Ivydene Gardens Soil:
How are Chemicals stored and released from Soil?

How are chemicals stored and released from soil?

Soil chemistry is largely governed by the soil’s ‘colloidal’ material. Colloids are particles that are larger than individual molecules but small enough to be microscopic. When colloidal particles are mixed with water they remain in suspension in a dispersed state.

The following diagram illustrates that soil is made up of a mineral and an organic fraction. Both fractions contain colloidal material.

It is these colloidal materials that have a great influence on the chemical properties of the soil.


Soil colloids also carry an electrostatic charge: clay minerals, hydrous oxides of iron (Fe) and aluminium (Al), and soil humus. This gives them the ability to hold onto certain chemicals, so that they can store nutrients, acidity and toxins. Cations are attracted to the negatively charged soil colloids, forming a layer of positively charged particles. The ability of a soil to store nutrients is related to both the amount and the type of colloidal material present. The ability of a soil to store nutrients can be expressed in terms of its cation exchange capacity or CEC. Soils with large amounts of clay and organic matter have high CECs whereas soils with sandy textures and low concentrations of organic matter have low CECs.


'Southside Seedling



What determines the availability of acids and nutrients?

Soil colloids have the ability to act as a chemical store because they ‘buffer’ chemical changes by soaking up and then releasing ions from the soil solution.

All acids have high concentrations of H+ ions in solution. The strength of an acid is described using the pH scale, which is a logarithmic scale expressing the concentration of H+ ions in solution. The following shows the effect of soil pH on the availability of some common soil chemicals, which (with the exception of Aluminium) are essential elements for plant growth. The major elements are required in large amounts whereas the trace elements are required in small amounts (parts per million). Absorption of these elements by the plant through the roots occurs in ionic form from either the cation exchange complex of clay and humus or directly from the soil water solution.

Soil chemical name


pH availibility range

Deficiency problems




Increasingly available below pH 5.5.

Aluminium trisilicate is a grey clay. Mix sand and horticultural grit with it to improve it's soil texture to one more suitable for most plants.

Liming to pH 5.5 is recommended to avoid toxidicity dangers below pH 5.5.




Maxicrop Seaweed Meal provides all trace elements (This is brown knotted wrack seaweed - Ascophyllum nodosum, which has been dried and ground into a powder form). Apply 200 grammes/square metre on beds, trees, hedges and 70 grammes/square metre on lawns as a spring dressing each year.

Trace element.

All trace elements are involved in the enzyme actions.

Overliming to between pH 7.5-8.5 causes deficiency.




Soils with pH between 5.5-6.5 require 200grammes/square metre of Dolodust (Dolomitic Lime) to raise the pH to above 6.5 as a liming agent.

Major element.

This is essential at the growing points of plants and in cell walls.

May be deficient in acidic soils.




No carbon, no growth.

Major element.

This is taken from carbon dioxide in the air.




Maxicrop Seaweed Meal provides all trace elements. Apply 200 grammes/square metre on beds, trees, hedges and 70 grammes/square metre on lawns as a spring dressing each year.

Trace element.




Maxicrop Seaweed Meal provides all trace elements. Apply 200 grammes/square metre on beds, trees, hedges and 70 grammes/square metre on lawns as a spring dressing each year.

Trace element.

May be toxic in acidic soils and deficient where pH exceeds 7.0 (below 7.0 soil is acidic, above 7.0 soil is alkaline)




Maxicrop Seaweed Meal provides all trace elements. Apply 200 grammes/square metre on beds, trees, hedges and 70 grammes/square metre on lawns as a spring dressing each year.

Trace element.

May be toxic in acidic soils and deficient where pH exceeds 7.0




Available to plants by their breakdown of water.

Major element.




Sulphate of Iron applied at 30 grammes/square metre to chalk beds and to all lawns (aids destruction of moss in lawns) every spring will reduce deficiency.

Trace element.




This may occur on chalk soils, which have not been fertilised with magnesium rich manure since the 1940's. It may be advisable to use the Kieserite from Monro South for most new gardens on a yearly basis for at least 10 years, to overcome possible magnesium deficiencies.

