Ivydene Gardens Plant with Photo Index Gallery:
Page D 4. Photos of Damage to Trees in Pavement of Funchal and these are my solutions with background articles (Many cities in many countries may be experiencing the same problems as in Funchal, so you might find that looking at this section on Damage to Trees in Pavement of Funchal in its entirety for clarification and possible solutions; useful):-

"Solution to holes in trees.
Remove mesh covers and rot within the hole. Then blast the remaining rot with a high pressure water hose to try and clear more of the rot. Spray with Boron (a water based preservative kills only wood boring insects - not spiders, birds or bats) as a treatment for insect, wet and dry rot attack. While it is still wet, apply a layer of
Expanding Foam to the bottom of the hole. Immediately place bottles on this and allow to set for 5 minutes. Apply another layer of expanding foam and another layer of bottles. The aim of the bottles (you could use cullet instead) is to occupy space, they are not there as a deterrent. That is why the foam has to be in contact with the inside of the tree not the glass bottle. The poisons in the foam will kill anything eating it and the foam does stick better when wet with water. Keep up this operation until the hole is covered. 
Leave to set and then paint the foam surface twice with a recommended water-based, but not oil-based, sealant.

 

Solutions to stop creating holes in trees.
When a branch is cut off, remember to cut it off on the other side of the Branch Collar. (See Figure 1 - Optimum position of the final pruning cut in "Guide to Tree Pruning" by the Arboricultural Association which shows the branch collar within and outside the tree. My Comments: I disagree with their recommendation not to apply wound paint as you can see the result if you do not paint trees which are dehydrated, starved and gassed as these trees in the pavements of Madeira are.) 
Once that is done, then immediately apply Boron and 2 coats of protective sealant as used for holes in trees above.

 

Solution to current problem on these mosaic pavements:-
Carefully remove the existing marble mosaic, concrete, tarmac, or paver and the concrete/metal enclosures round the trees. If any further solid material like gravel, bricks, stones etc can be removed as well, then do so. Level the ground with sharp sand (Sharp sand is like pyramids which lock together, builder's sand is like ball bearings which displaces itself elsewhere if it can when downward pressure is applied to it). 
The time to execute the above and complete the refilling with sharp sand must be completed within 20 minutes, otherwise the exposed roots will dry up and die. 
It is useful to now water it to settle the sand and keep the roots wet. Put the roll of continuous geotextile over the top before laying down the
CEDAdrive slabs on 
top. Fill the slabs with the required colours of marble pea-shingle and leave a 3 inch (7.5 cm) gap between the trunk and the CEDAdrive section (Besides black 
and white marble, you can get many other colours). Spread Green Manure seed in the gap and cover to the same level as the top of the CEDAdrive with its pea-shingle; with sharp sand. The Green manure will provide a little nourishment for the tree and protection for the expanding trunk, together with protection from cigarettes. 
Further protection can be carried out by providing seating round the trunk, so that old fogeys like me can rest.
Pop-up irrigation water pipes can be supplied from these water manholes currently in the pavements and they can be set to irrigate each section in rotation from 
Midnight to 06:00 in the morning.
A dissolved mixture of seaweed, fully composted animal waste and fully worm composted human food waste from restaurants/hotels can be applied over a pavement an hour before that section is irrigated 3 times a year to provide the same fertilizer regime as practised by the gardeners at the Pestana Mirimar for that hotel's garden. The drained solids (bones, egg-shells and fish-heads can be crushed, and then added to the solids) from the above fertilizer solution can be applied over the sand between the tree and the CEDAdrive.
An alternative to using marble pea-shingle is Topmix Permeable Concrete within the CEDAdrive slabs. This would perform the same function as the marble pea-shingle, but it may be cheaper and quicker to use in other pavements. The depth of the Cedadrive slabs might have to be increased if traffic is allowed to cross or park on this type of pavement surface. At least the CEDAdrive slabs can flex, whereas concrete cannot.

 

Articles on

  • Branch Collar and the importance of leaving all of it while cutting off that branch; as shown above in this column
  • My repair to a 1300 year old yew tree in my church at the bottom of pages 1-12
  • Some of my work on trees using a chainsaw and chipper-shredder on page 13
  • Protective Dressing, Cavities and 'do not use plastic twine or wire to tie a plant' are at the bottom of pages 14-25 with Forked Leaders, also Terminal Bud and Dormant Branch Growth Bud.

    Details on Boron woodworm, wet and dry wood rot treatment on Page 16.

    The article on "I have copied the archived post below, because what is stated there is extremely important, since 99.99% of gardeners in the UK totally ignore the fact that plants require humus and think that double-digging is beneficial every year. That is why they are killing their soil and their plants do not grow well." and from its Comments in the row below it.
    "So why do you not use the companion planting cultivation method as further detailed in Companion Planting?
    You may follow this with the following which is normally used for the vegetable garden instead for your flower beds, rose beds and beds which currently have lawn/flower bed/trees/shrubs in them within public spaces and pavements:-
    "
    Spinach is sown in spring in rows 50cm apart over the whole vegetable garden area for the following
    purposes:
    • these rows divide the vegetable garden up for the whole year,
    • the spinach roots prevent erosion, so the usual paths between beds are omitted,
    • young spinach plants provide protection and shade for the vegetable crops to be grown between them,
    • spinach provides ideal material for sheet surface composting, which becomes an intermediate space, a footpath, and
    • it is in between these lines of spinach that the other vegetable varieties are arranged."
    • This could be used in the flower beds as the system between the permanent plants of trees, shrubs and perennials, which is where you may put bedding. This will also provide you with access to the bedding and the permanent plants together with the nitrogen fertilizer for the other plants from the legumes of spinach.
      You plant your bedding, bulbs or vegetables through the mulch between the lines of spinach. The damage you do to where you plant is fairly quickly repaired by the organisms in the surrounding soil, who each come into the level below the ground level where they normally reside, until they meet their relatives on the other side of the planting hole. The ecosystem is then restored.".
  • Tree 64 from pestana mirimar large tree with stumps and wires IMG 6383.JPG has the following solution for the ground surrounding these trees on page 17:-
    Funchal is building more and more on the land. The vegetation on this is being removed and replaced with concrete buildings and tarmaced roads. Neither concrete nor tarmac will convert carbon dioxide that we as animals breathe out into oxygen, which we require to live by. Vegetation also helps absorb the poisons produced by vehicles. It would be cheaper to cut these trees down and build a restaurant on the ground instead, but at some point, we the human race must take some responsibilty for the actions that we do and stop asphyxiating ourselves.
    Suggestion -
    • Remove the lawn and the flower bed plants leaving the trees and the ferns.
    • Mow the lawn and bed with a rotary mower and put the shreddings round the trees.
      • Use a strong Bulldog Premier Border Fork, Brown to lift the turf out of the ground and place this upside down along the edge of the ground with the pavement. Build this up to about 3 inches (7.5 cms) to act as an edging to the pond created when you apply the flood of the solids left over from the combined seaweed, animal manure, worm composted food - after the solutions to the trees and mosaic pavement have been executed. Use the same fork to take up the plants in the flower beds after they have been mown and put them upside down round the base of the trees up to 30 inches (75 cms) radius from the trunk. It is very important that this work done on the ground enclosed by the mosaic pavements is done by hand and not by machine. If you rotovated the lawn and flower beds you would cut through a vast majority of the feeder roots of these trees. When an area has been cleared, then before the break for mid-morning tea, lunch or going home, irrigate the land that has been cleared to prevent that ground from drying out and the roots then would die as well.
      • Mix Clover Seed Blend MAS-CLOo4 in wallpaper paste and spray it over the exposed portion of this upside-down turf edging and leave that as your permanent green edging to the ground enclosing these trees.
      • You could also use the same clover seed mix round the base of the remaining trees and shrubs/ferns up to 36 inches (90 cms) radius from the trunk edge over the shredded flower bed plants and grass mowings, so that the roots nearest the trees would not be disturbed in the future by digging.
    • Irrigate every 3 days with 0.5 inches (1.25 cm) depth of recommended seaweed, animal manure and worm composted hotel/restaurant leftovers for a month. This could start to improve these trees, so that they can stand for the treatment they will later receive. When the mosaic pavements have been replaced with a permeable pavement surface, then that pavement surface surface will require the same liquid irrigation as the ground it encloses.
    • Then after that month, get a professional firm to remove the existing bracing and replace it, including rods for the lowest part of Forked Leaders.
    • Then erect scaffolding so that any part of these trees can be treated with the solutions for the various problems. The scaffolding is supported on the pavements not on the ground round these trees.
    • Then start sorting the problems on the trees from the ground up. Keep the irrigation system going during this operation - irrigate between midnight and 06:00.
    • When all solutions have been executed, including the replacement of the mosaic pavements as the final one; then either
      • sow a green manure over the open ground and irrigate as before. Flood the green manure with a 3 inch (7.5 cm) depth of the solids left over from the combined seaweed, animal manure, worm composted food every 4 months and apply the new different green manure by spraying a solution of wallpaper paste and seeds on the surface of the mulch. Repeat this every 4 months.
      • or
      • sow lines of everlasting spinach over the site and irrigate as before. A succession of bulbs can be planted between these lines of spinach to provide flowers throughout the year. The lines of spinach could be replaced every 4 months or so (depending on the time when the next bulbs come up and the dead foliage of the previous ones can be removed) with a different green manure. The bulbs would take little nourishment or irrigation water. The irrigation water on the ground and on the replaced mosaic pavements could mostly be used by the trees who require this volume most of the year round.
  • "Ways to install trees at the bottom of pages 26-37 includes the following on watering - "Throughout the warm, summer weather, the tree will need the equivalent of 1 inch (2.5 cm) of rain per week and this water needs to be applied about twice each week (My Comments - since this is over the entire root area of this tree - which is at least the radius from the trunk of the height of the tree - then if the CEDAdrive slabs are used, apply 0.5 inchs (1.25 cms) of irrigation twice a week to that entire area).  Approximately 5-10 gallons (20 – 40 liters) of water is sufficient to moisten a 20-inch (50 cm) diameter root ball.  A 40-inch (100 cm) diameter root ball has more than twice the volume and would require 35-45 gallons (130 – 170 liters). 
    Another way to measure water need is with the following formula:   The tree needs 5 gallons minimum and 5 additional gallons per inch of diameter (DBH); hence a 3 inch DBH tree needs 20 gallons of water per week to equal 1 inch of rainfall, in other words, 5 gallons minimum + (3 X 5) 15 gallons = 20 gallons."
  • The Pruning and Maintenance of Mature Trees:
    • 'Lifting' or the removal of the lower branch systems,
    • Crown Thinning and
    • Crown Reduction
    • at the bottom of
      pages 38-45
  • Explaination of watersprouts and watershoots in the Watersprouts on Trees in Pavements in Funchal, Madeira Page. These should be removed from the trees since they are weakly joind to the branch/trunk from which they originated and are dangerous to use as supports for electricians or tree surgeons; as well as likely to fall down in a storm.
     

Plant Name with link to its page in Ivydene Gardens

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Type of Plant with Thumbnail

Comments
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Garnons-Williams or Foord, then it is in the Public Domain and you may download it and use it. Many of the Images published within Ivydene Gardens have the copyright name appended to the Image filename.

Damage to Trees in Pavement of Funchal Page 28

Tree 101 from pestana promenade to forum tree hollow trunk
IMG 6067.JPG

Tree 101 from pestana promenade to forum tree hollow trunk
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Tree 101 from pestana promenade to forum tree
IMG 6062.JPG

Tree 103 from funchal to top of hill
IMG 6077.JPG

Tree 104 from funchal to top of hill
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Tree 104 from funchal to top of hill
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Tree 105 from funchal to top of hill
IMG 6080.JPG

Tree 105 from funchal to top of hill with wires through foliage IMG 6082.JPG

Tree 105 from funchal to top of hill with wires through foliage IMG 6083.JPG

Tree 105 from funchal to top of hill with wires through foliage IMG 6084.JPG

Tree 106 from funchal to top of hill new tree with root at ground level IMG 6085.JPG

221 - Photo 6067 for Tree 101 -

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222 - Photo 6068 for Tree 101 -

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223 - Photo 6062 for Tree 101 -

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224 - Photo 6077 for Tree 103 -

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225 - Photo 6078 for Tree 104 -

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226 - Photo 6079 for Tree 104 -

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227 - Photo 6080 for Tree 105 -

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228 - Photo 6082 for Tree 105 -

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229 - Photo 6083 for Tree 105 -

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230 - Photo 6084 for Tree 105 -

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231 - Photo 6085 for Tree 106 -

uIMG6085indextree106frompestanafunchaltotopofhillinfunchalgarnonswilliams

Photo 6067 for Tree 101 -
The lateral roots are elevating the pink pavers laid on top of the ground. The trunk is also growing over them and into the road, where other roots are elevating and breaking the tarmac.

Photo 6068 for Tree 101 -
Continuation of the same problems round the back.

Photo 6062 for Tree 101 -
End of photos from madeira 12601 folder.
Ah, a bijou residence for a cleaner in the Forum Shopping Centre with minimal travelling distance to get to work. Plenty of watersprouts and watershoots with 2 sets of forked leaders further up the trunk. The second forked trunk has had one of its trunks cut off and it is quite likely that there is deep rot from that branch stump wound down the trunk.
Thin branches above little foliage probably due to lack of water, since the tree has taken it from those leaves to grow new leaves lower down the tree. The weight of the tree above 96 inches (240 cms) will probably be too much for the strength remaining in the heartwood between the roots and that height of 96 inches due to the inability of madeira to recognise that when heartwood rots that all the tree is left with is the water-bearing wood, cambium and bark to hold it up.

Look at 217, 218, 219 and 220 photos 6063, 6064, 6065 and 6066 on Page 27 to see the internal unnoticed damage.

Photo 6077 for Tree 103 -
Start of photos from madeira 290119 folder.
The concrete boundary is higher than the pavement so no rain runs off the pavement into the ground by the tree. The pavement is going downhill, so drains well. People stand on the roots to have a cigarette and then leave it there.
Although the marble blocks are embedded in the ground, very little rain seeps down to the soil in between because of that slope and you notice that the tree trunk bark is splitting off - this is because the tree is dehydrating and not increasing in size which would be indicated by seeing young bark within those cracks.

The green painted metal fence at least stops vehicles parking on the pavement on top of the tree roots.

Hopefully my solutions would also stop people using the tree's ground as an ashtray.

Photo 6078 for Tree 104 -
This tree is also shedding its bark - most of the trees in the pavement on this hill are dehydrated and urgently need my solution to the mosaic pavement problem to survive. It lateral root is above ground and held in the concrete boundary. The tree is getting to overflow its enclosure, which would not be a problem with my solution system.

Hopefully my solutions would also stop people using the tree's ground as an ashtray.

Photo 6079 for Tree 104 -
It is possible that a branch was ripped off from the top and it brought a long strip of bark with it. The heartwood is drying out, splitting and rotting.

Carry on ignoring it and it will fall down.

Photo 6080 for Tree 105 -
Another dehydrated tree and pedestrians using the ground as an ashtray.

Photo 6082 for Tree 105 -
The left hand wire appears to be reasonably clear of most of the foliage whereas the right hand one comes up to the horizontalm branch where it may be tied before going straight up the photo. Whose are they? Who is responsible for them? Who is responsible for putting right either the damage to the tree or to the wire in a storm?

Photo 6083 for Tree 105 -
Closeup of 2 wires in this tree. What are they doing? Are they braces or electrical?

Photo 6084 for Tree 105 -
Perhaps the grey one is telephone and the other cable tv. A bit unfair to expect a juvenile branch to take the strain as the branch that it is attached to moves in a high wind. Especially, as the branch stump has not been protected and it has dried out and started to split. It looks as though these wires have been tied to this position in the fork between the juvenile branch and the branch it comes from using plastic twine. That will be forced into the bark and then cut off the cambium layer before that branch going up on the right dies off and becomes a dead weight on the rest of the tree. A pity that cable layers are not informed of the consequences of what they are doing. A bungee would at least have done the job and would stretch with the growing tree.

