Ivydene Gardens Plants:
Groundcover Plant
Name - L

The plants normally selected by most landscapers and designers are by nature low-growing, rampant, spreading, creep-crawly things and yet the concept of ground cover demands no such thing. The ideal description of a groundcover plant includes:-

  • a bold dense mass of leaves completely covering the ground most of the year; evergreens gain gold stars.
  • They should require little or no maintenance - if you have to give the plant more than its share of attention, you might as well save your money and spend the time weeding.
  • use the plant on ground areas that are difficult to maintain, such as steep banks or boggy patches.
  • use the plant to cover areas where not much will grow, such as deep shade or sandy soils.

Ground Cover a thousand beautiful plants for difficult places by John Cushnie (ISBN 1 85626 326 6) provides details of plants that fulfill the above requirements.

Using these groundcover plants in your planting scheme (either between your trees/shrubs in the border or for the whole border) will - with mulching your beds to a 4 inch depth and an irrigation system - provide you with a planted garden with far less time required for border maintenance.
Wildflower Flower Shape and Landscape Uses gallery provides Landscaping List by Use pages which include some of these ground-cover plants. Landscaping with Perennials by Emily Brown. 5th printing 1989 by Timber Press. ISBN 0-88192-063-0 provides the planting site pages for perennials, which include most plant types except Annuals and Biennials.

Plants for Ground-Cover by Graham Stuart Thomas. Published by J. M. Dent & Sons Ltd in 1970 - reprinted (with further revisions) in 1990. ISBN 0-460-12609-1. This gives details on many more ground cover plants with inclusion (in the Index) of figures denoting the Hardiness Zones for each species in the United States of America.

Plant Name

with link to page with photos and mail-order nursery in Comments Row

Type

with link to mail-order nursery in UK

Height x Spread in inches (cms)

Foliage

with link to mail-order nursery in USA

Flower Colour in Month(s).

Use Pest Control using Plants to provide a Companion Plant to aid your selected groundcover plant or deter its pests

Comments

United States Department of Agriculture Plant Hardiness Zone Map - This map of USA is based on a range of average annual minimum winter temperatures, divided into 13 of 10-degree F zones, that this plant will thrive in USA, Alaska, Hawaii and Puerto Rico. There are other Hardiness Zone Maps for the rest of the world including the one for Great Britain and Ireland of zones 7a to 10a. Zone 5-9 indicates that the minimum zone temperature this plant will grow is 5 and top minimum zone temperature is 9 - above this number is too hot or below 5 is too cold for the plant. If your zone in your area of your country is within that range or your zone number is greater, then you can grow it in your garden.

Laburnum alpinum 'Pendulum'

Deciduous Tree 24-72 inches (60-180 cms) in height

72 x 72 (180 x 180)

Glossy Dark Green

Bright Yellow in
June-July

"Scotch Laburnum". Poisonous seeds.

Lamium galeobdolon
(Lamiastrum galeobdolon)

Herbaceous Perennial 24-72 inches (60-180 cms) in height

24 x indefinite (60 x indefinite)

Mid-Green marked Silver

Brown-spotted Yellow in
July-September

"Yellow Archangel". Good Ground Cover among shrubs or taller perennials as a weed-excluding or living mulch. Invasive in woods.
Full Sun, Part Shade
Zone 3-9
Moist soil

Lamium companions - Under trees and shrubs with pulmonaria, spring bulbs, dicentra, asarum, helleborus, hosta, ferns, iris foetidissima, polygonatum, smilacina.

The colourful leaves of these plants make them useful for highlighting shaded or quiet corners and for contrasting with the solid green leaves of surrounding plants. Lamiums prefer shady spots but tolerate full sun if the soil holds enough water.

Lamium galeobdolon
'Silver Angel'

Herbaceous Perennial below 24 inches (60 cms) in height

20 x indefinite (50 x indefinite)

Silver

Brown-spotted Yellow in
July-September

"Deadnettle".
Good Ground Cover among shrubs or taller perennials.
Full Sun, Part Shade
Zone 3
Moist soil

Lamium maculatum
'Aureum'

Herbaceous Perennial below 24 inches (60 cms) in height

8 x 36
(20 x 90)

Matt Mid-Green mottled silvery White or Pink

Purple, White or Pink in
July-September

"Deadnettle". Good Ground Cover among shrubs or taller perennials. Do not allow it to dry out. Lights up a border.
Full Sun, Part Shade
Zone 3-9
Moist soil

Lamium maculatum
'Beacon Silver'

Herbaceous Perennial below 24 inches (60 cms) in height

8 x 36
(20 x 90)

Silver narrowly margined Green

Pale Pink in
July-September

"Deadnettle". Good Ground Cover among shrubs or taller perennials. Mildew prone, requires shade.
Full Sun, Part Shade
Zone 3-9
Moist soil

Lamium maculatum
'White Nancy'

Herbaceous Perennial below 24 inches (60 cms) in height

6 x 36
(15 x 90)

Silver narrowly margined Green

Pure White in
July-September

"Deadnettle". Good Ground Cover among shrubs or taller perennials. Tolerate sun if kept moist.
Full Sun, Part Shade
Zone 3-9
Moist soil

Larix kaempferi
(Larix leptolepis)

Deciduous Conifer above 72 inches (180 cms) in height

1200 x 180 (3000 x 450)

Grey-Green

...

"Japanese Larch". Fast-growing Japanese species.
Full Sun
Zones 4-9
Well-drained, light or gravelly soil; resents waterlogged soil.

Lathyrus gmelinii

Herbaceous Perennial 24-72 inches (60-180 cms) in height

36 x 12 (90 x 30)

Mid-Green

Brown-striped, Orange-Yellow in
June-August

"Everlasting Pea". Cut Lathyrus down in the autumn after first frost, when the foliage dies back.
Full Sun to dappled Shade
Zone 5
Rich, but well-drained soil.
Slugs in spring - Slugs are deterred by Lithocarpus densiflorus, rosemarinus officinalis, helleborus niger, artemesia absinthum, or artemesia frigida (see Pest Control using Plants).

Lathyrus vernus
(Orobus vernus)

Herbaceous Perennial below 24 inches (60 cms) in height

18 x 18 (45 x 45)

Mid to Dark Green

Purplish-Blue in
April-June

"Spring Vetchling". Non-invasive, makes a large clump in a woodland, scrub and on rocky ledges in most of Europe.
Full Sun to dappled Shade
Zone 4-9
Rich, but well-drained soil.

Lathyrus companions - trillium, rhododendron, narcissus, aquilegia, meconopsis, euphorbia, pulmonaria, primula, chaerophyllum, 'Negrita' and 'Queen of the Night' tulips.

Laurus nobilis

Evergreen Tree above 72 inches (180 cms) in height

480 x 360 (1200 x 900)

Glossy Dark Green

Greenish-Yellow in
April-June

"Bay Laurel, Sweet Bay, Laurel". Broadly conical tree which is suitable to clipping and shaping.
Sheltered positions in Full Sun or Part Shade
Zones 7-10
Fertile, well-drained soil

Lavandula angustifolia
'Hidcote'

Evergreen Subshrub 24-72 inches (60-180 cms) in height

24 x 24 (60 x 60)

Silver-Grey

Deep Purple in
August-September

"Lavender, English Lavender". Makes an attractive low hedge and can be trimmed after flowering.
Full Sun
Zones 6-10
Fertile, well-drained soil; they will thrive in both acid and alkaline soils.

Lavandula angustifolia
'Munstead'

Evergreen Herb below 24 inches (60 cms) in height

18 x 24 (45 x 60)

Grey-Green

Blue-Purple in August-September

"Lavender, English Lavender".

As a ground cover, english lavender is an excellent choice being a natural choice for borders and in rock and herb gardens.

Lavandula angustifolia
'Rosea'

Evergreen Shrub 24-72 inches (60-180 cms) in height

24 x 24 (60 x 60)

Grey-Green

Lavender-Pink in
July-August

"Lavender, English Lavender".

All lavender varieties provide cut flowers.

Lavandula dentata

Evergreen Herb 24-72 inches (60-180 cms) in height

60 x 60 (150 x 150)

Dark Green

Slightly fragrant Purple-Blue in August-September

"Fringed Leaved Lavender". Densely packed, soft spikes of flowers remain on this shrub from autumn through to late spring in warm climates. Native of the western Mediterranean and Atlantic islands. Use as an edging plant to soften the harsh lines of paving.
Full Sun
Zones 8-10
Fertile, any well-drained soil.

Lavandula stoechas

Evergreen Herb below 24 inches (60 cms) in height

18 x 18 (45 x 45)

Grey-Green

Fragrant Deep Purple in
May-August

"French Lavender, Spanish Lavender". Native to the western Mediterranean. Neat. A dense, bushy shrub.
Full Sun
Zones 7-10
Fertile, any well-drained soil

Lavatera maritima

Evergreen Perennial 24-72 inches (60-180 cms) in height

60 x 36 (150 x 90)

Grey-Green

Pink, or White in
September-November
lavateracflomaritima

 

Lavatera thuringiaca 'Barnsley'

Deciduous Shrub 24-72 inches (60-180 cms) in height

72 x 72 (180 x 180)

Green

Pale Pink in
June-November

Full Sun
Zone 8
Well-drained soil. From eastern Europe and western Asia. Plunge pot in late spring and replace in frostproof greenhouse in October for plants north of southern Britain.

Ledum groenlandicum

Evergreen Shrub 24-72 inches (60-180 cms) in height

36 x 48 (90 x 120)

Dark Green above, densely rusty-felted beneath

White in
June

"Labrador Tea". From Greenland and northern North America. Resembles a small version of rhododendron.
Shade or morning sun
Zones 2-8
Cool, humus-rich, moist but well-drained soil

Leptospermum scoparium
'Red Damask'

Evergreen Shrub above 72 inches (180 cms) in height

120 x 120 (300 x 300)

Dark Green

Dark Red in
June-July

"New Zealand Tea-tree, Manuka". From New Zealand and Tasmania.
Full Sun
Zones 8-10
Well-drained soil. In cool climates they can be grown as conservatory plants or placed outdoors in tubs in summer.

Leucanthemum x superbum

Herbaceous Perennial 24-72 inches (60-180 cms) in height

36 x 24 (90 x 60)

Glossy Dark Green

White in
July-October

"Shasta Daisy". Clump-forming.
Good for cutting - smell a bit so admire from a distance.
Full Sun
Zone 4-9
Rich, fertile, well-drained soil

Leucanthemum x superbum
'Wirral Supreme'

Herbaceous Perennial 24-72 inches (60-180 cms) in height

36 x 30 (90 x 75)

Glossy Dark Green

White in
July-October

Full Sun
Zone 5
Rich, fertile, well-drained soil

Leucanthemum Companions - achillea, nepeta, echinacea, rudbeckia, allium, heliopsis, grasses. Divide clumps every 2 or 3 years to help retain flowering potential.

