(o)Crucifer (Cabbage/Mustard) 1
(o)Crucifer (Cabbage/Mustard) 2
Cypress
(o)Daffodil
(o)Daisy
(o)Daisy Cudweeds
(o)Daisy Chamomiles
(o)Daisy Thistle
(o)Daisy Catsears (o)Daisy Hawkweeds
(o)Daisy Hawksbeards
(o)Daphne
(o)Diapensia
(o)Dock Bistorts
(o)Dock Sorrels
(o)Clubmoss
(o)Duckweed
(o)Eel-Grass
(o)Elm
(o)Filmy Fern
(o)Horsetail
(o)Polypody
Quillwort
(o)Royal Fern
(o)Figwort - Mulleins
(o)Figwort - Speedwells
(o)Flax
(o)Flowering-Rush
(o)Frog-bit
(o)Fumitory
(o)Gentian
(o)Geranium
(o)Glassworts
(o)Gooseberry
(o)Goosefoot
(o)Grass 1
(o)Grass 2
(o)Grass 3
(o)Grass Soft
Bromes 1

(o)Grass Soft
Bromes 2

(o)Grass Soft
Bromes 3

(o)Hazel
(o)Heath
(o)Hemp
(o)Herb-Paris
(o)Holly
(o)Honeysuckle
(o)Horned-Pondweed
(o)Hornwort
(o)Iris
(o)Ivy
(o)Jacobs Ladder
(o)Lily
(o)Lily Garlic
(o)Lime
(o)Lobelia
(o)Loosestrife
(o)Mallow
(o)Maple
(o)Mares-tail
(o)Marsh Pennywort
(o)Melon (Gourd/Cucumber)
(o)Mesem-bryanthemum
(o)Mignonette
(o)Milkwort
(o)Mistletoe
(o)Moschatel
Naiad
(o)Nettle
(o)Nightshade
(o)Oleaster
(o)Olive
(o)Orchid 1
(o)Orchid 2
(o)Orchid 3
(o)Orchid 4
(o)Parnassus-Grass
(o)Peaflower
(o)Peaflower
Clover 1

(o)Peaflower
Clover 2

(o)Peaflower
Clover 3

(o)Peaflower Vetches/Peas
Peony
(o)Periwinkle
Pillwort
Pine
(o)Pink 1
(o)Pink 2
Pipewort
(o)Pitcher-Plant
(o)Plantain
(o)Pondweed
(o)Poppy
(o)Primrose
(o)Purslane
Rannock Rush
(o)Reedmace
(o)Rockrose
(o)Rose 1
(o)Rose 2
(o)Rose 3
(o)Rose 4
(o)Rush
(o)Rush Woodrushes
(o)Saint Johns Wort
Saltmarsh Grasses
(o)Sandalwood
(o)Saxifrage
Seaheath
(o)Sea Lavender
(o)Sedge Rush-like
(o)Sedges Carex 1
(o)Sedges Carex 2
(o)Sedges Carex 3
(o)Sedges Carex 4
(o)Spindle-Tree
(o)Spurge
(o)Stonecrop
(o)Sundew
(o)Tamarisk
Tassel Pondweed
(o)Teasel
(o)Thyme 1
(o)Thyme 2
(o)Umbellifer 1
(o)Umbellifer 2
(o)Valerian
(o)Verbena
(o)Violet
(o)Water Fern
(o)Waterlily
(o)Water Milfoil
(o)Water Plantain
(o)Water Starwort
Waterwort
(o)Willow
(o)Willow-Herb
(o)Wintergreen
(o)Wood-Sorrel
(o)Yam
(o)Yew


Topic -
The following is a complete hierarchical Plant Selection Process

dependent on the Garden Style chosen
Garden Style
...Infill Plants
...12 Bloom Colours per Month Index
...12 Foliage Colours per Month Index
...All Plants Index
...Cultivation, Position, Use Index
...Shape, Form
Index

 


Topic -
Flower/Foliage Colour Wheel Galleries with number of colours as a high-level Plant Selection Process

All Flowers 53 with
...Use of Plant and
Flower Shape
- page links in bottom row

All Foliage 53
instead of redundant
...(All Foliage 212)


All Flowers
per Month 12


Bee instead of wind pollinated plants for hay-fever sufferers
All Bee-Pollinated Flowers
per Month
12
...Index

Rock Garden and Alpine Flowers
Rock Plant Flowers 53
INDEX
A, B, C, D, E, F,
G, H, I, J, K, L,
M, NO, PQ, R, S,
T, UVWXYZ
...Rock Plant Photos

Flower Colour Wheel without photos, but with links to photos
12 Bloom Colours
per Month Index

...All Plants Index


Topic -
Use of Plant in your Plant Selection Process

Plant Colour Wheel Uses
with
1. Perfect general use soil is composed of 8.3% lime, 16.6% humus, 25% clay and 50% sand, and
2. Why you are continually losing the SOIL STRUCTURE so your soil - will revert to clay, chalk, sand or silt.
Uses of Plant and Flower Shape:-
...Foliage Only
...Other than Green Foliage
...Trees in Lawn
...Trees in Small Gardens
...Wildflower Garden
...Attract Bird
...Attract Butterfly
1
, 2
...Climber on House Wall
...Climber not on House Wall
...Climber in Tree
...Rabbit-Resistant
...Woodland
...Pollution Barrier
...Part Shade
...Full Shade
...Single Flower provides Pollen for Bees
1
, 2, 3
...Ground-Cover
<60
cm
60-180cm
>180cm
...Hedge
...Wind-swept
...Covering Banks
...Patio Pot
...Edging Borders
...Back of Border
...Poisonous
...Adjacent to Water
...Bog Garden
...Tolerant of Poor Soil
...Winter-Flowering
...Fragrant
...Not Fragrant
...Exhibition
...Standard Plant is 'Ball on Stick'
...Upright Branches or Sword-shaped leaves
...Plant to Prevent Entry to Human or Animal
...Coastal Conditions
...Tolerant on North-facing Wall
...Cut Flower
...Potted Veg Outdoors
...Potted Veg Indoors
...Thornless
...Raised Bed Outdoors Veg
...Grow in Alkaline Soil A-F, G-L, M-R,
S-Z
...Grow in Acidic Soil
...Grow in Any Soil
...Grow in Rock Garden
...Grow Bulbs Indoors

Uses of Bedding
...Bedding Out
...Filling In
...Screen-ing
...Pots and Troughs
...Window Boxes
...Hanging Baskets
...Spring Bedding
...Summer Bedding
...Winter Bedding
...Foliage instead of Flower
...Coleus Bedding Photos for use in Public Domain 1

Uses of Bulb
...Other than Only Green Foliage
...Bedding or Mass Planting
...Ground-Cover
...Cut-Flower
...Tolerant of Shade
...In Woodland Areas
...Under-plant
...Tolerant of Poor Soil
...Covering Banks
...In Water
...Beside Stream or Water Garden
...Coastal Conditions
...Edging Borders
...Back of Border or Back-ground Plant
...Fragrant Flowers
...Not Fragrant Flowers
...Indoor
House-plant

...Grow in a Patio Pot
...Grow in an Alpine Trough
...Grow in an Alpine House
...Grow in Rock Garden
...Speciman Plant
...Into Native Plant Garden
...Naturalize in Grass
...Grow in Hanging Basket
...Grow in Window-box
...Grow in Green-house
...Grow in Scree
...Naturalized Plant Area
...Grow in Cottage Garden
...Attracts Butterflies
...Attracts Bees
...Resistant to Wildlife
...Bulb in Soil:-
......Chalk
......Clay
......Sand
......Lime-Free (Acid)
......Peat

Uses of Rose
Rose Index

...Bedding 1, 2
...Climber /Pillar
...Cut-Flower 1, 2
...Exhibition, Speciman
...Ground-Cover
...Grow In A Container 1, 2
...Hedge 1, 2
...Climber in Tree
...Woodland
...Edging Borders
...Tolerant of Poor Soil 1, 2
...Tolerant of Shade
...Back of Border
...Adjacent to Water
...Page for rose use as ARCH ROSE, PERGOLA ROSE, COASTAL CONDITIONS ROSE, WALL ROSE, STANDARD ROSE, COVERING BANKS or THORNLESS ROSES.
...FRAGRANT ROSES
...NOT FRAGRANT ROSES


Topic -
Camera Photo Galleries showing all 4000 x 3000 pixels of each photo on your screen that you can then click and drag it to your desktop:-

RHS Garden at Wisley

Plant Supports -
When supporting plants in a bed, it is found that not only do those plants grow upwards, but also they expand their roots and footpad sideways each year. Pages
1
, 2, 3, 8, 11,
12, 13,
Plants 4, 7, 10,
Bedding Plants 5,
Plant Supports for Unknown Plants 5
,
Clematis Climbers 6,
the RHS does not appear to either follow it's own pruning advice or advice from The Pruning of Trees, Shrubs and Conifers by George E. Brown.
ISBN 0-571-11084-3 with the plants in Pages 1-7 of this folder. You can see from looking at both these resources as to whether the pruning carried out on the remainder of the plants in Pages 7-15 was correct.

Narcissus (Daffodil) 9,
Phlox Plant Supports 14, 15

Coleus Bedding Foliage Trial - Pages
1, 2, 3, 4, 5,
6, 7, 8, 9, 10,
11, 12, 13, 14, 15,
16, 17, 18, 19, 20,
21, 22, 23, 24, 25,
26, 27, 28, 29, 30,
31, 32, Index

National Trust Garden at Sissinghurst Castle
Plant Supports -
Pages for Gallery 1

with Plant Supports
1, 5, 10
Plants
2, 3, 4, 6, 7, 8, 9,
11, 12
Recommended Rose Pruning Methods 13
Pages for Gallery 2
with Plant Supports
2
,
Plants 1, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7

Dry Garden of
RHS Garden at
Hyde Hall

Plants - Pages
without Plant Supports
Plants 1
, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9

Nursery of
Peter Beales Roses
Display Garden

Roses Pages
1, 2, 3, 4, 5,
6, 7, 8, 9, 10,
11, 12, 13

Nursery of
RV Roger

Roses - Pages
A1,A2,A3,A4,A5,
A6,A7,A8,A9,A10,
A11,A12,A13,A14,
B15,
B16,B17,B18,B19,
B20,
B21,B22,B23,B24,
B25,
B26,B27,B28,B29,
B30,
C31,C32,C33,C34,
C35,
C36,C37,C38,C39,
C40,
C41,CD2,D43,D44,
D45,
D46,D47,D48,D49,
E50,
E51,E52,F53,F54,
F55,
F56,F57,G58,G59,
H60,
H61,I62,K63,L64,
M65,
M66,N67,P68,P69,
P70,
R71,R72,S73,S74,
T75,
V76,Z77, 78,

Damage by Plants in Chilham Village - Pages
1, 2, 3, 4

Pavements of Funchal, Madeira
Damage to Trees - Pages
1, 2, 3, 4, 5,
6, 7, 8, 9, 10,
11, 12, 13
for trees 1-54,
14, 15,
16, 17, 18, 19, 20,
21, 22, 23, 24, 25,
for trees 55-95,
26, 27, 28, 29, 30,
31, 32, 33, 34, 35,
36, 37,
for trees 95-133,
38, 39, 40,
41, 42, 43, 44, 45,
for trees 133-166

Chris Garnons-Williams
Work Done - Pages
1, 2, 3, 4, 5,
6, 7, 8, 9, 10,
11, 12, 13

Identity of Plants
Label Problems - Pages
1, 2, 3, 4, 5,
6, 7, 8, 9, 10,
11

Ron and Christine Foord - 1036 photos only inserted so far - Garden Flowers - Start Page of each Gallery
AB1 ,AN14,BA27,
CH40,CR52,DR63,
FR74,GE85,HE96,

Plant with Photo Index of Ivydene Gardens - 1187
A 1, 2, Photos - 43
B 1, Photos - 13
C 1, Photos - 35
D 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7,
Photos - 411
with Plants causing damage to buildings in Chilham Village and Damage to Trees in Pavements of Funchal
E 1, Photos - 21
F 1, Photos - 1
G 1, Photos - 5
H 1, Photos - 21
I 1, Photos - 8
J 1, Photos - 1
K 1, Photos - 1
L 1, Photos - 85
with Label Problems
M 1, Photos - 9
N 1, Photos - 12
O 1, Photos - 5
P 1, Photos - 54
Q 1, Photos -
R 1, 2, 3,
Photos - 229
S 1, Photos - 111
T 1, Photos - 13
U 1, Photos - 5
V 1, Photos - 4
W 1, Photos - 100
with Work Done by Chris Garnons-Williams
X 1 Photos -
Y 1, Photos -
Z 1 Photos -
Articles/Items in Ivydene Gardens - 88
Flower Colour, Num of Petals, Shape and
Plant Use of:-
Rock Garden
within linked page


 

 

Topic -
Fragrant Plants:-

Sense of Fragrance from Roy Genders

Fragrant Plants:-
Trees and Shrubs with Scented Flowers
1
, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6
Shrubs bearing Scented Flowers for an Acid Soil
1
, 2, 3, 4
Shrubs bearing Scented Flowers for a
Chalky or Limestone Soil
1
, 2, 3, 4
Shrubs bearing Scented leaves for a
Sandy Soil
1
, 2, 3
Herbaceous Plants with Scented Flowers
1
, 2, 3
Annual and Biennial Plants with Scented Flowers or Leaves
1
, 2
Bulbs and Corms with Scented Flowers
1
, 2, 3, 4, 5
Scented Plants of Climbing and Trailing Habit
1
, 2, 3
Winter-flowering Plants with Scented Flowers
1
, 2
Night-scented Flowering Plants
1
, 2
 


Topic -
Website User Guidelines


My Gas Service Engineer found Flow and Return pipes incorrectly positioned on gas boilers and customers had refused to have positioning corrected in 2020.
 