Good to see a street light that close to the tree foliage!!!

Photo 6085 for Tree 106 -
This tree is in a bad way besides being very dehydrated. Its ground is being used as an ashtray and stood on. Its roots are being trod on and sometime a thin layer of concrete was poured over the ground to tidy it up, which has now broken up.

To add to the joy felt by this tree sections of the marble have been pointed with concrete to deprive it of water etc.

THIS TREE DOES NOT STAND A CHANCE, THE WAY YOU ARE TREATING IT AND HAVE DONE FOR DONKEY'S YEARS.

Damage to Trees in Pavement of Funchal Page 29

Tree 107 from funchal to top of hill new tree
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Tree 108 from funchal to top of hill concreted pavement
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Tree 108 from funchal to top of hill
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Tree 108 from funchal to top of hill
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Tree 108 from funchal to top of hill
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Tree 108 from funchal to top of hill
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Tree 108 from funchal to top of hill
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Tree 109 from funchal to top of hill concrete pavement
IMG 6094.JPG

Tree 109 from funchal to top of hill new tree
IMG 6093.JPG

Tree 110 from funchal to top of hill tree stump
IMG 6095.JPG

Tree 111 from funchal to top of hill ripped off branch
IMG 6097.JPG

232 - Photo 6086 for Tree 107 -

uIMG6086indextree107frompestanafunchaltotopofhillinfunchalgarnonswilliams

233 - Photo 6092 for Tree 108 -

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234 - Photo 6087 for Tree 108 -

uIMG6087indextree108frompestanafunchaltotopofhillinfunchalgarnonswilliams

235 - Photo 6088 for Tree 108 -

uIMG6088indextree108frompestanafunchaltotopofhillinfunchalgarnonswilliams

236 - Photo 6089 for Tree 108 -

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237 - Photo 6090 for Tree 108 -

uIMG6090indextree108frompestanafunchaltotopofhillinfunchalgarnonswilliams

238 - Photo 6091 for Tree 108 -

uIMG6091indextree108frompestanafunchaltotopofhillinfunchalgarnonswilliams

239 - Photo 6094 for Tree 109 -

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240 - Photo 6093 for Tree 109 -

uIMG6093indextree109fromfunchaltotopofhillinfunchalgarnonswilliams

241 - Photo 6095 for Tree 110 -

uIMG6095indextree110fromfunchaltotopofhillinfunchalgarnonswilliams

242 - Photo 6097 for Tree 111 -

uIMG6097indextree111fromfunchaltotopofhillinfunchalgarnonswilliams

Photo 6086 for Tree 107 -
Another ashtray, where smokers have stood and smoked. I wonder if this tree was pollarded as soon as it was planted here?

Photo 6092 for Tree 108 -
Madeira appreciates Mosaic Pavements and so they are now laying these marble chips in concrete rather than embedding them in the earth. That means that there is no access for the roots to receive water, nourishment or do gaseous exchange.

Photo 6087 for Tree 108 -
Another ashtray. Dehydrated tree surrounded by marble pointed with concrete.

Photo 6088 for Tree 108 -
Tall gash in bark and the exposed heartwood is drying out and splitting. The bark on the rest of the trunk is splitting off, because this tree is so dry. It is at the top of the hill from the centre of Funchal and is completely exposed to the sun and any drying winds.

Its supply of water is zilch although the recommendation it "will need the equivalent of 1 inch (2.5 cm) of rain per week and this water needs to be applied about twice each week as stated" in #6  Read About Ways to Install Trees article below. I wonder if Maderian mothers put their babies out of doors once borne and allow them access to the rain only for their nourishment etc; it is dry much of the time in Madeira?

Photo 6089 for Tree 108 -
More of the same tree with its problems.

Photo 6090 for Tree 108 -
I think this must be a different tree to tree 108 - let us call it tree 108a. This branch stump wound is dry, splitting and rotting at the top of this cavity. The bark on callus formed to try and cover the wound is splitting apart to show the light brown new bark underneath and there are indications of the same on the trunk, but where did the irrigation water come from?

Photo 6091 for Tree 108 -
I think this must be a different tree to tree 108 - let us call it tree 108a. Was the bark cut through with a knife and thus the enclosed bark died off? The exposed heartwood is dry and splitting.

Photo 6094 for Tree 109 -
Has this been re-pointed with cold tarmac, simply brushed in to the earth gaps in the original pointing and then rolled flat? A mess that allows the weeds to grow.

Photo 6093 for Tree 109 -
The poles and chains stop the traffic from parking on the pavement and the pedestrians from jay-walking across the road. The roots are exposed and there is not much growth on this tree due to no irrigation, no nourishment and practically no gaseous exchange.

Photo 6095 for Tree 110 -
Tree probably died of neglect. It would normally be the best to remove this root with stump removal so that a replacement tree can survive.

Photo 6097 for Tree 111 -
The stump from a ripped off branch.You can see that the other branches from this branch have also been ripped off.

Damage to Trees in Pavement of Funchal Page 30

Tree 21 forum end of 2 road junction with hole through trunk opposite enotel
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Tree 21 forum end of 2 road junction with hole through trunk opposite enotel
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Tree 21 forum end of 2 road junction with hole through trunk opposite enotel
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Tree 80 from pestana mirimar in mirimar front garden
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Tree 80 from pestana mirimar in mirimar front garden
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Tree 80 from pestana mirimar in mirimar front garden
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Tree 80 from pestana mirimar in mirimar front garden
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Tree 80 from pestana mirimar in mirimar front garden
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Tree 80 from pestana mirimar in mirimar front garden
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Tree 80 from pestana mirimar in mirimar front garden
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Tree 80 from pestana mirimar in mirimar front garden
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243 - Photo 0206 for Tree 21 -

vIMG0206indextree21forumendof2roadforumwithholethroughtrunkoppositeenotelfromfunchaltotopofhillinfunchalgarnonswilliams

244 - Photo 0207 for Tree 21 -

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245 - Photo 0208 for Tree 21 -

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246 - Photo 0001 for Tree 80 -

vIMG0001indextree80frompestanamirimarfrontgardeninfunchalgarnonswilliams

247 - Photo 0002 for Tree 80 -

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248 - Photo 0003 for Tree 80 -

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249 - Photo 0004 for Tree 80 -

vIMG0004indextree80frompestanamirimarfrontgardeninfunchalgarnonswilliams

250 - Photo 0005 for Tree 80 -

vIMG0005indextree80frompestanamirimarfrontgardeninfunchalgarnonswilliams

251 - Photo 0006 for Tree 80 -

vIMG0006indextree80frompestanamirimarfrontgardeninfunchalgarnonswilliams

252 - Photo 0007 for Tree 80 -

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253 - Photo 0009 for Tree 80 -

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Photo 0206 for Tree 21 -
This is the rot from a branch stump wound further up the trunk. Using a flamethrower on the rot in this part of the trunk did not stop the trunk from continuing to rot sideways and downwards.

Photo 0207 for Tree 21 -
This is the rot from one side of the trunk to the other at ground level. See Tree 21 forum end of 2 road junction IMG 6202.JPG on Page 5 for another picture of the hole.

Photo 0208 for Tree 21 -
This is the tree with those 2 areas of rot.

YOU COULD SAY THAT THERE IS A PROBLEM HERE OR YOU COULD IGNORE IT AS HAS BEEN DONE FOR MANY YEARS. VISITORS TO THE HOTEL ENOTEL IN FUNCHAL WOULD BE WISE TO ENTER AND LEAVE THE HOTEL FROM THE BACK. I HAVE INFORMED THE STAFF AT THE HOTEL RECEPTION DESK IN FEBRUARY THIS YEAR. PERHAPS THEY MIGHT BE CONCERNED ABOUT THE TONNAGE OF TREE WOOD FALLING AGAINST THE FRON OF THE HOTEL, OR NOT?

Photo 0001 for Tree 80 -
Having cut off the terminal bud from the trunks of this tree in the front garden of the Pestana Mirimar Hotel a year before, then some Dormant Branch Growth Buds were activated and produced bona-fide branches. Watershoots sprang from the stumps and grew more than the watersprouts springing up along the trunks and the bona-fide branches. The water bearing wood of the trunk now only had 1 small watershoot to give most of its water to as the new growth to almost act like a Terminal Bud Growth. Both the watershoots and the watersprouts should be removed for safety reasons.

Plus it should never have been pruned in this totally wrong way. It satisfies the thought of management that you get lots of new growth within a very short time, but the watershoots are not inherently strong and can break off in hgh winds because of the weak joint with the parent trunk and the watersprouts will never produce any flowers.

Photo 0002 for Tree 80 -
This is further discussed in Solution to problems for trees page for these other photos on the pollarded tree in front garden of Pestana Mirimar Hotel.

Photo 0003 for Tree 80 -
 

Photo 0004 for Tree 80 -
 

Photo 0005 for Tree 80 -
 

Photo 0006 for Tree 80 -
 

Photo 0007 for Tree 80 -
 

Photo 0009 for Tree 80 -
 

Damage to Trees in Pavement of Funchal Page 31

Tree 80 from pestana mirimar in mirimar front garden
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Tree 80 from pestana mirimar in mirimar front garden
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Tree 80 from pestana mirimar in mirimar front garden
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Tree 80 from pestana mirimar in mirimar front garden
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Tree 80 from pestana mirimar in mirimar front garden
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Tree 80 from pestana mirimar in mirimar front garden
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Tree 80 from pestana mirimar in mirimar front garden
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Tree 80 from pestana mirimar in mirimar front garden
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Tree 80 from pestana mirimar in mirimar front garden
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Tree 80 from pestana mirimar in mirimar front garden
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Tree 80 from pestana mirimar in mirimar front garden irrigation pipe
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254 - Photo 0011 for Tree 80 -

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255 - Photo 0166 for Tree 80 -

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256 - Photo 0167 for Tree 80 -

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257 - Photo 0169 for Tree 80 -

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258 - Photo 0172 for Tree 80 -

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259 - Photo 0174 for Tree 80 -

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260 - Photo 0175 for Tree 80 -

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261 - Photo 0177 for Tree 80 -

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262 - Photo 0181 for Tree 80 -

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263 - Photo 0183 for Tree 80 -

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264 - Photo 0168 for Tree 80 -

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Photo 0011 for Tree 80 -
This is further discussed in Solution to problems for trees page for these other photos on the pollarded tree in front garden of Pestana Mirimar Hotel.

Photo 0166 for Tree 80 -
 

Photo 0167 for Tree 80 -
 

Photo 0169 for Tree 80 -
 

Photo 0172 for Tree 80 -
 

Photo 0174 for Tree 80 -
 

Photo 0175 for Tree 80 -
 

Photo 0177 for Tree 80 -
 

Photo 0181 for Tree 80 -
 

Photo 0183 for Tree 80 -
 

Photo 0168 for Tree 80 -
 

Damage to Trees in Pavement of Funchal Page 32

Tree 80 from pestana mirimar in mirimar front garden tree root by pavement
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Tree 80 from pestana mirimar in mirimar front garden tree root by pavement
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Tree 80 from pestana mirimar in mirimar front garden tree root by pavement
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Tree 102 from lido to forum tree hollow trunk and roots
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Tree 102 from lido to forum tree hollow trunk and roots
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Tree 102 from lido to forum tree hollow trunk and roots
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Tree 102 from lido to forum tree hollow trunk and roots
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Tree 102 from lido to forum tree hollow trunk and roots
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Tree 102 from lido to forum tree hollow trunk and roots
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Tree 102 from lido to forum tree hollow trunk and roots
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Tree 111 from funchal to top of hill ripped off branch
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265 - Photo 0187 for Tree 80 -

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266 - Photo 0188 for Tree 80 -

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267 - Photo 0189 for Tree 80 -

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268 - Photo -197 for Tree 102 -

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269 - Photo 0195 for Tree 102 -

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270 - Photo 0198 for Tree 102 -

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271 - Photo 0199 for Tree 102 -

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272 - Photo 0200 for Tree 102 -

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273 - Photo 0201 for Tree 102 -

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274 - Photo 0202 for Tree 102 -

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275 - Photo 0012 for Tree 111 -

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Photo 0187 for Tree 80 -
This is further discussed in Solution to problems for trees page for these other photos on the pollarded tree in front garden of Pestana Mirimar Hotel.

Photo 0188 for Tree 80 -
 

Photo 0189 for Tree 80 -
 

Photo -197 for Tree 102 -
Interesting rubbish that collects in holes under a tree where the trunk/roots should be. So how much of this part of the tree has rotted away?
At home a new supermarket had trees planted in its car park. They succumbed to disease more than 6 months ago and I informed them of the fact. To be informed that they were renting the land and so it was not their responsibility. I did point out to them that they had trees and shrubs for sale outside their premises and that the disease could be passed on to their stock. The landlord has done nothing about removal of the dead trees. It would appear that nature falling apart does not matter in the commercial world. Pity, do those commercial gods not breathe the same way as we the hoi-polloi clients? Interfering so and so, aren't I?

Photo 0195 for Tree 102 -
This is the tree above that hole in the ground that you saw above. You note the grey stone chippings surrounding this tree and concrete, which is stood on by the smokers who use it as an ashtray. You will also see that in the ground leading into the hole that it is embedded with the same stone chippings. Also that the concrete appears to be part of what used to be another earlier concrete boundary to this tree. Do you think, that some enterprising individual dug round the tree to remove the decaying concrete enclosure and replace it with the metal one and then backfilled with the grey stone chippings mixed in with soil or sand? Then, stuffed some metal grid into the top rotting hole and ignored the rotting hole in the trunk below, little realising that the rot in the trunk probably extends from that top hole right the way down the trunk and into its roots.

Photo 0198 for Tree 102 -
As we go further up the tree we discover another rotting hole in the trunk, that many years ago was stuffed with this rusting metal grid. Even the direct in line photo next does not reveal how wide or deep this trunk rot is, but one could say that the cavity within this trunk is very big.

Photo 0199 for Tree 102 -
 

Photo 0200 for Tree 102 -
Now, we have the rotting hole in the ground, this one about 30 inches (75 cms) above and the one about 200 inches (500 cms) above in the same trunk, each of which have large cavities. Are the cavities joined together? Is this tree becoming too weak to support itself? Is the hotel behind it worried? Can madeira be bothered to save the tree?
IGNORANCE IS BLISS AND PERHAPS MADEIRA WILL SEND YOU CONDOLENCES FOR THE LOSS OF YOUR SPOUSE, WHO WAS UNABLE TO SUPPORT THE WEIGHT OF THIS FALLING TREE.

Photo 0201 for Tree 102 -
 

Photo 0202 for Tree 102 -
This tree could fall down a steep slope to the hotels below if nothing is done to repair it.

Photo 0012 for Tree 111 -
Incorrect image title - this bed is outside Pestana Mirimar Hotel on a slope to the main road.
Trying to get quick access to water, this tree has put its roots on the surface, but unfortunately people use it as an ashtray and walk over or stand on those roots. Why not elevate the concrete kerb on the other 2 sides to the same height as the pavement kerb and sow a tall green manure on the ground before covering that with a thick mulch of the drained fertiliser from the fertilising solution of waste food, animal dung and seaweed to try and dissuade people from using it as an ashtray and walking over it. If that fails, try pyracantha or the final try of my solution for mosaic pavement.