Leucojum aestivum

Herbaceous Bulb below 24 inches (60 cms) in height

18 x 3
(45 x 7)

Glossy Dark Green

Chocolate-scented White in
April-June

"Summer Snowflake".

Leucojum vernum

Herbaceous Bulb below 24 inches (60 cms) in height

12 x 3
(30 x 7)

Glossy Dark Green

Green-tipped White in
April

"Spring Snowflake".

Leucothoe fontanesiana
(Leucothoe catesbaei)

Deciduous Shrub 24-72 inches (60-180 cms) in height

48 x 120 (120 x 300)

Dark Green

White in
April-June

"Switch Ivy, Pearl Flower, Drooping Leucothoe". From southeastern states of the USA. Arching stems.
Sheltered position in Full Sun, Part Shade
Zones 6-10
Moist, acidic, well-drained soil

Leycesteria formosa

Deciduous Shrub 24-72 inches (60-180 cms) in height

72 x 72 (180 x 180)

Dark Green

White with Red bracts in
July-September
leycesteriaflotformosa1

"Himalayan Honeysuckle".

Libertia grandiflora

Evergreen Perennial 24-72 inches (60-180 cms) in height

36 x 24 (90 x 60)

Dark Green - Narrowly sword-like, upright leaves arranged in fans make a striking feature in themselves. Mulch with spent mushroom compost, or bark in the autumn to reduce frost damage.

White in
June-July

"New Zealand satin flower". Flowers followed by spherical seed pods which turn black when mature. From stream banks and open woodland in New Zealand.
Full Sun
Zone 8
Moist, fertile soil

Companions - nepeta, sedum, bronze carex, haloragis.

Ligularia dentata

Herbaceous Perennial 24-72 inches (60-180 cms) in height

48 x 36 (120 x 90)

Mid-Green
 

Orange-Yellow in
July-September

"Golden Groundsel". Clump-forming. From wet mountain meadows in Burma, central and western China, and Japan. Statuesque foliage plants for a bog garden or moist border, with the bonus of summer flowers
Part Shade
Zone 3-9
Rich, moist soil

Ligularia dentata
'Desdemona'

Herbaceous Perennial 24-72 inches (60-180 cms) in height

36 x 36 (90 x 90)

Brownish-Green above, Deep Maroon-Purple beneath

Deep Orange in
August-October

Part Shade
Zone 3-9
Rich, moist soil

Companions - grasses, ferns, largehostas, aruncus dioicus, telekia, petasites, iris pseudacorus as a foliage contrast, shrubby cornus, inula, rumex, lysimachia ciliata 'Firecracker', carex elata 'Aurea'. Ligularia planted en masse, they never fail to amaze visitors.

Ligularia
'Gregynog Gold'

Herbaceous Perennial 24-72 inches (60-180 cms) in height

48 x 24 (120 x 60)

Dark Green

Golden-Orange in
September-October

With its richly coloured flowers it makes it one of the most striking plants for a moist border in late summer.
Part Shade
Zone 3-9
Rich, moist soil

Ligustrum delavayanum

Evergreen Shrub 24-72 inches (60-180 cms) in height

72 x 120 (180 x 300)

Dark Green

White in
July

"Privet".
Blue-Black berries.

Ligustrum japonicum

Evergreen Shrub above 72 inches (180 cms) in height

120 x 96 (300 x 240)

Glossy very Dark Green

White in
August-October

"Japanese Privet". Bushy and dense from Asia. Can be used as a hedge plant.
Full Sun, Part Shade
Zones 7-11
Moist, well-drained soil - the roots are very greedy and usually make growing anything else within their reach frustrating. Birds feast on the blue-black berries and can easily overpopulate the whole district with privet seedlings.

Ligustrum vulgare

Deciduous Shrub above 72 inches (180 cms) in height

120 x 120 (300 x 300)

Dark Green

White in
July-August

"Common Privet, European Privet". Bushy shrub from Europe, North Africa and temperate Asia. If using as a hedge, prune back hard for the first few years of growth then trim regularly.
Full Sun, Part Shade
Zones 4-10
Moist, well-drained soil.

Limonium latifolium
'Blue Cloud'
(Limonium platyphyllum 'Blue Cloud')

Herbaceous Perennial 24-72 inches (60-180 cms) in height

24 x 18 (60 x 45)

Mid to Dark Green

Mauve in
September

"Sea Lavender". From steppes and dry grassland in southeast Europe.
Use in dried flower arrangements.
Full Sun
Zone
Any free-draining soil.

Linnaea borealis

Evergreen Alpine below 24 inches (60 cms) in height

3 x 36
(7 x 90)

Glossy Dark Green above , Buff to Pale Green below

Pale Pink in
July-September

"Twinflower". Sub-Shrub that forms a low carpet of paired, shiny leaves with bell-shaped flowers.

Linum arboreum

Evergreen Shrub below 24 inches (60 cms) in height

12 x 12 (30 x 30)

Bluish-Green

Deep Yellow in
June-September

"Flax". Linum will need replacing after 3 years.

Companions - stachys byzantina, liatris, scabiosa columbaria subsp. ochroleuca, papaver atlanticum; wherever a wilder look is desired.

Linum narborense

Biennial below 24 inches (60 cms) in height

18 x 18 (45 x 45)

Mid-Green

Rich Blue in
July-August

"Narbonne Flax". Clump-forming, short-lived and long-blooming. Cutting the plants back to about 8 inches (20 cm) after flowering will often promote rebloom.
Full Sun
Zone 4-9
Well-drained soil

Liquidamber styraciflua
'Lane Roberts'

Deciduous Tree above 72 inches (180 cms) in height

960 x 480 (2400 x 1200)

Green in Spring and Summer, Blackish-Red in Autumn

...

"Sweet Gum". From eastern USA and Mexico.
Full Sun, Part Shade
Zones 5-11
Fertile, deep, loamy soil with adequate water during spring and summer. They will not thrive in shallow, sandy soil. The trees are best allowed to develop their lower branches to ground level.

Liriope muscari

Evergreen Perennial below 24 inches (60 cms) in height

12 x 18 (30 x 45)

Dark Green

Violet-Mauve in
October-December

"Lilyturf". Glossy black berries, long-blooming. Dense clumps. Wild in China, but long cultivated in Japan.
Part Shade
Zone 6-10
Well-drained soil

Companions - aster divaricatus, brunnera, hosta, ferns, helleborus, arum; good for edging (Liriope muscari) or massing under trees and shrubs (Liriope spicata).

Liriope spicata

Semi-Evergreen Rhizome below 24 inches (60 cms) in height

12 x 12 (30 x 30)

Glossy Dark Green

Pale Lavender in
September

"Creeping Lilyturf", glossy black berries. The most effective species for ground cover. From China and Vietnam.
Part Shade
Zone 6-10
Well-drained soil.

These plants are excellent as borders along paths, under trees, and in rock gardens, or as fill-in ground cover in small areas.

Lithodora diffusa
'Heavenly Blue'
(Lithospermum diffusum 'Heavenly Blue')

Evergreen Alpine below 24 inches (60 cms) in height

6 x 24
(15 x 60)

Deep Green

Azure-Blue in
June-September

Evergreen Shrub that quickly forms a low hummock from the Mediterranean.
Full Sun
Well-drained sand. Use as an edging in a gravel garden, rock garden or plant in a windowbox..

Lithodora rosmarinifolia

Evergreen Sub-Shrub below 24 inches (60 cms) in height

12 x 16 (30 x 40)

Dark Green

Gentian-Blue in
July-September

 

Lithodora zahnii

Evergreen Shrub below 24 inches (60 cms) in height

12 x 16 (30 x 40)

Dark Grey-Green

Blue or White in
July-October

 

Lobelia cardinalis 'Bees' Flame'

Herbaceous Perennial 24-72 inches (60-180 cms) in height

30 x 12 (75 x 30)

Reddish-Purple

Bright Crimson in
August-September

Clump-forming. Short-lived
Full Sun, Part Shade
Zone 4-9
Moist border or damp soil alongside a pool. Native to North America from Canada to Mexico.

Companions - dahlia, tall ferns, aconitum, hemerocallis, grasses, iris siberica foliage; Lobelia laxiflora with heuchera and cotinus.

Lobelia cardinalis

Herbaceous Perennial 24-72 inches (60-180 cms) in height

36 x 12 (90 x 30)

Bronze-tinged, Bright Green

Scarlet-Red in
July-October

"Cardinal Flower". North American native, requires constant moisture
Full Sun, Part shade
Zone 3-9
Moist border or damp soil alongside a pool.

Slugs are deterred by Lithocarpus densiflorus, rosemarinus officinalis, helleborus niger, artemesia absinthum, or artemesia frigida (see Pest Control
using Plants
).

Loiseleuria procumbens

Evergreen Shrub below 24 inches (60 cms) in height

3 x 12
(7 x 30)

Glossy Dark Green

Rose-Pink to White in
July

"Alpine Azalea, Trailing Azalea".

Lomatia tinctoria

Evergreen Shrub 24-72 inches (60-180 cms) in height

36 x 60 (90 x 150)

Dark Green

Fragrant Creamy-White in
August.

 

Lonicera fragrantissima

Deciduous Climber 24-72 inches (60-180 cms) in height

72 x 120 (180 x 300)

Dull Dark Green above, Blue-Green beneath

Very Fragrant Creamy-White in
January-April

"Honeysuckle, Winter Honeysuckle".
Dull Red berries.From China.
Full Sun, Light Shade
Zones 4-10
Not fussy about soil - benefits from regular pruning to keep them from becoming hopeless tangles.

Lonicera heckrottii 'Gold Flame'

Deciduous Climber above 72 inches (180 cms) in height

180 x 144 (450 x 360)

Blue-Green

Orange and Pink in
June-August

"Honeysuckle".
Red berries.

Lonicera henryi

Evergreen Climber above 72 inches (180 cms) in height

360 x indefinite (900 x indefinite)

Glossy Dark Green

Yellow throated, Purplish-Red in
July-August

"Honeysuckle".
Purple-Black berries. Evergreen varieties of honeysuckle should be planted in the spring when the soil is warming up.

Lonicera hildebrandiana

Evergreen Climber above 72 inches (180 cms) in height

360 x indefinite (900 x indefinite)

Dark Green

Very Fragrant Creamy-White in
July-September

"Giant Burmese Honeysuckle".
Red berries.

Lonicera plants are useful for any informal, medium-to-large area where they cannot strangle shrubs or climb trees.

Lonicera japonica 'Halliana'

Evergreen Climber above 72 inches (180 cms) in height

360 x 240 (900 x 600)

Dark Green

White then Yellow in
June-November

"Japanese Honeysuckle".
Blue-Black berries.