Major element.

Component of chlorophyll which is essential to photosynthesis.




Maxicrop Seaweed Meal provides all trace elements. Apply 200 grammes/square metre on beds, trees, hedges and 70 grammes/square metre on lawns as a spring dressing each year.

Trace element.




Maxicrop Seaweed Meal provides all trace elements. Apply 200 grammes/square metre on beds, trees, hedges and 70 grammes/square metre on lawns as a spring dressing each year.

Trace element.




Leaves will be pale green, yellow green or yellow. The cause needs to be ascertained before action taken (see pages 202-205 of Soil by Ken Simpson in Garden Pests section of Library). Generally, if a 3" deep mulch of organic material - Spent Mushroom Compost, Zoo Compost, Horse Manure, Cow Manure - is spread on the garden beds in late autumn, there should be no shortage of Nitrogen.

Major element.

This is a constituent of all proteins in a plant.




No oxygen, no growth. Usually available from breakdown of carbon dioxide by the plant.

Major element.




Most of the soils of the British Isles are naturally deficient in phosphorus. A slow release form called Phosmag is available from Monro South. This has 5 parts Nitrogen, 19 parts Phosphorus, 10 parts Potassium, and Magnesium in a slowly dissolving form. 1 dressing per year is sufficient for both phosphorus and potassium.

Major element.

Required for enzyme actions within a plant.

Liable to be fixed by Iron, Aluminium, Manganese at low pH by combining with those elements; insoluble forms created at high pH, and can inhibit the acceptance of Calcium by plants.




The first symptom is yellowing of the tip and leaf margin. These parts then die as yellowing followed by browning spreads inwards between the veins. The whole leaf then dies. Use Phosmag as recommended above in early spring.

Major element.

Used for regulation of osmotic pressure and turgidity of the tissues.

Deficiencies liable at low pH.





Trace element.




Due to coal not being burnt as much nowadays, there is a deficiency in the soil of sulphur. Superphosphate at 105 grammes/square metre per year will restore sulphur levels to a private garden.

Major element.

This is part of some proteins and oils in a plant.

Some reduction at low pH, but sulphur bacteria still active.




Maxicrop Seaweed Meal provides all trace elements. Apply 200 grammes/square metre on beds, trees, hedges and 70 grammes/square metre on lawns as a spring dressing each year.

Trace element.

May be toxic in acidic soils and deficient where pH exceeds 7.0



These elements are leached down the layers of topsoil and subsoil, to the weathered bedrock and bedrock soil where the plant roots do not reach. These soil layers are called Soil Horizons:-

"Soil Horizons

So where to the leached ions go? Well the soil is formed in layers. The top layer (Horizon A - leaching zone. Organics here with most of plant roots) of soil is known as the topsoil. This is exposed directly to rain and generally leached of its nutrients by acid rain and the active growth of roots. The many living organisms and their side products and breakdown products make the topsoil very dark in color. Some would say it is black. It is certainly loaded with degrating organic particles. These help mitigate the leaching. So topsoil is sometimes considered "rich" but is really rich only if the pH has been kept corrected over a long period of time.

The next layer of soil (Horizon B) is where the minerals leached from topsoil accumulate. This layer is often called the subsoil. It is typically a red/brown color. It looks less rich, but in unmaintained soils is actually richer than the topsoil. When you are planting trees in a landscape we recommend digging a $50 hole for a $5 tree and mixing the recovered soil and sifting the gravel and rocks out of it, before filling in around the roots of the tree. This way you get the advantage of the organics in the topsoil along with the higher nutrient content of the subsoil.

The layer below the subsoil is called weathered bedrock (Horizon C). This is a very rocky layer and maybe packed or too deep for roots to penetrate. This is the source of new mineral ions however. So if the subsoil and topsoil are at correct pH, they can be replenished in minerals from Horizon C.

The lowest horizon (Horizon D) is the bedrock. Here in Eastern Connecticut this layer is granite. Our soil would be richer if our bedrock were limestone. In other parts of the country the bedrock is limestone and the crops thrive there!