Topic
Table of this Page has moved to the right hand side.

 

 

 

Look for:-
Topic - Camera Photo Galleries showing all 4000 x 3000 pixels of each photo on your screen that you can then click and drag to your desktop:-
in a row of the Topic Table on the right hand side for more than 2000 informative photos to aid your plant choice using the:-
Plant with Photo Index of Ivydene Gardens -
A 1

 

FERN PLANTS GALLERY PAGES
Site Map for pages with photo content (o)

This is copy of a table from Fern Culture page of Fern Plant Gallery and so its links to other pages within that gallery are missing on this page, use the following link to get to that page in that gallery

Fern Culture
from Sections 1-10 of Ferns and Fern Culture by J. Birkenhead, F.R.H.S.
Published by John Heywood in Manchester in
May, 1892 with
Rules for Fern Culture
followed by
Sections
1 Modes of Growth
2 Compost
3 Compost for various Genera, growing in pots, pans or baskets
4 Various Habits of Ferns
5 Various Modes of Cultivation
6 Light
7 Temperature
8 Ferns in Dwelling-Houses
9 Propagation (in Use in Brackish Water in Coastal District Page)

10 Selection of Ferns

with

British Ferns and their Allies comprising the Ferns, Club-mosses, Pepperworts and Horsetails by Thomas Moore, F.L.S, F.H.S., Etc. London George Routledge and Sons, Broadway, Ludgate Hill. Hardcover published in 1861 provides details on British Ferns

 

SPORE COLOUR
Spore

BED PICTURES
Garden

 

TestPhoto

TYPE OF FERN TO GROW
....Aquatic
....Boston/ Fishbone/
Lace/ Sword
....Cloak/Lip/Hand
....Filmy and Crepe
....Lacy Ground
(o)Lady
....Maidenhair
(o)Miscellaneous
(o)Primitive/ Oddities
....Scrambling/ Umbrella/ Coral/ Pouch
....Selaginellas
(o)Shield/ Buckler/ Holly
....Squirrel/ Rabbit/ Hare's Foot

....Staghorn/ Elkhorn/ Epiphyte
....Tassel, Clubmoss
....The Brakes
....The Polypodies
(o)The Spleenworts
....The Tree Ferns
....Water/ Hard/ Rasp/ Chain

USE OF FERN
(o)Cold-hardy
(o)From Lime-hating Soil
(o)From Limestone Soil
(o)Hanging Basket
(o)Indoor Decoration
(o)Outdoor Pot
(o)Terrariums
(o)Wet Soils
(o)Ground Cover
(o)Pendulous Fronds
 

All Hardy Fern Foundation members have unlimited access to our spore exchange and can choose from a wide variety of ferns. Our resource pages include publications and books about ferns as well as useful websites.

See
Ferns in Britain and Ireland
or the

British Pteridological Society
for further details and photos.

Mail Order UK Fern Nursery
Shady Plants has ferns for
Vertical Fern Gardens and Companion Plants for growing with Ferns.

TYPE OF FERN TO GROW WITH PHOTOS
using information from
Fern Grower's Manual by Barbara Joe Hoshizaki & Robbin C. Moran and
The Encyclopaedia of Ferns An Introduction to Ferns, their Structure, Biology, Economic Importance, Cultivation and Propagation by David L. Jones ISBN 0 88192 054 1


Aquatic Ferns (Azolla, Ceratopteris, Marsilea, Pilularia, Regnellidium, Salvinia)

Boston ferns (Nephrolepis exaltata), Fishbone ferns (Nephrolepis cordifolia), Lace ferns and Sword ferns

Cloak, Lip, Hand Ferns and their Hardy Relatives (Bommeria, Cheilanthes, Doryopteris, Gymnopteris, Hemionitis, Notholaena, Paraceterach, Pellae, Pleurosorus, Quercifilix) 1,
2, 3

Davallia Ferns (Araiostegia, Davallia, Davallodes, Gymno-grammitis, Humata, Leucostegia, Scyphularia, Trogostolon) 1, 2

Fern Allies (Psilotums or Whisk Ferns, Lycopodiums or Ground Pines, Selaginellas or Spike Mosses, and Equisetums, Horsetails or Scouring Rushes) 1, 2

Filmy and Crepe Ferns (Hymenophyllum, Trichomanes, Leptopteris) 1, 2

Lacy Ground Ferns (Culcita, Dennstaedtia, Histiopteris, Hypolepis, Leptolepia, Microlepia, Paesia, Pteridium) 1, 2

Lady Ferns and Their Allies (Allantodia, Athyrium, Diplazium, Lunathyrium, Pseudo-cystopteris, Callipteris, Cornopteris, Cystopteris) 1, 2

Maidenhair Ferns (Adiantum) 1, 2

Miscellaneous Ferns (Acrostichum, Actiniopteris, Anemia, Anogramma, Anopteris, Blotiella, Bolbitis, Christella, Coniogramma, Cryptogramma, Ctenitis, Cyclosorus, Didymochlaena, Dipteris, Elaphoglossum, Equisetum, Gymnocarpium, Llavea, Lonchitis, Lygodium, Macrothelypteris, Oeontrichia, Oleandra, Onoclea, Onychium, Oreopteris, Parathelypteris, Phegopteris, Photinopteris, Pityrogramma, Pneumatopteris, Psilotum, Stenochlaena, Thelypteris, Vittaria)
1, 2, 3, 4 including Fern Allies of Equisetum and Psilotum or Whisk Ferns

Polypodium Ferns and Relatives (Anarthropteris, Belvisia, Campyloneurum, Colysis, Crypsinus, Dictymia, Gonphlebium, Lecanopteris, Lemmaphyllum, Lexogramme, Microgramma, Microsorum, Niphidium, Phlebodium, Phymatosurus, Pleopeltis, Polypodium, Pyrrosia, Selliguea) 1, 2, 3

Primitive Ferns and Fern Oddities (Angiopteris, Botrychium, Christensenia, Danaea, Helminthostachys, Marattia, Ophioglossum, Osmunda and Todea)

Scrambling, Umbrella, Coral and Pouch Ferns (Dicranopteris, Diploptergium, Gleichenia, Sticherus)

Shield, Buckler, Holly Ferns and their Relatives (Arachniodes, Cyrtomium, Dryopteris, Lastreopsis, Matteuccia, Polystichum, Rumohra, Tectaria and Woodsia) 1, 2, 3, 4

Spleenworts Ferns (Asplenium) 1, 2, 3

Staghorns, Elkhorns and other large epiphytes (Aglaomorpha, Drynaria, Merinthosorus, Platycerium, Pseudodrynaria) 1, 2

Fern Allies - Tassel Ferns and Clubmosses (Lycopodium)

The Brakes (Pteris) 1, 2

Tree Fern
s (Cibotium, Cnemidaria, Cyathea, Dicksonia, Nephelea and Trichipteris) 1, 2

Water, Hard, Rasp and Chain Ferns (Blechnum, Doodia, Woodwardia, Sadleria) 1, 2

Xerophytic Ferns (Actinopteris, Astrolepis, Cheilanthes, Doryopteris, Notholaena, Pellaea, Pityrogramma) 1, 2
 

USE OF FERN WITH PHOTOS
using information from Fern Grower's Manual by Barbara Joe Hoshizaki & Robbin C. Moran and
The Encyclopaedia of Ferns An Introduction to Ferns, their Structure, Biology, Economic Importance, Cultivation and Propagation by David L. Jones ISBN 0 88192 054 1


Outdoor Use in
Northeastern United States Zones 3-6
Southeastern United States Zones 6-8
Southern Florida and Hawaii Zones 10-11
Central United States Zones 3-6
Northwestern United States Zones 5-8 with some Zone 9
Southwestern United States Zones 6-9
Coastal Central and Southern California Zones 9-10

Accent
Aquatic 1, 2

Basket 1,
Ferns for Hanging Baskets 2, 3, 4, 5, 6
Ferns for Hanging Baskets with Pendulous Fronds or weeping Growth Habit 7, 8

Bog or Wet-Soil 1,
Ferns for Wet Soils 2, 3

Border and Foundation 1, 2
Cold-hardy Ferns 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6
Colour in Fern Fronds 1, 2, 3, 4
Conservatory (Stove House) or Heated Greenhouse 1, 2, 3, 4, 5
Drier Soil 1, 2, 3, 4
Grows on Rock (epilithic) 1, 2
Borne on Leaf (epiphyllous) 1, 2
Grows on another Plant (epiphyte) 1, 2
Evergreen and Deciduous
Fronds in Floral Decorations

Ferns for Acid Soil 1,
Lime-hating (Calcifluges) 2, 3, 4, 5

Ferns for Basic or Limestone Soil 1,
Ferns Found on Limestone or Basic Soils (Calciphiles) 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10

Grow in Coastal Region

Ferns for Ground Cover 1,
Ground Cover Ferns 2, 3, 4, 5

Ferns of the Atlantic Fringe with associated plants (1 - Atlantic Cliff-top Grassland, Ledges and Rough Slopes; 2 - Clay Coasts and Dunes of South-East Ireland; 3 - Limestones of Western Atlantic Coasts; 4 - Hebridean Machair; 5 - Horsetail Flushes, Ditches and Stream Margins; 6 - Water Margin Osmunda Habitats; 7 - Western, Low-lying, Wet, Acid Woodlands; 8 - Western, Oak and Oak-Birch Woodlands and Ravines, in the UK and Ireland)
Ferns in Coastal District with associated plants (Hard Rock Cliffs, Soft Rock Cliffs, Clay Coasts, or Coastal Sand-Dunes in the UK)
Ferns of Grasslands and Rock Outcrops (Grasslands; Rocks, Quarries and Mines in the UK) (Grasslands; Rocks, Quarries and Mines in the UK)
Ferns of Heath and Moorland with associated plants (1 - Bracken Heath; 2 - Ferns of Moist Heathland Slopes and Margins of Rills and Streams; 3 - Heathland Horsetails, 4 - Heathland Clubmosses, in the UK)
Ferns of Lower Mountain Habitats with associated plants (1 - Upland Slopes and Screes; 2 - Base-rich, Upland Springs and Flushes; 3 - Base-rich, Upland, Streamside Sands and Gravels; 4 - Juniper Shrub Woodland, in the UK)
Ferns for Man-Made Landscapes with associated plants (South-western Hedgebanks, Hedgerows and Ditches, Walls and Stonework, Water Mills and Wells, Lime Kilns and abandoned Lime-Workings, Pit heaps and Shale Bings, Canals, Railways and Their Environs in the UK)
Ferns of Upper Mountain Habitats with associated plants (1 - High Mountain, Basic Cliffs and Ledges; 2 - High, Cliff Gullies; 3 - High Mountain Corries, Snow Patches and Fern beds; 4 - Ridges, Plateaux and High Summits, in the UK)
Ferns for Wetlands with associated plants (1- Ponds, Flooded Mineral Workings and Wet Heathland Hollows; 2 - Lakes and Reservoirs; 3 - Fens; 4 - Ferns of the Norfolk Broads' Fens; 5 - Willow Epiphytes in the UK)
Ferns in Woodland with associated plants (1 - Dry, Lowland, Deciduous Woodland; 2 - Inland, Limestone, Valley Woodland; 3 - Base-rich Clay, Valley Woodland; 4 - Basic, Spring-fed Woodland; 5 - Ravine Woodland on Mixed Rock-types; 6 - Native Pine Forest in the UK)


Ferns in Hedges or Hedgebanks
Outdoor Containers 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7

Rapidly Growing Fern 1, 2
Resurrection Fern
Rock Garden and Wall Ferns 1, 2, 3, 4, 5
Shade Tolerant 1, 2, 3, 4
Slowly Growing Fern
Sun Tolerant 1, 2, 3, 4

House Fern in Trough Garden 1,
Fern Suitable for
Indoor Decoration 2, 3, 4, 5, 6

House Fern in Terrarium, Wardian Case or
Bottle Garden 1,
Ferns suitable for Terrariums, Wardian Cases 2, 3, 4, 5, 6

Grow in Woodlands 1, 2, 3, 4

 

 