Damage to Trees in Pavement of Funchal Page 33

Tree 113 from mirimar to funchal pavement rose bed
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Tree 113 from mirimar to funchal pavement rose bed
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Tree 113 from mirimar to funchal pavement rose bed
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Tree 114 from mirimar to funchal pavement lawn
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Tree 114 from mirimar to funchal pavement lawn
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Tree 114 from mirimar to funchal pavement lawn
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Tree 114 from mirimar to funchal pavement lawn irrigation spray
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Tree 114 from mirimar to funchal pavement lawn pollarded tree
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Tree 114 from mirimar to funchal pavement lawn pollarded tree
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Tree 115 from mirimar to funchal tree growth
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Tree 116 from mirimar to funchal with pollarded tree by information officeI
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276 - Photo 0019 for Tree 113 -

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277 - Photo 0020 for Tree 113 -

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278 - Photo 0021 for Tree 113 -

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279 - Photo 0024 for Tree 114 -

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280 - Photo 0025 for Tree 114 -

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281 - Photo 0026 for Tree 114 -

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282 - Photo 0029 for Tree 114 -

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283 - Photo 0027 for Tree 114 -

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284 - Photo 0028 for Tree 114 -

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285 - Photo 0031 for Tree 115 -

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286 - Photo 0034 for Tree 116 -

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Photo 0019 for Tree 113 -
Remove the slabs, sow with green manure after spring pruning and autumn tidy-up. Follow that sowing with a thick mulch of the waste food, animal manure and seaweed drained fertiliser I recommended and if you want to spread Tonks Formula Rose Food as well. Allow the roses to grow during the spring/summer and deadhead as required.

Photo 0020 for Tree 113 -
The pruning of these roses is a disaster repeated each year in hacking it back to a stump. Pruning Modern Roses on Page 13 of Recommended Rose Pruning Methods from The Pruning of Trees and Shrubs by George E. Brown in the Sissinghurst Castle Garden Gallery gives a better pruning technique.

Photo 0021 for Tree 113 -
 

Photo 0024 for Tree 114 -
 

Photo 0025 for Tree 114 -
Although this tree is irrigated, it gets very little due to the grass taking most of it. You can see the type of tree in the background about 50 metres away, whose trunks are considerably thicker and there is more top foliage. It looks as if this tree has been pollarded fairly recently, but the growth of the watersprouts from the stumps is not as thick as those from Tree 80 from pestana mirimar front garden IMG 0167 (those new shoots are no more than 12 months old in the mirimar front garden, but they are irrigated and nourished 3 times a year without any grass being over their roots and that is why). Elsewhere I have explained
about the water consumption of grass especially this type of rye-grass. It would appear that the grass was only recently taken from being right up to the trunk - the water has finally reached a small proportion of the roots and so has been taken up and the trunk expanded and split its bark, but this tree has been dehydrated for years. It would be better for this tree if the grass was carefully removed and replaced by a green manure. The irrigation system could water that, the excess would go to this tree's roots and it would grow. That is what I would like to see done for this tree, where the only people walking over this grass are
the maintenance ones and it is only for show that is grass, because it is cheap to mow rather than weed. It is for the pedestrian to look at from the pavements on the roads alongside and what I would like to see done is as likely to be done as "Blowing in the Wind". The grass should be removed using a fork - preferably a Roebuck fork - to lever up the grass to separate it from the tree roots underneath. Spread sharp sand over the area where you have just removed the grass to stop those roots from drying out. Lay these sections of lawn upside down 4 inches (10cms) from the edge of the bed surrounding this lawned area to create a 2 or 3 turf high mound round it, which would be sufficient to allow the central portion to be flooded with irrigation water without flowing out onto the road or surrounding pavement. This irrigation water can have the solid material in from the worm composting of the food waste, the manure from animals and seaweed, before sowing green manure seed on it to feed the tree with nitrogen from the roots of those legumes. This mound barrier will be sown with green manure to hold it together and this is one way of re-using the turf.

Photo 0026 for Tree 114 -
This branch stump wound is drying out, splitting and starting to rot the trunk.

Photo 0029 for Tree 114 -
It would be better to use the water for the tree rather than grass.
The following is from my Welcome Page:-
"9. The section below explains why grass has such a detrimental effect on trees/shrubs/ or other plants planted within it:-
hotelgardens4garnonswilliams1
This shows the roots of 1 ryegrass plant, which had been removed from the foundation bed of Type I MOT Roadstone in a client's garden. You can see that this plant has tens of yards or metres of root to absorb water.

"Most turf grass roots are concentrated in the first 6-8 inches (15-20 cms) of soil. Try to irrigate only one or two inches of water per week during the turf growing season. You could irrigate the whole amount of water at one time, however most folks have better results splitting the amount into two separate applications.  Please note however in sandy soils where the water percolates more rapidly it may benefit you to split the applications into three separate irrigation cycles.  You do not want to irrigate more than three times a week because you would be applying so little water the outcome would be shallow roots."

"Native Grass Meadow
MARSHALL SILTY CLAY LOAM (HEAVY SUBSOIL PHASE) These plots (18-20) were located in an area that is in native grasses and has never been plowed, but being within a cemetery area has had frequent mowing. It adjoins the Agronomy Farm at Lincoln, Nebraska. T ests on these native grass plots (Table 1) showed that they absorbed over 2 inches of water during the first 1.5 hours with an absorption rate of about 1.4 inches per hour at the end of this time. Following a delay of 10 days during which there was no rain-fall, water was again applied to the test areas with practically the same results as for the previous test. It will be shown later that if the second test is made only 1 day after the first, the rate of intake will be materially reduced. This seems to be due to the settling of soil immediately after wetting. Upon longer standing the soil seems to resume its original condition."

SO IF YOU SUPPLY THE RECOMMENDED 1 INCH (2.5 CM) DEPTH OF IRRIGATION WATER PER WEEK SPLIT INTO 2 IRRIGATION SESSIONS OF 0.5 INCHES (1.25 CM) DEPTH, THEN THE GRASS ABOVE THE ROOTS WILL ABSORB ALL OF THAT.
Remove the grass and replace with green manure for at least 80 inches (200 cms) radius from the tree trunk.

Photo 0027 for Tree 114 -
 

Photo 0028 for Tree 114 -
Here you can see the watershoots coming from the cut stumps and the watersprouts along the trunks. All of these should be removed and the tree pruned validly for it grow as a stronger healthier tree.

Photo 0031 for Tree 115 -
Something abrasive has been pushed across the bark wearing off the top skin. Otherwise there is no indication of this tree being irrigated this season as the bark is splitting vertically where it is drying out and creating horizontal cracks.

Photo 0034 for Tree 116 -
Now why does Madeira pollard its trees in the pavement in Funchal? Madeira is famous for its Christmas Lights, which are lit from 1 December to 8 January. They are very festive but it does mean that from about 120 inches (300 cm) to about 240 inches (600 cm) all the trunks/branches need to be devoid of foliage and then it does not matter about too much foliage above that. These lights then become visible for miles and cruise ships can view the spectacle. These trees are then not nourished, watered or allowed for their roots to breathe, and the foliage is the only section which can absorb water from the rain. An extremely dangerous practice has been done in the main high street near the roundabout at the bottom of the steep hill out of Funchal - pollarded trees have had their watersprouts pollarded, so that no doubt lights will be attached to the first generation of watersprouts (in attaching them the installers could fall off with that watersprout).

 

 

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Photo 6055 for Tree 98 on
Page 27 -

 

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PERHAPS REPLACEMENT OF ALL THE TREES IN THESE PAVEMENTS USING TREES GROWN BY BARCHAM USING THEIR LIGHT POT SYSTEM WOULD BE SAFER FOR THE VISITING AND NATIVE POPULATION. IF SOME ARE REQUIRED TO HAVE LIGHTING DISPLAYS, THEN BARCHAM CAN GROW THOSE TREES APPROPRIATELY (when you see the growth of the pollarded Tree 80 in the front garden of Pestana Mirimar Hotel within 12 months, then it is possible that the trees grown by Barcham for lighting displays could display lights within 18 months of planting in the pavement, providing the recommendations from Barcham on how to attach the lighting system to those trees is followed).

Photo 6055 for Tree 98

This tree was pollarded once planted. WHY? AND WHY WAS THE OTHER LEADER OF THE FORKED LEADER ON THE RIGHT PULLED OFF? WHAT DID THE PERSON DOING THIS THINK WOULD HAPPEN TO THE TREE WITH THE DAMAGE THAT HE HAD DONE IT? - HOP, SKIP AND PLAY WITH LOOPLA!!!

If you look at the large trees grown by Barcham, you will notice that they are multibranched and ready to plant within this extremely narrow space of 1 metre square - see Quercus robur Fastigiata and other trees suitable for pavements. It might be possible that they would plant them for you as well with their Planting Kit Plus and Tree Hydration bag (if you cannot be bothered to create an irrigation system as I have advised).

Barcham grow their pleached trees in the ground. Then, this tree is containerised in Light Pots for sale 12 months later. The tree can then be planted with 2 layers of weed-proof geotextile next to the kerb 18 inches (45 cm) from the trunk. This allows the trunk to become 38 inches (95 cms) in diameter before it reaches the concrete kerb and the roots will have been stopped from entering the ground, rubble, or foundations under the tarmac of the road. The roots including the lateral roots would still be all the way round the tree stabilising it and feeding it.

Provided my solution for the entire pavement area is followed, then the roots can extend to fill under the top wearing surface. This would be irrigated and fed by the waste food products of restaurants, hotels, supermarkets and weekly markets as well as from the animal waste from chickens, turkeys, cattle, goats and pigs system I suggested. This is topped up with trace minerals etc from seaweed from seaweed farming (if the liquid in it is not saline, then the wet product could be used instead of having to dry it and then dissolving it back into water to irrigate with it). This is further supported by the use of green manure and the irrigation water supplied by stopping the waste from leaking toilets in the hotels and restaurants; and using it for the trees instead. The used bottles from the same establishments and the native population could be turned into cullet and used to repair the holes in the trees and to create part of the mosaic pattern in the top surface of the pavement.

There we are in re-using the waste created by us and out activities in raising animals for our consumption to provide healthy trees, which do not just provide us with oxygen, but clean up after us by filtering the air to strip it of the dust particles from engines as well as the engine gases, it also improves our mental well-being by providing us with some nature to look at instead of man-made materials, like metal, concrete, tarmac and glass. We are also using the rain falling on the road and the water from the driveways of buildings alongside using the Beany Block Kerb and French Drain system, which would alleviate that rainwater flow from flooding the city centre as it stops the road drains in the valleys from accepting any more water. Win, Win and Win and improve people's mental life.

Give trees a proper volume of soil for their roots as shown by Barcham and fertiliser to help them grow as shown by Barcham .
You could also use Barcham pleached trees if you think that airspace is at a premium.
Trees can be kept in containers - the larger soil volume the better, especially the root system of a medium or large growing tree is going to access 30 cubc metres (if the pavement has its 2 inches (5 cm) depth of sharp sand with my mosaic pavement solution, then some of that volume can be available to the pavement trees.).
Barcham has the answer to which trees can be planted safely near buildings.
Barcham shows you which tree is best to combat diesel pollution.
Barcham states which trees can establish within the sight of the sea.
Barcham explains the difference between pleached, topiary and espaliered trees.
Barcham explains the correct planting depth for trees.
Barcham shows how trees hold themselves up.
Barcham explains their white pot and how it improves root growth so that their trees have a longer life in the client's ground than trees grown from scratch in black plastic pots.

Tree 99 from pestana promenade to forum tree in road IMG 6057.JPG also on Page 27 -

 

Tree 99 from pestana promenade to forum tree in road IMG 6058.JPG

 

Tree 140 from funchal roundabout to cathedral fuse box for lights IMG 0097.JPG on Page 39 -

 

mobilane info IMG 0765.JPG on Page 45 -

 

mobilane info IMG 0766.JPG on Page 45 -

 

 

Barenbrug UK have such a passion for grass that they have created a kinder grass mowing machine:-

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Why not use their e13 - Coastal Areas Landscaping grass seed to stabilse the areas round your cliffs or in new lawns in your coastal towns and villages. It has excellent drought tolerance so does not mind lack of irrigation during water drought conditions and utilises deep rooted species.

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GET BARCHAM TO GROW PLEACHED TREES THAT COULD DISPLAY LIGHTING IN THE MIDDLE HEIGHT SECTION TO REPLACE YOUR PAVEMENT TREES - Tree 99 from pestana promenade to forum tree in road IMG 6057.JPG
This and the next photo show how the trunk extends into the road and that the lateral roots extend more than 18 inches (45 cm) under the tarmac elevating it. The outer 12 inches of this tarmac is run over by the heavier duty tyres of lorries, buses and coaches beating the living daylights out of these roots. The tree has also overgrown the pink pavers and concrete kerb.
The metal box girder/lintel needs to be positioned at least 40 inches (100 cms) from the current kerb and my other solutions carried out if you want to save this tree. When you see the yellow bus in the background and the fact that there are 3 lanes of traffic all in the same direction of travel, then that restriction of 115 cms (46 inches) in the road width can easily be taken care of to keep these trees in this straight section of road to the Forum Shopping Centre.
Of course the cheaper solution is have these trees replaced with pleached trees from Barcham in properly irrigated, nourished and gaseous exchange conditions (perhaps using my Solution to current problem on these mosaic pavements - irrespective of what else is done this remedial work to all the pavements with trees in should be done within the first year to keep these trees or any replacement trees or shrubs with bedding). Perhaps it is best to replace the worst damaged to the least at 10% a year to reduce the shock to the population and the visitors till all the trees in this section of pavements from the Cathedral to The Forum have been replaced. Then, provide a tree replacement system in a 30 year rotation. Get Barcham to provide the annual training courses to the maintenance staff for these trees; including photo/history record-keeping for each tree.

 

 

USE BUNGEES INSTEAD OF WIRE OR PLASTIC TWINE TO TIE ELECTRICAL MATERIAL TO TREES - Tree 140 from funchal roundabout to cathedral fuse box for lights IMG 0097.JPG
Instead of using black wire or black plastic twine, use black bungee cord instead. When attaching heavy objects like the LuxStar electric light control box to the tree attach a coarse net of bungee cords over the box. Attach bungee cords to the top metal hooks of that net and lead that over the gap between a forked leader or a good supporting branch junction with the trunk and back down to that coarse net of bungee cords on the top of that box. Attach more bungee cords to the left hand side of the coarse net of bungees and lead round to the other side of the coarse net to attach them to. Being looser it means that the horizontal bungees generally hold the box against the tree but the weight of the box is taken by the top upright bungees. Check each year that the box with its coarse net of bungee cords and bungee cords are not biting into the bark of the trunk, as it would do otherwise with the use of wire or plastic twine and if neccessary change the bungees - bungee cord length 6, 18, 40 inches (15, 45, 100 cms).
The same bungee cord system can be used for the electrical wiring to prevent damage to the tree.

 

MOBILANE GREEN SCREENS INSTEAD OF FENCES/GARDEN WALLS - mobilane info IMG 0766.JPG
I quote from it:-
"Something that may be of interest to you is the work we are currently involved with in Europe to see what effect the screens have on pollution. They have been shown to absorb 6gms per square metre of sub micron particles per year from the atmosphere. In layman's terms this means that 10 of our screens do the same job in reducing atmospheric pollution as an average size tree."
So if you want to reduce air pollution in cities, why not get your houseowners and house builders to erect these mobilane screens as their front and back garden boundaries, instead of waney fencing or garden walls. Normally, modern gardens are too small for trees (they would tend to damage their houses, see What to do about subsiidence caused by Clay? page), except for trained topfruit - see Top Fruit Plant List Page.
Besides Green Screen for garden boundaries, Mobilane also do

  • WallPlanter for green facades to buildings
  • Mobiroof for instant roof planting system
  • Noistop for Noise Reduction Screens
  • Live Panel as Green Wall system for the outdoors as well as one for the indoors
  • Livepicture as living picture made up of plants, and
  • Livedivider as a green room divider

so that irrespective of whether you have a garden or not, you still live somewhere so you can have nature benefitting you in your home and you can help in reducing the pollution caused by you in the environment.