Obviously if we want good crops over time, we need to take good care of the pH and nutrient levels in soil. But there is one other precaution we must take too. We need to control loss of farmland in order to keep feeding the world populations. A lot of our soil is eroded by wind or rain and is lost to us. Mark Twain wrote of the Mississippi River which drains much of the US farmlands. In his novels he called the river the "Big Muddy" because of all the clay and silt that is flowing down the river into the Gulf of Mexico. If you have seen this magnificent river you know what he is writing about. The Louisiana delta is where some of the horizon A and B soils end up. The organics decay in the submerged sediments and produce natural gas and oil. We are now mining this from there with offshore rigs. But the loss of farmlands is destroying our agriculturally based economy. Just like the Egyptians not realizing that the Nile flooding was the source of its agricultural productivity in ancient times, we are somehow missing the root of our national prominence. We are letting it go down the river.

Obviously as educated people, we must develop ways to do our agriculture without laying the soil bare to wind and rain for long periods of time. We need to cultivate the soil cautiously. We need to use mulches or ground covers more effectively. We also need to develop agricultural crops that are perennial rather than annual. Corn requires yearly plowing leading to erosion because it is an annual crop. Its closest wild relative is a perennial. If we can get the perenniation genes from Zea diploperennis into Zea mays, then we can have corn fields that do not need to be plowed. The corn would come up year after year and just need weed control and harvesting! This would save much soil as the tangle of perennial roots would hold the soil firmly against wind and rain. It would save on fuel costs for plowing and planting. It would reduce pollution of rivers. Science is at work on such progress and we need the society to understand the need to fund research at the USDA and NSF to accomplish these important goals." from Soil article by Plant Physiology Information website by Ross Koning.

Phostrogen Plant Food provides:-

Molybdenum and

in soluble form for applying using a watering can, or it can be used as powder at 70 grammes per square metre as a soil dressing in Spring and again in Summer.

Maxicrop Seaweed Meal or Maxicrop Calcified Seaweed can also be obtained from garden centres to provide more of the trace elements each Spring.
These two items would provide a fair proportion of nutrients required in your first year as a top-up for most small gardens and then it would still be usefull to have a 3-4" deep mulch of organic material on the beds/hedges as well annually.

Small quantities of the

J Arthur Bower's Garden Lime (instead of Dolodust for Calcium),
Sulphate of Iron,
Superphosphate (for Sulphur) and
Phostrogen Plant Food (for Potassium and Phosphorus instead of Phosmag)

can also be found and then its stockist locator can find a garden centre close to you in the UK.


Site design and content copyright ©December 2006. Page structure amended September 2012. Menu tables amanded July 2015 by Chris Garnons-Williams.

DISCLAIMER: Links to external sites are provided as a courtesy to visitors. Ivydene Horticultural Services are not responsible for the content and/or quality of external web sites linked from this site.  

The next section shows how the earthworm provides nutrients together with the nutrients in the manure from cows, pigs and horses to be included in the 3-4 inch (7.5-10cms) deep mulch of organic material together with grass mowings and shredded prunings.

The following is from "A land of Soil, Milk and Honey" by Bernard Jarman in Star & Furrow Issue 122 January 2015 - Journal of the Biodynamic Association;_

"Soil is created in the first place through the activity of countlesss micro-organisms, earthworms and especially the garden worm (Lumbricus terrestris). This species is noticeably active in the period immediately before and immediately after mid-winter. In December we find it (in the UK) drawing large numbers of autumn leaves down into the soil. Worms consume all kinds of plant material along with sand and mineral substances. In form, they live as a pure digestive tract. The worm casts excreted from their bodies form the basis of a well-structured soil with an increased level of available plant nutrients:-

  • 5% more nitrogen,
  • 7% more phosphorous and
  • 11% more potasium than the surrounding topsoil.

Worms also burrow to great depths and open up the soil for air and water to penetrate, increasing the scope of a fertile soil.