Section 5 - Various Modes of Cultivation (continued)
Rock-Fernery with Glass Protection
There is a wonderful difference between the condition of Ferns growing in the open air and those cultivated in a frame or unheated greenhouse. When protected from the extremes of heat and cold, wet and drought, storms, boisterous winds, and other injurious influences, their foliage develops more perfectly, is of greater beauty, and lasts much longer in nice condition. Not only are there these advantages, but species such as Adiantum capillus veneris, Asplenium lanceolatum, Asplenium marinum, and others, which rarely grow satisfactorily in the open air, may be successfully cultivated with the simple protection of a cold frame. When this form of fernery is being constructed, the walls should go well into the ground, the soil be excavated to the depth of 24 inches (60 cms), some good compost being put in. Aminiature rockery may be built with elevations, depressions, pockets, niches, and cosy corners for rare and beautiful little species.
Sandstone, limestone, or tufa may be used for the rockwork. The frame should have a northern aspect, the stone being built up inside to hide the walls, and to give the whole of the central part as diversified an arrangement as can be secured in the space.
This will form a perfect treasure-house to the Fern lover, for here, with the greatest ease, may be cultivated many dwarf kinds of various genera, which are more liable to be lost when fully exposed to the elements.
A frame should be occupied only by the smaller species - the larger and stronger would be out of place.
Built in the manner described, facing the north, abundance of light would be secured without the scorching rays of the sun. The frame should have a good elevation at the back, to give the glass at least an angle of 45 degrees. Being sunk in the ground, the temperture would be equable during both summer and winter. In the former the heat would have little effect, and during the winter it would be largely secure from the frost. If plante in good compost the roots would revel in the cool moist position among the stones, and the foliage, being hardened by a gentle and continued circulation of air overhead, provided by tilting the lights more or less according to the weather, would be more beautiful than even in their native rocks.
By carrying out this arrangement of rockwork in an unheated house an additional benefit may be obtained, as then the cultivator can walk about, and being under cover may enjoy the pleasure attending the cultivation of his plants, whatever the weather outside may be. Being on a larger scale, larger species may be accommodated and greater variety obtained also.
The cultivation of Ferns under these conditions is as simple as it possibly could be. Once planted the only attention necessary for a long time would be the giving of water and the ventilation, while the results would be highly gratifying.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Section 6 - Light
It is a very common idea that Ferns grow best in dense shade. This, however, is altogether erroneous. It is true that some kinds of Filmy Ferns are found growing in comparitively dark places, but Ferns generally no only can do with an abundance of light but they are much better with it.
A fernery should have in every case possible a northern aspect. Asouthern aspect is not good, because, unless shaded in some manner by trees or buildings, during the summer it receives the full glare of the sun, and means must then be taken to protect the plants from the strong light and scorching rays. A span-roof fernery should be built with its length running north and south, and all roofs should have a pitch of 45 degrees or 50 degrees. A flatter roof than this is likely to cause drip, which is as injurious to Ferns as to other plants. A lean-to fernery, with northern aspect, will require very little shading, even during summer, and not any during the greater portion of the year. The nearer the aspect is to the south, the more shading will be required.
The rule is to provide the fullest possible amount of light at all times, merely shading, when actually necessary, to prevent very strong sunlight scorching or bleaching the foliage.
From the beginning of September to the beginning of March, shading will not be required on a fernery of any aspect; on the other hand, the glass should be repeatedly washed outside and in, to enable all the light to penetrate the fernery. The accumulation of soot and dirt (coal was burnt in many rooms of houses in 1892 to provide heating) on the glass during winter becomes very detrimental to the wellbeing of plants if allowed to remain. Fogs are a great cause of this deposit in 1892, and not only so but the ingredients of burnt coal fog deposit are much worse to remove than ordnary dirt if once allowed to become dry. It will be wise, therefore, to be lavish in the use of warm water and brush to the outside during the autumn and winter months. If the glass and rafters inside are washed occasionally with warm water and sponge the house will look cleaner and the plants will be muh better for the labout expended. In the beginning of March the atmosphere becomes much clearer, the sun gains strength, and a little shade soon becomes necessary for houses containing stove Ferns if expose fully to the sun. The hardier greenhouse kinds will not require shad for some time, and hardy Ferns not for 2 or 3 months. The position of the house and the character of its inmates will determine the time when shading becomes necessary.

 

Means of Shading
Shade may be provided by blinds, or by one of numerous preparations put upon the glass. Blinds form the best means of shading. They should be fastened on rollers, and so arranged that when the rope is released the blind will roll down, and when no longer required may be rolled up again and secured in its place.
There were in 1892 various kinds of material suitable for blinds. Thick Tiffany, Frigi domo, closely woven cotton netting, and "The Willesden" rot-proof scrim canvas, the latter being preferable to any of the others, as it combines shading qualities with durability. These vary in thickness. For a house greatly exposed the thicker material may be selected. Where little shade is required a thinner material will be more suitable. The great advantage connected with blinds over the permanent shading material is that on wet, dull days, when there is little or no sunshine, by keeping the blinds rolled up the full light is admitted to the plants, greatly to their advantage. Also, every day, until the sunlight becomes too strong, and in the afternoon and evening, when the sun is no longer a source of danger, the plants can have the full light. This is of the highest importance; it is the cause of health and vigour of plants, which under other conditions of shade would have been weakly and of far les beauty.
When permanent shading is used in the form of powder sold for the purpose, white should be selected; green may obscure the glass more and produce a heavier shade, but this is beneficial only for a small portion of the time it is on the glass. It keeps out too much light at other times, and even if only a thin coating is put on the colour is objectionable. Cream colouyr is better than green, but white is best of all, for it will allow more light to penetrate on a wet or dull day, a matter not to be despised.
Whatever colour is used, it should be put on neatly. The practice of syringing it on produces a most untidy appearance as well as imperfect shade, and should not be tolerated anywhere. As soon as it possibly can be dispensed with, all shading should be removed, and the plants allowed the unrestricted light. Ferneries should never be glazed with green glass, but always with the clearest that can be obtained.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Section 7 - Temperature
Ferns require more or less heat, according to their natural place of growth. Most of those from the Tropics require stove temperature. If however, they grow high up the mountains, where the temperature is much lower than near the sea level, they may be cultivated in a warm or cool greenhouse. Some species are found in both hot and cold climates, hence they may be cultivated in various temperatures.
For convenience of cultivation the whole family may be divided into classes - those requiring stove temperature, those suitable for a warm greenhouse, and those which may successfully cultivated in cool greenhouse; those more hardy for cold greenhouse or frame, and the perfectly hardy species.

 

Stove Temperature
This need not be so high for Ferns as is often supposed, neither must it be as high in winter as in summer. Taking December as the starting point, the night temperature should be 60 to 65F (15-18C), rising to 70F (21C) during the day. About the middle of January the days lengthen, ad as the light becomes stronger and of greater duration, the temperature should gradually rise and continue to do so until by the end of May the maximum is reached at 70F (21C) by night and 75-80F (24-27C) by day. This temperature should be mantained during June and July, when it should be gradually reduced, until by the end of November the lowest point is again reached, at the season when the days are short and the light faint. At ant time the temperature may rise 5 or 10F (3-6C) higher, as the result of sun heat, but it is not wise to give more artificial heat than is necessary to maintain a temperature indicated bt these figures.

 

Warm Greenhouse
The temperature in December will be sufficiently high at 45-50F (7-10C) by night, and 50-60F (10-16C) by day. A the days increase in length the temperature should gradually rise, until by the end of May it is 60-65F (15-18C) by night, and 70-75F (21-24C) by day. In August it should begin to decline, until the lowest point is reached in November.

 

Cool Greenhouse
In a cool greenhouse the winter temperature by night should be 40F (4C), though 35 F (2C) might not do any harm; during the day 45-50F (7-10C) should be maintained. In spring a gradual rise should take place, until artificial heat is dispensed with for the summer. The temperature, when dependent upon natural heat, may sometimes, even in summer, be so low, owing to a combination of wet, cold weather, that a little fire heat becomes advisable for a short time. On the other hand, there is occasionally such intensely hot weather that it becomes difficult to keep the temperature down. This may be done by extra shading, and a free use of water sprinkled on the paths, walls, and stages, or rockwork.

 

Cold Greenhouse
The temperature of a house where there are no means of supplying artificial heat should be regulated during winter by outside covering. Perfectly Hardy Ferns are the only suitable kinds to have in a house where the frost may penetrate, and even for these it is well to use all possible precautions to keep out the frost. Hardy Ferns will bear many degrees without apparent injury, but it is certainly an advantage to them when kept above freezing point. When frost penetrates, it immdeiately affects everthing damp. It often breaks pots, and when it is severe it hurts the roots against the sides. By covering the place with mats or other materials, the effects of the frost may be reduced considerably, and by plunging all pots in cocoa-nut fibre or leaf mould the evils may be further reduced, resulting in undoubted benefit to the plants.

 

Ventilation
Means for ventilation should always be provided. Ferns must not be subjected to cold draughts, yet a gentle imperceptible supply of fresh air given at the proper time will prove of great benefit. There must be provision for the entrance of this at the lower part of the house, and for the escape of hot air at the top.
Often there are no means provided at the bottom for the entrance of air, and when the ventilators at the top are opened, a cold current at once rushs in, causing the moisture to condense upon the foliage. In winter this is particularly injurious to the plants, chilling them and leading to discolouration of the foliage. By opening ventilators at the bottom the fresh air enters at the proper place, while the hot air freely escapes at the top. An upward current is thus produced which prevents chilly down draughts.
Ventilation may be given whenever the temperature is high enough, care being excersided not to open the ventilators so wide that the temperature is suddenly reduced. On windy or cold days special care will be necessary. Air should be given as early in the morning as possible, and left on as long in the afternoon as is safe. This conduces to a sturdy growth, the foliage being harder and more enduring than would otherwise be the case.

 

Watering
There is more importance attaching to the watering of plants than many people imagine. It must be done in a haphazard or careless manner, for injurious watering causes a long train of evils. A clear and perfect knowledge of the proper way can be obtained only by experience, but a little care in following certain rules will enable the merest novice to steer clear of many dangers:-

  • The soil in which Ferns are growing should always be kept damp, but not in so thoroughly a wet conditionas to make it sodden. If it becomes very dry the plant drops, shrivels, and sometimes dies; if it is always very wet it soon becomes sour.
  • Plants should be examine every day; in the morning during winte, in the afternoon or evening during summer. Some plants will require water one day, others the next. Whenever a Fern is becoming dry it should be well watered, and not again until it requires it. It is a bad practice to water plants when it is not necessary; it is also a bad plan to give only a little at a time, as by that means the surface appears damp while at the roots the soil is often dust dry. If the pot receives a sharp rap the sound will at once indicate the condition of the soil. If it be a ringing sound like that of a bell the plant should have water, if it be dull and heavy, water is not needed. If the plant does not actially require water at the usual time of watering one daty, but appears likely to become dry before the ordinary time next day, it shuld be watered in a few hours, out of the usual course. If this is not practicable it will be better to water at once than run any risk of its suffering in the interval. The water given should be of the same temperature as the atmosphere of the house, or, at least, it should have the chill taken off.
  • Watering Ferns under glass by means of a hose-pipe attached to a cold water tap cannot be too strongly condemned. The water being colder than the air chills the plants, many receive water when they do not require it, and others may be missed; the foliage becomes drenched, and a state of sickness soon ensues. All Ferns, except Filies, should have their foliage kept dry, and should neither be watered overhead nor syringed. The foliage so treated soon becomes discoloured, and dies, or it has to be removed because of its objectionable appearance. This is a direct injury to the plant.
  • Sometimes, to save trouble or to cause a pretty(?) effect, perforated pipes are laid round the fernery, so that by turning a tap the whole place can be filled by sprays of water. This is a thoroughly bad practice and cannot possibly end in anything but disaster.
  • Whether in pots, baskets, planted in rockwork, in pockets, fern-tiles, or moss-covered walls, thee is nosafe way of watering but by means of a can with or without a rose. It certainly involves more time and labour, but the results far more than compensate for the extra trouble. Anyone refusing to spend the necessary time and care in properly watering the plants must be content to have less satisfactory results.
  • When a plant in pot or basket has become very dry it should be placed in a pail of water for 10 or 15 minutes until the soil is thoroughly wet.
  • Some cultivators have an idea that Ferns should be "dried off" in autumn to give them a rest; even evergreen varieties are treated so, while the deciduous kinds when they have lost their foliage are put away and do not receive water for weeks. This is wrong treament altogether. Deciduous as well as evergreen kinds should always be kept damp. The do not need water so frequently in winter as in summer, because they do not take up so much moisture from the soil, and there is not so much evaporation going on. Yet they must be watered with sufficient frequency to keep the roots always moist. Ferns growing wild in this country (UK) get a great deal more water in winter than in smmer; notwithstanding this they lose their foliage and rest. Their rest is not brought about by a lack of water, but to a large extent b a lowering of the temperature. So, under glass, if the temperature is reduced, this, with the dimunition of light, will bring a cessation of growth in a natural manner. When the days begin to lengthen and the temperature to rise, the plants will soon show vitality and grow vigorously after their rest.