Lonicera nitida

Evergreen Shrub above 72 inches (180 cms) in height

132 x 120 (330 x 300)

Glossy Dark Green

Creamy-White in
April-June

"Honeysuckle, Box Honeysuckle".
Blue-Purple berries. Dense bush, often used for hedging
Full Sun, Part Shade
Zones 6-10
Not fussy about soil

Lonicera nitida
'Baggesen's Gold'

Evergreen Shrub 24-72 inches (60-180 cms) in height

60 x 60 (150 x 150)

Bright Yellow

Creamy-White in
April-June

"Honeysuckle".

Lonicera periclymenum 'Belgica'

Deciduous Climber above 72 inches (180 cms) in height

264 x indefinite (660 x indefinite)

Mid-Green

White that turn Yellow in
August-September

"Early Dutch Honeysuckle".
Bright Red berries.

Lonicera periclymenum 'Graham Thomas'

Deciduous Shrub above 72 inches (180 cms) in height

264 x indefinite (660 x indefinite)

Mid-Green

White that turn Yellow in
August-September

"Common Honeysuckle".
Bright Red berries. Fragrant flowers.

Lonicera periclymenum 'Serotina'

Deciduous Climber above 72 inches (180 cms) in height

264 x 240 (660 x 600)

Mid-Green

Dark Purple in
July-September

"Late Dutch Honeysuckle".
Bright Red berries. The flowers are fragrant, especially in the evening.

Lonicera pileata

Evergreen Shrub 24-72 inches (60-180 cms) in height

24 x 48 (60 x 120)

Bright Green in Spring, Dark Green in Summer, Autumn and Winter

Creamy-White in
May

"Honeysuckle".
Violet-Purple berries.

Small-leaved ivies (hedera) make handsome hanging plants indoors. Several containers staggered at different heights can provide privacy or eliminate an unattractive view. Hang some inside and outside the same window to create a sense of depth.
Let a variety of Vincas tumble out of pots tucked into the drawers of an old chest or worktable.
Pot some honeysuckle (Lonicera) and hang it outdoors to create a living hummingbird feeder.

Lonicera sempervirens

Evergreen Climber above 72 inches (180 cms) in height

144 x indefinite (360 x indefinite)

Dark Green above, Blue-Green below

Red/Yellow/Orange in
July-November

"Coral Honeysuckle".

Lonicera tellmanniana

Deciduous Climber above 72 inches (180 cms) in height

180 x 180 (450 x 450)

Deep Green

Yellowish-Orange in
May-July

"Honeysuckle".

Lunaria rediviva

Herbaceous Perennial 24-72 inches (60-180 cms) in height

30 x 12 (75 x 30)

Light to Mid-Green

Fragrant Lilac-White in
June-July

"Perennial Honesty, Money Plant, Moonwort". Self seeds prolifically. Clump-forming, flat elliptical seedpods. Cut to basal growth after leaves die in autumn.Valuable in wildflower gardens.
Full Sun, Light Shade
Zone 6-9
Any fertile, moist soil

Companions - helleborus, primula, hosta, phlox stolonifera, pulmonaria, polygonatum, spring bulbs, ferns; under tall shrubs or trees.

Lupinus 'Thundercloud'

Herbaceous Perennial 24-72 inches (60-180 cms) in height

36 x 30 (90 x 75)

Mid-Green

Deep violet-Blue in
July-August

"Lupin". Best in acid soil.
Full Sun
Zone 4
Well-drained sandy soil.

Companions - Papaver orientale (both in terms of contrast of shape as well as colour combinations), alchemilla mollis, salvia nemerosa, salvia x superba, geranium; yellow lupine with sisyrinchium striatum, anchusa. Feed lupins with bonemeal and do not mulch. Weed out self-sown seedlings, which over generations revert to plants with blue, gappy spikes. Screen with late-flowering perennials such as asters or Japenese anemones against the tired after flowering lupins.

Lupinus arboreus

Evergreen Shrub 24-72 inches (60-180 cms) in height

30 x 24 (75 x 60)

Grey-Green

Clear Yellow in
June-August

"Tree Lupin".
Full Sun
Zone 4
Well-drained sandy soil.

Lupinus is a good cut flower for fresh arrangements. All parts of the plant are poisonous.

Luzula nivea

Evergreen Grass 24-72 inches (60-180 cms) in height

24 x 18 (60 x 45)

Deep Green

White in
July-August

"Snowy Woodrush". Underplant with shrubs. From mountain woods and scrubland throughout central Europe.
Part Shade to Full Shade
Zone 5
Fertile moist soil enriched with leafmould. The flower heads can be dried for floral arrangements.

Luzula sylvatica

Evergreen Grass 24-72 inches (60-180 cms) in height

30 x 18 (75 x 45)

Glossy Dark Green

Chestnut-Brown in
May-JUly

"Greater Woodrush". Slowly spreading to form thick tussocks, looking rather like the top of a pineapple. Eventually makes a weed-proof carpet in damp or dry shade and is a handsome ground cover with wild spring flowers. Common in damp woods and moorland among rocks, usually on acid soil in Britain and Europe.
Zone 4

Luzula sylvatica 'Aurea'

Evergreen Grass 24-72 inches (60-180 cms) in height

30 x 18 (75 x 45)

Yellow-Green in Summer, Bright shiny Yellow in Winter

Chestnut -Brown in
May-July

Useful dense ground cover.
Zone 5

Lychnis chalcedonica

Herbaceous Perennial 24-72 inches (60-180 cms) in height

36 x 12 (90 x 30)

Mid Green

Scarlet in
July-August

"Jerusalem Cross, Maltese Cross". Self-sows, long-lived, keep moist.
Full Sun, Part Shade
Zone 4-8
Well-drained soil

Companions - kniphofia, nepeta 'Six hHills Giant', salvia, aster, centranthus, heuchera, artemisia, geranium, phygelius, miscanthus and other grasses, perovskia.

Lychnis coronaria

Herbaceous Perennial 24-72 inches (60-180 cms) in height

32 x 18 (80 x 45)

Silver-Grey

Purple-Red in
September

"Dusty Miller, Rose Campion". Self-sows, acts more like a biennial, drought tolerant. After each set of 3 years, pull out oldest plants in favor of the much more vigorous young plants.
Full Sun
Zone 4-9
Well-drained soil, intolerant of winter wet. From southern Europe.

Lychnis flos-cuculi

Herbaceous Perennial 24-72 inches (60-180 cms) in height

30 x 32 (75 x 80)

Mid to Bluish-Green

Purplish Pink or White in
June-July

"Ragged Robin, CuckooFlower". Clump-forming, seeds aggressively.
Full Sun
Zone 3-9
Moist wild garde. From wet meadows in Europe, the Caucasus and Siberia; naturalized in eastern North America.

Lychnis flos-jovis

Herbaceous Perennial below 24 inches (60 cms) in height

18 x 18 (45 x 45)

Grey-Green

Pink, White or Scarlet in
July-September

"Flower of Love, Flower of Jupiter". Short-lived, self-sows.
Full Sun
Zone 4
Well-drained sandy soil.

Lychnis viscaria 'Splendens Plena'

Herbaceous Perennial below 24 inches (60 cms) in height

18 x 18 (45 x 45)

Dark Green

Bright Pinkish-Magenta in
July-August

"German Catchfly".
Full Sun, Part Shade
Zone 3-9
Moist, slightly acidic soil. It thrives with heaths and heathers

Lysimachia ciliata

Herbaceous Perennial in 24-72 inches (60-180 cms) in height

48 x 24 (120 x 60)

Mid-Green

Yellow in August

"Fringed Loosestrife". North American native, invasive. Compact colonies.
Full Sun if soil moist otherwise Part Shade
Zone 4-9
Thrives in most soils, though native to damp woods and lake and river margins in North America.

Companions - heuchera, plantago, hosta, siberian iris, echinacea purpurea, rudbekia, ligularia, anthemis, grasses. Plant lysimachia in pots to control spreading- plunge pots in ground leaving an inch (2.5cm) of the top above ground.

Lysimachia nummularia 'Aurea'

Evergreen Alpine below 24 inches (60 cms) in height

2 x indefinite (5 x indefinite)

Golden Yellow

Bright Yellow in
July-September

"Golden Creeping Jenny". Evergreen perennial, which turns brown in hot sun. Mat-forming.
Part Shade
Zone 4-9
Highly adaptable as ground cover, in a pot or hanging-basket plant inside or out, or even as a short-term aquarium plant. Usually found in wet grassland, ditches, and lake shores in the wilds of Europe, including Russia

Grow Lysimachia in moist, shady places where other plants, such as grass, will not grow. A natural place would be around small pools with rock sites for the foliage to creep over.

Lysimachia punctata

Herbaceous Perennial 24-72 inches (60-180 cms) in height

36 x 24 (90 x 60)

Dark Green

Yellow in
July-August

"Yellow Loosestrife". Invasive spreader, long-bloomer.
Part Shade
Zone 4-8
Moist soils in eastern Europe

Lysimachia vulgaris

Herbaceous Perennial 24-72 inches (60-180 cms) in height

48 x 36 (120 x 90)

Mid to Bright Green

Yellow in
July-September

"Yellow Loosestrife". Rapid colonizer.
Part Shade
Zone 5
Native to permanently wet ground throughout most of Europe, including Britain.

Lythrum virgatum

Herbaceous Perennial 24-72 inches (60-180 cms) in height

36 x 18 (90 x 45)

Dark Green

Purple-Red in
July-September

Clump-forming.
Full Sun
Zone 4
Moist or even wet, humus-rich soil. From marshes and wet places in Asia and southern and eastern Europe.

 

Height in inches (cms):-

25.4mm = 1 inch
304.8mm = 12 inches
12 inches = 1 foot
3 feet = 1 yard
914.4mm = 1 yard

I normally round this to
25mm = 1 inch
300mm = 30 cms = 12 inches =1 foot,
900 mm = 3 feet = 1 yard and
1000mm = 100 cms = 1 metre = 40 inches

 

Site design and content copyright ©December 2006. Page structure changed September 2012. Height x Spread in feet changed to Height x Spread in inches (cms) May 2015. Data added to existing pages December 2017. Zone and Companion Data added April 2022. Chris Garnons-Williams.

DISCLAIMER: Links to external sites are provided as a courtesy to visitors. Ivydene Horticultural Services are not responsible for the content and/or quality of external web sites linked from this site.  

Details of smaller Leucojum, Limonium, Linum and Lysimachia and which container to grow the plant in:-

  • A. The plant can be grown in sinks, trough, pans or scree beds
  • B. The plant is best accommodated in a trough or sink.
  • C. Suitable for peat beds and raised beds (suitable for alpine rhododendrons)

 

CREATING A BEAUTIFUL GARDEN IS EASIER THAN YOU MIGHT THINK!