After the earthworm, the most important helper of the biodynamic farmer is undoubetdly

  • the cow. A cow's digestive system is designed to make use of roughage such as grass and hay. Cow manure is arguably the most effective and long lasting of all the fertilizing agents at the farmer's disposal and has been found to have a carry over effect of at least 4 years. It is also one of the most balanced and it contains no grass seeds, since they have been completely digested.
  • Pig manure is rich in potassium, attractive to earthworms and beneficial on sandy soils.
  • Horse manure increases soil activity and stimulates strong healthy growth, but it does contain grass seed and other seeds."



Soil Introduction -
Organic Matter in Soil

Physical Changes in Soil
Chemical Changes in Soil
How Soil is created

How Clay is created
How is Humus made
How is Soil Material Lost
What is Soil Texture


How does Water act in Soil
How Chemicals stored in Soil
What are Soil Nutrients
What Soil Organisms
How microbes use nutrients


The Nitrogen Cycle


Subsidence due to Clay

Case 1 Clay on Sand


Soil Site Map

Website Structure Explanation and User Guidelines

Site Map

Plant Selection
Level 1
Attracts Bird/Butterfly
Photos - Butterfly

Bee Pollinated Plants for Hay Fever Sufferers
Photos - Bloom per Month

Groundcover Height
0-24 inches
(0-60 cms
24-72 inches
(60-180 cms
Above 72 inches
(180 cms

Poisonous Cultivated and UK Wildflower Plants with Photos
Cultivated Poisonous Plants
Wildflower Poisonous Plants

Rabbit-Resistant Plant
Flower Arranging
Photos - Wildflowers


Plant Selection
Level 2
Info - Any Soil
Plants - Any Soil A-F
Plants - Any Soil G-L
Plants - Any Soil M-R
Plants - Any Soil S-Z

Info - Chalky Soil
Plants - Chalk Soil A-F
Plants - Chalk Soil G-L
Plants - Chalk Soil M-R
Plants - Chalk Soil S-Z

Info - Clay Soil
Plants - Clay Soil A-F
Plants - Clay Soil G-L
Plants - Clay Soil M-R
Plants - Clay Soil S-Z

Info - Lime-Free Soil
Plants - Lime-Free Soil A-F
Plants - Lime-Free Soil G-L
Plants - Lime-Free Soil M-R
Plants - Lime-Free Soil S-Z

Info - Sandy Soil
Plants - Sand Soil A-F
Plants - Sand Soil G-L
Plants - Sand Soil M-R
Plants - Sand Soil S-Z

Info - Peaty Soils
Plants - Peaty Soil A-F
Plants - Peaty Soil G-L
Plants - Peaty Soil M-R
Plants - Peaty Soil S-Z

Following parts of Level 2a,
Level 2b,
Level 2c and
Level 2d are included in separate columns
together with
Acid Soil,
Alkaline Soil,
Any Soil
Height and Spread,
Flowering Months and
Flower Colour in their Columns,
and also
Companion Plants to aid this plant Page,
Alpine Plant for Rock Garden Index Page
Native to UK WildFlower Plant in its Family Page in this website

Level 2cc
in the Comment Column
within each
of the Soil Type Pages of
Level 2



Plant Selection by Plant Requirements
Level 2a
Sun aspect, Moisture

Plant Selection by Form
Level 2b
Tree Growth Shape
Shrub/Perennial Growth Habit

Plant Selection by Garden Use
Level 2c
Photos - Bedding
Bog Garden
Coastal Conditions
Containers in Garden
Front of Border
Hanging Basket
Photos - Hedging
Pollution Barrier
Rest of Border
Rock Garden
Photos - Rock Garden
Thorny Hedge

Plant Selection by Garden Use
Level 2cc Others
Back of Shady Border
Crevice Garden
Desert Garden
Raised Bed
Scree Bed
Specimen Plant
Trees for Lawns
Trees for Small Garden
Photos - Wildflowers

Plant Selection by Plant Type
Level 2d
Photos - Evergr Per
Photos - Herbac Per
Photos - RHS Herbac
Photos - Rock Garden
Photos - Bamboo
Photos - Bulb
Photos - Climber
Deciduous Rhizome
Deciduous Shrub
Photos - Decid Shrub
Evergreen Perennial
Photos - Evergr Per
Evergreen Shrub
Photos - Evergr Shrub
Photos - Fern
Fruit Plant
Herbaceous Perennial
Photos - Herbac Per
Remaining Top Fruit
Soft Fruit
Top Fruit
Photos - Vegetable