 

Cutting Ferns Down
There is a common idea that Ferns should have all their foliage cut off in winter. This should not be done while the fronds are green. The dead foliage of the deciduous kinds should be removed when they are in greenhouses, as it looks unsightly, but the foliage of evergreen kinds should not be cut off until oit becomes discoloured, or is in the wa of the development of new foliage. In the case of such as the Miden Hair, where the new fronds are produced very thickly together, it is wise to remove the old just as the new oes begin to appear. If left on till the new growth is pretty well advanced, there will be more difficulty in removing them, and the new fronds might be damaged. But in the case of species producing only a few fronds in a season, and those at long intervals, the old foliage should be left until it becomes unsightly. As long as a frond is green it is of benefit to the plant, and every green frond cut off is a more or less severe loss to it.

 

Moisture in the Atmosphere
This should always be maintained, especially during the growing season. It can best be done by sprinkling the paths, walls, and stages, or rockwork more of less freely with water. On hot dry days this will be most beneficial, not only to maintain the required dampness, but to keep down the temperature. In winter, when the coal fires are being pushed strongly to keep up the temperature, the artificial heat will cause a dry, parched air, which must be remedied in the manner recommended.
A dry atmosphere has not only a tendency to restrict development of foliage, but it encourages insect pests of various kinds; yet the other extreme must be avoided. Too much moisture mat cause the plants to damp off, and will thus prove an evil. Judgement must be exercised in order to obtain the condition most congenial to the plants by attention to temperature, light, shade, moisture, and ventilation, avoiding excess in everything.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

See USE OF FERN - in Brackish Water in Coastal District Page for text of Section 8 and Section 9

Section 8 - Ferns in Dwelling-Houses
The condition of atmosphere and the lack of light in dwelling-houses are such that few Ferns can grow satifactorily.

 

Wardian Cases and Fern Stands

 

Window Boxes

 

Window Cases

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Section 9 - Propagation
Ferns may be propagated from buds produced on the fronds, from tubers and buds on the roots, from bulbils formed on their creeping sarmentum, by division of their crowns and rhizomes, and from spores.

 

Spores
 

 

Collecting the Spores
 

 

Sowing the Spores
 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Ivydene Horticultural Services logo with I design, construct and maintain private gardens. I also advise and teach you in your own garden. 01634 389677

 

See
Ferns in Britain and Ireland
or the

British Pteridological Society
for further details and photos.

Mail Order UK Fern Nursery
Shady Plants has ferns for
Vertical Fern Gardens and Companion Plants for growing with Ferns.

 

If you grow and sell ferns, please tell me so that I can put them on this website and inform others where they can be bought online via mail-order.

 

Site design and content copyright ©January 2009.
Page structure amended December 2012.
Gallery structure changed November 2018.
Chris Garnons-Williams.

DISCLAIMER: Links to external sites are provided as a courtesy to visitors. Ivydene Horticultural Services are not responsible for the content and/or quality of external web sites linked from this site.  

The remarkable sex life of ferns:-

  • Formation of spores in the capsule (sporangia) underneath a fertile leaf.
  • When they are ripe, the millions of spores are thrown out by the sporangia when it bursts open.
  • A spore that lands on good soil (moist and light) produces a prothallium (of approximately 6mm) onto which male and female organs develop. The spermatozoa from the male organ swim across moisture to fertilise the eggs.
  • On the prothallium the impregnated egg creates a new plant which takes root; the first leaves have an aberrant shape.

 

 

Section 10 - Selections of Ferns

 

50 choice
stove ferns for pots

 

Adiantum aemulum
Adiantum bauseii
Adiantum cardiochloena, a large handsome species
Adiantum concinnum
Adiantum cultratum
Adiantum dolabriforme
Adiantum farleyense, an exceedingly beautiful variety
Adiantum lathomii, specially handsome
Adiantum macrophyllum, young fronds deep pink
Adiantum neo caledoniae

 

Adiantum reginae
Adiantum sanctae catherinae
Adiantum speciosum
Adiantum trapeziforme, a splendid species of large growth
Andiantum villosum
Aglaomorpha meyeniana (the Bear's Paw Fern)
Anemis adiantifolia
Aspidium plumierii
Asplenium australasicum (the Bird's Nest Fern)
Asplenium belangerii

 

Asplenium formosum
Asplenium inaequale
Asplenium laxum pumilum
Asplenium nobilis, a light, feathery, and graceful variety
Blechnum gracile
Cheilanthes elegans (the Lace Fern), very beautiful
Davallia dissecta
Davallia fijiensis
Davallia griffithiana
Davallia parvula, very small fronds, finely cut, exceedingly pretty
 

 

Davallia retusa
Drynaria musaefolia, the veining very distinct
Gleichenia dichotoma
Gymnopgramma alstonii (Gold Fern)
Gymnogramma chrysophylla (Gold Fern)
Gymnogramma decomposita, fronds very finely cut
Gymnogramma peruviana argyrophylla (Silver Fern)
Gymnogramma schizophylla gloriosa, very beautiful, fronds cut into fine segments, of graceful drooping habit
Lygodium dichotomum, a magnificent climbing fern
Nephrolepis davallioides

 

Nephrolepis davallioides furcans
Nephrolepis duffii
Nephrolepis exaltata
Niphobolus heteractis
Onychium auratum, a very handsome species, fronds erect, finely cut
Phegopteris effusus
Phlebodium aureum, fronds large and deeply glaucous
Pteris tricolor
Pteris victoriae, very prettily variegated
Rhipidopteris peltata, small fronds, fan-shaped, deeply cut.

 

A second 50 choice
stove ferns for pots

 

Adiantum aneitense
Adiantum collisii
Adiantum concinnum latum
Adiantum curvatum
Adiantum flabellatum
Adiantum flemingii
Adiantum peruvianum
Adiantum pulverulentum
Adiantum rhodophyllum
Adiantum seemannii

 

Adiantum tenerum
Adiantum tetraphyllum gracile
Adiantum versaillense, dwarf fronds, branched and crested, very pretty
Adiantum victoriae
Adiantum weigandii
Anemia collina
Aspidium trifoliatum
Asplenium baptistii
Asplenium bifidum
Asplenium horridum

 

Asplenium obtusilobum
Asplenium prolongatum
Asplenium pteropus
Asplenium viviparum
Blechnum latifolium
Campyloneurum brevifolium
Cheilanthes radiata
Davallia alpina
Davallia elegans
Doryopteris palmata

 

Elaphoglossum l'herminierii (the Silver Eel Fern)
Gymnogramma calomelanos (Silver Fern)
Gymnogramma laucheana (Gold Fern)
Gymnogramma muellerii
Gymnogramma parsonsii, a dwarf, crested gold fern
Gymnogramma pearceii d. fijiensis plumosa, a handsome variety, of large growth
Gymnogramma pearceii d. foeniculea
Gymnogramma pearceii d. polyantha
Gymnogramma pearceii d. pycnocarpa
Gymnogramma pearceii d. robusta, very beautiful, finely-cut fronds

 

Gymnogramma wettenhalliana (Crested Sulphur Fern)
Hymenodium crinitum (Elephant Ear Fern)
Leucostegia affinis
Lygodictyon forsterii (Climbing Fern)
Lygodictyon volubile (Climbing Fern)
Nephrolepis bauseii
Niphopsis angustatus
Phlebodium sporodocarpum
Pleopeltis fossa
Pleopeltis xiphias

 

25
basket ferns for stove

 

Adiantum amabile, sends its roots through the basket all round, young plants are produced on them, and their foliage soon forms a beautiful mass of green.
Adiantum caudatum
Adiantum dolabriforme
Adiantum farleyense
Adiantum fragrantissimum

 

Adiantum peruvianum
Asplenium longissimum, produces long pendent fronds, bearing a young plant at the tip of each
Davallia dissecta
Davallia dissecta elegans
Davallia elegans

 

Davallia fijiensis
Davallia fijiensis plumosa
Davallia griffithiana
Davallia pentaphylla
Goniophlebium chnoodes

 

Goniophlebium subauriculatum, one of the best Basket Ferns in cultivation, produce pendent fronds 72-120 inches (180-300 cms) long
Goniophlebium verrucosum
Gymnogramma chrysophylla, a Gold Fern, which shows its beautiful yellow powder to advantage when suspended
Gymnogramma dobryoydense (Gold Fern)
Gymnogramma schizophylla gloriosa, a very beautiful variety with drooping fronds, exquisetly cut

 

Nephrolepis davallioides
Nephrolepis davalliodes furcans, a splendid variety, with crested fronds
Nephrolepis exaltata
Nephrolepis pectinata
Phegopteris effusus

 

25 choice varieties for
planting on blocks of cork for suspending

 

Adiantum ciliatum, produces young plants at the tips of its fronds; these develop, and produce others at their tips, forming a graceful and pretty object
Adiantum dolabriforme is like the preceeding in habit, but its foliage is of deeper green
Asplenium nobilis
Davallia decora
Davallia dissecta

 

Davallia dissecta elegans
Davallia elegans
Davallia fijiensis
Davallia fijiensis major
Davallia fijiensis plumosa

 

Davallia griffithiana
Davallia heterophylla
Davallia pentaphylla
Davallia pycnocarpa
Davallia tyermannii

 

Lopholepis piloselloides
Nephrolepis cordata compacta
Nephrolepis pectinata
Nephrolepis philippinensis
Oleandra nodosa
 

 

Phymatodes vulgaris cristata
Phlebodium venosum
Platycerium grande
Platycerium stemmaria
Platycerium willinckii
The Platyceriums should be suspendee by 1 wire, the others by 1 or 4 wires, according to whether they are to hang against the wall or from the roof.

50
stove ferns for rockwork

 

Acrostichum osmundaceum
Adiantum bauseii
Adiantum cardiochloena
Adiantum cultratum
Adiantum funckii
Adiantum lathomii
Adiantum trapeziforme
Aglaomorpha meyeniana
Aspidium dilaceratum
Aspidum plumierii

 

Asplenium australasicum
Asplenium belangerii
Asplenium horridum
Asplenium inaequale
Asplenium laxum pumilum
Campyloneurum phyllitidis
Davallia decora
Davallia dissecta
Davallia dissecta elegans
Davallia elegans

 

Davallia elegans polydactyla
Davallia fijiensis
Davallia fijiensis major
Davallia fijiensis plumosa
Davallia ornata
Davallia polyantha
Davallia retusa
Drynaria coronans
Drynaria musaefolia
Goniophlebium neriifolium

 

Hypoderis brownii
Lonchitis pubescens
Marattis elegans
Meniscum oligophyllum
Microsorum irioides
Nephrolepis davalloides
Nephrolepis davallioides furcans
Nephrolepis ensifolia
Nephrolepis exaltata
Nephrolepis zollingeriana

 

Oleandra articulata
Olfersia cervina
Phegopteris effusus
Phlebodium aureum
Phlebodium sporodicarpum
Ptymatodes nigrescens
Pleocnemia leuzeana
Pleopeltis xiphias
Polypodium leiorhizon
Stenochlaena scandens

 

25
stove ferns for walls

 

Adiantum aemulum
Adiantum amabile
Adiantum capillus veneris
Adiantum caudatum
Adiantum cuneatum

 

Adiantum dolabriforme
Adiantum fragrant-issimum
Adiantum peruvianum
Adiantum tenerum
Asplenium alatum

 

Adiantum planicaule
Davallia decora
Davallia dissecta
Davallia dissecta elegans
Davallia elegans

 

Davallia fijiensis
Davallia fijiensis major
Davallia pentaphylla
Goniophlebium appendiculatum
Goniophlebium glaucophyllum

 

Leucostegia hirsuta
Nephrolepis cordata compacta
Nephrolepis pectinata
Polypodium catherinae
Stenochlaena scandens

 

12
stove ferns for cutting

 

Adiantum aemulum
Adiantum amabile
Adiantum farleyense

 

Adiantum fragrant-issimum

 

Adiantum lathomii
Adiantum neo guinense
Adiantum scutum

 

Davallia dissecta
Davallia dissecta elegans

 

Davallia fijiensis
Davallia griffithiana
Davallia tyermannii

 

12
stove sellaginellas

 

Selaginella amoena, very pretty, light, and graceful
Selaginella atrovirides, distinct, brony brown in colour
Selaginella caesia, beautiful trailing species of deep metallic blue

 

Selaginella emilliana, a "Bird's Nest' moss, very pretty
Selaginella filicina, has large plumose fronds

 

Selaginella gracilis, very pretty and graceful
Selaginella grandis, exceedingly handsome, has large fan-shaped, spreading, bright green foliage

 

Selaginella haematodes, light green, glossy, crimpy fronds
Sellaginella inaequalifolia
Selaginella lyallii, has light green crisp foliage

 

Selaginella tassellata, very pretty and distinct
Selaginella willdenovii, commonly known as Selaginella caesia arborea and Selaginella laevigata, a most beautiful species, of climbing habit, producing large pinnae of a lovely metallic blue shade, the colour being most intense when the plant is growing in the shade, when its iridescence is very striking.