 

INSTEAD OF A 2 INCH (5 CM) DEPTH OF SHARP SAND UNDER THE CEDADRIVE AND GEOTEXTILE, HEICOM TREE SAND PROVIDES A BETTER ALTERNATIVE.
Heicom Tree Sand (Amsterdam Tree Sand) is a special blend of washed, semi-rounded silica sand and PAS100 organic matter blended to a formula developed following research by Dutch Universities in the 1980's. Heicom approached us shortly after this to become a licensed supplier of the blend and it has grown ever since.
Bourne Amenity is the sole supplier in the UK with the license to manufacturer Heicom Tree Sand - www.treesand.co.uk:-
Back in 2004 Bourne Amenity were approached by Van Der Berk trees to become a sole distributer of their Heicom Tree sand brand. Recognising our strength in the marketplace they wanted a reliable partner to deliver their tree sand into the growing urban tree planting market. Since then we have developed our own brand of tree sand (alongside Heicom) and supply these across the country.
Bourne Amenity Tree Sand is brand of structural urban tree planting sand for Car Parks, Pavements, SuDS and High Footfall:-
Whilst we are a registered manufacturer of the Heicom trees and brand, we designed our own blend back in 2008 to provide a slightly cheaper alternative to Heicom. This material is for use in tree pit planting where compaction is a consideration (i.e. car parks, pavements etc.). It should be used in conjunction with our washed tree pit subsoil and to the project guidelines.

 

PROTECTION FOR THE TREE WHICH IS IN THE ROAD FROM THE TRAFFIC
A temporary solution to the problem of trees jutting out into the road and the possibility of the roots being driven over, or the trunk driven into, could be solved with bell traffic bollards like the Bell 150 to protect the trees jutting into the road:-
The Bell traffic bollard is designed to deflect the wheels of heavy traffic. "Introduced to the market in 1986 it is a simple yet effective solution to many highways issues including:

• Pedestrian safety
• Width restriction
• Protection of property
• Traffic calming measures
• Protection of road signs and street furniture

Furnitubes constant development of the Bell bollard has resulted in the Bell being adapted to meet a range of varying specifications.

• Bell100 is the original full-sized Bell bollard.
• Bell340 Three quarter Bell is ideal for the protection of corners and exposed brickwork.
• Bell120 Bell half is suitable for protecting walls or pre-existing structures.
• Bell500X Bell with subframe for locations where underground services make installation difficult.
• Bell600 Kerbline Bell is for installation within the kerbline  - an ideal width restrictor and it stops vehicles parking on the flower bed / pavement behind it
• Bell115 allows the installation of a 115mm diameter bollard or railing post within the same footings as a Bell bollard. It produces the same results but acts as a high visibility post or cost effective vehicular and pedestrian barrier.
• Bell138 has a recess specifically to house a CIT538 City Bollard. 
• Ave100 Avector is a new traffic control bollard which deflects vehicles
wheels. Its sleek modern form is suitable for more contemporary locations."

The smaller ones could also be used every 120 inches (300 cms) behind kerbs to stop vehicles parking on the pavement with its trees/flower beds.

 

It would be better to use the water for the tree rather than grass.
The following is from my Welcome Page:-
"9. The section below explains why grass has such a detrimental effect on trees/shrubs/ or other plants planted within it:-
hotelgardens4garnonswilliams1a
This shows the roots of 1 ryegrass plant, which had been removed from the foundation bed of Type I MOT Roadstone in a client's garden. You can see that this plant has tens of yards or metres of root to absorb water.
"Most turf grass roots are concentrated in the first 6-8 inches (15-20 cms) of soil. Try to irrigate only one or two inches of water per week during the turf growing season. You could irrigate the whole amount of water at one time, however most folks have better results splitting the amount into two separate applications.  Please note however in sandy soils where the water percolates more rapidly it may benefit you to split the applications into three separate irrigation cycles.  You do not want to irrigate more than three times a week because you would be applying so little water the outcome would be shallow roots."
"Native Grass Meadow
MARSHALL SILTY CLAY LOAM (HEAVY SUBSOIL PHASE) These plots (18-20) were located in an area that is in native grasses and has never been plowed, but being within a cemetery area has had frequent mowing. It adjoins the Agronomy Farm at Lincoln, Nebraska. T ests on these native grass plots (Table 1) showed that they absorbed over 2 inches of water during the first 1.5 hours with an absorption rate of about 1.4 inches per hour at the end of this time. Following a delay of 10 days during which there was no rain-fall, water was again applied to the test areas with practically the same results as for the previous test. It will be shown later that if the second test is made only 1 day after the first, the rate of intake will be materially reduced. This seems to be due to the settling of soil immediately after wetting. Upon longer standing the soil seems to resume its original condition."

SO IF YOU SUPPLY THE RECOMMENDED 1 INCH (2.5 CM) DEPTH OF TREE IRRIGATION WATER PER WEEK SPLIT INTO 2 IRRIGATION SESSIONS OF 0.5 INCHES (1.25 CM) DEPTH, THEN THE GRASS ABOVE THE TREE ROOTS WILL ABSORB ALL OF THAT.
Remove the grass and replace with green manure for at least 80 inches (200 cms) radius from the tree trunk.

PLANT WITH PHOTO INDEX GALLERY PAGES

The plant with photo in the Camera Photo Galleries in the next column
join

the plants with photos in the other Plant Photo Galleries as shown in the last column in

Plant with Photo Index of Ivydene Gardens - 1187
A 1, Photos - 43
B 1, Photos - 13
C 1, Photos - 35
D 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6,
Photos - 411

Photos of
Plants causing damage to buildings in Chilham Village and
Photos of
Damage to Trees in Pavements of Funchal
are also in the D pages
E 1, Photos - 21
F 1, Photos - 1
G 1, Photos - 5
H 1, Photos - 21
I 1, Photos - 8
J 1, Photos - 1
K 1, Photos - 1
L 1, Photos - 85
Photos of
Label Problems are also in the L pages
M 1, Photos - 9
N 1, Photos - 12
O 1, Photos - 5
P 1, Photos - 54
Q 1, Photos -
R 1,R 2,R 3,
Photos - 229
S 1, Photos - 111
T 1, Photos - 13
U 1, Photos - 5
V 1, Photos - 4
W 1, Photos - 100
Photos of
Work Done by Chris
Garnons-Williams are also in the W pages

X 1 Photos -
Y 1, Photos -
Z 1 Photos -

Articles/Items in Ivydene Gardens - 88

Flower Colour, Number of Petals, Shape and
Plant Use of:-

Rock Garden
...within linked page


 

The links in the
PLANT WITH PHOTO INDEX GALLERY PAGES in the previous column link to these pages in this cell

Topic - Camera Photo Galleries showing all 4000 x 3000 pixels of each photo on your screen that you can then click and drag to your desktop:-

RHS Garden at Wisley
Plant Supports -
When supporting plants in a bed, it is found that not only do those plants grow upwards, but also they expand their roots and footpad sideways each year. Pages
1
, 2, 3, 8, 11,
12, 13,
Plants 4, 7, 10,
Bedding Plants 5,
Plant Supports for Unknown Plants 5
,
Clematis Climbers 6,
the RHS does not appear to either follow it's own pruning advice or advice from The Pruning of Trees, Shrubs and Conifers by George E. Brown.
ISBN 0-571-11084-3 with the plants in Pages 1-7 of this folder. You can see from looking at both these resources as to whether the pruning carried out on the remainder of the plants in Pages 7-15 was correct.
Narcissus (Daffodil) 9,
Phlox Plant Supports 14, 15

Coleus Bedding Foliage Trial - Pages
1, 2, 3, 4, 5,
6, 7, 8, 9, 10,
11, 12, 13, 14, 15,
16, 17, 18, 19, 20,
21, 22, 23, 24, 25,
26, 27, 28, 29, 30,
31, 32
,
Index

National Trust Garden at Sissinghurst Castle
Plant Supports -
Pages for Gallery 1
with Plant Supports
1
, 5, 10
Plants
2
, 3, 4, 6, 7, 8, 9,
11, 12
Recommended Rose Pruning Methods 13
Pages for Gallery 2
with Plant Supports
2
,
Plants 1, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7

Dry Garden of
RHS Garden at
Hyde Hall
Plants - Pages
without Plant Supports
Plants 1
, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9

Nursery of
Peter Beales Roses
Display Garden
Roses Pages
1
, 2, 3, 4, 5,
6, 7, 8, 9, 10,
11, 12, 13

Nursery of
RV Roger
Roses - Pages
A1,A2,A3,A4,A5,
A6,A7,A8,A9,A10,
A11,A12,A13,A14,
B15,
B16,B17,B18,B19,
B20,
B21,B22,B23,B24,
B25,
B26,B27,B28,B29,
B30,
C31,C32,C33,C34,
C35,
C36,C37,C38,C39,
C40,
C41,CD2,D43,D44,
D45,
D46,D47,D48,D49,
E50,
E51,E52
,F53,F54,
F55,
F56,F57,G58,G59,
H60,
H61,I62,K63,L64,
M65,
M66,N67,P68,P69,
P70,

R71,R72,S73,S74,
T75,
V76,Z77, 78,

Damage by Plants in Chilham Village - Pages
1
, 2, 3, 4

Pavements of Funchal, Madeira
Damage to Trees - Pages
1
, 2, 3, 4, 5,
6, 7, 8, 9, 10,
11, 12, 13
for trees 1-54
,
14, 15,
16, 17, 18, 19, 20,
21, 22, 23, 24, 25,
for trees 55-95,
26
, 27, 28, 29, 30,
31, 32, 33, 34, 35,
36, 37,
for trees 95-133,
38
, 39, 40,
41, 42, 43, 44, 45,
for trees 133-166


Chris Garnons-Williams
Work Done - Pages
1, 2, 3, 4, 5,
6, 7, 8, 9, 10,
11, 12, 13

Identity of Plants
Label Problems - Pages
1, 2, 3, 4, 5,
6, 7, 8, 9, 10,
11

Ron and Christine Foord
Garden Flowers - Pages
A1, 2, 3, 4,
5,
6, 7, 8, 9,
10,
11, 12, 13,

 

Links to plants in the remainder of this website:-


Flower Colour, Number of Petals, Shape and
Plant Use of:-

Rock Garden
...within linked page


Bedding

...Bedding Out
...Filling In
...Screen-ing
...Pots and Troughs
...Window Boxes
...Hanging Baskets
...Spring Bedding
...Summer Bedding
...Winter Bedding
...Foliage instead of Flower
...
Coleus Bedding Photos for use in Public Domain 1

Bulb
...Other than Only Green Foliage
...Bedding or Mass Planting
...Ground-Cover
...Cut-Flower
...Tolerant of Shade
...In Woodland Areas
...Under-plant
...Tolerant of Poor Soil
...Covering Banks
...In Water
...Beside Stream or Water Garden
...Coastal Conditions
...Edging Borders
...Back of Border or Back-ground Plant
...Fragrant Flowers
...Not Fragrant Flowers
...Indoor
House-plant

...Grow in a Patio Pot
...Grow in an Alpine Trough
...Grow in an Alpine House
...Grow in Rock Garden
...Speciman Plant
...Into Native Plant Garden
...Naturalize in Grass
...Grow in Hanging Basket
...Grow in Window-box
...Grow in Green-house
...Grow in Scree
...Naturalized Plant Area
...Grow in Cottage Garden
...Attracts Butterflies
...Attracts Bees
...Resistant to Wildlife
...Bulb in Soil:-
......Chalk
......Clay
......Sand
......Lime-Free (Acid)
......Peat

Rose
...
Bedding
...
Climber /Pillar
...
Cut-Flower
...
Exhibition, Speciman
...
Ground-Cover

...
Grow In A Container
...
Hedge
...
Climber in Tree
...
Woodland
...Edging Borders
...Tolerant of Poor Soil
...Tolerant of Shade
...Back of Border
...Adjacent to Water
...Page for rose use as ARCH ROSE, PERGOLA ROSE, COASTAL CONDITIONS ROSE, WALL ROSE, STANDARD ROSE, COVERING BANKS or THORNLESS ROSES.
...FRAGRANT ROSES
...NOT FRAGRANT ROSES

and

Colour Wheel Uses
with
1. Why the perfect soil for general use is composed of 8.3% lime, 16.6% humus, 25% clay and 50% sand
within the SOIL TEXTURE, and
2. Why you are continually losing the SOIL STRUCTURE if you leave bare earth between plants so your soil - will revert to clay, chalk, sand or silt - unless you replace that lost humus with an organic mulch.


Uses of Plant and Flower Shape:-
...Foliage Only
...Other than Green Foliage
...Trees in Lawn
...Trees in Small Gardens
...Wildflower Garden
...Attract Bi
rd
...Attract Butterfly
1
, 2
...Climber on House Wall

...
Climber not on House Wall
...Climber in Tree
...Rabbit-Resistant
...Woodland
...Pollution Barrier
...Part Shade
...Full Shade
...Single Flower provides Pollen for Bees
1
, 2, 3
...Ground-Cover
<60
cm
60-180cm
>
180cm
...Hedge
...Wind-swept
...Covering Banks
...Patio Pot
...Edging Borders
...Back of Border
...Poisonous

...Adjacent to Water
...Bog Garden
...Tolerant of Poor Soil
...Winter-Flowering
...Fragrant
...Not Fragrant
...Exhibition

...
Standard Plant
is 'Ball on Stick'
...
Upright Branches or Sword-shaped leaves
...
Plant to Prevent Entry to Human or Animal
...
Coastal Conditions
...
Tolerant on North-facing Wall
...
Cut Flower
...
Potted Veg Outdoors
...
Potted Veg Indoors
...
Thornless
...
Raised Bed Outdoors Veg
...
Grow in Alkaline Soil A-F
, G-L, M-R,
S-Z
...
Grow in Acidic Soil
...
Grow in Any Soil
...
Grow in Rock Garden
...
Grow Bulbs Indoors


Fragrant Plants:-
Sense of Fragrance from Roy Genders

Fragrant Plants:-
Trees and Shrubs with Scented Flowers
1
, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6
Shrubs bearing Scented Flowers for an Acid Soil
1
, 2, 3, 4
Shrubs bearing Scented Flowers for a
Chalky or Limestone Soil
1
, 2, 3, 4
Shrubs bearing Scented leaves for a
Sandy Soil
1
, 2, 3
Herbaceous Plants with Scented Flowers
1
, 2, 3
Annual and Biennial Plants with Scented Flowers or Leaves
1
, 2
Bulbs and Corms with Scented Flowers
1
, 2, 3, 4, 5
Scented Plants of Climbing and Trailing Habit
1
, 2, 3
Winter-flowering Plants with Scented Flowers
1
, 2
Night-scented Flowering Plants
1
, 2
 

 

As photos are added to this index, then if the plant has the relevant photos to be included in the comparison pages in this table, then they shall be included in the relevant Flower Shape and Plant Use gallery below for

  • Bedding
  • Bulb
  • Evergreen Perennial
  • Herbaceous Perennial
  • Rose

Tables of Annuals List in each page of Coleus and Coleus 2 Galleries
Rock Garden
Plants from other Galleries in Colour Wheel Uses Gallery
A complete system for choosing plants for your home, garden and work
Butterflies with their wildflowers
Fragrant Plants
There are other pages on plants that bloom in each month of the year in this website, and
PLANTS Topic has many pages of useful plant lists with another system for choosing plants
 

BEDDING PLANT GALLERY PAGES

Flower Colour

Bicolour

Blue

Green

Orange

Other Colours

Pink

Purple

Red

White

White / Bicolour

Yellow

 

 

 

Flower Simple Shape

3 Petals

4 Petals

5 Petals

6 Petals

Stars

Bowls, Cups and Saucers

Globes, Goblets and Chalices

irisflotpseudacorus1a

aethionemacfloarmenumfoord1a

anemonecflo1hybridafoord1b

 

anthericumcfloliliagofoord1a1

geraniumflocineremuballerina1a1a1a1a1

paeoniamlokosewitschiiflot1a1

Trumpets and Funnels

Bells, Thimbles and Urns

 

Single Flower provides pollen for bees

 

2 Petals

 

acantholimoncfloglumaceumfoord1a1

digitalismertonensiscflorvroger1a

 

anagalisflotcskylover1a1

 

cupheacflollaveakavanagh1a

 

Flower Elabor-ated Shape

Tubes, Lips and Lobes

Slippers, Spurs and Lockets

Hats, Hoods and Helmets

Standards, Wings and Keels

Discs and Florets

Pin-cushions and Tufts

Rosettes, Buttons and Pompons

prunellaflotgrandiflora1a

aquilegiacfloformosafoord1a

acanthusspinosuscflocoblands1a

lathyrusflotvernus1a

brachyscomecflorigidulakevock1b

echinaceacflo1purpurealustrehybridsgarnonswilliams1a

argyranthemumflotcmadeiracrestedyellow1a

Bedding Plant Use

Bedding Out

Filling In

Screen-ing

Pots and Troughs

Window Boxes

Hanging Baskets

Spring Bedding

Summer Bedding

Winter Bedding

Foliage instead of Flower


Bedding Photos
for use in Public Domain 1

 

Bedding Plant Height from Text Border Gallery

Blue =
0-24 inches
(0-60 cms)

Green =
24-72 inches
(60-180 cms) or
Green =
24-72 inches
(60-180 cms)

Red =
72+ inches
(180+ cms)
 

Bedding Plant Soil Moisture from Text Background

 

Wet Soil

Moist Soil

Dry Soil

Click on thumbnail to change this Comparison Page to the Plant Description Page of the Bedding Plant named in the Text box below that photo.