The Garden on a Roll team of passionate horticulturists have been helping the first-time gardener plant their very own garden borders since 2010. Planting your dream, professionally designed garden border couldn't be easier! Finish off your landscape project with the perfect garden edging:-

If the only garden that you have is a strip of concrete, tarmac or pavers with full sun; then you can still use this Garden on a roll by placing a section of Equigrow Organic Green Compost bags on that ground surface in rows. Cut into 2 inches (5 cms) from each side in the top of each bag and remove that plastic. Lay columns of Equigrow Soil Conditioner bags at 90 degrees to the rows and repeat the removal of that top plastic bag section. Turn the bag carefully upside down and repeat the bag cutting. You then end up with a contained flower bed the depth of those 2 bags. Then follow the instructions for the Garden on a Roll and hey presto for someone who does not have to have any knowledge about gardening, you will end up with a garden. Remember to irrigate once a day in the morning and if it is very hot that day, then again as dusk comes.

 

Light Sandy Soil is usually fairly infertile, and it also dries out quickly. In such cases, use drought-tolerant plants, such as ones that grow in dry soil conditions (see plants in the Dry section of the Moisture column of the soil type, aspect and moisture list page) and also do the following actions, since any nutrients in the soil are usually washed out very quickly.

Acid soil is most common in places that experience heavy rainfall and have moister environments. Areas in red have acidic soil, areas in yellow are neutral and areas in blue have alkaline soil in the World Map. Find Me Plants has further details on other plants for acidic soils, when you set Soil Type in Part 1: Surveying the planting area to Sandy/Gritty, or Light Sand or Stony/Sub-Soil.

Action to assist in Light Sandy soil maintenance:-

  • Mulch the beds with a 4 inch (100mm) deep layer of Spent Mushroom Compost to improve fertility and drainage; preferably in the Autumn in between the existing plants, and top it up each year after that with a Bark Mulch instead (available from garden centres or Gardenscape). This will stop the Light Sandy soil from drying out through the action of sun and wind on its surface, and to provide carbon to aid in soil formation and fertility. Adding clay in water solution as a spray will also greater improve the soil structure.
  • If starting a new lawn or bed, add the 4 inch layer of Spent Mushroom Compost mulch and rotovate that in. If you also add an inch deep of clay, before rotovating that in as well, then that will provide part of the glue in creating a better soil from the sand. Heel and rake the ground for a new turf (or to be seeded) lawn, before laying or seeding it. Insert plants in new bed, before installing the irrigation system and then applying a 4 inch layer of this mulch on top of it.
  • Spread 5Kg of Dolodust (Dolomitic Lime), with 2Kg of Maxicrop Seaweed Meal over a 25 square yard or 25 square metre lawn area, each April. This will improve the fertility of the lawn by providing calcium and the trace elements (See What is Soil Texture Page and How are chemicals stored and released from soil Page in the Soil Section for further details). Spreading the same amount of Dolomitic Lime and Maxicrop Seaweed Meal on the flower/vegetable beds at the same time would also be beneficial.


Sources of further information:-

  • Notcutts Catalogue of 1994 - retail catalogue of their plants for sale. It has Plants for a Purpose pages including one on Light sandy dry soil including trees for gravel workings.
     
  • The Royal Horticultural Society Gardeners' Encyclopedia of Plants and Flowers. Editor-in-Chief Christopher Brickell. Published by Dorling Kindsley Limited. Reprinted and updated 1990, 2/1990, 3/1990. ISBN 0-86318-386-7. The Planter's Guide suggests lists of plants that are suitable for growing in particular situations, or that have special uses or characteristics including Plants for Sandy Soil.
     

Gardening in Sandy Soil by C.L. Fornari. A very useful book and one you can have on a Kindle in December 2017. A Storey Country Wisdom Bulletin with this Index:-

  • The benefits of Sandy Soil
    • Drainage
    • Root Penetration
    • Air Circulation
    • Digging
  • The disadvantages of gardening in sand
    • Rapid water loss
    • Nutrient loss
  • Strategies for Success: using amendmentss
    • Soil amendments
    • Green amendments
    • Amending new beds
    • Amending established beds
  • Fertilizing
  • Mulch
    • Mulching materials
    • How much mulch
    • Problems with mulch
  • Choosing plants
    • Sandy soils and pH
    • Moisture-loving plants in sandy soil
    • Vegetables in sandy soil
  • Plants for sandy soils - I have bought the book and read it, but unfortunately I have not added its recommended plants.
    I would at least recommend that its list is carefully looked at by the Americans; for whom it was written.
    • Ground covers and Grasses
    • Annuals
    • Perennials
    • Shrubs and Trees

Action to assist in other soil types in:-

 

The following is from "A land of Soil, Milk and Honey" by Bernard Jarman in Star & Furrow Issue 122 January 2015 - Journal of the Biodynamic Association;_

"Soil is created in the first place through the activity of countlesss micro-organisms, earthworms and especially the garden worm (Lumbricus terrestris). This species is noticeably active in the period immediately before and immediately after mid-winter. In December we find it (in the UK) drawing large numbers of autumn leaves down into the soil. Worms consume all kinds of plant material along with sand and mineral substances. In form, they live as a pure digestive tract. The worm casts excreted from their bodies form the basis of a well-structured soil with an increased level of available plant nutrients:-

  • 5% more nitrogen,
  • 7% more phosphorous and
  • 11% more potasium than the surrounding topsoil.

Worms also burrow to great depths and open up the soil for air and water to penetrate, increasing the scope of a fertile soil.

After the earthworm, the most important helper of the biodynamic farmer is undoubetdly

  • the cow. A cow's digestive system is designed to make use of roughage such as grass and hay. Cow manure is arguably the most effective and long lasting of all the fertilizing agents at the farmer's disposal and has been found to have a carry over effect of at least 4 years. It is also one of the most balanced and it contains no grass seeds, since they have been completely digested.
  • Pig manure is rich in potassium, attractive to earthworms and beneficial on sandy soils.
  • Horse manure increases soil activity and stimulates strong healthy growth, but it does contain grass seed and other seeds."
     

Plant Combinations for Sandy Soil

Action to assist in Light Sandy soil maintenance is given in the row above and this is required annually.

Plants

Comments

Sun lovers - You can achieve a design with grey-leaved plants, interspersed with smaller or larger groups of taller perennials and a single shrub. Because the grey-leaved plants predominate they are used as a basis, with suggestions for plants which can be combined with them.

Grey Foliage with white and yellow flowers and plants that combine with these

  • Yarrow (Achillea chrysocoma),
  • pearl everlasting (Anaphalis),
  • mouse ear (Cerastium),
  • Raoulia,
  • catchfly (Silene uniflora 'Robin Whitebreast') and the
  • bunnies' ears (Stachys byzantina 'Silver Carpet')

all have grey leaves and either white, yellow or inconspicuous flowers.

If the above plants are planted together; the effect of different heights and size of leaf will be rather messy and unclear. Plant the above as the background ground cover and the ones in the next column within that background.

  • Acaena buchanii and Acaena magellanica being silver-leaved species of the pirri-pirri-bur form pretty vigorous ground cover. Add a few groups of grey-leaved grasses for their contrasting shape to make an interesting picture. The ground-covering Festuca glauca and Koeleria glauca are especially suitable, to which can be added the tall, also grey-leafed blue oat grass Helictotrichon sempervirens, for a striking feature.
  • Gypsophila, with its delicate flowers, can best be planted next to a plant which has a strong leaf structure, for example Geranium renardii.
  • For a taller feature among the grey-leafed ground cover you can choose one of the beautiful cultivars of the common German flag, Iris germanica. The tall, sword-shaped leaves which are grey-green, stand out very well here.
  • The Yucca has a similar structure, forming a stout clump of leaves with tall sprays of white flowers.
  • The tall mulleins, especially Verbascum bombyciferum, with splendid rosettes of grey, felty leaves and yellow flowers like huge torches that can easily reach 60 inches (150 cms), a real must.
  • Annuals that deserve a place in this predominantly grey planting include Gazania pinnata with yellow flowers and the white Senecio cineraria.

The above comes from Ground Cover. How to use flowering and foliage plants to cover areas of soil by Mineke Kurpershoek. Published by Rebo Productions Ltd in 1997. ISBN 1 901094 41 3

Contents

  • Chapter 1 What are ground-cover plants?
  • Chapter 2 Plant combinations for normal garden soil
  • Chapter 3 Plant combinations for sandy soil
  • Chapter 4 Plant combinations for clay soil
  • Chapter 5 Woodland, heaths and wet soil
  • Chapter 6 Shrubs for slopes and large beds
  • Chapter 7 The A to Z of plants for ground cover.
     

 

PLANTS PAGE
MENU
Introduction
Site Map
 

PLANT USE
Plant Selection
Level 1
Bee Forage Plants
Attracts Bird/Butterfly
Photos - Butterfly

Bee Pollinated Plants for Hay Fever Sufferers
0-24 inches
(0-60 cms)
24-72 inches
(60-180 cms)
Above 72 inches
(180 cms)
Photos - Bloom per Month
Blooms Nov-Feb
Blooms Mar-May
Blooms Jun-Aug 1, 2
Blooms Sep-Oct
 

Poisonous Cultivated and UK Wildflower Plants with Photos
or
Cultivated Poisonous Plants

or
Wildflower Poisonous Plants


Rabbit-Resistant Plant
Flower Arranging
Wildflower
Photos - Wildflowers

 


PLANTS FOR SOIL
Plant Selection
Level 2
Info - Any Soil
Any Soil A-F
Any Soil G-L
Any Soil M-R
Any Soil S-Z

Info
- Chalky Soil
Chalky Soil A-F 1
Chalky Soil A-F 2
Chalky Soil A-F 3
Chalky Soil G-L
Chalky Soil M-R
Chalky Soil Roses
Chalky Soil S-Z
Chalky Soil Other

Info - Clay Soil
Clay Soil A-F
Clay Soil G-L
Clay Soil M-R
Clay Soil S-Z
Clay Soil Other

Info - Lime-Free (Acid) Soil
Lime-Free (Acid) A-F 1
Lime-Free (Acid) A-F 2
Lime-Free (Acid) A-F 3
Lime-Free (Acid) G-L
Lime-Free (Acid) M-R
Lime-Free (Acid) S-Z

Info - Sandy Soil
Sandy Soil A-F 1
Sandy Soil A-F 2
Sandy Soil A-F 3
Sandy Soil G-L
Sandy Soil M-R
Sandy Soil S-Z

Info - Peaty Soils
Peaty Soil A-F
Peaty Soil G-L
Peaty Soil M-R
Peaty Soil S-Z

Following parts of Level 2a,
Level 2b,
Level 2c and
Level 2d are included in separate columns
together with
Acid Soil,
Alkaline Soil,
Any Soil,
Height and Spread,
Flowering Months and
Flower Colour in their Columns,
and also
Companion Plants to aid this plant Page,
Alpine Plant for Rock Garden Index Page
Native to UK WildFlower Plant in its Family Page in this website

and/or
Level 2cc
in the Comment Column
within each
of the Soil Type Pages of
Level 2