 

50
warm green house ferns for pots

 

Adiantum capillus veneris
Adiantum capillus veneris grande
Adiantum capillus veneris o'brienianum
Adiantum ciliatum
Adiantum colpodes elegans
Adiantum cuneatum
Adiantum cuneatum grandiceps
Adiantum decorum
Adiantum gracillimum
Adiantum luddimannianum

 

Adiantum pacottii
Adiantum palmatum
Adiantum tinctum, young foliage beautifully tinted
Adiantum williamsii, a very handsome variety, with pea-green foliage, the stems slightly powdered
Asplenium bulbiferum
Asplenium colensoii
Asplenium foeniculaceum
Cheilanthes elegans
Cheilanthes hirta
Davallia bullata (the Squirrel's Foot Fern)

 

Davallia canariensis (the Hare's Foot Fern),
Davallia hemiptera
Davallia mooreana, a handsome large-growing species
Davallia tenuifolia veitchiana, a most beautiful variety, with gracefully drooping finely-cut fronds
Doodia aspera multifida
Gymnogramma othracea (a Gold Fern)
Lastrea richardsii multifida
Leucostegia immersa
Lomaria fluviatilis
Lomaria l'herminierii (a miniature Tree-Fern), young fronds a deep rose colour

 

Lygodium japonicum, a climbing Fern of very free growth
Lygodium palmatum, a climbing Fern of small growth but very pretty
Microlepia hirta cristata, a most handsome variety, produces large fronds, light green in colour, heavily crested
Onychium japonicum
Osmunda japonica corymbifera, a pretty, dwarf, crested, Royal Fern
Platycerium alicorne, a Stag's Horn Fern
Polypodium hastatum
Polystichum vivparum
Pteris argyrea, prettily variegated
Pteris cretica

 

Pteris cretica nobilis, a handsome, densely crested variety
Pteris mayii, very pretty, dwarf, variegated crested
Pteris semipinnata
Pteris serrulata densa, heavily crested, graceful and pretty
Pteris serrulata fastigiata
Pteris tremula
Pteris tremula smithiana, fronds branched and heavily crested, very distinct
Pteris umbrosa
Pteris victoriae, a pretty, light, variegated variety
Sadleria cyatheoides, a very handsome species, with large, gracefully-arching
fronds, coriaceous in texture, dark green

 

Second 50
warm greenhouse ferns for pots

 

Adiantum cuneatum elegans
Adiantum lawsonianum, fronds finely-cut
Adiantum excisum multifidum, a heavily-crested variety
Adiantum hispidulum (pubescens)
Adiantum mariesii, a handsome variety, very distinct
Adiantum pedatum, a beautiful variety of free growth
Adiantum reniforme
Adiantum veitchii
Adiantum venustum
Alsophila rebeccae

 

Asplenium bifolium
Asplenium caudatum
Asplenium flaccidum, has drooping fronds, very graceful
Asplenium lucidum, a handsome variety, with bright green glossy foliage
Asplenium praemorsum laceratum
Balantium culcita
Blechnum platyptera, a small Tree-Fern, of very fine appearance
Brainea insignis
Cheilanthes tomentosa
Cibotium barometz, a large growing species, of handsome appearance

 

Davallia canariensis pulchella
Davallia mariesii, a beautiful variety, with finely-cut fronds
Davallia tenuifolia
Davallia tyermannii
Dictyogramma japonica variegata
Diplazium shepherdii
Diplazium thwaitesii
Doodia caudata
Doodia media crispa cristata
Hypolepis bergenia

 

Lastrea aristata variegata
Lastrea fragrans, the (Violet-scented Fern), a pretty dwarf species
Leucostegia chaerophylla
Lomaria ciliata, a miniature Tree-Fern
Lomaria gibba, a handsome small Tree-Fern
Lygodium scandens, a very pretty Climbing Fern, evergreen, has light green foliage and is of free growth
Nephrodium molle corymbiferum
Niphobolus longua corymbifera, a distinct, dwarf, heavily-crested variety, foliage very leathery
Nothocloena newberryii, distinct and beautiful, foliage covered with silvery-white hairs

 

Nothocloena sinuata, very pretty, long, narrow drooping fronds, silvery underneath
Osmunda palustris, a pretty, evergreen Royal Fern
Pellaea ternifolia, fronds narrow, very glaucous
Polystichum vestitum venustum
Pteris cretica alba lineata, prettily variegated
Pteris cretica magnifica, heavily crested
Pteris serrulata cristata
Pteris serrulata cristata plumosa, has dense drooping foliage
Pteris serrulata major, a large variety of the Ribbon Fern
Pteris serrulata major cristata, a large variety, crested
Pteris tremula crispa

 

12
basket ferns for warm greenhouse

 

Adiantum assimile, a beautiful variety, its underground rhizomes spread throughout the basket and produce on all sides a mass of lovely pale-green foliage
Adiantum cuneatum grandiceps, a crested variety of the common Maidenhair, distinct and handsome
Adiantum gracillimum, foliage exceedingly fine, and, when young, has a lovely tint

 

Adiantum palmatum, a very beautiul variety, with gracefully-drooping fronds
Adiantum williamsii

 

Asplenium flaccidum, fronds drooping and graceful
Asplenium longissimum, produces pendent fronds 72 inches (180 cms) long, and makes a handsome specimen

 

Blechnum glandulosum
Davallia dissecta elegans

 

Davallia mooreana, has large frondsa of fine appearance
Davallia tenuifolia veitchiana, a lovely variety, with graceful light foliage
Microlepia hirta cristata, has large, pale-green, heavily-crested fronds

 

12
warm greenhouse ferns for blocks of cork suspended

 

Adiantum assimile cristatum
Adiantum ciliatum
Adiantum aemulum

 

Adiantum fragrant-issimum
Adiantum setulosum

 

Davallia tyermannii
Nephrolepis pectinata

 

Oleandra nodosa
Pellaea ternifolia

 

Platycerium willinckii
Pteris serrulata hendersonii
Pteris serrulata plumosa

 

50
warm greenhouse ferns for rockwork

 

Adiantum decorum
Adiantum formosum
Adiantum mariesii
Adiantum pedatum
Asplenium foeniculaceum
Asplenium praemorsum
Asplenium praemorsum laceratum
Blechnum atherstonii
Blechnum polypodiodes
Cibotium barometz

 

Davallia canariensis
Davallia mooreana
Davallia tenuifolia
Davallia tenuifolia stricta
Dennstaedtia davallioides
Diplazium dilatatum
Drynaria pustulata
Hypolepis repens
Lastrea dissecta
Lastrea frondosa

 

Lastrea patens superba
Lastrea richardsii multifida
Lepicystis sepulta
Lepicystis squamata
Leucostegia immersa
Litobrochia vespertilionis
Lomaria gibba
Microlepia hirta cristata
Microlepia platyphilla, a large handsome species
Microlepia strigosa

 

Nephrodium molle
Niphobulus lingua
Onychium japonicum
Osmunda japonica corymbifera
Osmunda palustris
Phegopteris trichodes
Polypodium billardierii
Polystichum capense
Pteris argyrea
Pteris cretica

 

Pteris cretica cristata
Pteris longifolia
Pteris longifolia nobilis
Pteris scaberula
Pteris serrulata
Pteris serrulata major
Pteris serrulata major cristata
Pteris tremula
Pteris umbrosa
Todea africana

 

25
warm greenhouse ferns for walls

 

Adiantum assimile
Adiantum ciliatum
Adiantum colpodes
Adiantum cuneatum
Adiantum cuneatum grandiceps

 

Adiantum gracillimum
Adiantum pentaphyllum
Adiantum pubescens
Adiantum setulosum
Asplenium colensoii

 

Asplenium flaccidum
Blechnum glandulosum
Davallia hemiptera
Davallia mooreana
Davallia tyermannii
 

 

Osmunda palustris
Pellaea ternifolia
Platycerium alcicorne
Polypodium billardierii
Polystichum mucronatum

 

Pteris semipinnata
Selaginella caulescens argentea
Selaginella martensii
Selaginella pubescens
Selaginella stolonifera

 

25
warm greenhouse ferns for cutting

 

Adiantum capillus veneris
Adiantum colpodes elegans
Adiantum cuneatum
Adiantum cuneatum elegans
Adiantum decorum

 

Adiantum gracillimum
Adiantum mariesii
Adiantum pedatum
Adiantum williamsii
Davallia bullata

 

Davallia decora
Davallia dissecta
Davallia dissecta elegans
Davallia mariesii
Davallia tyermannii
 

 

Leucostegia immersa
Nephrodium molle
Onychium japonicum
Osmunda palustris
Pteris cretica

 

Pteris cretica cristata
Pteris serrulata
Pteris serrulata cristata
Pteris tremula
Selaginella pubescens

 

12
selaginellas for warm greenhouse

 

Selaginella caulescens argentea
Selaginella delicatissima
Selaginella densa

 

Selaginella divaricata
Selaginella involvens

 

Selaginella japonica
Selaginella kraussiana

 

Selaginella kraussiana aurea
Selaginella kraussiana variegata

 

Selaginella martensii
Selaginella pubescens
Selaginella variabilis

 

50
cool greenhouse ferns for pots

 

Adiantum aethiopicum
Adiantum affine
Adiantum capillus veneris
Adiantum colpodes elegans
Adiantum decorum
Adiantum formosum
Adiantum mariesii
Adiantum pedatum
Adiantum williamsii
Alsophila excelsa

 

Asplenium bulbiferum
Asplenium hemionitis
Asplenium lucidum
Asplenium praemorsum laceratum
Athyrium laxum
Cheilanthes clevelandii
Cheilanthes gracillima
Cyrtomium caryotidium
Cyrtomium falcatum
Davallia bullata

 

Davallia mariesii
Dicksonia antartica
Dicksonia squarrosa
Doodia aspera
Doodia aspera multifida
Gleichenia dicarpa
Gleichenia flabellata
Gleichenia spelunciae
Gymnogramma triangularis
Lastrea erythrosora

 

Lastrea fragrans
Leucostegia immersa
Lomaria attenuata
Lomaria falcata bipinnatifida
Lomaria fluviatilis
Lygodium japonica
Microlepia platyphylla
Nephrodium molle
Nephrodium molle corymbiferum
Nothocloena lanuginosa

 

Nothocloena newberryi
Onychium japonicum
Osmunda japonica corymbifera
Platyloma cordata
Polystichum concavum
Polystichum vestitum venustum
Pteris cretica
Pteris scaberula
Woodwardia radicans
Woodwardia crispa


A second 50
cool greenhouse ferns for pots

 

Adiantum capillus veneris grande
Adiantum chilense
Adiantum digitatum
Adiantum reniforme
Adiantum venustum
Aleuritopteris mexicana
Anemidictyon pyllitides
Asplenium bifolium
Asplenium hemionitsis cristatum
Asplenium monanthemum

 

Blechnum atherstonii
Cheilanthes fragrans
Davallia mariesii cristata
Davallia novae zealandiae
Dictyogramma japonica
Dictyogramma japonica variegata
Gleichenia dicarpa longipinnata
Gleichenia semivestita
Hypolepis distans
Lastrea glabella

 

Lastrea opaca
Lomaria banksii
Lomaria discolor
Lomaria pumila
Lomariopsis heteromorpha
Lygodium palmatum
Microlepia strigosa
Mohria thurifraga
Nephrodium sangwellii
Niphobolus lingua

 

Nothocloena cretacea
Nothocloena marantae
Nothocloena sinuata
Osmunda palustris
Pellaea andromedaefolia
Pellaea ornithopus
Polypodium hastatum
Polypodium incanum
Polypodium scoulerii
Polystichum tsus-simense

 

Pteris cretica cristata
Pteris longifolia
Pteris serrulata cristata
Pteris serrulata major
Pteris serrulata major cristata
Pteris tremula
Todea africana
Woodsia mollis
Woodwardia radicans burgessiana
Woodwardia radicans cristata

 

12
basket ferns for cool greenhouse

 

Adiantum aethiopicum
Adiantum assimile
Adiantum decorum

 

Elechum polypodioides
Leucostegia immersa

 

Osmunda palustris
Platycerium alcicorne

 

Pteris cretica
Pteris cretica cristata

 

Pteris scaberula
Woodwardia radicans
Woodwardia radicans cristata

 

12
ferns for cork blocks in cool greenhouse

 

Adiantum capillus veneris
Adiantum colpodes elegans
Cheilanthes elegans

 

Davallia bullata
Davallia mariesii

 

Davallia mariesii cristata
Hypolepis distans

 

Pellaea ternifolia
Polystichum triangularum laxum

 

Pteris cretica magnifica
Pteris serrulata
Pteris serrulata cristata

 

25
cool greenhouse ferns for walls

 

Adiantum aethiopicum
Adiantum capillus veneris
Adiatum capillus veneris grande
Adiantum colpodes elegans
Adiantum decorum

 

Adiantum mariesii
Adiantum venustum
Adiantum williamsii
Blechnum polypodioides
Cyrtomium caryotidium

 

Cyrtomum falcatum
Davallia bullata
Davallia mariesii
Diplazium thwaitesii
Drynaria pustulata

 

Niphobolus lingua
Onychium japonicum
Polystichum acrostichoides
Polystichum triangulum
Pteris cretica

 

Pteris cretica cristata
Pteris scaberula
Pteris serrulata
Pteris serrulata cristata
Selaginella martensii

 

12
cool greenhouse ferns for cutting

 

Adiantum capillus veneris
Adiantum decorum
Adiantum mariesii

 

Adiantum pacottii
Adiantum pedatum

 

Davallia bullata
Davallia mariesii

 