The Comments Row of that Bedding Plant Description Page details where that Bedding Plant is available from.

From

Ivydene Gardens Bulb Flower Shape, Bulb Form, Bulb Use and Bulb in Soil Gallery:

BULB FLOWER SHAPE GALLERY PAGES

lessershapemeadowrue2a1a1a

alliumcflohaireasytogrowbulbs1

berberisdarwiniiflower10h3a14c2b

irisflotpseudacorus2

aethionemacfloarmenumfoord3

anemonecflo1hybridafoord2

anemonecflo1blandafoord2

Number of Flower Petals

Petal-less

1

2

3

4

5

Above 5

 

anthericumcfloliliagofoord1c

alliumcflo1roseumrvroger1

geraniumflocineremuballerina1a1a1a1b

paeoniamlokosewitschiiflot1b

paeoniaveitchiiwoodwardiiflot1

acantholimoncfloglumaceumfoord1c

stachysflotmacrantha1a

Flower Shape - Simple

Stars with Single Flowers

Bowls

Cups and Saucers

Globes

Goblets and Chalices

Trumpets

Funnels

 

digitalismertonensiscflorvroger2

fuchsiaflotcalicehoffman1a

ericacarneacflosspringwoodwhitedeeproot1a2

phloxflotsubulatatemiskaming1a

 

 

 

Flower Shape - Simple

Bells

Thimbles

Urns

Salver form

 

 

 

 

prunellaflotgrandiflora3

aquilegiacfloformosafoord3

acanthusspinosuscflocoblands2

lathyrusflotvernus2

anemonecflo1coronariastbrigidgeetee1

echinaceacflo1purpurealustrehybridsgarnonswilliams2

centaureacfloatropurpureakavanagh1

Flower Shape - Elabor-ated

Tubes, Lips and Straps

Slippers, Spurs and Lockets

Hats, Hoods and Helmets

Stan-dards, Wings and Keels

Discs and Florets

Pin-Cushions

Tufts and Petal-less Cluster

 

androsacecforyargongensiskevock2

androsacecflorigidakevock1

argyranthemumflotcmadeiracrestedyellow2

armeriacflomaritimakevock1

anemonecflonemerosaalbaplenarvroger1

 

 

Flower Shape - Elabor-ated

Cushion

Umbel

Buttons with Double Flowers

Pompoms

Stars with Semi-Double Flowers

 

 

 

bergeniamorningredcforcoblands1a

ajugacfloreptansatropurpurea1

lamiumflotorvala2a

astilbepurplelancecflokevock1a

berberisdarwiniiflower10h3a1433a1a1a

berberisdarwiniiflower10h3a1434a1a1a

androsacecfor1albanakevock2

Natural Arrange-ments

Bunches, Posies and Sprays (Group)

Columns, Spikes and Spires

Whorls, Tiers and Cande-labra

Plumes and Tails

Chains and Tassels

Clouds, Garlands and Cascades

Sphere, Dome (Clusters), Drumstick and Plate

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

BULB
FORM, BULB USE AND BULB IN SOIL GALLERY PAGES

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Bulb Form

Mat-Forming

Prostrate or Trailing

Cushion or Mound-forming

Spreading or Creeping

Clump-forming

Stemless. Sword-shaped Leaves

Erect or Upright

Bulb Use

Other than Only Green Foliage

Bedding or Mass Planting

Ground-Cover

Cut-Flower

Tolerant of Shade

In Woodland Areas

Under-plant

Tolerant of Poor Soil

Covering Banks

In Water

Beside Stream or Water Garden

Coastal Conditions

Edging Borders

Back of Border or Back-ground Plant

Fragrant Flowers

Not Fragrant Flowers

Indoor House-plant

Grow in a Patio Pot

Grow in an Alpine Trough

Grow in an Alpine House

Grow in Rock Garden

Speciman Plant

Into Native Plant Garden

Naturalize in Grass

Grow in Hanging Basket

Grow in Window-box

Grow in Green-house

Grow in Scree

 

 

Natural-ized Plant Area

Grow in Cottage Garden

Attracts Butter-flies

Attracts Bees

Resistant to Wildlife

Bulb in Soil

Chalk

Clay

Sand

Lime-Free (Acid)

Peat

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Bulb Height from Text Border

Brown= 0-12 inches (0-30 cms)

Blue = 12-24 inches (30-60 cms)

Green= 24-36 inches (60-90 cms)

Red = 36+ inches (90+ cms)

Bulb Soil Moisture from Text Background

Wet Soil

Moist Soil

Dry Soil

Flowering months range abreviates month to its first 3 letters (Apr-Jun is April, May and June).

Click on thumbnail to change this comparison page to the Plant Description Page of the Bulb named in the Text box below that photo.
The Comments Row of that Plant Description Page links to where you personally can purchase that bulb via mail-order.

 

Ivydene Gardens Evergreen Perennials and Alpine Evergreen Perennials Flower Shape Gallery:
Site Map

EVERGREEN PERENNIAL FLOWER SHAPE - Click on Text link in row below thumbnail

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

lessershapemeadowrue1a

berberisdarwiniiflower10h3a14c1a1

berberisdarwiniiflower10h3a14c2a1

berberisdarwiniiflower10h3a14d1a1

aethionemacfloarmenumfoord2a

anemonecflo1hybridafoord1a2

anemonecflo1blandafoord1a

Number of Flower Petals

Petal-less

1

2

3

4

5

Above 5

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

anthericumcfloliliagofoord1b1

berberisdarwiniiflower10h3a14k1c1

geraniumflocineremuballerina1a1

berberisdarwiniiflower10h3a14k1a1a

berberisdarwiniiflower10h3a14k1b1a

acantholimoncfloglumaceumfoord1b1

stachysflotmacrantha2

Flower Shape - Simple

Stars

Bowls

Cups and Saucers

Globes

Goblets and Chalices

Trumpets

Funnels

 

berberisdarwiniiflower10h3a14q1a1

berberisdarwiniiflower10h3a14r1a1

berberisdarwiniiflower10h3a14s1a1

phloxflotsubulatatemiskaming2

 

 

 

Flower Shape - Simple

Bells

Thimbles

Urns

Salverform

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

prunellaflotgrandiflora2a

aquilegiacfloformosafoord2a

berberisdarwiniiflower10h3a14u1a1

berberisdarwiniiflower10h3a14v1a1

brachyscomecflorigidulakevock1a2

berberisdarwiniiflower10h3a14x1a1

berberisdarwiniiflower10h3a14y1a1

Flower Shape - Elabor-ated

Tubes, Lips and Straps

Slippers, Spurs and Lockets

Hats, Hoods and Helmets

Stan-dards, Wings and Keels

Discs and Florets

Pin-Cushions

Tufts

 

androsacecforyargongensiskevock1a

androsaceflorigidakevock1

berberisdarwiniiflower10h3a1428a1a

armeriaflomaritimakevock1

 

 

 

Flower Shape - Elabor-ated

Cushion

Umbel

Buttons

Pompoms

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

bergeniamorningredcforcoblands2

ajugacfloreptansatropurpurea1a2

berberisdarwiniiflower10h3a1431a1a

berberisdarwiniiflower10h3a1432a1a

berberisdarwiniiflower10h3a1433a1a

berberisdarwiniiflower10h3a1434a1a

androsacecfor1albanakevock1a

Natural Arrange-ments

Bunches, Posies and Sprays

Columns, Spikes and Spires

Whorls, Tiers and Candle-labra

Plumes and Tails

Chains and Tassels

Clouds, Garlands and Cascades

Spheres, Domes and Plates

 


HERBACEOUS FLOWER SHAPE Gallery Comparison Pages
 

 

lessershapemeadowrue2a1a1a1a1

berberisdarwiniiflower10h3a14c1a1a1a1

berberisdarwiniiflower10h3a14c2a1a1a

irisflotpseudacorus1a1a

aethionemacfloarmenumfoord1a1a

anemonecflo1hybridafoord1a1a

anemonecflo1blandafoord1a1a

Number of Flower Petals

Petal-less

1

2

3

4

5

Above 5

 

anthericumcfloliliagofoord1a1a1a

berberisdarwiniiflower10h3a14k1a1a1a

geraniumflocineremuballerina1a1a1a1a1a1

paeoniamlokosewitschiiflot1a1a1

paeoniaveitchiiwoodwardiiflot1a1a

acantholimoncfloglumaceumfoord1a1a1a

stachysflotmacrantha1a1a1

Flower Shape - Simple

Stars

Bowls

Cups and Saucers

Globes

Goblets and Chalices

Trumpets

Funnels

 

digitalismertonensiscflorvroger1a1a

fuchsiaflotcalicehoffman1a1a1

ericacarneacflosspringwoodwhitedeeproot1a1a

phloxflotsubulatatemiskaming1a1a1

 

 

 

Flower Shape - Simple

Bells

Thimbles

Urns

Salverform

 

 

 

 

prunellaflotgrandiflora1a1a

aquilegiacfloformosafoord1a1a

acanthusspinosuscflocoblands1a1a

lathyrusflotvernus1b1a

brachyscomecflorigidulakevock1a1a

echinaceacflo1purpurealustrehybridsgarnonswilliams1a1a1

centaureacfloatropurpureakavanagh1a1a

Flower Shape - Elabor-ated

Tubes, Lips and Straps

Slippers, Spurs and Lockets

Hats, Hoods and Helmets

Stan-dards, Wings and Keels

Discs and Florets

Pin-Cushions

Tufts

 

androsacecforyargongensiskevock1a1a

androsacecflorigidakevock1a1a

argyranthemumflotcmadeiracrestedyellow1a1a

armeriacflomaritimakevock1a1a

 

 

 

Flower Shape - Elabor-ated

Cushion

Umbel

Buttons

Pompoms

 

 

 

 

bergeniamorningredcforcoblands1a1a1

ajugacfloreptansatropurpurea1a1a

lamiumflotorvala2a1a1

astilbepurplelancecflokevock1a1a1

berberisdarwiniiflower10h3a1433a1a1a1a1

berberisdarwiniiflower10h3a1434a1a1a1a1

androsacecfor1albanakevock1a1a

Natural Arrange-ments

Bunches, Posies and Sprays

Columns, Spikes and Spires

Whorls, Tiers and Cande-labra

Plumes and Tails

Chains and Tassels

Clouds, Garlands and Cascades

Spheres, Domes and Plates

Ivydene Gardens Rose Use Gallery: Site Map

Flower Colour

Other Colours

Orange

Pink

Red

White

Yellow

2 or More Colours Page 1

2 or More Colours Page 2

Produces Hips

Rose Use

Bedding

Climber /Pillar

Cut-Flower

Exhibition, Speciman

Ground-Cover

Grow In A Container

Hedge

Climber in Tree

Woodland

Edging Borders

Tolerant of Poor Soil

Tolerant of Shade

Back of Border

Adjacent to Water

On North-Facing Wall

Page for rose use as ARCH ROSE, PERGOLA ROSE, COASTAL CONDITIONS ROSE, WALL ROSE, STANDARD ROSE, COVERING BANKS or THORNLESS ROSES.

FRAGRANT ROSES - The roses inserted into this page are described as Moderately Fragrant or Very Fragrant in the relevant Rose Plant Description Page.

NOT FRAGRANT ROSES - The roses inserted into this page are described as Slightly Fragrant or nothing mentioned about fragrance in the relevant Rose Plant Description Page.
 

Rose Bloom Shape

rosaacapulcocflo1a1a1
High Centred

rosaamberqueenflomidcgarnonswilliams1a1a1a
Cupped

rosaballerinacflorogerltd1a1a
Flat

rosahenrimartincflorogerltd1a1a
Globular

rosabuffbeautyCflorogerltd1a1a
Pompon

rosaprosperitycflorogerltd1a1a
Rosette

 

Click on thumbnail to change to Plant Description Page of the Rose Plant named in the text below that photo where its text border is Cyan, Green or Pink.
The Comments Row of that Rose Plant Description Page details where that Rose Plant is available from.

Rose Petal Count

rosacantabrigiensiscflorogerltd1a1a
Single:

1-7
Petals

rosafragrantdelightcflo1a1a1
Semi-double: 8-15 Petals

rosaarthurbellcflomid2garnonswilliams1a1a1
Double:

16-25 Petals

rosagoldenramblercflorogerltd1a1
Full:

26-40 Petals

rosabobwoolleycflorogerltd1a1
Very Full:

40+ Petals

 

Rose Plant Height from Text Border
(1 inch = 2.5 cms,
12 inches = 1 foot = 30 cms,
24 inches = 2 feet)

Blue = 0-24 inches (0-60 cms)
Cyan = 0-24 inches (0-60 cms)

Green=24-72 inches (60-180 cms)
Green=24-72 inches (60-180 cms)

Red = 72+ inches (180+ cms)
Pink = 72+ inches (180+ cms)

Rose Plant Soil Moisture from Text Background

Wet Soil

Moist Soil

Dry Soil

Click on thumbnail to add the Rose Plant Description Page of the Rose Plant named in the Text box below that photo - or - click that Rose Plant name in the relevant "Roses in this Gallery Link Index" menu for non-users of pop-up windows such as for IPHONE users, where the text border is Blue, Green or Red.

 

When water is deprived from plants grown under tarmac or concrete, the plants are unable to grow:-

"Getting water to growing plants is vital to their survival- the following is from z page of Useful Data .

There are 4 ways in which water can be lost from the growing zone:-

  • Run-off
  • Evaporation
  • Percolation
  • Transpiration

Run off happens when water is applied too quickly to allow it to enter the growing medium. This is made worse if the growing medium has a compacted structure, as this reduces the spaces in the soil that water can move through. Run-off is a major cause of both water loss and erosion. This leads to the additional problems of silting-up and nutrients being transported into drains and watercourses which can lead to damage to seas.

Evaporation is when water at the surface is taken away, in vapour form, by the atmosphere. Water lower in the soil profile is then drawn to the surface through capillary movement, where it then evaporates, and the cycle continues.

Percolatiojn is a natural phenomenon, by which the water filters down through the growing medium to reach the roots. Once that growing medium has absorbed and is holding onto as much water as it can, surplus water drains away through the soil beyond the reach of roots, taking dissolved nutrients with it. This is highly wasteful of water and inefficient. Percolation takes place most rapidly when the water-holding capacity of the land is low due to having too much space between the soil particles, particularly if land is cracked due to drought.