Explanation of Structure of this Website with User Guidelines Page for those photo galleries with Photos (of either ones I have taken myself or others which have been loaned only for use on this website from external sources)

PLANTS PAGE MENU

Plant Selection by Plant Requirements
Level 2a
Sun aspect, Moisture


Plant Selection by Form
Level 2b
Tree Growth Shape
Columnar
Oval
Rounded / Spherical
Flattened Spherical
Narrow Conical
Broad Pyramidal
Ovoid / Egg
Broad Ovoid
Narrow Vase
Fan
Broad Fan
Narrow Weeping
Broad Weeping
Single-stem Palm
Multi-stem Palm
Shrub/Perennial Growth Habit
Mat
Prostrate / Trailing
Cushion / Mound
Spreading / Creeping
Clump
Stemless
Erect or Upright
Climbing
Arching


Plant Selection by Garden Use
Level 2c
Bedding
Photos - Bedding
Bog Garden
Coastal Conditions
Containers in Garden
Front of Border
Edibles in Containers
Hanging Basket
Hedge
Photos - Hedging
Pollution Barrier 1, 2
Rest of Border
Rock Garden
Photos - Rock Garden
Thorny Hedge
Windbreak
Woodland


Plant Selection by Garden Use
Level 2cc Others
Aquatic
Back of Shady Border
Crevice Garden
Desert Garden
Raised Bed
Scree Bed
Specimen Plant
Trees for Lawns
Trees for Small Garden
Wildflower
Photos - Wildflowers


Plant Selection by Plant Type
Level 2d
Alpine
Photos - Evergr Per
Photos - Herbac Per
Photos - RHS Herbac
Photos - Rock Garden
Annual
Bamboo
Photos - Bamboo
Biennial

Bulb
Photos - Bulb
Climber
Photos - Climber
Conifer
Deciduous Rhizome
Deciduous Shrub
Photos - Decid Shrub
Evergreen Perennial
Photos - Evergr Per

Evergreen Shrub
0-24 inches 1, 2, 3
24-72 inches 1, 2, 3
Above 72 inches 1, 2

Semi-Evergreen Shrub
Photos - Evergr Shrub
Fern
Photos - Fern
Fruit Plant
Grass
Herb
Herbaceous Perennial
Photos - Herbac Per
Remaining Top Fruit
Soft Fruit
Sub-Shrub
Top Fruit
Tuber
Vegetable
Photos - Vegetable

 

Photos - with its link; provides a link to its respective Plant Photo Gallery in this website to provide comparison photos.
Click on required comparison page and then centre of selected plant thumbnail. Further details on that plant will be shown in a separate Plant Description webpage.
Usually the Available from Mail Order Plant Nursery link will link you to the relevant page on that website.
I started this website in 2005 - it is possible that those particular links no longer connect, so you may need to search for that plant instead.

 

PLANTS PAGE MENU

REFINING SELECTION
Plant Selection by
Flower Colour
Level 3a

Blue Flowers
Photos -
Bedding
Bulb
Climber
Evergr Per
Evergr Shrub
Wild Flower

Orange Flowers
Photos -
Bedding
Wild Flower

Other Colour Flowers
Photos -
Bedding
Bulb
Climber
Evergr Per
Evergr Shrub
Wild Flower

Red Flowers
Photos -
Bedding
Bulb
Climber
Decid Shrub
Evergr Per
Evergr Shrub
Herbac Per
Rose
Wild Flower

White Flowers
Photos -
Bedding
Bulb
Climber
Decid Shrub
Decid Tree
Evergr Per
Evergr Shrub
Herbac Per
Rose
Wild Flower

Yellow Flowers
Photos -
Bedding
Bulb
Climber
Decid Shrub
Evergr Per
Evergr Shrub
Herbac Per
Rose
Wild Flower


Photos - 53 Colours in its Colour Wheel Gallery

Photos - 12 Flower Colours per Month in its Bloom Colour Wheel Gallery


Plant Selection by Flower Shape
Level 3b

Photos -
Bedding
Evergr Per
Herbac Per


Plant Selection by Foliage Colour
Level 3c

Aromatic Foliage
Finely Cut Leaves
Large Leaves
Other
Non-Green Foliage 1
Non-Green Foliage 2
Sword-shaped Leaves


PRUNING
Plant Selection by Pruning Requirements
Level 4

Pruning Plants


GROUNDCOVER PLANT DETAIL
Plant Selection Level 5

Plant Name - A from Ground Cover a thousand beautiful plants for difficult places by John Cushnie
ISBN 1 85626 326 6

Plant Name - B
Plant Name - C
Plant Name - D with Ground Cover. How to use flowering and foliage plants to cover areas of soil by Mineke Kurpershoek.
ISBN 1 901094 41 3
Plant combinations for normal garden soil.
Plant combinations for sandy soil.
Plant combinations for clay soil.
Plant combinations for Woodland, heaths and wet soil.
Shrubs for slopes and large beds.

Plant Name - E
Plant Name - F
Plant Name - G
Plant Name - H
Plant Name - I How about using staging in your unheated greenhouse and stock it with bulbs and ferns for looking at from the house from autumn to spring, before using it for salads during the spring/summer from The Culture of Bulbs, Bulbous Plants and Tubers Made Plain by Sir J. L. Cotter.
Plant Name - J
Plant Name - K
Plant Name - L If you have no garden but only a concrete or tarmac area why not use 1 of the 8 Garden on a Roll garden borders and then maintain your garden using their Maintaining your border instructions.
Plant Name - M Importance of providing a mulch with the ground cover
Plant Name - N
Plant Name - O
Plant Name - P
Plant Name - Q
Plant Name - R
Plant Name - S
Plant Name - T
Plant Name - U
Plant Name - V
Plant Name - W
Plant Name - XYZ with 14 Special Situations. Ground cover plants for:-
1 Dry Shade
2 Damp Shade
3 Full Sun
4 Banks and Terraces
5 Woodland
6 Alkaline Sites
7 Acid Sites
8 Heavy Clay Soil
9 Dry Sandy Soil
10 Exposed Sites
11 Under Hedges
12 Patios and Paths
13 Formal Gardens
14 Swimming Pools and Tennis Courts
Why grass/lawn should never be used as a groundcover
and
Why seaweed is a necessary ingredient for gardens

Groundcover Height
0-24 inches
(0-60 cms)
1,2,3
24-72 inches
(60-180 cms)
4,5,6
Above 72 inches
(180 cms)
7


Then, finally use
COMPANION PLANTING to

aid your plant selected or to
deter Pests
Plant Selection Level 6

 

To locate mail-order nursery for plants from the UK in this gallery try using search in RHS Find a Plant.

To locate plants in the European Union (EU) try using Search Term in Gardens4You and Meilland Richardier in France.

To locate mail-order nursery for plants from America in this gallery try using search in Plant Lust.

To locate plant information in Australia try using Plant Finder in Gardening Australia.

To see what plants that I have described in this website see
Plant Botanical Index
...A, B, C, D, E,
...F, G, H, I, J, K,
...L, M, N, O, P, Q,
...R, S, T, U, V, W,
...X, Y, Z

 

 

Top ten plants that are bad for bees from Countryfile Magazine

"Lavender, alliums, fuschias, sweet peas - keen gardeners know the very best flowers to entice bees to their gardens. But what about plants that are  bad for bees? Here is our expert guide to the top ten plants that you should avoid to keep bees happy and buzzing, plus the perfect alternatives.

1. Rhododendron
Spectacular and beautiful, not many people know the common rhododendron hides a poisonous secret – its nectar is toxic to bees. It’s common practice for beekeepers to keep their hives closed until the flowering season is over. The resulting honey from rhododendrons has also been known to contaminate honey, making it unsafe for humans to eat.
Alternative: Clematis have beautiful, wide flowers and are 100 per cent bee-friendly.

2. Azalea
Rhododendron’s sister, azaleas are also toxic to bees.
Alternative: Foxgloves (Digitalis) are a bee favourite and despite being poisonous if consumed by humans, they are both honey and bee safe.

3. Trumpet flower, or angel’s trumpet (Brugmansia suaveolens)
Though ornamental and sweet smelling, the trumpet flower’s nectar can cause brood death in bees and is best avoided.
Alternative: Try honeysuckle (Lonicera) instead for deliciously scented results.

4. Oleander (Nerium oleander)
Harmful to butterflies as well as bees, oleander has a severe effect on hives. Nectar taken to the hive concentrates as it dries out, which increases the amount of toxins and usually results in a mass hive wipeout. 
Alternative: Snapdragons (Antirrhinum majus) are equally as bright and arguably more attractive in small or large gardens.

5. Yellow Jessamine (Gelsemium sempervirens)
Pleasantly aromatic and attractive as they are, bees are often poisoned by the vines and flowers of the yellow jessamine and its toxins are said to be as severe as hemlock.
Alternative: Plant Black-eyed Susans (Rudbeckia hirta) in tubs and along fences for a pretty, easy-to-grow substitute.

6. Mountain Laurel (Kalmia latifolia)
Part of the blueberry family, the mountain laurel is an evergreen shrub with sweet, white or pink flowers when in bloom. Pretty they may be, but the honey produced by mountain laurel is toxic to humans and is often bitter tasting.
Alternative: Lilacs (Syringa) are both beautiful and wonderfully sweet smelling. Easy to grow and are loved by bees and butterflies. 

7. Stargazer lily (Lilium 'Stargazer')
Stunning but deadly to cats, stargazer lilies’ pollen is poisonous to bees.
Alternative: Hollyhocks (Alcea) are impressive and just as beautiful as the stargazer but bee-friendly.

8. Heliconia Exotic and interesting, heliconia, or lobster-claws as its sometimes called, is very toxic to bees. You should not prune your heliconias, as the 'stem' is actually made up of rolled leaf bases and the flowers emerge from the top of these 'pseudostems'. However, each stem will only flower once, so after flowering you can cut that stem out. This is recommended, to encourage more flowering, to increase airflow in between the stems of your plant, and also to generally tidy it up and improve the appearance.
Alternative: Although not quite as exotic, hyacinths are fragrant, gorgeous and easy to grow. Hyacinth bulbs are poisonous; they contain oxalic acid. Handling hyacinth bulbs can cause mild skin irritation. Protective gloves are recommended.

9. Bog rosemary (Andromeda polifolia -
All parts of the plant contain andromedotoxin and are considered poisonous)
Not to be confused with the herb, bog rosemary is acutely poisonous and the honey produced from the nectar of Andromeda polifolia contains high enough levels of grayanotoxin to cause full body paralysis and potentially fatal breathing difficulties due to diaphragm paralysis.
Alternative: Why not try planting a classic rosemary bush (Rosmarinus officinalis) – aromatic, resilient and favoured by bees.

