Picture Folder Name Pages:-

Since 14 June 2019 I have also started to put my own full-sized 4000 x 3000 digital Camera images into the relevant topics in this website again for use in the Public Domain - since there may be 9 or more to a page the resulting
43 Mb website page may take some time to load
. Since I have more than 26,522 photos using 112.83 GB of my disk space, then the extra upfront cost per annum before creating more folders like Photo coleus is just over 3.16 pence per photo has to be paid for the total number in that entire photo collection before any are sent to the website.
It is hoped that you may find them of interest.

Foord garden flower slides Folder of 35mm 'Ektachrome' Transparency slides taken by Ron & Christine Foord of Rochester, Kent in England during the 20th century. Both have been
dead for years and these slides were passed onto Chris Garnons-Williams.

Slides taken by Ron or Christine Foord have been scanned individually and converted by an F22MP 126PK Super 8 Slides & Negatives All-in-1 Film Scanner to JPEGS by Chris Garnons-Williams in the original size and as a thumbnail during 2020.

Ron and Christine Foord
Garden Flowers - Pages of all these Galleries


Heather -
Calluna AR88,PE89,
Daboecia BI90,
Erica AR91,CI92,CI93,

IR106,IR107, 108, 109, 110,
111, 112, 113, 114, 115,
116, 117,

When I have completed the conversion of all the slides from Ron and Christine Foord and inserted a relevant selection of the digitised images into the Photo Garden Flowers Galleries in some months time, then I will complete their text field in the thumbnail row starting with the
letter A (written 11 November 2020).



Number of Colours required to provide a practical means of roughly differentiating between flower colours, foliage colours and bark/stem colours of plants.

Flower Colour:-
These are the 14 Flower Colours for the UK Native Wildflowers:-
Wild Flower with its
flower colour page, space,
Site Map page in its flower colour
NOTE Gallery
...Blue Note
...Brown Note
...Cream Note
...Green Note
...Mauve Note
...Multi-Cols Note
...Orange Note
...Pink A-G Note
...Pink H-Z Note
...Purple Note
...Red Note
...White A-D Note
...White E-P Note
...White Q-Z Note
...Yellow A-G Note
...Yellow H-Z Note
...Shrub/Tree Note

There are 53 flower colours for All Flowers Colour Wheel and Rock Plant Flowers:-
Dark Tone or Shades (Colours mixed with Black) is the outer circle of colours.
Mid-Tone (Colours mixed with Grey) is the next circle of colours.
Pure Hue (the Primary, Secondary or Tertiary Colour named) is the next circle of colours.
Pastel (Colours mixed with White) is the innermost circle of colours.

These 12 colour spokes of
Dark Tone,
Pure Hue and
Pastel are split into:-


Primary Colour Name

Pure Hue Colour Name Used











Secondary Colour Name

Pure Hue Colour Name Used



Vitamin C








Tertiary Colour Name

Pure Hue Colour Name Used


Red Orange



Yellow Orange



Yellow Green

Lovely Lime


Blue Green

Light Teal


Blue Violet



Dark tone, mid-tone, pure hue followed by pastel colour:-

  1. blood red, fuzzy wuzzy, red, flat pink.
  2. chocolate, heatland, orange, orangelin.
  3. rusty pelican, tuscany, vitamin c, atomic tangerine.
  4. browser caramel, buddha gold, tangerine, sand.
  5. grass stain, pine glade, yellow, bone.
  6. verdun green, slimer 2, lovely lime, limeade.
  7. pakistan green, weak green, lime, offwhite green.
  8. blue stone, aqua, light teal, baby blue.
  9. navy blue, periwinkle, blue, offwhite blue.
  10. violet, the bands, grape, mauve.
  11. royal purple, calihoe, magenta, magenta shift.
  12. dried blood, forbidden, process pagenta, pink.
  13. white, white wildflower, gray, silver, black

There are 7 flower colours:-
blue, white, yellow, unusual, and red, pink or purple as in the
Bulb gallery.

These are the 12 flower colours for
Flower in Month and Bee-Pollinated Plants:-
red, pink, white, cream, mauve, purple, blue, yellow, brown, green, orange and unusual or multi-coloured.