Transpiration is water loss through the vegetation that is rooted in the growing medium. It is the one way in which water is beneficially taken from the soil because it means the plants are making efficient use of the water and the nutrients dissolved in it.

Broadleaf P4 water-saving granules from Agricultural Polymers are mixed into the growing medium at the desired rate, according to the climate and the salinity of the irrigation water. As water enters the substrate, the granules actively entrap the water, absorbing and storing it. They swell into rubbery water-charged gel fragments that act as millions of micro-reservoirs of plant-available water right where it's needed - at the plant roots.
Roots grow towards the source of plant-available water and grow right through the gel particles, colonising them and using the water/nutrients supply.
Using Broadleaf P4 is a highly efficient mechanism for increasing the water-holding capacity of the growing medium without flooding all the air spaces.
As the granules swell up (to typically 100 times their dry volume) they force the growing medium open, creating an open structured, permeable growing medium, with up to 75% of the water saved.

Broadleaf P4 is environmentally compatible and after about 5 years of working, the granules biodegrade harmlessly, with no noxious residues.

Using Broafleaf P4, plants can be grown and thrive on only 25% of the water normally used." from Agripol.

Rock Garden Plant Uses from Colour Wheel Rock Gallery:-

ROCK GARDEN PLANTS IN COLOUR WHEEL GALLERY PAGES

Small size plant in Flower Colours

Miniature size plant in Flower Colours

Small Size plant flower in Month

Miniature Size plant flower in Month

FLOWERING IN MONTH
including those from the Camera Photo Galleries as detailed in row 3 of the Topic Table on the left.
Click on the centre of each thumbnail in the following flower colour month pages to transfer to the description of that plant in a Camera Photo Gallery Page:-
January
February
March
April
May
June
July
August
September
October
November
December

Dark Tone or Shades
(Colours mixed with Black)
Mid-Tone
(Colours mixed with Grey)
Pure Hue
(the Primary, Secondary or Tertiary Colour named)
Pastel
(Colours mixed with White)

Rock Garden Plant Uses from Colour Rock Photos

PAGES FOR PHOTOS OF ROCK GARDEN PLANTS WHO DO NOT HAVE THEIR OWN PLANT DESCRIPTION PAGE

ROCK GARDEN PLANT INDEX
(o)Rock Plant: A
(o)Rock Plant: B
(o)Rock Plant: C
(o)Rock Plant: D
(o)Rock Plant: E
(o)Rock Plant: F
(o)Rock Plant: G
(o)Rock Plant: H
(o)Rock Plant: I
(o)Rock Plant: J
(o)Rock Plant: K
(o)Rock Plant: L
(o)Rock Plant: M
(o)Rock Plant: NO
(o)Rock Plant: PQ
(o)Rock Plant: R
(o)Rock Plant: S
(o)Rock Plant: T
(o)Rock Plant: UVWXYZ

 

LISTS OF PLANTS SUITABLE FOR VARIOUS SITUATIONS AND PURPOSES:-

THE ROCK GARDEN -

Rock plants for Sunny Sites.

Rock plants for Shady Sites.

Early Bloom in the Rock Garden.

Summer Bloom in the Rock Garden.

Late Bloom in the Rock Garden.

Rock plants of Creeping and Trailing Habit.

Rock plants with Evergreen Foliage.

Rock Plants with Silvery or Variegated Foliage.

Rock plants needing the protection of Sheet of Glass in Winter.

Rock plants which hate Lime.

Lime Lovers.

Peat Lovers.

THE WALL GARDEN -

Plants for sunny sites in the Wall Garden.

Plants for Shady Sites in the Wall Garden.

Plants for a Dry Site on a Wall.

Plants for a Moderately Dry Site on a Wall.

Plants for a Moist Site on a Wall.

Plants for Positions on Top of Walls.

Plants to Hang Down from the Upper Parts of a Wall.
 

 

DETAILS OF PLANTS IN LISTS FOR THE ROCK, WALL, PAVED, WATER AND BOG GARDENS

Some Good Rock Plants with Some on Moraine

Plants for the Alpine House

Plants for the Miniature Rock Garden with some Bulbs

Shrubs for the Rock Garden

Moisture-loving Trees and Shrubs for Bog or Water Garden

Ferns

Plants for Wall Garden and Paved Garden

Plants for the Water Garden

Plants for the Bog Garden

Plants from other Galleries except the ones in the next row

 

IVYDENE GARDENS COLOUR WHEEL PLANT USE AND FLOWER SHAPE GALLERY PAGES

 

Additions to Ivydene Gardens Colour Wheel Uses Gallery from this Index

  • will compare the use and flower shape of the to be added shrubs and trees, since currently until August 2019 there is no comparison pages for uses of shrubs and trees,
  • will compare the uses of the to be added evergreen and herbaceous perennials, since currently until August 2019 there is no comparison pages for uses of perennials.
  • The above additions will be combined with those already compared from Bedding, Bulb, Evergreen Perennial, Herbaceous Perennial and Roses pages.
    Bedding, Bulb, and Roses currently in August 2019 have comparison pages for both use and flower shape.
     

PLANTS FLOWER SHAPE GALLERY PAGES

lessershapemeadowrue2a1a1a1a1a1a1a1

alliumcflohaireasytogrowbulbs1a1a1a1a

berberisdarwiniiflower10h3a14c2a1a1a1a1a1

irisflotpseudacorus1a1a1a1a1a1

aethionemacfloarmenumfoord1a2a1a1a1a

anemonecflo1hybridafoord1a2a1a1a1a

anemonecflo1blandafoord1a1a1a1a1a

Number of Flower Petals

Petal-less

1

2

3

4

5

Above 5

 

anthericumcfloliliagofoord1a1a1a1a1a1a

alliumcflo1roseumrvroger1a1a1a1

geraniumflocineremuballerina1a1a1a1a1a1a1a1a1a

paeoniamlokosewitschiiflot1a1a1a1a1a1a

paeoniaveitchiiwoodwardiiflot1a1a1a1a1a

acantholimoncfloglumaceumfoord1a1a1a1a1a1

stachysflotmacrantha1a1a1a1a1a1

Flower Shape - Simple

Stars with Single Flowers

Bowls

Cups and Saucers

Globes

Goblets and Chalices

Trumpets

Funnels

 

digitalismertonensiscflorvroger1a2a1a1a1a

fuchsiaflotcalicehoffman1a1a1a1a1a1

ericacarneacflosspringwoodwhitedeeproot1a1a1a1a1a1a

phloxflotsubulatatemiskaming1a1a1a1a1a1

 

 

 

Flower Shape - Simple

Bells

Thimbles

Urns

Salver-form

 

 

 

 

prunellaflotgrandiflora1a1a1a1a1a

aquilegiacfloformosafoord1a2a1a1a1

acanthusspinosuscflocoblands1a2a1a1a1

lathyrusflotvernus1a2a1a1a1

anemonecflo1coronariastbrigidgeetee1a1a1a1

echinaceacflo1purpurealustrehybridsgarnonswilliams1a2a1a1a1

centaureacfloatropurpureakavanagh1a1a1a1a1

Flower Shape - Elabor-ated

Tubes, Lips and Straps

Slippers, Spurs and Lockets

Hats, Hoods and Helmets

Stan-dards, Wings and Keels

Discs and Florets

Pin-Cushions

Tufts and Petal-less Cluster

 

androsacecforyargongensiskevock1a1a1a1a

androsacecflorigidakevock1a1a1a1a

argyranthemumflotcmadeiracrestedyellow1a1b1a1a

armeriacflomaritimakevock1a1a1a1a

anemonecflonemerosaalbaplenarvroger1a1a1a1a

 

 

Flower Shape - Elabor-ated

Cushion

Umbel

Buttons with Double Flowers

Pompoms

Stars with Semi-Double Flowers

 

 

 

bergeniamorningredcforcoblands1a1a1a1a1a

ajugacfloreptansatropurpurea1a1a1a1a1

lamiumflotorvala2a1a1a1a1a

astilbepurplelancecflokevock1a1a1a1a1a

berberisdarwiniiflower10h3a1433a1a1a1a1a1a1a

berberisdarwiniiflower10h3a1434a1a1a1a1a1a1a

androsacecfor1albanakevock1a1a1a1a1

Natural Arrange-ments

Bunches, Posies and Sprays (Group)

Columns, Spikes and Spires

Whorls, Tiers and Cande-labra

Plumes and Tails

Chains and Tassels

Clouds, Garlands and Cascades

Sphere, Dome (Clusters), Drumstick and Plate

Plant Use

Foliage Only

Other than Green Foliage

Trees in Lawn

Trees in Small Gardens
 

Wildflower Garden

Attract Bird
Attract Butterfly
1
, 2

Climber on House Wall

Climber not on House Wall

Climber in Tree

Rabbit-Resistant
 

Woodland

Pollution Barrier

Part Shade

Full Shade

Single Flower provides Pollen for Bees
1
, 2, 3

Ground-Cover
<60
cm
60-180cm
>180cm

Hedge

Wind-swept

Covering Banks

Patio Pot

Edging Borders

Back of Border

Poisonous

Adjacent to Water

Bog Garden
 

Tolerant of Poor Soil

Winter-Flowering
 

Fragrant

Not Fragrant

Exhibition

Standard Plant is 'Ball on Stick'

Upright Branches or Sword-shaped leaves

Plant to Prevent Entry to Human or Animal

Coastal Con-ditions

Tolerant on North-facing Wall

Cut Flower

Potted Veg Outdoors

Potted Veg Indoors
 

Thornless

Raised Bed Outdoors Veg
 

Grow in Alkaline Soil A-F, G-L, M-R, S-Z

Grow in Acidic Soil

Grow in Any Soil

Grow in Rock Garden

Grow Bulbs Indoors

A complete system for choosing plants for your home, garden and at work.

The following table shows the linkages for the information about the plants
described in Sanders' Encyclopedia of Gardening in The Gardeners' Golden Treasury, revised by A. G. L Hellyer F.L.S, Editor of 'Amateur Gardening', (thirty-first impression of original published in 1895) was published in 1960 by W. H. & L. Collingridge Limited,
between:-

STAGE 4D
SHAPE, FORM INDEX GALLERY

Plant Foliage

Aromatic Foliage

1

Autumn Foliage

1

Finely Cut Leaves

1

Large Leaves

1

Yellow Variegated Foliage

1

White Variegated Foliage

1

Red / Purple Variegated Foliage

1

Silver, Grey and Glaucous Foliage

1

Sword-shaped Leaves

1

 

 

 

STAGE 4D
SHAPE, FORM INDEX GALLERY

Shrub, Tree Shape

Columnar
ccolumnarshape1a1a1a1a1a1a

1

Oval
covalshape1a1a1a1a1a1a

1

Rounded or Spherical
croundedshape1a1a1a1a1a1a

1

Flattened Spherical
cflattenedsphericalshape1a1a1a1a1a1a

1

Narrow Conical / Narrow Pyramidal
cnarrowconicalshape1a1a1a1a1a1a

1

Broad Conical / Broad Pyramidal
cbroadpyramidalshape1a1a1a1a1a1a

1

Ovoid /
Egg-Shaped

ceggshapedshape1a1a1a1a1a1a

1

Broad Ovoid
cbroadovoidshape1a1a1a1a1a1a

1

Narrow Vase-shaped / Inverted Ovoid
cnarrowvaseshapedshape1a1a1a1a1a1a

1

Fan-Shaped /Vase-Shaped
cfanshapedshape1a1a1a1a1a1a

1

Broad Fan-Shaped / Broad Vase-Shaped
cbroadfanshapedshape1a1a1a1a1a1a

1

Narrow Weeping
cnarrowweepingshape1a1a1a1a1a1a

1

Broad Weeping
cbroadweepingshape1a1a1a1a1a1a

1

Palm

1

 

Conifer Cone

1

 

Form

Arching

1

Climbing

1

Clump-Forming

1

Mat-Forming

1

Mound-Forming

1

Prostrate

1

Spreading

1

Stemless

1

Upright

1

 

Poisonous Plant

1

 

STAGE 4D
SHAPE, FORM INDEX GALLERY

Plant Foliage

STAGE 4D
SHAPE, FORM INDEX GALLERY

Tree and Shrubs in Garden Design -

Trees and Shrubs suitable for Clay Soils (neutral to slightly acid)

Trees and Shrubs suitable for Dry Acid Soils

Trees and Shrubs suitable for Shallow Soil over Chalk

Trees and Shrubs tolerant of both extreme Acidity and Alkalinity

Trees and Shrubs suitable for Damp Sites

Trees and Shrubs suitable for Industrial Areas

Trees and Shrubs suitable for Cold Exposed Areas

Trees and Shrubs suitable for Seaside Areas

Shrubs suitable for Heavy Shade

Shrubs and Climbers suitable for NORTH- and EAST-facing Walls

Shrubs suitable for Ground Cover

Trees of Pendulous Habit

Trees and Shrubs of Upright or Fastigiate Habit

Trees and Shrubs with Ornamental Bark or Twigs

Trees and Shrubs with Bold Foliage

Trees and Shrubs for Autumn Colour

Trees and Shrubs with Red or Purple Foliage

Trees and Shrubs with Golden or Yellow Foliage

Trees and Shrubs with Grey or Silver Foliage

Trees and Shrubs with Variegated Foliage

Trees and Shrubs bearing Ornamental Fruit

Trees and Shrubs with Fragrant or Scented Flowers

Trees and Shrubs with Aromatic Foliage

Flowering Trees and Shrubs for Every Month:-
Jan
, Feb, Mar, Apr, May, Jun, Jul, Aug, Sep, Oct, Nov, Dec

 

STAGE 1
GARDEN STYLE INDEX GALLERY

 

Fragrant Plants adds the use of another of your 5 senses in your garden:-
Sense of Fragrance from Roy Genders

Fragrant Plants:-
Trees and Shrubs with Scented Flowers
1
, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6

Trees and Shrubs with Scented Leaves
1
, 2, 3, 4, 5

Trees and Shrubs with Aromatic Bark
1
, 2, 3

Shrubs bearing Scented Flowers for an
Acid Soil
1
, 2, 3, 4

Shrubs bearing Scented Flowers for a
Chalky or Limestone Soil
1
, 2, 3, 4

Shrubs bearing Scented leaves for a
Sandy Soil
1
, 2, 3

Herbaceous Plants with Scented Flowers
1
, 2, 3

Herbaceous Plants with Scented Leaves
1
, 2, 3

Annual and Biennial Plants with Scented Flowers or Leaves
1
, 2

Bulbs and Corms with Scented Flowers
1
, 2, 3, 4, 5

Scented Plants of Climbing and Trailing Habit
1
, 2, 3

Winter-flowering Plants with Scented Flowers
1
, 2

Night-scented Flowering Plants
1
, 2

Scented Aquatic Plants
1


Plants with Scented Fruits
1


Plants with Scented Roots
1
, 2

Trees and Shrubs with Scented Wood
1


Trees and Shrubs with Scented Gums
1


Scented Cacti and Succulents
1


Plants bearing Flowers or Leaves of Unpleasant Smell
1
, 2
 

 

with more details below on the Perfume Groups

Butterflies

 

Now we do of course have WILDFLOWERS and these can be very useful to
BUTTERFLIES and their young

 

Butterfly
Usage of Plants
by Egg, Caterpillar, Chrysalis and Butterfly

Egg, Caterpillar, Chrysalis and Butterfly usage of
Plant A-C
Plant C-M
Plant N-W
Butterfly usage of Plant

 