10. Amaryllis (Hippeastrum)
Now most commonly recognised as decorative Christmas flowers, amaryllis are gorgeous in bloom but their pollen produces toxic honey. Bulbs, chewing or ingestion of the bulbs, leaves or flowers poisons goats and sheep with Lycorine (An emetic) and small amounts of alkaloids.
Alternative: Dahlias are a highlight of late summer gardens. Beautiful and simple to grow, dahlias often flower until the first frosts of the year."

This is another list of Plants toxic to bees, which includes:-
Aesculus californica,
Astralagus species,
Cuscuta species,
Cyrilla racemiflora,
Solanum nigram,
Veratrum cailfornicum,
Zygadenus cenesosus,
Corynocarpus laevigata,
Angelica triqueta,
Astralagus lentiginosus,
Camellia thea,
Ochrama lagopus,
Sophora microphylla,
Tillia species,
Verartrum californicum,
Asclepias species,
Astralagus miser v. serotibus.

 

The following details come from Cactus Art:-

"A flower is the the complex sexual reproductive structure of Angiosperms, typically consisting of an axis bearing perianth parts, androecium (male) and gynoecium (female).    

Bisexual flower show four distinctive parts arranged in rings inside each other which are technically modified leaves: Sepal, petal, stamen & pistil. This flower is referred to as complete (with all four parts) and perfect (with "male" stamens and "female" pistil). The ovary ripens into a fruit and the ovules inside develop into seeds.

Incomplete flowers are lacking one or more of the four main parts. Imperfect (unisexual) flowers contain a pistil or stamens, but not both. The colourful parts of a flower and its scent attract pollinators and guide them to the nectary, usually at the base of the flower tube.

partsofaflowersmallest

 

Androecium (male Parts or stamens)
It is made up of the filament and anther, it is the pollen producing part of the plant.
Anther This is the part of the stamen that produces and contains pollen. 
Filament This is the fine hair-like stalk that the anther sits on top of.
Pollen This is the dust-like male reproductive cell of flowering plants.

Gynoecium (female Parts or carpels or pistil)
 It is made up of the stigma, style, and ovary. Each pistil is constructed of one to many rolled leaflike structures.
Stigma
This is the part of the pistil  which receives the pollen grains and on which they germinate. 
Style
This is the long stalk that the stigma sits on top of ovary. 
Ovary
The part of the plant that contains the ovules. 
Ovule
The part of the ovary that becomes the seeds. 

Petal 
The colorful, often bright part of the flower (corolla). 
Sepal 
The parts that look like little green leaves that cover the outside of a flower bud (calix). 
(Undifferentiated "Perianth segment" that are not clearly differentiated into sepals and petals, take the names of tepals.)"

 

 

 

The following details come from Nectary Genomics:-

"NECTAR. Many flowering plants attract potential pollinators by offering a reward of floral nectar. The primary solutes found in most nectars are varying ratios of sucrose, glucose and fructose, which can range from as little a 8% (w/w) in some species to as high as 80% in others. This abundance of simple sugars has resulted in the general perception that nectar consists of little more than sugar-water; however, numerous studies indicate that it is actually a complex mixture of components. Additional compounds found in a variety of nectars include other sugars, all 20 standard amino acids, phenolics, alkaloids, flavonoids, terpenes, vitamins, organic acids, oils, free fatty acids, metal ions and proteins.

NECTARIES. An organ known as the floral nectary is responsible for producing the complex mixture of compounds found in nectar. Nectaries can occur in different areas of flowers, and often take on diverse forms in different species, even to the point of being used for taxonomic purposes. Nectaries undergo remarkable morphological and metabolic changes during the course of floral development. For example, it is known that pre-secretory nectaries in a number of species accumulate large amounts of starch, which is followed by a rapid degradation of amyloplast granules just prior to anthesis and nectar secretion. These sugars presumably serve as a source of nectar carbohydrate.

WHY STUDY NECTAR? Nearly one-third of all worldwide crops are dependent on animals to achieve efficient pollination. In addition, U.S. pollinator-dependent crops have been estimated to have an annual value of up to $15 billion. Many crop species are largely self-incompatible (not self-fertile) and rely almost entirely on animal pollinators to achieve full fecundity; poor pollinator visitation has been reported to reduce yields of certain species by up to 50%."

 

The following details about DOUBLE FLOWERS comes from Wikipedia:-

"Double-flowered" describes varieties of flowers with extra petals, often containing flowers within flowers. The double-flowered trait is often noted alongside the scientific name with the abbreviation fl. pl. (flore pleno, a Latin ablative form meaning "with full flower"). The first abnormality to be documented in flowers, double flowers are popular varieties of many commercial flower types, including roses, camellias and carnations. In some double-flowered varieties all of the reproductive organs are converted to petals — as a result, they are sexually sterile and must be propagated through cuttings. Many double-flowered plants have little wildlife value as access to the nectaries is typically blocked by the mutation.

 

There is further photographic, diagramatic and text about Double Flowers from an education department - dept.ca.uky.edu - in the University of Kentucky in America.

 

"Meet the plant hunter obsessed with double-flowering blooms" - an article from The Telegraph.

 

THE 2 EUREKA EFFECT PAGES FOR UNDERSTANDING SOIL AND HOW PLANTS INTERACT WITH IT OUT OF 10,000:-


Explanation of Structure of this Website with User Guidelines Page for those photo galleries with Photos
(of either ones I have taken myself or others which have been loaned only for use on this website from external sources)

Choose 1 of these different Plant selection Methods:-

 

1. Choose a plant from 1 of 53 flower colours in the Colour Wheel Gallery.

 

2. Choose a plant from 1 of 12 flower colours in each month of the year from 12 Bloom Colours per Month Index Gallery.

 

3. Choose a plant from 1 of 6 flower colours per month for each type of plant:-

Aquatic
Bedding
Bulb
Climber
Conifer
Deciduous Shrub
Deciduous Tree
Evergreen Perennial
Evergreen Shrub
Evergreen Tree
Hedging
Herbaceous Perennial
Herb
Odds and Sods
Rhododendron nectar and the nectar from the plants in the fifth row above are toxic to bees
Rose
Soft Fruit
Top Fruit
Wild Flower

 

4. Choose a plant from its Flower Shape:-

Shape, Form
Index

Flower Shape

 

5. Choose a plant from its foliage:-

Bamboo
Conifer
Fern
Grass
Vegetable

 

6. There are 6 Plant Selection Levels including Bee Pollinated Plants for Hay Fever Sufferers in Plants Topic.

 

or

 

7. when I do not have my own or ones from mail-order nursery photos , then from March 2016, if you want to start from the uppermost design levels through to your choice of cultivated and wildflower plants to change your Plant Selection Process then use the following galleries:-

  • Create and input all plants known by Amateur Gardening inserted into their Sanders' Encyclopaedia from their edition published in 1960 (originally published by them in 1895) into these
    • Stage 1 - Garden Style Index Gallery,
      then
    • Stage 2 - Infill Plants Index Gallery being the only gallery from these 7 with photos (from Wikimedia Commons) ,
      then
    • Stage 3 - All Plants Index Gallery with each plant species in its own Plant Type Page followed by choice from Stage 4a, 4b, 4c and/or 4d REMEMBERING THE CONSTRAINTS ON THE SELECTION FROM THE CHOICES MADE IN STAGES 1 AND 2
    • Stage 4a - 12 Bloom Colours per Month Index Gallery,
    • Stage 4b - 12 Foliage Colours per Month Index Gallery with
    • Stage 4c - Cultivation, Position, Use Index Gallery and
    • Stage 4d - Shape, Form Index Gallery
    • Unfortunately, if you want to have 100's of choices on selection of plants from 1000's of 1200 pixels wide by up to 16,300 pixels in length webpages, which you can jump to from almost any of the pages in these 7 galleries above, you have to put up with those links to those choices being on
      • the left topic menu table,
      • the header of the middle data table and on
      • the page/index menu table on the right of every page of those galleries.

There are other pages on Plants which bloom in each month of the year in this website:-

 

 

Topic - Over 1060 links in this table to a topic in a topic folder or page within that folder of this website
Case Studies
...Drive Foundations
Ryegrass and turf kills plants within Roadstone and in Topsoil due to it starving and dehydrating them.
CEDAdrive creates stable drive surface and drains rain into your ground, rather than onto the public road.
8 problems caused by building house on clay or with house-wall attached to clay.
Pre-building work on polluted soil.

Companion Planting
A ,B ,C ,D ,E ,
F ,G ,H ,I ,J ,K ,
L ,M ,N ,O ,P ,Q ,
R ,S ,T ,U ,V ,W ,
X, Y, Z
...Pest Control
...using Plants
to provide a Companion Plant to aid your selected plant or deter its pests

Garden
Construction

with ground drains
Garden Design
...How to Use the Colour Wheel Concepts for Selection of Flowers, Foliage and Flower Shape
...RHS Mixed
Borders

......Bedding Plants
......Her Perennials
......Other Plants
......Camera photos of Plant supports
Garden
Maintenance

Glossary with a tomato teaching cauliflowers
Home
Library of over 1000 books
Offbeat Glossary with DuLally Bird in its flower clock.

Plants
...Groundcover A,
B, C, D, E, F, G, H,
I, J, K, L, M, N, O,
P, Q, R, S, T, U, V,
W, XYZ with 14 Special Situations.
...in Chalk (Alkaline) Soil A-F1, A-F2,
A-F3, G-L, M-R,
M-R Roses, S-Z
...in Heavy Clay Soil A-F, G-L, M-R, S-Z
...in Lime-Free (Acid) Soil A-F, G-L, M-R,
S-Z
...in Light Sand Soil
A-F, G-L, M-R, S-Z.
...Poisonous Plants.
...Extra Plant Pages
with its 6 Plant Selection Levels

Soil
...
Interaction between 2 Quartz Sand Grains to make soil
...
How roots of plants are in control in the soil
...
Without replacing Soil Nutrients, the soil will break up to only clay, sand or silt
...
Subsidence caused by water in Clay
...
Use water ring for trees/shrubs for first 2 years.