Plant Selection by
Flower Colour
Level 3a
Blue Flowers
Photos - Bedding
Photos - Bulb
Photos - Climber
Photos - Evergr Per
Photos - Evergr Shrub
Photos - Wild Flower

Orange Flowers
Photos - Bedding
Photos - Wild Flower

Other Colour Flowers
Photos - Bedding
Photos - Bulb
Photos - Climber
Photos - Evergr Per
Photos - Evergr Shrub
Photos - Wild Flower

Red Flowers
Photos - Bedding
Photos - Bulb
Photos - Climber
Photos - Decid Shrub
Photos - Evergr Per
Photos - Evergr Shrub
Photos - Herbac Per
Photos - Rose
Photos - Wild Flower

White Flowers
Photos - Bedding
Photos - Bulb
Photos - Climber
Photos - Decid Shrub
Photos - Decid Tree
Photos - Evergr Per
Photos - Evergr Shrub
Photos - Herbac Per
Photos - Rose
Photos - Wild Flower

Yellow Flowers
Photos - Bedding
Photos - Bulb
Photos - Climber
Photos - Decid Shrub
Photos - Evergr Per
Photos - Evergr Shrub
Photos - Herbac Per
Photos - Rose
Photos - Wild Flower

Photos - 53 Colours in its Colour Wheel Gallery

Photos - 12 Flower Colours per Month in its Bloom Colour Wheel Gallery

Plant Selection by Flower Shape
Level 3b
Photos - Bedding
Photos - Evergr Per
Photos - Herbac Per

Plant Selection by Foliage Colour
Level 3c
Aromatic Foliage
Finely Cut Leaves
Large Leaves
Non-Green Foliage 1
Non-Green Foliage 2
Sword-shaped Leaves


Plant Selection by Pruning Requirements
Level 4
Pruning Plants


Plant Selection Level 5
Plant Name - A
Plant Name - B
Plant Name - C
Plant Name - D
Plant Name - E
Plant Name - F
Plant Name - G
Plant Name - H
Plant Name - I
Plant Name - J
Plant Name - K
Plant Name - L
Plant Name - M
Plant Name - N
Plant Name - O
Plant Name - P
Plant Name - Q
Plant Name - R
Plant Name - S
Plant Name - T
Plant Name - U
Plant Name - V
Plant Name - W
Plant Name - XYZ


Then, finally use
aid your plant selected or to
deter Pests
Plant Selection Level 6


To locate mail-order nursery for plants from the UK in this gallery try using search in RHS Find a Plant.

To locate plants in the European Union (EU) try using Search Term in Gardens4You and Meilland Richardier in France.

To locate mail-order nursery for plants from America in this gallery try using search in Plant Lust.

To locate plant information in Australia try using Plant Finder in Gardening Australia.


The following details come from Cactus Art:-

"A flower is the the complex sexual reproductive structure of Angiosperms, typically consisting of an axis bearing perianth parts, androecium (male) and gynoecium (female).    

Bisexual flower show four distinctive parts arranged in rings inside each other which are technically modified leaves: Sepal, petal, stamen & pistil. This flower is referred to as complete (with all four parts) and perfect (with "male" stamens and "female" pistil). The ovary ripens into a fruit and the ovules inside develop into seeds.

Incomplete flowers are lacking one or more of the four main parts. Imperfect (unisexual) flowers contain a pistil or stamens, but not both. The colourful parts of a flower and its scent attract pollinators and guide them to the nectary, usually at the base of the flower tube.



Androecium (male Parts or stamens)
It is made up of the filament and anther, it is the pollen producing part of the plant.
Anther This is the part of the stamen that produces and contains pollen. 
Filament This is the fine hair-like stalk that the anther sits on top of.
Pollen This is the dust-like male reproductive cell of flowering plants.