 

and these wildflowers come from these
WILDFLOWER FAMILIES:-

WILD FLOWER FAMILY
PAGE MENU 1


(o)Adder's Tongue
Amaranth
(o)Arrow-Grass
(o)Arum
(o)Balsam
Bamboo
(o)Barberry
(o)Bedstraw
(o)Beech
(o)Bellflower
(o)Bindweed
(o)Birch
(o)Birds-Nest
(o)Birthwort
(o)Bogbean
(o)Bog Myrtle
(o)Borage
(o)Box
(o)Broomrape
(o)Buckthorn
(o)Buddleia
(o)Bur-reed
(o)Buttercup
(o)Butterwort
(o)Cornel (Dogwood)
(o)Crowberry
(o)Crucifer (Cabbage/Mustard) 1
(o)Crucifer (Cabbage/Mustard) 2
Cypress
(o)Daffodil
(o)Daisy
(o)Daisy Cudweeds
(o)Daisy Chamomiles
(o)Daisy Thistle
(o)Daisy Catsears
(o)Daisy Hawkweeds
(o)Daisy Hawksbeards
(o)Daphne
(o)Diapensia
(o)Dock Bistorts
(o)Dock Sorrels

WILD FLOWER FAMILY
PAGE MENU 2


(o)Clubmoss
(o)Duckweed
(o)Eel-Grass
(o)Elm
(o)Filmy Fern
(o)Horsetail
(o)Polypody
Quillwort
(o)Royal Fern
(o)Figwort - Mulleins
(o)Figwort - Speedwells
(o)Flax
(o)Flowering-Rush
(o)Frog-bit
(o)Fumitory
(o)Gentian
(o)Geranium
(o)Glassworts
(o)Gooseberry
(o)Goosefoot
(o)Grass 1
(o)Grass 2
(o)Grass 3
(o)Grass Soft Bromes 1
(o)Grass Soft Bromes 2
(o)Grass Soft Bromes 3 (o)Hazel
(o)Heath
(o)Hemp
(o)Herb-Paris
(o)Holly
(o)Honeysuckle
(o)Horned-Pondweed
(o)Hornwort
(o)Iris
(o)Ivy
(o)Jacobs Ladder
(o)Lily
(o)Lily Garlic
(o)Lime
(o)Lobelia
(o)Loosestrife
(o)Mallow
(o)Maple
(o)Mares-tail
(o)Marsh Pennywort
(o)Melon (Gourd/Cucumber)
 

WILD FLOWER FAMILY
PAGE MENU 3


(o)Mesem-bryanthemum
(o)Mignonette
(o)Milkwort
(o)Mistletoe
(o)Moschatel
Naiad
(o)Nettle
(o)Nightshade
(o)Oleaster
(o)Olive
(o)Orchid 1
(o)Orchid 2
(o)Orchid 3
(o)Orchid 4
(o)Parnassus-Grass
(o)Peaflower
(o)Peaflower Clover 1
(o)Peaflower Clover 2
(o)Peaflower Clover 3
(o)Peaflower Vetches/Peas
Peony
(o)Periwinkle
Pillwort
Pine
(o)Pink 1
(o)Pink 2
Pipewort
(o)Pitcher-Plant
(o)Plantain
(o)Pondweed
(o)Poppy
(o)Primrose
(o)Purslane
Rannock Rush
(o)Reedmace
(o)Rockrose
(o)Rose 1
(o)Rose 2
(o)Rose 3
(o)Rose 4
(o)Rush
(o)Rush Woodrushes
(o)Saint Johns Wort
Saltmarsh Grasses
(o)Sandalwood
(o)Saxifrage
 

WILD FLOWER FAMILY
PAGE MENU 4


Seaheath
(o)Sea Lavender
(o)Sedge Rush-like
(o)Sedges Carex 1
(o)Sedges Carex 2
(o)Sedges Carex 3
(o)Sedges Carex 4
(o)Spindle-Tree
(o)Spurge
(o)Stonecrop
(o)Sundew
(o)Tamarisk
Tassel Pondweed
(o)Teasel
(o)Thyme 1
(o)Thyme 2
(o)Umbellifer 1
(o)Umbellifer 2
(o)Valerian
(o)Verbena
(o)Violet
(o)Water Fern
(o)Waterlily
(o)Water Milfoil
(o)Water Plantain
(o)Water Starwort
Waterwort
(o)Willow
(o)Willow-Herb
(o)Wintergreen
(o)Wood-Sorrel
(o)Yam
(o)Yew

Fragrant Plants

 

 

Perhaps FRAGRANT PLANTS might be useful to you:-

 

 

Sense of Fragrance from Roy Genders

Fragrant Plants:-
Trees and Shrubs with Scented Flowers 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6
Trees and Shrubs with Scented Leaves 1, 2, 3, 4, 5
Trees and Shrubs with Aromatic Bark 1, 2, 3
Shrubs bearing Scented Flowers for an
Acid Soil 1
, 2, 3, 4
Shrubs bearing Scented Flowers for a
Chalky or Limestone Soil 1
, 2, 3, 4
Shrubs bearing Scented Flowers for a
Sandy Soil 1
, 2, 3
Herbaceous Plants with Scented Flowers 1, 2, 3
Herbaceous Plants with Scented Leaves 1, 2, 3
Annual and Biennial Plants with Scented Flowers or Leaves 1, 2
Bulbs and Corms with Scented Flowers 1, 2, 3, 4, 5
Scented Plants of Climbing and Trailing Habit 1, 2, 3
Winter-flowering Plants with Scented Flowers 1, 2
Night-scented Flowering Plants 1, 2
Scented Aquatic Plants.
Plants with Scented Fruits.
Plants with Scented Roots 1, 2
Trees and Shrubs with Scented Wood.
Trees and Shrubs with Scented Gums.
Scented Cacti and Succulents.
Plants bearing Flowers or Leaves of Unpleasant Smell 1, 2

Flower Perfume Group:-
Miscellaneous Group with scents - Balm, Brandy, Cedar, Cloying, Cowslip, Cucumber, Damask Rose, Daphne, Exotic, Freesia, Fur-like, Gardenia, Hay-like, Heliotrope, Honeysuckle, Hops, Hyacinth, Incense-like, Jasmine, Laburnham, Lilac, Lily of the Valley, Meadowsweet, Mignonette, Mint, Mossy, Muscat, Muscatel, Myrtle-like, Newly Mown Hay, Nutmeg, Piercing, Primrose, Pungent, Resinous, Sandalwood, Sassafras, Seductive, Slight, Soft, Stephanotis, Sulphur, Starch, Sweet, Sweet-briar, Tea-rose, Treacle and Very Sweet.

Flower Perfume Group:-
Indoloid Group.
Aminoid Group with scent - Hawthorn.
Heavy Group with scents -
Jonquil and
Lily.
Aromatic Group with scents - Almond,
Aniseed, Balsamic,
Carnation, Cinnamon, Clove,
Spicy and
Vanilla.
Violet Group.
Rose Group.
Lemon Group with scent -
Verbena.
Fruit-scented Group with scents -
Apricot,
Fruity,
Green Apple,
Orange, Pineapple,
Ripe Apple , Ripe Banana and
Ripe Plum.
 

Flower Perfume Group:-
Animal-scented Group with scents -
Cat,
Dog,
Ferret,
Fox,
Goat,
Human Perspiration,
Musk,
Ripe Apple and
Tom Cat.
Honey Group.
Unpleasant Smell Group with scents -
Animal,
Fetid,
Fishy,
Foxy,
Fur-like,
Garlic,
Hemlock,
Manure,
Nauseating,
Perspiration,
Petrol,
Putrid,
Rancid,
Sickly,
Skunk,
Stale Lint
Sulphur and
Urinous,

 

Leaf Perfume Group:-
Turpentine Group.
Camphor and Eucalyptus Group.
Mint Group.
Sulphur Group.
Indoloid Group.
Aminoid Group.
Heavy Group.
Aromatic Group.
Violet Group.
Rose Group.
Lemon Group.
Fruit-scented Group.
Animal-scented Group.
Honey Group.

Scent of Wood, Bark and Roots Group:-
Aromatic Group.
Turpentine Group.
Rose Group.
Violet Group.
Stale Perspiration Group.

 

Scent of Fungi Group:-
Indoloid Group.
Aminoid Group.
Sulphur Group.
Aromatic Group.
Rose Group.
Violet Group.
Fruit Group.
Animal Group.
Honey Group

 

There are other pages on Plants which bloom in each month of the year in this website:-

 

 

 

 

 

PLANTS PAGE
MENU
Introduction
Site Map

This topic has many pages of useful plant lists

 

Topic
Case Studies
...Drive Foundations
Ryegrass and turf kills plants within Roadstone and in Topsoil due to it starving and dehydrating them.
CedarGravel creates stable drive surface and drains rain into your ground, rather than onto the public road.

8 problems caused by building house on clay or with house-wall attached to clay.
Pre-building work on polluted soil.

Companion Planting
...A, B, C, D, E,
...F, G, H, I, J, K,
...L, M, N, O, P, Q,
...R, S, T, U, V, W,
...X, Y, Z
...Pest Control
...using Plants

Garden
Construction

with ground drains
Garden Design
...How to Use the Colour Wheel Concepts for Selection of Flowers, Foliage and Flower Shape
...RHS Mixed
Borders

......Bedding Plants
......Her Perennials
......Other Plants
......Camera photos of Plant supports
Garden
Maintenance

Glossary with a tomato teaching cauliflowers
Home
Library of over 1000 books
Offbeat Glossary with DuLally Bird in its flower clock.
Plants
...in Chalk (Alkaline) Soil
......A-F1, A-F2,
......A-F3, G-L, M-R,
......M-R Roses, S-Z
...in Heavy Clay Soil
......A-F, G-L, M-R,
......S-Z
...in Lime-Free
(Acid) Soil
......A-F, G-L, M-R,
......S-Z
...in Light Sand Soil
......A-F, G-L, M-R,
......S-Z
...Poisonous Plants
...Extra Plant Pages

Soil
...
Interaction between 2 Quartz Sand Grains to make soil
...
How roots of plants are in control in the soil
...
Without replacing Soil Nutrients, the soil will break up to only clay, sand or silt
...
Subsidence caused by water in Clay
...Use water ring for trees/shrubs for first 2 years

Tool Shed with 3 kneeling pads
Useful Data with benefits of Seaweed

................

Topic - Plant Photo Galleries

Topic - Plant with Photo Index of Ivydene Gardens with
Camera Photo Galleries are in the last row


Bulb with its 7 Flower Colours per Month Comparison Pages
...Allium/ Anemone
...Autumn
...Colchicum/ Crocus
...Dahlia
...Gladiolus
......European A-E
......European F-M
......European N-Z
......Eur Non-classified
......American A
......American B
......American C
......American D
......American E
......American F
......American G
......American H
......American I
......American J
......American K
......American L
......American M
......American N
......American O
......American P
......American Q
......American R
......American S
......American T
......American U
......American V
......American W
......American XYZ
......Ame Non-classified
......Australia - empty
......India

......Lithuania
...Hippeastrum/ Lily
...Late Summer
...Narcissus
...Spring
...Tulip
...Winter
...Each of the above ...Bulb Galleries has its own set of Flower Colour Pages
...Flower Shape
...Bulb Form

...Bulb Use

...Bulb in Soil

Further details on bulbs from the Infill Galleries:-
Hardy Bulbs
...Aconitum
...Allium
...Alstroemeria
...Anemone

...Amaryllis
...Anthericum
...Antholyzas
...Apios
...Arisaema
...Arum
...Asphodeline

...Asphodelus
...Belamcanda
...Bloomeria
...Brodiaea
...Bulbocodium

...Calochorti
...Cyclobothrias
...Camassia
...Colchicum
...Convallaria 
...Forcing Lily of the Valley
...Corydalis
...Crinum
...Crosmia
...Montbretia
...Crocus

...Cyclamen
...Dicentra
...Dierama
...Eranthis
...Eremurus
...Erythrnium
...Eucomis

...Fritillaria
...Funkia
...Galanthus
...Galtonia
...Gladiolus
...Hemerocallis

...Hyacinth
...Hyacinths in Pots
...Scilla
...Puschkinia
...Chionodoxa
...Chionoscilla
...Muscari

...Iris
...Kniphofia
...Lapeyrousia
...Leucojum

...Lilium
...Lilium in Pots
...Malvastrum
...Merendera
...Milla
...Narcissus
...Narcissi in Pots

...Ornithogalum
...Oxalis
...Paeonia
...Ranunculus
...Romulea
...Sanguinaria
...Sternbergia
...Schizostylis
...Tecophilaea
...Trillium

...Tulip
...Zephyranthus

Half-Hardy Bulbs
...Acidanthera
...Albuca
...Alstroemeri
...Andro-stephium
...Bassers
...Boussing-aultias
...Bravoas
...Cypellas
...Dahlias
...Galaxis,
...Geissorhizas
...Hesperanthas

...Gladioli
...Ixias
...Sparaxises
...Babianas
...Morphixias
...Tritonias

...Ixiolirions
...Moraeas
...Ornithogalums
...Oxalises
...Phaedra-nassas
...Pancratiums
...Tigridias
...Zephyranthes
...Cooperias


Uses of Bulbs:-
...for Bedding
...in Windowboxes
...in Border
...naturalized in Grass
...in Bulb Frame
...in Woodland Garden
...in Rock Garden
...in Bowls
...in Alpine House
...Bulbs in Greenhouse or Stove:-
...Achimenes
...Alocasias
...Amorpho-phalluses
...Arisaemas
...Arums
...Begonias
...Bomareas
...Caladiums

...Clivias
...Colocasias
...Crinums
...Cyclamens
...Cyrtanthuses
...Eucharises
...Urceocharis
...Eurycles

...Freesias
...Gloxinias
...Haemanthus
...Hippeastrums

...Lachenalias
...Nerines
...Lycorises
...Pencratiums
...Hymenocallises
...Richardias
...Sprekelias
...Tuberoses
...Vallotas
...Watsonias
...Zephyranthes

...Plant Bedding in
......Spring

......Summer
...Bulb houseplants flowering inside House during:-
......January
......February
......March
......April
......May
......June
......July
......August
......September
......October
......November
......December
...Bulbs and other types of plant flowering during:-
......Dec-Jan
......Feb-Mar
......Apr-May
......Jun-Aug
......Sep-Oct
......Nov-Dec
...Selection of the smaller and choicer plants for the Smallest of Gardens with plant flowering during the same 6 periods as in the previous selection


........