Tool Shed with 3 kneeling pads
Useful Data with benefits of Seaweed

Topic -
Plant Photo Galleries
with Plant Botanical Index of all plants detailed in this website

...A, B, C, D, E,
...F, G, H, I, J, K,
...L, M, N, O, P, Q,
...R, S, T, U, V, W,
...X, Y, Z

If the plant type below has flowers, then the first gallery will include the flower thumbnail in each month of 1 of 6 or 7 flower colour comparison pages of each plant in its subsidiary galleries, as a low-level Plant Selection Process
Aquatic
Bamboo
Bedding
...by Flower Shape


Bulb Index
A1, 2, 3, B, C1, 2,
D, E, F, G, Glad,
H, I, J, K, L1, 2,
M, N, O, P, Q, R,
S, T, U, V, W, XYZ
...Allium/ Anemone
...Autumn
...Colchicum/ Crocus
...Dahlia
...Gladiolus with its 40 Flower Colours
......European A-E
......European F-M
......European N-Z
......European Non-classified
......American A,
B, C, D, E, F, G,
H, I, J, K, L, M,
N, O, P, Q, R, S,
T, U, V, W, XYZ
......American Non-classified
......Australia - empty
......India
......Lithuania
...Hippeastrum/ Lily
...Late Summer
...Narcissus
...Spring
...Tulip
...Winter
...Each of the above ...Bulb Galleries has its own set of Flower Colour Pages
...Flower Shape
...Bulb Form

...Bulb Use

...Bulb in Soil


Further details on bulbs from the Infill Galleries:-
Hardy Bulbs
...Aconitum
...Allium
...Alstroemeria
...Anemone

...Amaryllis
...Anthericum
...Antholyzas
...Apios
...Arisaema
...Arum
...Asphodeline

...Asphodelus
...Belamcanda
...Bloomeria
...Brodiaea
...Bulbocodium

...Calochorti
...Cyclobothrias
...Camassia
...Colchicum
...Convallaria 
...Forcing Lily of the Valley
...Corydalis
...Crinum
...Crosmia
...Montbretia
...Crocus

...Cyclamen
...Dicentra
...Dierama
...Eranthis
...Eremurus
...Erythrnium
...Eucomis

...Fritillaria
...Funkia
...Galanthus
...Galtonia
...Gladiolus
...Hemerocallis

...Hyacinth
...Hyacinths in Pots
...Scilla
...Puschkinia
...Chionodoxa
...Chionoscilla
...Muscari

...Iris
...Kniphofia
...Lapeyrousia
...Leucojum

...Lilium
...Lilium in Pots
...Malvastrum
...Merendera
...Milla
...Narcissus
...Narcissi in Pots

...Ornithogalum
...Oxalis
...Paeonia
...Ranunculus
...Romulea
...Sanguinaria
...Sternbergia
...Schizostylis
...Tecophilaea
...Trillium

...Tulip
...Zephyranthus

Half-Hardy Bulbs
...Acidanthera
...Albuca
...Alstroemeri
...Andro-stephium
...Bassers
...Boussing-aultias
...Bravoas
...Cypellas
...Dahlias
...Galaxis,
...Geissorhizas
...Hesperanthas

...Gladioli
...Ixias
...Sparaxises
...Babianas
...Morphixias
...Tritonias

...Ixiolirions
...Moraeas
...Ornithogalums
...Oxalises
...Phaedra-nassas
...Pancratiums
...Tigridias
...Zephyranthes
...Cooperias

Uses of Bulbs:-
...for Bedding
...in Windowboxes
...in Border
...naturalized in Grass
...in Bulb Frame
...in Woodland Garden
...in Rock Garden
...in Bowls
...in Alpine House
...Bulbs in Greenhouse or Stove:-
...Achimenes
...Alocasias
...Amorpho-phalluses
...Arisaemas
...Arums
...Begonias
...Bomareas
...Caladiums

...Clivias
...Colocasias
...Crinums
...Cyclamens
...Cyrtanthuses
...Eucharises
...Urceocharis
...Eurycles

...Freesias
...Gloxinias
...Haemanthus
...Hippeastrums

...Lachenalias
...Nerines
...Lycorises
...Pencratiums
...Hymenocallises
...Richardias
...Sprekelias
...Tuberoses
...Vallotas
...Watsonias
...Zephyranthes

...Plant Bedding in
......Spring

......Summer
...Bulb houseplants flowering inside House during:-
......January
......February
......March
......April
......May
......June
......July
......August
......September
......October
......November
......December
...Bulbs and other types of plant flowering during:-
......Dec-Jan
......Feb-Mar
......Apr-May
......Jun-Aug
......Sep-Oct
......Nov-Dec
...Selection of the smaller and choicer plants for the Smallest of Gardens with plant flowering during the same 6 periods as in the previous selection


Climber in
3 Sector Vertical Plant System
...Clematis
...Climbers
Conifer
Deciduous Shrub
...Shrubs - Decid
Deciduous Tree
...Trees - Decid
Evergreen Perennial
...P-Evergreen A-L
...P-Evergreen M-Z
...A,B,C,D,E,F,G,
...H,I,J,K,L,M,N,
...O,P,Q,R,S,T,U,
...V,W,X,Y,Z
...Flower Shape
Evergreen Shrub
...Shrubs - Evergreen
...Heather Shrub
...Heather Index
......Andromeda
......Bruckenthalia
......Calluna
......Daboecia
......Erica: Carnea
......Erica: Cinerea
......Erica: Others
Evergreen Tree
...Trees - Evergreen
Fern
Grass
Hedging
Herbaceous
Perennial

...A1,2,B,C,D,E,F,G,
...H,I,J,K,L,M,N,
...O,P1,2,Q,R,S,T,U,
...V,W,XYZ,
...Diascia Photo Album,
...UK Peony Index

...P -Herbaceous
...Peony
...Flower Shape
...RHS Wisley
......Mixed Border
......Other Borders
Herb
Odds and Sods
Rhododendron

Rose
...RHS Wisley A-F
...RHS Wisley G-R
...RHS Wisley S-Z
...Rose Use - page links in row 6. Rose, RHS Wisley and Other Roses rose indices on each Rose Use page
...Other Roses A-F
...Other Roses G-R
...Other Roses S-Z
Pruning Methods
Photo Index
R 1, 2, 3
Peter Beales Roses
RV Roger
Roses

Soft Fruit
Top Fruit
...Apple

...Cherry
...Pear
Vegetable
Wild Flower and
Butterfly page links are in next row

Topic -
UK Butterfly:-
...Egg, Caterpillar, Chrysalis and Butterfly Usage
of Plants.
...Plant Usage by
Egg, Caterpillar, Chrysalis and Butterfly.

Both native wildflowers and cultivated plants, with these
...Flower Shape,
...
Uses in USA,
...
Uses in UK and
...
Flo Cols / month are used by Butter-flies native in UK


Wild Flower
with its wildflower flower colour page, space,
data page(s).
...Blue Site Map.
Scented Flower, Foliage, Root.
Story of their Common Names.
Use of Plant with Flowers.
Use for Non-Flowering Plants.
Edible Plant Parts.
Flower Legend.
Flowering plants of
Chalk and
Limestone 1
, 2.
Flowering plants of Acid Soil
1.
...Brown Botanical Names.
Food for
Butterfly/Moth.

...Cream Common Names.
Coastal and Dunes.
Sandy Shores and Dunes.
...Green Broad-leaved Woods.
...Mauve Grassland - Acid, Neutral, Chalk.
...Multi-Cols Heaths and Moors.
...Orange Hedge-rows and Verges.
...Pink A-G Lakes, Canals and Rivers.
...Pink H-Z Marshes, Fens, Bogs.
...Purple Old Buildings and Walls.
...Red Pinewoods.
...White A-D
Saltmarshes.
Shingle Beaches, Rocks and Cliff Tops.
...White E-P Other.
...White Q-Z Number of Petals.
...Yellow A-G
Pollinator.
...Yellow H-Z
Poisonous Parts.
...Shrub/Tree River Banks and other Freshwater Margins. and together with cultivated plants in
Colour Wheel.

You know its
name:-
a-h, i-p, q-z,
Botanical Names, or Common Names,
habitat:-
on
Acid Soil,
on
Calcareous
(Chalk) Soil
,
on
Marine Soil,
on
Neutral Soil,
is a
Fern,
is a
Grass,
is a
Rush,
is a
Sedge, or
is
Poisonous.

Each plant in each WILD FLOWER FAMILY PAGE will have a link to:-
1) its created Plant Description Page in its Common Name column, then external sites:-
2) to purchase the plant or seed in its Botanical Name column,
3) to see photos in its Flowering Months column and
4) to read habitat details in its Habitat Column.
Adder's Tongue
Amaranth
Arrow-Grass
Arum
Balsam
Bamboo
Barberry
Bedstraw
Beech
Bellflower
Bindweed
Birch
Birds-Nest
Birthwort
Bogbean
Bog Myrtle
Borage
Box
Broomrape
Buckthorn
Buddleia
Bur-reed
Buttercup
Butterwort
Cornel (Dogwood)
Crowberry
Crucifer (Cabbage/Mustard) 1
Crucifer (Cabbage/Mustard) 2
Cypress
Daffodil
Daisy
Daisy Cudweeds
Daisy Chamomiles
Daisy Thistle
Daisy Catsears Daisy Hawkweeds
Daisy Hawksbeards
Daphne
Diapensia
Dock Bistorts
Dock Sorrels
Clubmoss
Duckweed
Eel-Grass
Elm
Filmy Fern
Horsetail
Polypody
Quillwort
Royal Fern
Figwort - Mulleins
Figwort - Speedwells
Flax
Flowering-Rush
Frog-bit
Fumitory
Gentian
Geranium
Glassworts
Gooseberry
Goosefoot
Grass 1
Grass 2
Grass 3
Grass Soft
Bromes 1

Grass Soft
Bromes 2

Grass Soft
Bromes 3

Hazel
Heath
Hemp
Herb-Paris
Holly
Honeysuckle
Horned-Pondweed
Hornwort
Iris
Ivy
Jacobs Ladder
Lily
Lily Garlic
Lime
Lobelia
Loosestrife
Mallow
Maple
Mares-tail
Marsh Pennywort
Melon (Gourd/Cucumber)
Mesem-bryanthemum
Mignonette
Milkwort
Mistletoe
Moschatel
Naiad
Nettle
Nightshade
Oleaster
Olive
Orchid 1
Orchid 2
Orchid 3
Orchid 4
Parnassus-Grass
Peaflower
Peaflower
Clover 1

Peaflower
Clover 2

Peaflower
Clover 3

Peaflower Vetches/Peas
Peony
Periwinkle
Pillwort
Pine
Pink 1
Pink 2
Pipewort
Pitcher-Plant
Plantain
Pondweed
Poppy
Primrose
Purslane
Rannock Rush
Reedmace
Rockrose
Rose 1
Rose 2
Rose 3
Rose 4
Rush
Rush Woodrushes
Saint Johns Wort
Saltmarsh Grasses
Sandalwood
Saxifrage
Seaheath
Sea Lavender
Sedge Rush-like
Sedges Carex 1
Sedges Carex 2
Sedges Carex 3
Sedges Carex 4
Spindle-Tree
Spurge
Stonecrop
Sundew
Tamarisk
Tassel Pondweed
Teasel
Thyme 1
Thyme 2
Umbellifer 1
Umbellifer 2
Valerian
Verbena
Violet
Water Fern
Waterlily
Water Milfoil
Water Plantain
Water Starwort
Waterwort
Willow
Willow-Herb
Wintergreen
Wood-Sorrel
Yam
Yew