Gynoecium (female Parts or carpels or pistil)
 It is made up of the stigma, style, and ovary. Each pistil is constructed of one to many rolled leaflike structures. Stigma This is the part of the pistil  which receives the pollen grains and on which they germinate. 
Style This is the long stalk that the stigma sits on top of. 
Ovary The part of the plant that contains the ovules. 
Ovule The part of the ovary that becomes the seeds. 

The colorful, often bright part of the flower (corolla). 
The parts that look like little green leaves that cover the outside of a flower bud (calix). 
(Undifferentiated "Perianth segment" that are not clearly differentiated into sepals and petals, take the names of tepals.)"




The following details come from Nectary Genomics:-

"NECTAR. Many flowering plants attract potential pollinators by offering a reward of floral nectar. The primary solutes found in most nectars are varying ratios of sucrose, glucose and fructose, which can range from as little a 8% (w/w) in some species to as high as 80% in others. This abundance of simple sugars has resulted in the general perception that nectar consists of little more than sugar-water; however, numerous studies indicate that it is actually a complex mixture of components. Additional compounds found in a variety of nectars include other sugars, all 20 standard amino acids, phenolics, alkaloids, flavonoids, terpenes, vitamins, organic acids, oils, free fatty acids, metal ions and proteins.

NECTARIES. An organ known as the floral nectary is responsible for producing the complex mixture of compounds found in nectar. Nectaries can occur in different areas of flowers, and often take on diverse forms in different species, even to the point of being used for taxonomic purposes. Nectaries undergo remarkable morphological and metabolic changes during the course of floral development. For example, it is known that pre-secretory nectaries in a number of species accumulate large amounts of starch, which is followed by a rapid degradation of amyloplast granules just prior to anthesis and nectar secretion. These sugars presumably serve as a source of nectar carbohydrate.

WHY STUDY NECTAR? Nearly one-third of all worldwide crops are dependent on animals to achieve efficient pollination. In addition, U.S. pollinator-dependent crops have been estimated to have an annual value of up to $15 billion. Many crop species are largely self-incompatible (not self-fertile) and almost entirely on animal pollinators to achieve full fecundity; poor pollinator visitation has been reported to reduce yields of certain species by up to 50%."


The following details about DOUBLE FLOWERS comes from Wikipedia:-

"Double-flowered" describes varieties of flowers with extra petals, often containing flowers within flowers. The double-flowered trait is often noted alongside the scientific name with the abbreviation fl. pl. (flore pleno, a Latin ablative form meaning "with full flower"). The first abnormality to be documented in flowers, double flowers are popular varieties of many commercial flower types, including roses, camellias and carnations. In some double-flowered varieties all of the reproductive organs are converted to petals — as a result, they are sexually sterile and must be propagated through cuttings. Many double-flowered plants have little wildlife value as access to the nectaries is typically blocked by the mutation.


There is further photographic, diagramatic and text about Double Flowers from an education department - dept.ca.uky.edu - in the University of Kentucky in America.


"Meet the plant hunter obsessed with double-flowering blooms" - an article from The Telegraph.



Explanation of Structure of this Website with User Guidelines Page for those photo galleries with Photos
(of either ones I have taken myself or others which have been loaned only for use on this website from external sources)

Choose 1 of these different Plant selection Methods:-


1. Choose a plant from 1 of 53 flower colours in the Colour Wheel Gallery.


2. Choose a plant from 1 of 12 flower colours in each month of the year from 12 Bloom Colours per Month Index Gallery.


3. Choose a plant from 1 of 6 flower colours per month for each type of plant:-

Deciduous Shrub
Deciduous Tree
Evergreen Perennial
Evergreen Shrub
Evergreen Tree
Herbaceous Perennial
Odds and Sods
Soft Fruit
Top Fruit
Wild Flower


4. Choose a plant from its Flower Shape:-

Shape, Form

Flower Shape


5. Choose a plant from its foliage:-



6. There are 6 Plant Selection Levels including Bee Pollinated Plants for Hay Fever Sufferers in
Plants Topic.




7. when I do not have my own or ones from mail-order nursery photos , then from March 2016, if you want to start from the uppermost design levels through to your choice of cultivated and wildflower plants to change your Plant Selection Process then use the following galleries:-