If the plant type below has flowers, then the first gallery will include the flower thumbnail in each month of 1 of 6 flower colour comparison pages of each plant in its subsidiary galleries
Aquatic
Bamboo
Bedding
...by Flower Shape

Climber in
3 Sector Vertical Plant System
...Clematis
...Climbers
Conifer
Deciduous Shrub
...Shrubs - Decid
Deciduous Tree
...Trees - Decid
Evergreen Perennial
...P-Evergreen A-L
...P-Evergreen M-Z
...Flower Shape
Evergreen Shrub
...Shrubs - Evgr
...Heather Shrub
Evergreen Tree
...Trees - Evgr
Fern
Grass
Hedging
Herbaceous
Perennial

...P -Herbaceous
...Peony
...Flower Shape
...RHS Wisley
......Mixed Border
......Other Borders
Herb
Odds and Sods
Rhododendron
Rose
...RHS Wisley A-F
...RHS Wisley G-R
...RHS Wisley S-Z
...Rose Use with 3 separate rose indices on each usage of rose page
...Other Roses A-F
...Other Roses G-R
...Other Roses S-Z
Soft Fruit
Top Fruit
...Apple

...Cherry
...Pear
Vegetable

Wild Flower is below

The following is a complete hierarchical Plant Selection Process
dependent on the Garden Style chosen

Garden Style
...
Infill Plants
...12 Bloom Colours per Month Index
...
12 Foliage Colours per Month Index
...
All Plants Index
...
Cultivation, Position, Use Index
...
Shape, Form
Index

or
use the choices in the following Flower/Foliage Colour
Colour Wheel Galleries

you could use these Flower Colour Wheels with number of colours
All Flowers 53

All Flowers per Month 12 - My Gas Service Engineer found Flow and Return pipes incorrectly positioned on gas boilers and customers had refused to have positioning corrected in 2020, followed by this Website
...User Guidelines
or
Bee instead of wind pollinated plants for hay-fever sufferers
All Bee-Pollinated Flowers per Month 12
...Index
or
Rock Garden and Alpine Flower Colour Wheel with number of colours
Rock Plant Flowers 53

...Rock Plant Photos
or
A Foliage Colour Wheel using 212 web-safe colours instead of the best Colour Wheel of 2058 colours in the Pantone Goe System
All Foliage 212

or
Flower Colour Wheel without photos, but with links to photos
12 Bloom Colours per Month Index
...All Plants Index

Topic - Butterfly Wildlife on Plant Photo Gallery
Butterfly
Usage of Plants
by Egg, Caterpillar, Chrysalis and Butterfly

Egg, Caterpillar, Chrysalis and Butterfly usage of
Plant A-C
Plant C-M
Plant N-W
Butterfly usage of Plant

Wild Flower
with its
flower colour page,
space,
Site Map page in its flower colour
NOTE Gallery
...Blue Note
...Brown Note
...Cream Note
...Green Note
...Mauve Note
...Multi-Cols Note
...Orange Note
...Pink A-G Note
...Pink H-Z Note
...Purple Note
...Red Note
...White A-D Note
...White E-P Note
...White Q-Z Note
...Yellow A-G Note
...Yellow H-Z Note
...Shrub/Tree Note

Poisonous
Wildflower Plants

You can find the wild flower in one of the 23 Wild Flower Galleries or the Colour Wheel
Gallery

If
you know its name, use
Wild Flower Plant Index a-h,
Wild Flower Plant Index i-p or
Wild Flower Plant Index q-z

you know which habitat it lives in,
use
Wild Flowers on
Acid Soil
Habitat Table,
on Calcareous
(Chalk) Soil
,
on Marine Soil,
on Neutral Soil,
is a Fern,
is a Grass,
is a Rush, or
is a Sedge

you know which family it belongs to, use
Wild Flower Family Pages menu above and right

you have seen its flower or seed, use
Comparison Pages
in Wild Flower
Gallery
to identify it or

you have seen its flower, use Comparison Pages containing Wild Flower Plants and Cultivated Plants in the Colour Wheel Gallery

followed by all the Wild Flower Family Pages:-

There are 180 families in the Wildflowers of the UK and they have been split up into 22 Galleries to allow space for up to 100 plants per gallery.

Each plant named in each of the Wildflower Family Pages may have a link to:-

its Plant Description Page in its Common Name in one of those Wildflower Plant Galleries and will have links

to external sites to purchase the plant or seed in its Botanical Name,

to see photos in its Flowering Months and

to read habitat details in its Habitat Column.

WILD FLOWER FAMILY
PAGE MENU 1
(o)Adder's Tongue
Amaranth
(o)Arrow-Grass
(o)Arum
(o)Balsam
Bamboo
(o)Barberry
(o)Bedstraw
(o)Beech
(o)Bellflower
(o)Bindweed
(o)Birch
(o)Birds-Nest
(o)Birthwort
(o)Bogbean
(o)Bog Myrtle
(o)Borage
(o)Box
(o)Broomrape
(o)Buckthorn
(o)Buddleia
(o)Bur-reed
(o)Buttercup
(o)Butterwort
(o)Cornel (Dogwood)
(o)Crowberry
(o)Crucifer (Cabbage/Mustard) 1
(o)Crucifer (Cabbage/Mustard) 2
Cypress
(o)Daffodil
(o)Daisy
(o)Daisy Cudweeds
(o)Daisy Chamomiles
(o)Daisy Thistle
(o)Daisy Catsears (o)Daisy Hawkweeds
(o)Daisy Hawksbeards
(o)Daphne
(o)Diapensia
(o)Dock Bistorts
(o)Dock Sorrels

WILD FLOWER FAMILY
PAGE MENU 2
(o)Clubmoss
(o)Duckweed
(o)Eel-Grass
(o)Elm
(o)Filmy Fern
(o)Horsetail
(o)Polypody
Quillwort
(o)Royal Fern
(o)Figwort - Mulleins
(o)Figwort - Speedwells
(o)Flax
(o)Flowering-Rush
(o)Frog-bit
(o)Fumitory
(o)Gentian
(o)Geranium
(o)Glassworts
(o)Gooseberry
(o)Goosefoot
(o)Grass 1
(o)Grass 2
(o)Grass 3
(o)Grass Soft Bromes 1
(o)Grass Soft Bromes 2
(o)Grass Soft Bromes 3
(o)Hazel
(o)Heath
(o)Hemp
(o)Herb-Paris
(o)Holly
(o)Honeysuckle
(o)Horned-Pondweed
(o)Hornwort
(o)Iris
(o)Ivy
(o)Jacobs Ladder
(o)Lily
(o)Lily Garlic
(o)Lime
(o)Lobelia
(o)Loosestrife
(o)Mallow
(o)Maple
(o)Mares-tail
(o)Marsh Pennywort
(o)Melon (Gourd/Cucumber)

WILD FLOWER FAMILY
PAGE MENU 3
(o)Mesem-bryanthemum
(o)Mignonette
(o)Milkwort
(o)Mistletoe
(o)Moschatel
Naiad
(o)Nettle
(o)Nightshade
(o)Oleaster
(o)Olive
(o)Orchid 1
(o)Orchid 2
(o)Orchid 3
(o)Orchid 4
(o)Parnassus-Grass
(o)Peaflower
(o)Peaflower Clover 1
(o)Peaflower Clover 2
(o)Peaflower Clover 3
(o)Peaflower Vetches/Peas
Peony
(o)Periwinkle
Pillwort
Pine
(o)Pink 1
(o)Pink 2
Pipewort
(o)Pitcher-Plant
(o)Plantain
(o)Pondweed
(o)Poppy
(o)Primrose
(o)Purslane
Rannock Rush
(o)Reedmace
(o)Rockrose
(o)Rose 1
(o)Rose 2
(o)Rose 3
(o)Rose 4
(o)Rush
(o)Rush Woodrushes
(o)Saint Johns Wort
Saltmarsh Grasses
(o)Sandalwood
(o)Saxifrage

WILD FLOWER FAMILY
PAGE MENU 4
Seaheath
(o)Sea Lavender
(o)Sedge Rush-like
(o)Sedges Carex 1
(o)Sedges Carex 2
(o)Sedges Carex 3
(o)Sedges Carex 4
(o)Spindle-Tree
(o)Spurge
(o)Stonecrop
(o)Sundew
(o)Tamarisk
Tassel Pondweed
(o)Teasel
(o)Thyme 1
(o)Thyme 2
(o)Umbellifer 1
(o)Umbellifer 2
(o)Valerian
(o)Verbena
(o)Violet
(o)Water Fern
(o)Waterlily
(o)Water Milfoil
(o)Water Plantain
(o)Water Starwort
Waterwort
(o)Willow
(o)Willow-Herb
(o)Wintergreen
(o)Wood-Sorrel
(o)Yam
(o)Yew

Topic - Camera Photo Galleries showing all 4000 x 3000 pixels of each photo on your screen that you can then click and drag to your desktop:-

RHS Garden at Wisley
Plant Supports -
When supporting plants in a bed, it is found that not only do those plants grow upwards, but also they expand their roots and footpad sideways each year. Pages
1
, 2, 3, 8, 11,
12, 13,
Plants 4, 7, 10,
Bedding Plants 5,
Plant Supports for Unknown Plants 5
,
Clematis Climbers 6,
the RHS does not appear to either follow it's own pruning advice or advice from The Pruning of Trees, Shrubs and Conifers by George E. Brown.
ISBN 0-571-11084-3 with the plants in Pages 1-7 of this folder. You can see from looking at both these resources as to whether the pruning carried out on the remainder of the plants in Pages 7-15 was correct.
Narcissus (Daffodil) 9,
Phlox Plant Supports 14, 15

Coleus Bedding Foliage Trial - Pages
1, 2, 3, 4, 5,
6, 7, 8, 9, 10,
11, 12, 13, 14, 15,
16, 17, 18, 19, 20,
21, 22, 23, 24, 25,
26, 27, 28, 29, 30,
31, 32
,
Index

National Trust Garden at Sissinghurst Castle
Plant Supports -
Pages for Gallery 1
with Plant Supports
1
, 5, 10
Plants
2
, 3, 4, 6, 7, 8, 9,
11, 12
Recommended Rose Pruning Methods 13
Pages for Gallery 2
with Plant Supports
2
,
Plants 1, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7

Dry Garden of
RHS Garden at
Hyde Hall
Plants - Pages
without Plant Supports
Plants 1
, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9

Nursery of
Peter Beales Roses
Display Garden
Roses Pages
1
, 2, 3, 4, 5,
6, 7, 8, 9, 10,
11, 12, 13

Nursery of
RV Roger
Roses - Pages
A1,A2,A3,A4,A5,
A6,A7,A8,A9,A10,
A11,A12,A13,A14,
B15,
B16,B17,B18,B19,
B20,
B21,B22,B23,B24,
B25,
B26,B27,B28,B29,
B30,
C31,C32,C33,C34,
C35,
C36,C37,C38,C39,
C40,
C41,CD2,D43,D44,
D45,
D46,D47,D48,D49,
E50,
E51,E52
,F53,F54,
F55,
F56,F57,G58,G59,
H60,
H61,I62,K63,L64,
M65,
M66,N67,P68,P69,
P70,

R71,R72,S73,S74,
T75,
V76,Z77, 78,

Damage by Plants in Chilham Village - Pages
1
, 2, 3, 4

Pavements of Funchal, Madeira
Damage to Trees - Pages
1
, 2, 3, 4, 5,
6, 7, 8, 9, 10,
11, 12, 13
for trees 1-54
,
14, 15,
16, 17, 18, 19, 20,
21, 22, 23, 24, 25,
for trees 55-95,
26
, 27, 28, 29, 30,
31, 32, 33, 34, 35,
36, 37,
for trees 95-133,
38
, 39, 40,
41, 42, 43, 44, 45,
for trees 133-166


Chris Garnons-Williams
Work Done - Pages
1, 2, 3, 4, 5,
6, 7, 8, 9, 10,
11, 12, 13

Identity of Plants
Label Problems - Pages
1, 2, 3, 4, 5,
6, 7, 8, 9, 10,
11

Ron and Christine Foord
Garden Flowers - Pages
A1, 2, 3, 4,
5,
6, 7, 8, 9,
10,
11, 12, 13,

The plant with photo in the above Camera Photo Galleries
join

the plants with photos in the other Plant Photo Galleries below in

Plant with Photo Index of Ivydene Gardens
A 1, Photos
B 1, Photos
C 1, Photos
D 1, Photos
E 1, Photos
F 1, Photos
G 1, Photos
H 1, Photos
I 1, Photos
J 1, Photos
K 1, Photos
L 1, Photos
M 1, Photos
N 1, Photos
O 1, Photos
P 1, Photos
Q 1, Photos
R 1, Photos
S 1, Photos
T 1, Photos
U 1, Photos
V 1, Photos
W 1, Photos
X 1 Photos
Y 1, Photos
Z 1 Photos
Articles/Items in Ivydene Gardens

Flower Colour, Number of Petals, Shape and
Plant Use of:-

Rock Garden
...within linked page


Bedding

...Bedding Out
...Filling In
...Screen-ing
...Pots and Troughs
...Window Boxes
...Hanging Baskets
...Spring Bedding
...Summer Bedding
...Winter Bedding
...Foliage instead of Flower
...
Coleus Bedding Photos for use in Public Domain 1

Bulb
...Other than Only Green Foliage
...Bedding or Mass Planting
...Ground-Cover
...Cut-Flower
...Tolerant of Shade
...In Woodland Areas
...Under-plant
...Tolerant of Poor Soil
...Covering Banks
...In Water
...Beside Stream or Water Garden
...Coastal Conditions
...Edging Borders
...Back of Border or Back-ground Plant
...Fragrant Flowers
...Not Fragrant Flowers
...Indoor
House-plant

...Grow in a Patio Pot
...Grow in an Alpine Trough
...Grow in an Alpine House
...Grow in Rock Garden
...Speciman Plant
...Into Native Plant Garden
...Naturalize in Grass
...Grow in Hanging Basket
...Grow in Window-box
...Grow in Green-house
...Grow in Scree
...Naturalized Plant Area
...Grow in Cottage Garden
...Attracts Butterflies
...Attracts Bees
...Resistant to Wildlife
...Bulb in Soil:-
......Chalk
......Clay
......Sand
......Lime-Free (Acid)
......Peat

Rose
...
Bedding
...
Climber /Pillar
...
Cut-Flower
...
Exhibition, Speciman
...
Ground-Cover

...
Grow In A Container
...
Hedge
...
Climber in Tree
...
Woodland
...
Edging Borders
...
Tolerant of Poor Soil
...
Tolerant of Shade
...
Back of Border
...
Adjacent to Water
...
Page for rose use as ARCH ROSE, PERGOLA ROSE, COASTAL CONDITIONS ROSE, WALL ROSE, STANDARD ROSE, COVERING BANKS or THORNLESS ROSES.
...
FRAGRANT ROSES
...
NOT FRAGRANT ROSES

and

Plant Colour Wheel Uses
with
1. Perfect general use soil is composed of 8.3% lime, 16.6% humus, 25% clay and 50% sand, and
2. Why you are continually losing the SOIL STRUCTURE so your soil - will revert to clay, chalk, sand or silt.

Uses of Plant and Flower Shape:-
...Foliage Only
...Other than Green Foliage
...Trees in Lawn
...Trees in Small Gardens
...Wildflower Garden
...Attract Bi
rd
...Attract Butterfly
1
, 2
...Climber on House Wall

...
Climber not on House Wall
...Climber in Tree
...Rabbit-Resistant
...Woodland
...Pollution Barrier
...Part Shade
...Full Shade
...Single Flower provides Pollen for Bees
1
, 2, 3
...Ground-Cover
<60
cm
60-180cm
>
180cm
...Hedge
...Wind-swept
...Covering Banks
...Patio Pot
...Edging Borders
...Back of Border
...Poisonous

...Adjacent to Water
...Bog Garden
...Tolerant of Poor Soil
...Winter-Flowering
...Fragrant
...Not Fragrant
...Exhibition

...
Standard Plant
is 'Ball on Stick'
...
Upright Branches or Sword-shaped leaves
...
Plant to Prevent Entry to Human or Animal
...
Coastal Conditions
...
Tolerant on North-facing Wall
...
Cut Flower
...
Potted Veg Outdoors
...
Potted Veg Indoors
...
Thornless
...
Raised Bed Outdoors Veg
...
Grow in Alkaline Soil A-F
, G-L, M-R,
S-Z
...
Grow in Acidic Soil
...
Grow in Any Soil
...
Grow in Rock Garden
...
Grow Bulbs Indoors

Fragrant Plants:-
Sense of Fragrance from Roy Genders

Fragrant Plants:-
Trees and Shrubs with Scented Flowers
1
, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6
Shrubs bearing Scented Flowers for an Acid Soil
1
, 2, 3, 4
Shrubs bearing Scented Flowers for a
Chalky or Limestone Soil
1
, 2, 3, 4
Shrubs bearing Scented leaves for a
Sandy Soil
1
, 2, 3
Herbaceous Plants with Scented Flowers
1
, 2, 3
Annual and Biennial Plants with Scented Flowers or Leaves
1
, 2
Bulbs and Corms with Scented Flowers
1
, 2, 3, 4, 5
Scented Plants of Climbing and Trailing Habit
1
, 2, 3
Winter-flowering Plants with Scented Flowers
1
, 2
Night-scented Flowering Plants
1
, 2