Topic -
The following is a complete hierarchical Plant Selection Process

dependent on the Garden Style chosen
Garden Style
...Infill Plants
...12 Bloom Colours per Month Index
...12 Foliage Colours per Month Index
...All Plants Index
...Cultivation, Position, Use Index
...Shape, Form
Index

 


Topic -
Flower/Foliage Colour Wheel Galleries with number of colours as a high-level Plant Selection Process

All Flowers 53 with
...Use of Plant and
Flower Shape
- page links in bottom row

All Foliage 53
instead of redundant
...(All Foliage 212)


All Flowers
per Month 12


Bee instead of wind pollinated plants for hay-fever sufferers
All Bee-Pollinated Flowers
per Month
12
...Index

Rock Garden and Alpine Flowers
Rock Plant Flowers 53
INDEX
A, B, C, D, E, F,
G, H, I, J, K, L,
M, NO, PQ, R, S,
T, UVWXYZ
...Rock Plant Photos

Flower Colour Wheel without photos, but with links to photos
12 Bloom Colours
per Month Index

...All Plants Index


Topic -
Use of Plant in your Plant Selection Process

Plant Colour Wheel Uses
with
1. Perfect general use soil is composed of 8.3% lime, 16.6% humus, 25% clay and 50% sand, and
2. Why you are continually losing the SOIL STRUCTURE so your soil - will revert to clay, chalk, sand or silt.
Uses of Plant and Flower Shape:-
...Foliage Only
...Other than Green Foliage
...Trees in Lawn
...Trees in Small Gardens
...Wildflower Garden
...Attract Bird
...Attract Butterfly
1
, 2
...Climber on House Wall
...Climber not on House Wall
...Climber in Tree
...Rabbit-Resistant
...Woodland
...Pollution Barrier
...Part Shade
...Full Shade
...Single Flower provides Pollen for Bees
1
, 2, 3
...Ground-Cover
<60
cm
60-180cm
>180cm
...Hedge
...Wind-swept
...Covering Banks
...Patio Pot
...Edging Borders
...Back of Border
...Poisonous
...Adjacent to Water
...Bog Garden
...Tolerant of Poor Soil
...Winter-Flowering
...Fragrant
...Not Fragrant
...Exhibition
...Standard Plant is 'Ball on Stick'
...Upright Branches or Sword-shaped leaves
...Plant to Prevent Entry to Human or Animal
...Coastal Conditions
...Tolerant on North-facing Wall
...Cut Flower
...Potted Veg Outdoors
...Potted Veg Indoors
...Thornless
...Raised Bed Outdoors Veg
...Grow in Alkaline Soil A-F, G-L, M-R,
S-Z
...Grow in Acidic Soil
...Grow in Any Soil
...Grow in Rock Garden
...Grow Bulbs Indoors

Uses of Bedding
...Bedding Out
...Filling In
...Screen-ing
...Pots and Troughs
...Window Boxes
...Hanging Baskets
...Spring Bedding
...Summer Bedding
...Winter Bedding
...Foliage instead of Flower
...Coleus Bedding Photos for use in Public Domain 1

Uses of Bulb
...Other than Only Green Foliage
...Bedding or Mass Planting
...Ground-Cover
...Cut-Flower
...Tolerant of Shade
...In Woodland Areas
...Under-plant
...Tolerant of Poor Soil
...Covering Banks
...In Water
...Beside Stream or Water Garden
...Coastal Conditions
...Edging Borders
...Back of Border or Back-ground Plant
...Fragrant Flowers
...Not Fragrant Flowers
...Indoor
House-plant

...Grow in a Patio Pot
...Grow in an Alpine Trough
...Grow in an Alpine House
...Grow in Rock Garden
...Speciman Plant
...Into Native Plant Garden
...Naturalize in Grass
...Grow in Hanging Basket
...Grow in Window-box
...Grow in Green-house
...Grow in Scree
...Naturalized Plant Area
...Grow in Cottage Garden
...Attracts Butterflies
...Attracts Bees
...Resistant to Wildlife
...Bulb in Soil:-
......Chalk
......Clay
......Sand
......Lime-Free (Acid)
......Peat

Uses of Rose
Rose Index

...Bedding 1, 2
...Climber /Pillar
...Cut-Flower 1, 2
...Exhibition, Speciman
...Ground-Cover
...Grow In A Container 1, 2
...Hedge 1, 2
...Climber in Tree
...Woodland
...Edging Borders
...Tolerant of Poor Soil 1, 2
...Tolerant of Shade
...Back of Border
...Adjacent to Water
...Page for rose use as ARCH ROSE, PERGOLA ROSE, COASTAL CONDITIONS ROSE, WALL ROSE, STANDARD ROSE, COVERING BANKS or THORNLESS ROSES.
...FRAGRANT ROSES
...NOT FRAGRANT ROSES


Topic -
Camera Photo Galleries showing all 4000 x 3000 pixels of each photo on your screen that you can then click and drag it to your desktop:-

RHS Garden at Wisley

Plant Supports -
When supporting plants in a bed, it is found that not only do those plants grow upwards, but also they expand their roots and footpad sideways each year. Pages
1
, 2, 3, 8, 11,
12, 13,
Plants 4, 7, 10,
Bedding Plants 5,
Plant Supports for Unknown Plants 5
,
Clematis Climbers 6,
the RHS does not appear to either follow it's own pruning advice or advice from The Pruning of Trees, Shrubs and Conifers by George E. Brown.
ISBN 0-571-11084-3 with the plants in Pages 1-7 of this folder. You can see from looking at both these resources as to whether the pruning carried out on the remainder of the plants in Pages 7-15 was correct.

Narcissus (Daffodil) 9,
Phlox Plant Supports 14, 15

Coleus Bedding Foliage Trial - Pages
1, 2, 3, 4, 5,
6, 7, 8, 9, 10,
11, 12, 13, 14, 15,
16, 17, 18, 19, 20,
21, 22, 23, 24, 25,
26, 27, 28, 29, 30,
31, 32, Index

National Trust Garden at Sissinghurst Castle
Plant Supports -
Pages for Gallery 1

with Plant Supports
1, 5, 10
Plants
2, 3, 4, 6, 7, 8, 9,
11, 12
Recommended Rose Pruning Methods 13
Pages for Gallery 2
with Plant Supports
2
,
Plants 1, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7

Dry Garden of
RHS Garden at
Hyde Hall

Plants - Pages
without Plant Supports
Plants 1
, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9

Nursery of
Peter Beales Roses
Display Garden

Roses Pages
1, 2, 3, 4, 5,
6, 7, 8, 9, 10,
11, 12, 13

Nursery of
RV Roger

Roses - Pages
A1,A2,A3,A4,A5,
A6,A7,A8,A9,A10,
A11,A12,A13,A14,
B15,
B16,B17,B18,B19,
B20,
B21,B22,B23,B24,
B25,
B26,B27,B28,B29,
B30,
C31,C32,C33,C34,
C35,
C36,C37,C38,C39,
C40,
C41,CD2,D43,D44,
D45,
D46,D47,D48,D49,
E50,
E51,E52,F53,F54,
F55,
F56,F57,G58,G59,
H60,
H61,I62,K63,L64,
M65,
M66,N67,P68,P69,
P70,
R71,R72,S73,S74,
T75,
V76,Z77, 78,

Damage by Plants in Chilham Village - Pages
1, 2, 3, 4

Pavements of Funchal, Madeira
Damage to Trees - Pages
1, 2, 3, 4, 5,
6, 7, 8, 9, 10,
11, 12, 13
for trees 1-54,
14, 15,
16, 17, 18, 19, 20,
21, 22, 23, 24, 25,
for trees 55-95,
26, 27, 28, 29, 30,
31, 32, 33, 34, 35,
36, 37,
for trees 95-133,
38, 39, 40,
41, 42, 43, 44, 45,
for trees 133-166

Chris Garnons-Williams
Work Done - Pages
1, 2, 3, 4, 5,
6, 7, 8, 9, 10,
11, 12, 13

Identity of Plants
Label Problems - Pages
1, 2, 3, 4, 5,
6, 7, 8, 9, 10,
11

Ron and Christine Foord - 1036 photos only inserted so far - Garden Flowers - Start Page of each Gallery
AB1 ,AN14,BA27,
CH40,CR52,DR63,
FR74,GE85,HE96,

Plant with Photo Index of Ivydene Gardens - 1187
A 1, 2, Photos - 43
B 1, Photos - 13
C 1, Photos - 35
D 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7,
Photos - 411
with Plants causing damage to buildings in Chilham Village and Damage to Trees in Pavements of Funchal
E 1, Photos - 21
F 1, Photos - 1
G 1, Photos - 5
H 1, Photos - 21
I 1, Photos - 8
J 1, Photos - 1
K 1, Photos - 1
L 1, Photos - 85
with Label Problems
M 1, Photos - 9
N 1, Photos - 12
O 1, Photos - 5
P 1, Photos - 54
Q 1, Photos -
R 1, 2, 3,
Photos - 229
S 1, Photos - 111
T 1, Photos - 13
U 1, Photos - 5
V 1, Photos - 4
W 1, Photos - 100
with Work Done by Chris Garnons-Williams
X 1 Photos -
Y 1, Photos -
Z 1 Photos -
Articles/Items in Ivydene Gardens - 88
Flower Colour, Num of Petals, Shape and
Plant Use of:-
Rock Garden
within linked page


 

 

Topic -
Fragrant Plants:-

Sense of Fragrance from Roy Genders

Fragrant Plants:-
Trees and Shrubs with Scented Flowers
1
, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6
Shrubs bearing Scented Flowers for an Acid Soil
1
, 2, 3, 4
Shrubs bearing Scented Flowers for a
Chalky or Limestone Soil
1
, 2, 3, 4
Shrubs bearing Scented leaves for a
Sandy Soil
1
, 2, 3
Herbaceous Plants with Scented Flowers
1
, 2, 3
Annual and Biennial Plants with Scented Flowers or Leaves
1
, 2
Bulbs and Corms with Scented Flowers
1
, 2, 3, 4, 5
Scented Plants of Climbing and Trailing Habit
1
, 2, 3
Winter-flowering Plants with Scented Flowers
1
, 2
Night-scented Flowering Plants
1
, 2
 


Topic -
Website User Guidelines


My Gas Service Engineer found Flow and Return pipes incorrectly positioned on gas boilers and customers had refused to have positioning corrected in 2020.
 


Topic
Table of this Page has moved to the right hand side.

 

 

 

Look for:-
Topic - Camera Photo Galleries showing all 4000 x 3000 pixels of each photo on your screen that you can then click and drag to your desktop:-
in a row of the Topic Table on the right hand side for more than 2000 informative photos to aid your plant choice using the:-
Plant with Photo Index of Ivydene Gardens -
A 1

 

item7a3 item7a3