  • Create and input all plants known by Amateur Gardening inserted into their Sanders' Encyclopaedia from their edition published in 1960 (originally published by them in 1895) into these
    • Stage 1 - Garden Style Index Gallery,
    • Stage 2 - Infill Plants Index Gallery being the only gallery from these 7 with photos (from Wikimedia Commons) ,
    • Stage 3 - All Plants Index Gallery with each plant species in its own Plant Type Page followed by choice from Stage 4a, 4b, 4c and/or 4d REMEMBERING THE CONSTRAINTS ON THE SELECTION FROM THE CHOICES MADE IN STAGES 1 AND 2
    • Stage 4a - 12 Bloom Colours per Month Index Gallery,
    • Stage 4b - 12 Foliage Colours per Month Index Gallery with
    • Stage 4c - Cultivation, Position, Use Index Gallery and
    • Stage 4d - Shape, Form Index Gallery
    • Unfortunately, if you want to have 100's of choices on selection of plants from 1000's of 1200 pixels wide by up to 16,300 pixels in length webpages, which you can jump to from almost any of the pages in these 7 galleries above, you have to put up with those links to those choices being on
      • the left topic menu table,
      • the header of the middle data table and on
      • the page/index menu table on the right of every page of those galleries.

There are other pages on Plants which bloom in each month of the year in this website:-



Case Studies

Companion Planting
...A, B, C, D, E,
...F, G, H, I, J, K,
...L, M, N, O, P, Q,
...R, S, T, U, V, W,
...X, Y, Z
...Pest Control
...using Plants

Garden Construction
Garden Design
...RHS Mixed Borders
......Bedding Plants
......Her Perennials
......Other Plants Garden Maintenance
Offbeat Glossary
...Poisonous Plants
Soil *
...Soil Nutrients
Tool Shed
Useful Data


Topic - Plant Photo Galleries
Plant with Photo Index of Ivydene Gardens
A 1, Photos
B 1, Photos
C 1, Photos
D 1, Photos
E 1, Photos
F 1, Photos
G 1, Photos
H 1, Photos
I 1, Photos
J 1, Photos
K 1, Photos
L 1, Photos
M 1, Photos
N 1, Photos
O 1, Photos
P 1, Photos
Q 1, Photos
R 1, Photos
S 1, Photos
T 1, Photos
U 1, Photos
V 1, Photos
W 1, Photos
X 1 Photos
Y 1, Photos
Z 1 Photos
Articles/Items in Ivydene Gardens
Flower Shape and Plant Use of
Evergreen Perennial
Herbaceous Perennial

...by Flower Shape

...Allium/ Anemone
...Colchicum/ Crocus
...Hippeastrum/ Lily
...Late Summer
Deciduous Shrub
...Shrubs - Decid
Deciduous Tree
...Trees - Decid
Evergreen Perennial
...P-Evergreen A-L
...P-Evergreen M-Z
...Flower Shape
Evergreen Shrub
...Shrubs - Evgr
...Heather Shrub
Evergreen Tree
...Trees - Evgr
Herbaceous Perennial
...P -Herbaceous
...RHS Wisley
...Flower Shape
Odds and Sods
...RHS Wisley A-F
...RHS Wisley G-R
...RHS Wisley S-Z
...Rose Use
...Other Roses A-F
...Other Roses G-R
...Other Roses S-Z
Soft Fruit
Top Fruit


Wild Flower
with its
flower colour page,
Site Map page in its flower colour
NOTE Gallery
...Blue Note
...Brown Note
...Cream Note
...Green Note
...Mauve Note
...Multi-Cols Note
...Orange Note
...Pink A-G Note
...Pink H-Z Note
...Purple Note
...Red Note
...White A-D Note
...White E-P Note
...White Q-Z Note
...Yellow A-G Note
...Yellow H-Z Note
...Shrub/Tree Note
Wildflower Plants