Onychium japonicum
Pteris cretica

 

Pteris cretica cristata
Pteris serrulata
Pteris serrulata cristata

 

12
cool greenhouse selaginellas

 

Selaginella brownii
Selaginella denticulata
Selaginella douglassii

 

Selaginella involvens
Selaginella japonica

 

Selaginella kraussiana
Selaginella kraussiana aurea

 

Selaginella kraussiana variegata
Selaginella martensii

 

Selaginella oregana
Selaginella poulterii
Selaginella pubescens

 

50
cold greenhouse ferns for pots

 

Adiantum affine
Adiantum capillus veneris
Adiantum capillus veneris daphnites
Adiantum emarginatum
Adiantum pedatum
Aspidium cristatum floridanum
Asplenium angustifolium
Asplenium fissum
Asplenium fontanum
Athyrium goringianum pictum

 

Botrychium virginicum
Camptosorus rhizophyllus
Cyrtomium falcatum
Cyrtomium fortunei
Cystopteris bulbifera
Davallia mariesii
Dennstaedtia punctilobus
Dicksonia antartica
Dictyogramma japonica
Gymnogramma triangularis

 

Lastrea atrata
Lastrea decurrens
Lastrea fragrans
Lastrea opaca
Lastrea proligica
Lastrea sieboldii
Lomaria chilensis
Lomaria crenulata
Lomaria pumila
Lygodium japonicum

 

Lygodium palmatum
Niphobolus lingua
Onoclea sensibilis
Onychium japonicum
Osmunda japonica corymbifera
Osmunda palustris
Pellaea atropurpurea
Polystichum acrostichoides
Polystichum concavum
Polystichum proliferum

 

Polystichum setosum
Polystichum triangulum laxum
Polystichum vestitum venustum
Pteris scaerula
Struthiopteris germanica
Todea africana
Woodsia ilvensis
Woodsia obtusa
Woodwardia radicans
Woodwardia radicans cristata

 

A second 50
cold greenhouse ferns for pots

 

Adiantum capillus veneris grande
Aspidium juglanifolium
Aspidium pilosum
Asplenium adulterinum
Asplenium ebeneum
Asplenium ebeneum
Asplenium seelosii
Cyrtomium caryotidium
Davallia bullata
Davallia mariesii cristata

 

Davallia novae zealandiae
Dicksonia squarrosa
Dictyogramma japonica variegata
Lastrea frondosa
Lomaria alpina
Platyloma falcata
Platyloma rotundifolia
Struthiopteris pennsylvanica recurva
Woodsia polystichoides veitchii
Woodwardia japonica

 

Woodwardia radicans crispa
Allosorus acrostichoides
Aspidium nevadense
Aspidium nevadense
Aspidium rigidum argutum
Lastrea goldiana
Osmunda cinnamomea
Osmunda claytoniana
Osmunda gracilis
Polystichum munitum

The following are British:
Asplenium lanceolatum
Asplenium marinum
Asplenium septentrionale
Asplenium trichomanes confluens
Asplenium trichomanes incisum
Athyrium filix-femina corymbiferum
Athyrium filix-femina edwardsii
Athyrium filix-femina kalothrix

The following are still British:

Athyrium filix-femina frizellae
Athyrium filix-femina plumosum elegans
Athyrium filix-femina victoriae
Blechnum spicant cristatum
Lastrea pseudo-mas cristata fimbriata
Polypodium vulgare cambricum
Polypodium vulgare trichomanoides
Polystichum angulare bayliae
Scolopendrium vulgare crispum
Scolopendrium vulgare crispum fimbriatum
Scolopendrium vulgare cristulatum
Scolopendrium vulgare laceratum
Scolopendrium vulgare grandiceps
Scolopendrium vulgare ramo marginatum

 

12
basket ferns for cold greenhouse

 

Adiantum pedatum
Athyrium filix-femina corymbiferum
Athyrium filix-femina victorie

 

Osmunda palustris
Polystichum angulare

 

Polystichum angulare divisilobum acutum
Polystichum angulare divislobum decorum

 

Polystichum angulare proliferum
Polystichum angulare venustum

 

Woodwardia radicans
Woodwardia radicans burgessiana
Woodwardia radicans cristata

 

25
cold greenhouse ferns for walls

 

Adiantum capillus veneris
Adiantum pedatum
Asplenium nigrum
Asplenium marinum
Latrea aemula

 

Lastrea prolifica
Lastrea sieboldii
Polybodium falcatum
Polypodium vulgare
Polypodium vulgare cambricum

 

Polypodium vulgare elegantissimum
Polypodium vulgare trichomanoides
Polystichum acrostichoides
Polystichum aculeatum
Polystichum angulare

 

Polystichum angulare bayliae
Polystichum angulare divisilobum
Polystichum angulare proliferum
Polystichum munitum
Polystichum setosum

 

Scolopendrium vulgare
Scolopendrium vulgare crispum
Selaginella oregana
Woodwardia radicans
Wodwardia radicans cristata

 

Half-a-dozen (6)
cold greenhouse ferns for cutting

 

Adiantum capillus veneris

 

Adiantum pedatum

 

Asplenium adiantum nigrum

 

Onychium japonicum

 

Polystichum angulare
Polystichum angulare bayliae

 

Half-a-dozen (6)
selaginellas for cold greenhouse

 

Selaginella denticulata

 

Selaginella japonica

 

Selaginella kraussiana

 

Selaginella kraussians aurea

 

Selaginella kraussiana variegata
Selaginella oregana

 

25
filmy ferns for cool greenhouse

In order to have Filmy Ferns in the greatest perfection, they should be in a very close, damp atmosphere; therefore, unless the house is such as to provide this, they should be enclosed in a frame, or placed under glass shades

 

Hymenophyllum aeruginosum, a beautiful variety, having a soft, downy appearance
Hyemenopyllum caudiculatum, has long tapering fronds, very pretty
Hymenophyllum chiloense, dwarf in habit, small fronds
Hymenophyllum crispatum, fronds 6 inchs (15 cms) long, erect, light green, crispy in appearance
Hymenophyllum demissum, light, graceful fronds, 9 inches (22.5 cms) in length

 

Hymenophyllum demissum nitens, smaller than the preceeding, compact, and very pretty
Hymenophyllum flexuosum, a beautiful variety, fronds 6-9 inches (15-22.5 cms) long, crimpy
Todea fraserii, very handsome, large, light green arching fronds
Todea grandipinnula, a splendid variety, with massive foliage, very pellucid
Todea pellucida, a free-growing species, produces fronds 24 inches (60 cms) long

 

Todea superba, a most beautiful species, the fronds thick, mossy, cut into fine segments
Todea wilkesiana, a handsome species, which forms a thin stem and becomes a Tree-Fern
Trichomanes alabamensis, a dwarf and pretty species
Trichomanes angustatum, fronds 4 inches (10 cms) long, cut into fine hair-like segments
Trichomanes auriculatum, a beautiful species, with drooping fronds 6 inches (15 cms) long, deeply lobed
 

 

Trichomanes luschnathianum, resembles the preceeding, but is more cut
Trichomanes maximum, produces large handsome fronds
Trichomanes radicans (the "Killarney Fern"), has triangular fronds, several times divided, very beautiful
Trichomanes radicans andrewsii
Trichomanes radicans crispum
 

 

Trichomanes radicans dilatatum
Trichomanes radicans dissectum, 4 varieties of the "Killarney Fern", with various distinct characteristics
Trichomanes reniforme (the New Zealand Kidney Fern), a beautiful species, with kidney-shaped fronds
Trichomanes trichoidium, a lovely species, fronds 4 inches (10 cms) long, cut into hair-like segments
Trichomanes venosum, a dwarf and pretty species

 

Half-a-dozen (6)
filmy ferns for cold greenhouse

 

Hymenopyllum demissum

 

Hymenophyllum demissum nitens

 

Hymenophyllum tunbridgense

 

Hymenophyllum wilsonii

 

Todea pellucida
Todea superba
Although these 6 will bear a few degrees of frost, it is advisable to protect them, so as to keep the frost from them.

 

12
stove ferns for exhibition

 

Adiantum cardiochlaena
Adiantum farleyense
Adiantum trapeziforme

 

Asplenium australasicum
Asplenium longissimum

 

Davallia fijiensis plumosa
Goniophlebium subauriculatum
 

 

Gymnogramma chrysophylla
Gymnogramma peruviana argyrophylla

 

Nephrolepis davallioides furcans
Nephrolepis rufescens tripinnatifida
Platycerium grande

 

A second 12
stove ferns for exhibition

 

Adiantum flemingii
Adiantum fragrantissimum
Adiantum lathomii

 

Aglaomorpha meyeniana
Asplenium laxum pumilum

 

Davallia fijiensis
Gymnogramma schizopylla gloriosa

 

Nephrolepis davallioides
Phlebodium aureum

 

Phegopteris effusus
Platycerium stemmaria
Stenochloena scandens

 

12
greenhouse ferns for exhibition

 

Adiantum cuneatum
Adiantum gracillimum
Adiantum williamsii

 

Davallia mooreana
Davallia tenuifolia veitchiana

 

Davallia tyermannii
Gleichenia flabellata

 

Gleichenia rupestris
Gleichenia spelinciae

 

Lomaria gibba
Microlepia hirta cristata
Woodwardia radicans

 

A second 12
greenhouse ferns for exhibition

 

Adiantum cuneatum grandiceps
Adiantum decorum
Adiantum pedatum

 

Adiantum veitchii
Blechnum platyptera

 

Brainea insignis
Davallia bullata

 

Gleichenia dicarpa longipinnata
Gleichenia mendellii

 

Gleichenia semivestita
Pteris scaberula
Woodwardia radicans cristata

 

12
hardy exotic ferns for exhibition

 

Adiantum pedatum
Cyrtomium falcatum fensomii
Lomaria chilensis

 

Onoclea sensibilis
Osmunda cinnamomea

 

Osmunda claytonia
Osmunda gracilis

 

Polystichum braunii
Polystichum proliferum

 

Polystichum munitum
Struthiopteris germanica
Struthiopteris orientalis

 

12
dwarf british ferns for exhibition

 

Adiantum capillus veneris grande
Asplenium germanicum
Asplenium lanceolatum microdon

 

Asplenium septentrionale
Asplenium trichmanes confluens

 

Asplenium trichomanes cristatum
Asplenium trichomanes incisum

 

Athyrium filix-foemina edwardsii
Blechnum spicant cristatum

 

Blechnum spicant plumosum(serratum, Airey's No. 1)
Blechnum spicant trinervo coronans
Polypodium vulgare trichmanoides

 

A second 12
dwarf british ferns for exhibition

 

Asplenium marinum plumosum
Athyrium filix-femina crispum
Athyrium filix-femina veroniae cristatum

 

Blechnum spicant manderii
Lastrea montana congesta

 

Polypodium vulgare cornubiense fowlerii
Polypodium vulgare elegantissimum

 

Polypodium vulgar cristatum
Polystichum lonchitis

 

Scolopendrium vulgare coolingii
Scolopendrium vulgare cristulatum
Scolopendrium vulgare ramo-marginatum

 

A third 12
dwarf british ferns for exhibition

 

Adiantum capillus veneris
Asplenium marinum
Blechnum spicant lineare

 

Ceterach officinarum crenatum
Cystopteris regia (alpina)

 

Cystopteris montana
Polypodium vulgare pulcherrimum

 

Polypodium vulgare grandiceps
Lastrea montana ramo-coronans

 

Lastrea pseudo-mas ramulosissima
Scolopendrium vulgare conglomeratum
Scolopendrium vulgare cristatum

 

12
british ferns for exhibition (not dwarf)

 

Athyrium filix-femina acrocladon
Athyrium filix-femina kalothrix
Athyrium flix-femina plumosum

 

Athyrium filix-femina plumosum elegans
Athyrium filix-femina victoriae

 

Lastrea filix-mas fluctuosa
Lastrea filix-mas grandiceps

 

Lastrea pseudo-mas cristata fimbriata
Lastrea pseudo-mas ramosissima

 

Osmunda regalis cristata
Polystichum angulare plumosum
Scolopendrium vulgare crispum fimbriatum

 

A second 12
british ferns for exhibition (not dwarf)

 

Athyrium filix-femina corymbiferum
Athyrium filix-femina craigii
Athyrium filix-femina fieldae

 

Athyrium filix-femina setigerum
Athyrium filix-femina todeoides

 

Lastrea filix-mas bollandiae
Lastrea pseudo-mas cristata

 

Lastrea pseudo-mas cristata angustata
Polypodium vulgare cambricum

 

Scolopendrium vulgare crispum
Scolopendrium vulgare grandiceps
Scolopendrium vulgare ramo-cristatum majus

 

A third
12 british ferns for exhibition (not dwarf)

 

Athyrium filix-femina frizellae
Athyrium filix-femina glomeratum
Athyrium grantae

 

Athyrium filix-femina pritchardii
Athyrium filix-femina ramo-cristatum

 

Osmunda regalis
Polystichum angulare cristato-gracile

 

Polystichum angulare cristatum
Polystichum angulare divisilobum decorum

 

Polystichum angulare grandiceps
Polystichum angulare proliferum
Scolopendrium vulgare crispum stablerae

 

Ferns suitable for cultivation in
dwelling-houses

 

Asplenium bifolium
Asplenium bulbiferum
Asplenium colensoii
Asplenium foeniculaceum
Davallia canariensis
Cyrtomium falcatum

 

Lastrea pseudo-mas cristata
Nephrodium molle
Nephrolepis exaltata
Platycerium alcicorne
Polystichum setosum
Pteris cretica

 

Pteris cretica magnifica
Pteris cretica nobilis
Pteris serrulata
Pteris serrulata cristata
Pteris serrulata major
Pteris serrulata major cristata

 

Pteris ouvrardii
Pteris tremula
Polystichum angulare bayliae
Polystichum angulare proliferum densum
Polystichum munitum
Scolopendrium vulgare crispum

 

Scolopendrium vulgare laceratum
Scolopendrium vulgare grandiceps

Where there is no gas the following may be cultivated:-
Adiantum cuneatum
Adiantum decorum
Adiantum gracillimum
Adiantum williamsii

 

Ferns suitable for fern stands

As the stands are usually small, it is a good plan to have 1 nice sized Fern in the centre, and either a carpet of Selaginella or a few Dwarf Ferns planted round it

 

The following are all small-growing kinds.