Topic - Flower/Foliage Colour
Colour Wheel Galleries

Following your choice using Garden Style then that changes your Plant Selection Process
Garden Style
...Infill Plants
...12 Bloom Colours per Month Index
...12 Foliage Colours per Month Index
...All Plants Index
...Cultivation, Position, Use Index
...Shape, Form

you could use these Flower Colour Wheels with number of colours
All Flowers 53

All Flowers per Month 12
with its
Explanation of
Structure of this Website with

...User Guidelines
All Bee-Pollinated Flowers per Month 12
Rock Garden and Alpine Flower Colour Wheel with number of colours
Rock Plant Flowers 53

...Rock Plant Photos

these Foliage Colour Wheels structures, which I have done but until I can take the photos and I am certain of the plant label's validity, these may not progress much further
All Foliage 212

All Spring Foliage 212
All Summer Foliage 212
All Autumn Foliage 212
All Winter Foliage 212

Flower Colour Wheel without photos, but with links to photos
12 Bloom Colours per Month Index
...All Plants Index


Topic - Wildlife on Plant Photo Gallery
Usage of Plants
by Egg, Caterpillar, Chrysalis and Butterfly

Egg, Caterpillar, Chrysalis and Butterfly usage of
Plant A-C
Plant C-M
Plant N-W
Butterfly usage of Plant

followed by all the Wild Flower Family Pages:-


(o)Adder's Tongue
(o)Bog Myrtle
(o)Cornel (Dogwood)
(o)Crucifer (Cabbage/Mustard) 1
(o)Crucifer (Cabbage/Mustard) 2
(o)Daisy Cudweeds
(o)Daisy Chamomiles
(o)Daisy Thistle
(o)Daisy Catsears (o)Daisy Hawkweeds
(o)Daisy Hawksbeards
(o)Dock Bistorts
(o)Dock Sorrels


(o)Filmy Fern
(o)Royal Fern
(o)Figwort - Mulleins
(o)Figwort - Speedwells
(o)Grass 1
(o)Grass 2
(o)Grass 3
(o)Grass Soft Bromes 1
(o)Grass Soft Bromes 2
(o)Grass Soft Bromes 3 (o)Hazel
(o)Jacobs Ladder
(o)Lily Garlic
(o)Marsh Pennywort
(o)Melon (Gourd/Cucumber)


(o)Orchid 1
(o)Orchid 2
(o)Orchid 3
(o)Orchid 4
(o)Peaflower Clover 1
(o)Peaflower Clover 2
(o)Peaflower Clover 3
(o)Peaflower Vetches/Peas
(o)Pink 1
(o)Pink 2
Rannock Rush
(o)Rose 1
(o)Rose 2
(o)Rose 3
(o)Rose 4
(o)Rush Woodrushes
(o)Saint Johns Wort
Saltmarsh Grasses


(o)Sea Lavender
(o)Sedge Rush-like
(o)Sedges Carex 1
(o)Sedges Carex 2
(o)Sedges Carex 3
(o)Sedges Carex 4
Tassel Pondweed
(o)Thyme 1
(o)Thyme 2
(o)Umbellifer 1
(o)Umbellifer 2
(o)Water Fern
(o)Water Milfoil
(o)Water Plantain
(o)Water Starwort


It is worth remembering that especially with roses that the colour of the petals of the flower may change - The following photos are of Rosa 'Lincolnshire Poacher' which I took on the same day in R.V. Roger's Nursery Field:-


Closed Bud


Opening Bud


Juvenile Flower


Older Juvenile Flower


Middle-aged Flower - Flower Colour in Season in its
Rose Description Page is
"Buff Yellow, with a very slight pink tint at the edges in May-October."


Mature Flower


Juvenile Flower and Dying Flower


Form of Rose Bush

There are 720 roses in the Rose Galleries; many of which have the above series of pictures in their respective Rose Description Page.

So one might avoid the disappointment that the 2 elephants had when their trunks were entwined instead of them each carrying their trunk using their own trunk, and your disappointment of buying a rose to discover that the colour you bought it for is only the case when it has its juvenile flowers; if you look at all the photos of the roses in the respective Rose Description Page!!!!