Those with (c) affixed are suitable for planting in the centre

 

Adiantum capillus veneris (c)
Adiantum capillus veneris grande (c)
Adiantum capillus veneris o'brienianum (c)
Adiantum hispidulum tenellum
Adiantum reniforme
Adiantum setulosum
Asplenium inaequale (c)

 

Asplenium obtusilobum
Asplenium fernandezianum
Asplenium fontanum
Asplenium monanthemum (c)
Asplenium praemossum laceratum (c)
Asplenium resectum
Asplenium rutaefolium (c)

 

Asplenium tenullum
Anapeltis nitida
Davallia alpina
Doodia caudata
Lomaria alpina
Pteris internata
Pteris serrulata cristata

 

Selaginella amoena
Selaginella brownii
Selaginella divaricata
Selaginella emiliana
Selaginella japonica
Selaginella kraussiana
Selaginella kraussiana aurea (golden)
Selaginella kraussiana variegata (silvery)
Selaginella martensii

 

 

British varieties:

 

Asplenium marinum
Asplenium nigrum

 

Asplenium trichomanes
Polystichum angulare bayliae (c)

 

Scolopendrium vulgare coolingii
Scolopendrium vulgare cristulatum (c)

 

Scolopendrium vulgare densum

 

 

Filmy Ferns:

 

Hymenophyllum demissum (c)
Hymenophyllum demissum nitens

 

Hymenophyllum tunbridgense
Hymenopyllum wilsonii

 

Trichomanes alabamensis
Trichomanes angustatum

 

Trichomanes radicans (c)
Trichomanes reniforme (c)
Trichomanes venosum

 

Ferns suitable for wardian or fern cases

 

All those named as suitable for Fern stands, also

 

Adiantum affine
Adiantum mariesii
Arthropteris oblitera
Asplenium attenuatum
Asplenium fragrans
Asplenium hemionitis
Asplenium colensoii
Asplenium zeylanicum
Blechnum gracile

 

Davallia bullata
Davallia canariensis
Davallia canariensis pulchella
Davallia hemiptera
Davallia novae zealandiae
Davallia pentaphylla
Doodia amoena
Doodia media crispa cristata
Drynaria pustulata

 

Niphobolus lingua
Onychium japonicum
Phlebodium venosum
Polypodium adnascens
Polypodium billardierii
Polypodium scoulerii
Polystichum setosum
Pteris cretica and its varieties
Pteris internata

 

Pteris serrulata and its varieties
Rhidopteris pelata
Selaginella caulescens
Selaginella gracilis
Selaginella grandis
Selaginella umbrosa
Selaginella victoriae
Selaginella pubescens

 

 

British varieties:

 

Lastrea filix-mas cristata
Polypodium vulgare cambricum
Polypodium vulgare elegantissimum

 

Polystichum angulare cristatum
Polystichum angulare grandiceps
Polystichum angulare perserratum

 

Scolopendrium vulgare crispum
Scolopendrium vulgare cristatum
Scolopendrium laceratum
 

 

Scolopendrium vulgare grandiceps
Scolopendrium vulgare ramo-cristatum
Scolopendrium vulgare ramo-marginatum

 

 

Filmy Ferns -
Those recommended for Fern stands also:

 

Hymenophyllum aeruginosum
Hymenophyllum caudiculatum
Hymenophyllum chiloense
Hymenophyllum flexuosum

 

Hymenophyllum pectinatum
Todea grandipinnula
Todea pellucida
Todaea superba
 

 

Trichomanes auriculatum
Trichomanes exsectum
Trichomanes humile
Trichomanes maximum

 

Trichomanes maximum umbrosum
Trichomanes radicans and its varieties
Trichomanes rigidum
Trichomanes trichoidium

 

Ferns suitable for window cases

The Ferns here named are hardy enough to bear a few degrees of frost without injury, but means should be taken to keep the frost from them, so as to preserve their foliage as perfect as possible

 

Adiantum capillus veneris
Adiantum pedatum
Asplenium ebeneum
Asplenium fontanum
Asplenium nigrum
Asplenium trichomanes
Athyrium filix-femina edwardsii
Athyrium filix-femina vernoniae cristatum
Athyrium filix-femina victoriae

 

Athrium goringianum pictum
Blechnum spicant cristatum
Blechnum spicant trinervo coronans
Cyrtomium caryotidium
Cyrtomium falcatum
Cyrtomium fortuneii
Cystopteris bulbifera

 

Dictyogramma japonica variegata
Lastrea atrata
Lastrea decurrens
Lastrea fragrans
Lastrea opaca
Lastrea prolifica
Lastrea sieboldii
Lastrea pseudo-mas cristata
Lastrea pseudo-mas crispa cristata
Lomaria alpina
Lygodium japonicum
Niphobolus lingua

 

Onoclea sensibilis
Onychium japonicum
Polypodium vulgare cambricum
Polypodium vulgare cornubiense fowlerii
Polypodium vulgare elegantissimum
Polypodium vulgare grandiceps
Polystichum acrostichoides

 

Polystichum braunii
Polystichum munitum
Polystichum setosum
Polystichum angulare bayliae
Polystichum angulare cristatum
Polystichum angulare gracile
Polystichum grandiceps
Pteris cretica
Pteris longifolia
Scolopendrium vulgare capitatum
Scolopendrium vulgare crispum
Scolopendrium vulgare cristatum
Scolopendrium vulgare laceratum
Scolopendrium vulgare grandiceps
Scolopendrium vulgare ramo-marginatum
Todea africana

 

Ferns for window boxes

 

12 dwarf:

 

Allosorus crispus
Asplenium nigrum
Asplenium trichomanes

 

Asplenium viride
Blechnum spicant
Ceterach officinarum

 

Cystopteris fragilis
Polypodium calcareum
Polypodium dryopteris

 

Polypodium phegopteris
Polypodium vulgare
Polystichum onchitis

 

 

12 medium size:

 

Aspidium rigidum argutum
Lastrea aemula
Lastrea intermedia

 

Lastrea marginale
Lastrea rigida
Lastrea spinulosa

 

Polystichum acrostichoides
Polystichum braunii
Scolopendrium vulgare

 

Scolopendrium vulgare crispum
Scolopendrium vulgare grandiceps
Woodwardia angustifolia

 

 

12 large size:

 

Athyrium filix femina
Athyrium filix femina corymbiferum
Athyrium filix femina fieldiae

 

Lastrea dilatata
Lastrea filixmas
Lastrea filixmas fluctuosa

 

Lastrea pseudo-mas cristata
Lastrea montana
Osmunda gracilis

 

Polystichum aculeatum
Polystichum angulare
Polystichum munitum

 

Tree-ferns for greenhouses

 

Large-growing species:

 

Alsophila australis
Alsophila excelsa
Alsophila rebeccae
 

 

Cibotium regale
Cibotium schiedii
Cibotium spectabile
 

 

Cyathea dealbata (the New Zealand Silver Tree-Fern)
Cyathea medularis
Cyathea princeps

 

Dicksonia antarctica
Dicksonia fibrosa
Dicksonia squarrosa

 

 

Smaller-growing species:

 

Blechnum braziliense
Blechnum corcovadense
Blechnum platyptera

 

Lomaria attenuata
Lomaria ciliata
Lomaria discolor

 

Lomaria falcata
Lomaria falcata bipinnatifida
Lomaria gibba

 

Lomaria gibba tincta
Lomaria l'herminierii (very dwarf)
Sadleria cyatheoides

 

Hardy ferns for outdoor ferneries

Dwarf species and varieties growing from 4 inches to 12 inches (10-30 cms) in height

 

North American:

 

Allosorus acrostichoides
Aspidium nevadense

 

Asplenium ebeneum
Cystopteri bulbifera

 

Lomaria alpina
Phegopteris hexagonoptera

 

Woodsia ilvensis
Woodsia obtusa
Woodwardia angustifolia

 

 

British:

 

Allosorus crispus (Parsley Fern)
Asplenium adiantum nigrum (the Black Maidenhair Spleenwort)
Asplenium ruta-muria (the Rue-leafed Spleenwort)
Asplenium trichomanes (the Green-stemmed Spleenwort)
Athyrium filix femina crispum
Athyrium filix femina edwardsii

 

Athyrium filix femina findlayanum
Athyrium filix femina frizellae
Athyrium filix femina minimum
Athyrium filix femina vernoniae
Athyrium filix femina vernoniae cristatum
Blechnum spicant (the Hard Fern)
Blechnum spicant imbricatum
Ceterach offinarum (the Scaly Spleenwort)
Ceterach officinarum crenatum
Cystopteris fragilis (the Brittle Bladder Fern)

 

Cystopteris fragilis dickiena
Cystopteris montana (the Mountain Bladder Fern)
Lastrea pseudo-mas crispa
Lastrea pseudo-mas crispa cristata
Lastrea rigida (the Rigid Buckler Fern)
Polypodium dryopteris (the Oak Fern)
Polypodium phegopteris (the Beech Fern)
Polypodium robertianum (syn. calcareum, the Limestone Polypody)

 

Polypodium vulgare cornubiense fowlerii
Polypodium vulgare elegantissimum
Polystichum angulare bayliae
Polystichum angulare parvissimum
Polystichum angulare proliferum densum
Polystichum lonchitis (the Holly Fern)
Scolopendrium vulgare (the Hartstongue Fern)
Scolopendrium vulgare coolingii
Scolopendrium vulgare cristulatum
Scolopendrium vulgare densum
Scolopendrium vulgare digitatum
Scolopendrium vulgare endivaefolium
Scolopendrium vulgare fissum
Scolopendrium vulgare grandiceps
Scolopendrium vulgare marginatum tenuae
Scolopendrium vulgare ramo-cristatum

 

Hardy ferns for outdoor ferneries

Medium-sized species and varieties which grow from 12 to 24 inches (30-60 cms) in height

 

North American:

 

Aspidium cristatum
Aspidium noveboracense
Aspidium argutum
 

 

Asplenium thelypterioides
Dennstaedtia punctilobula
Lastrea intermedia

 

Lastrea marginale
Onoclea sensibilis
Polystichum acrostichoides

 

Polystichum braunii
Woodwardia virginica
Struthiopteris germanica (European)

 

 

British:

 

Athyrium filix femina capitatum
Athyrium filix femina cristatum
Athyrium filix femina fieldae
Athyrium filix femina frizellae cristatum
Athyrium filix femina irdlestoneii
Athyrium filix femina kilmoryensis
Athyrium filix femina mooreii
Athyrium filix femina polydactylum
Athyrium filix femina princeps
Athyrium filix femina pulcherrimum

 

Athyrium filix femina smithii
Athyrium filix femina stipatum
Lastrea aemula (the Hay-scented Fern)
Lastrea dilatata cristato-gracile
Lastrea dilatata lepidota
Lastrea filix-mas fluctuosa
Lastrea pseudo-mas crouchii
Lastrea montana (the Mountain Buckler Fern, syn Lastrea oreopteris)

 

Lastrea thelypteris (the Marsh Fern)
Polypodium alpestre
Polypodium alpestre flexile
Polypodium vulgare auritum
Polypodium vulgare cambricum (the Welsh Polypody)
Polypodium vulgare crenatum
Polypodium vulgare semilacerum (the Irish Polypody)
Polystichum aculeatum (the hard Prickly Shield Fern)
Polystichum angulare acutilobum
 

 

Polystichum angulare cristatum
Polystichum angulare divisilobum acutum
Polystichum angulare grandidens
Polystichum angulare imbricatum
Polystichum angulare lineare
Polystichum angulare perserratum
Polystichum angulare polydactylum
Polystichum angulare proliferum
Polystichum angulare proliferum wollastonii
Polystichum angulare rotundatum
Polystichum angulare wakeleyanum
Scolopendrium vulgare captatum
Scolopendrium vulgare crispum
Scolopendrium vulgare multifidum

 

Hardy ferns for outdoor ferneries

Large species and varieties growing 24 inches (60 cms) high and upwards

 

North American:

 

Aspidium cristatum clintonianum
Aspidium spinulosum bootii
Athyrium michauxii
Lastrea goldiana

 

Osmunda cinnamomea, produces its fertile fronds in the centre of the plant, entirely distinct from the barren; the spore cases, when matured are cinnamon-coloured and very attractive

 

Osmunda claytonia (syn Osmunda interrupta), a very beautiful species

 

Osmunda gracilis
Polystichum munitum
Struthiopteris pennsylvanica
Lomaria chilensis (Chilean species)

 

 

British:

 

Athyrium filix femina corymbiferum, a handsome crested variety
Athyrium filix femina craigii
Athyrium filix femina elworthii
Athyrium felix femina glomeratum
Athyrium filix femina grantae
Athyrium filix femina howardae
Athyrium filix femina multifidum
Athyrium fiix femina plumosum, a beautiful variety, with large graceful fronds
Athyrium filix femina pritchardii, a curious variety, with long narrow cruciate fronds
Athyrium filix femina ramo cristatum
Athyrium filix femina rheticum deflexum, pinnules curiously reflexed

 

Athrium filix femina setigerum, a very beautiful variety, the fronds having a bristly appearance
Athyrium filix femina thyssanotum
Athyrium filix femina todeoides
Lastrea dilatata (the Broad Buckler Fern)
Lastrea dilatata crispato cristata, a pretty variety, with crisp-looking and crested fronds
Lastrea filixmas barnesii
Lastrea filixmas bollandiae
Lastrea filixmas cronkleyense
Lastrea filixmas digitato jonesii
Lastrea filixmas grandiceps, very heavily crested
Lastrea filixmas ingramii
Lastrea filixmas iveryana
Lastrea filixmas lineare
Lastrea filixmas abbreviata cristata barnesii, a very distinct and pretty variety

 

Lastrea pseudomas cristata, a handsome variety, finely crested
Lastrea pseudomas cristata angustata, fronds narrow, crimpy, and crested, a distinct variety
Lastrea pseudomas pinderii
Lastrea pseudomas polydactyla, an ornamental crested variety
Lastrea spinulosa (the Spiny Buckler Fern),
Osmunda regalis (the Royal Fern), one of the largest British Ferns - in a congenial position the fronds often attain a height of 6 feet = 72 inches = 180 cms
Osmunda regalis cristata, a very handsome crested variety, of large growth and pleasing appearance

 

Polystichum angulare (the soft Prickly Shield Fern)
Polystichum angulare cristato gracile
Polystichum angulare divisilobum
Polystichum angulare multilobum (syn. Polystichum angulare venustum), a beautiful variety
Polystichum angulare proliferum crawfordianum
Pteris aquilina (the Brake Fern, or Bracken), grows to a large size when planted in a damp, shaded, and sheltered position
Pteris aquilina congesta, a peculiarly congested form
Pteris aquilina cristata, a crested variety of distinct appearance

 

Specially choice species and varieties

 

North American:

 

Lastrea fragrans, a dwarf, compact, pretty species, well named "The Violet-scented Fern"

 

Polystichum acrostichoides grandiceps, a heavily-crested variety, sturdy and compact in habit

 

Woodsia glabella

 

 

 

British:

Asplenium

 

adiantum nigrum acutumm, fronds lighter in texture, larger, and more pointed than the species

 

nigrum grandiceps, bears a comparitively large crest at the apex of each frond

 

Germanicum (syn. alternifolium, the Alternate-leaved Spleenwort)

 

septentrionale (the Forked Spleenwort)

 

 

Among these Lady Ferns there are some of the most beautiful Ferns in cultivation, and they will bear comparison with any of the Exotics. Their beauty is most ighly developed when cultivated in a cold greenhouse.

Athyrium filix femina

 

acrocladon, fronds much branched, and densely crested, is of compact habit, and very distinct...
caudigerum, fronds long, narrow, and peculiarly congested...
conglomeratum, a nice compact variety, heavily crested...
cristulatum, a pretty, dwarf, crested variety...

 

curtum multifidum, a dwarf variety, narrow fronds, crested, specially neat in appearance...
frizellae coronare, a most beautiful variety of the frizellaea section, fronds very narrow, and surmounted by a large round yet light-looking crest...
frizellae gracile, fronds narrow, slender, graceful, divided into two near the bottom...
ramo-cristatum, a very pretty variety, fronds branched and crested...

 

gemmatum, very beautiful, fronds 24 inches (60 cms) long, rather narrow, each pinna and the frond at the tip bearing crisp crests... girdlestoneii cristatum, a handsome depauperated crested form, light and graceful...
Kalothrix, a lovely variety, the foliage very thin in texture, delicate green in colour, finely cut and possessing quite a Filmy-Fern appearance...
plumosum elegans, a most beautiful variety, the fronds, 18-24 inches (45-60 cms) in length, very pale green, cut into exceedingly fine segments...

 

plumosum multifidum, exceedingly pretty, the fronds light green, finely divided, plumose, and heavily crested...
regale, a variety of very handsome appearance, the fronds erect in habit, feathery, and crested...
regale, a variety of very handsome appearance, the fronds erect in habit, feathery, and crested...
setigerum capitatum, a dwarf variety, possessing the bristly character of setigerum, and bearing a small dense crest at the apex of each frond...
setigerum percistatum, a strikingly beautiful variety, cristate throughout the whole frond, the crests at the tips of the pinnae and the end of the frond all arranged in regular order...
victoriae, often styled "The Queen of the Lady Ferns, is certainly unique. Its fronds attain a length of 3 feet = 36 inches = 90 cms; the pinnae arranged along the midrib are very narrow, crested, and in pairs on each side of the stem.They branch at an angle of 45 degrees, one upwards, the other downwards, so that there is a continual series of crossing pinnae from bottom to top, forming a delicate lattice-work of green frondage. The apex of each frond is crested, the plant has a symetrical graceful habit, ad is very beautiful...

 

 

Blechnum spicant

 

concinnum, very narrow crimpy fronds...
cristatum, a pretty crested variety...

 

lineare, fronds long and very narrow, being regularly contracted and neat in appearance...maunderii, a densely ramose, crested variety, grows like a green ball...

 

plumosum (syn. Blechnum spicant serratum, Airey's No. 1), a beautiful variety, with deeply-serrated and sometimes tripinnate fronds, which aatain a length of 18 inches (45 cms)...

 

trinervo-coronans, a very pretty crested variety, one of the nicest of the genus...

 

 

Cystopteris

 

alpina (the Alpine Bladder Fern, syn. Cystopteris regia), a handsome species, fronds finely cut...

 

 

 

 

 

Lastrea

 

dilatata spectabile, a dwarf and very pretty variety, the fronds finely and distinctly cut...

 

pseudo-mas cristata fimbriata (syn. Lastrea pseudo-mas plumosissima), a very handsome variety, fimbriated, crested, much lighter in appearance than the old cristata, compact in habit, graceful, and makes a very pretty specimen...

 

pseudo-mas ramosissima, a distinct variety, much branched and crested...

 

montana coronans, a beautiful variety, fronds narrow, crested, and compact in habit...
montana ramo-coronans, similar to the preceeding, but the fronds branched and the whole appearance of the plant more pleasing...

 

 

Polypodium vulgare

 

cambricum prestonii, a beautiful plumose form of the Welsh Polypody...

 

grandiceps, a heavily crested and a very handsome variety...

 

multifido-cristatum, fronds much branched and crested...

 

trichomanoides, fronds dense, cut into numberless fine segments, light green, and very pretty...

Plant with Photo Index of Ivydene Gardens
A 1, Photos
B 1, Photos
C 1, Photos
D 1, Photos
E 1, Photos
F 1, Photos
G 1, Photos
H 1, Photos
I 1, Photos
J 1, Photos
K 1, Photos
L 1, Photos
M 1, Photos
N 1, Photos
O 1, Photos
P 1, Photos
Q 1, Photos
R 1, Photos
S 1, Photos
T 1, Photos
U 1, Photos
V 1, Photos
W 1, Photos
X 1 Photos
Y 1, Photos
Z 1 Photos
Articles/Items in Ivydene Gardens
Flower Shape and Plant Use of
Bedding
Bulb
Evergreen Perennial
Herbaceous Perennial
Rose

 

 

Polystichum angulare

 

congestum, dense, overlapping foliage...
divisilobum decorum, produces large, broad, drooping fronds, divided into small pinnules...
divisilobum laxum, a very handsome variety, finely divided and graceful...

 

divisilobum plumosum, one of the most beautiful Ferns in cultivation, the fronds long, very broad at the base, pinnules densely overlapping, producing a moss-like appearance, finely cut, and elegant in the extreme...

 

foliosa crispum, fronds dense, foliose, and crisp in appearance...
foliosa multifidum, a pretty variety, fronds very leafy, crested...
gracile, a very pretty graceful variety...

 

grandiceps, erect in habit, narrow fronds, bearing a dense crest, very handsome...
pateyii, a plumose form of considerable beauty...
plumosum, a large and exceedingly handsome plumose variety, makes a grand specimen...
plumosa divisilobum gracile, very beautiful, finely cut, and graceful...

 

Scolopendrium vulgare

 

crispum fimbriatum, a very beautiful variety, with large, deeply-frilled fronds, fimbriated and dense - one of the most lovely of this family...

 

crispum robustum, a large and exceedingly handsome form of this pretty variety...

 

crispum willsii, a specially pretty broad-fronted variety...

 

ramo-cristatum majus (Jones), a densely-branched and crested variety, of fine appearance....
ramo-marginatum, a very pretty crested variety, distinct and attractive...

 

Of Hardy Ferns, the following are
Evergreen
when protected from the frost

 

Adiantum capillus veneris and its varieties
Aspidium (in part)

 

Asplenium (in part)
Blechnum

 

Ceterach
hymenophyllum
Lastrea (in part)

 

Polypodium (nearly all)
Polystichum
Scolopendrium

 

Deciduous

 

Adiantum pedatum
Allosorus
Aspidium (in part)
Asplenium (in part)

 

Athyrium
Botrychium
Cystopteris
Dennstaedtia

 

Onoclea
Ophioglossum
Osmunda
Phegopteris

 

Polypodium (in part)
Pteris
Struthiopteris
Woodsia
Woodwardia

 

The species and varieties enumerated in the preceeding sections are suitable for borders, beds, or rock ferneries, but the varieties should be selected according to the space at disposal for their development.

 

 

Companion Plants

A question I get asked many times is what flowering plants are suited for growing with ferns. There are a few choice plants, with elegant flowers with subtle shades that compliment ferns and grow well in shade. Here is a collection of plants that, in my opinion, go very well with ferns:-

and

Ferns of the Atlantic Fringe with associated plants (1 - Atlantic Cliff-top Grassland, Ledges and Rough Slopes; 2 - Clay Coasts and Dunes of South-East Ireland; 3 - Limestones of Western Atlantic Coasts; 4 - Hebridean Machair; 5 - Horsetail Flushes, Ditches and Stream Margins; 6 - Water Margin Osmunda Habitats; 7 - Western, Low-lying, Wet, Acid Woodlands; 8 - Western, Oak and Oak-Birch Woodlands and Ravines, in the UK and Ireland)
Ferns in Coastal District with associated plants (Hard Rock Cliffs, Soft Rock Cliffs, Clay Coasts, or Coastal Sand-Dunes in the UK)
Ferns of Grasslands and Rock Outcrops (Grasslands; Rocks, Quarries and Mines in the UK)
Ferns of Heath and Moorland with associated plants (1 - Bracken Heath; 2 - Ferns of Moist Heathland Slopes and Margins of Rills and Streams; 3 - Heathland Horsetails, 4 - Heathland Clubmosses, in the UK)
Ferns of Lower Mountain Habitats with associated plants (1 - Upland Slopes and Screes; 2 - Base-rich, Upland Springs and Flushes; 3 - Base-rich, Upland, Streamside Sands and Gravels; 4 - Juniper Shrub Woodland, in the UK)
Ferns for Man-Made Landscapes with associated plants (South-western Hedgebanks, Hedgerows and Ditches, Walls and Stonework, Water Mills and Wells, Lime Kilns and abandoned Lime-Workings, Pit heaps and Shale Bings, Canals, Railways and Their Environs in the UK)
Ferns of Upper Mountain Habitats with associated plants (1 - High Mountain, Basic Cliffs and Ledges; 2 - High, Cliff Gullies; 3 - High Mountain Corries, Snow Patches and Fern beds; 4 - Ridges, Plateaux and High Summits, in the UK)
Ferns for Wetlands with associated plants (1- Ponds, Flooded Mineral Workings and Wet Heathland Hollows; 2 - Lakes and Reservoirs; 3 - Fens; 4 - Ferns of the Norfolk Broads' Fens; 5 - Willow Epiphytes in the UK)
Ferns in Woodland with associated plants (1 - Dry, Lowland, Deciduous Woodland; 2 - Inland, Limestone, Valley Woodland; 3 - Base-rich Clay, Valley Woodland; 4 - Basic, Spring-fed Woodland; 5 - Ravine Woodland on Mixed Rock-types; 6 - Native Pine Forest in the UK)