Foliage Colour:-
I have created a Foliage Colour Wheel -
All Foliage 212 - using 212 web-safe colours. My 212 web-safe colours just do not cut the mustard.
This is instead of using the best Colour Wheel of 2058 colours in the
Pantone Goe System, but this link no longer connects to Pantone. So perhaps the Pantone Goe System is no longer sold or maintained.

So as from 18 January 2021, I have decided to use the 53 colours of All Flowers Colour Wheel and Rock Plant Flowers above for the flowers and the foliage in the future combined with the 14 Flower Colours for the UK Native Wildflowers Wild Flower for the UK Wildflowers. I also intend to put the required plant into the respective pages of the Plant Colour Wheel Uses Gallery.
This makes for a practical number of flower and foliage colours for use in the horticultural environment.

List of Pictures in a Picture Folder:-

Ron & Christine Foord took many photos of wildflower plants and stored them as Kodak 'Kodachrome' Transparency 35mm slides in the 1960-90s as well as these 10,000 of Garden Flowers. If they used other film, then the colour on the slides became sepia over a few years, whereas this did not occur with Kodachrome. The green perhaps got darker over a 50 year period. I am adding these scanned slides to my photos for sending to my website for use in the Public Domain starting in February 2020.

Page 63

Draba androsacea

Draba dedeana 1 5 71

Drosera 17 1 65 Sundew at Kew

Drosera binata 09 08 95

Drosera binata 09 08 95

Dryas octapetala May 71

Dryas octapetala

Dryas octapetala May 72

Dryas octapetala May 70

Dryas octapetala Jun 70

Dryas octapetala Seed Heads

Page 64

Dryas octapetala v. minor May 84

Eccremocarpus scaber Oct 78

Echinops exaltatus Aug 79
Globe Thistle with bumble bees

Echinops exaltatus Aug 79
Globe Thistle in Norfolk

Echinops exaltatus Aug 79
Globe Thistle in Norfolk

Echinops exaltatus Aug 79
Globe Thistle in Norfolk

Edgeworthia papyrifera apr 67

Edgeworthia papyrifera Apr 67

Edraianthus graminifolius Jun 71

Edraianthus pumilio Jun 71

Edraianthus pumilio Jun 73

Page 65

Edraianthus pumilio

Edraianthus pumilio Jun 73

Edraianthus pumilio Jun 71

Edraianthus pumilio Aug 73
Seed Heads

Edraianthus tenuifolia Jul 70

Edraianthus tenuifolia Jul 70

Edraianthus tenuifolia Jul 70

Edraianthus tenuifolia Jul 71

Eleagnus argentia May 85

Eleagnus argentia May 85

Eleagnus argentia 06 90

Page 66

Eleagnus parvifolia Jul 79

Eleagnus parvifolia Jul 79

Elshollzia cristata Sep 78

Embothrum coccineum Jul 79

Embothrum coccineum Jul 79
Chilean fire bush

Endymion hispanicus May 69
Spanish Bluebells

Endymion hispanicus May 85
Spanish Bluebells

Endymion non-scriptus May 84
Blue bell

Epilobium komarovianum Jul 79

Epilobium komarovianum Jul 79

Epilobium komarovianum Jul 79

Page 67

Epilobium glabbellum Oct 78

Epilobium glabbellum Oct 78

Epilobium pedunculare Sep 78

Eremurus bungei Jul 78

Eremurus bungei

Erigeron glaucus Aug 69

Erigeron glaucus

Erigeron glaucus Aug 79

Erigeron glaucus Jul 72

Erigeron mucronatus Jun 72

Erigeron mucronatus Jun 84
in Ashburton

Page 68

Erinus alpinus Jun 70

Erinus alpinus May 70

Erinus alpinus May 85

Erinus alpinus in path 08 85

Erinus alpinus in path Jun 86

Erinus alpinus May 70 white

Erinus alpinus white Jun 71

Erodium carvifolium 14 9 68

Erodium carvifolium 14 9 68

Erodium chrysanthum May 70

Erythronium dens-canis May 70

Page 69

Erodium guttatum 14 9 68

Erodium guttatum 14 9 68

Erodium guttatum 14 9 68

Erodium reichardi (chamaedryoides) roseum May 70

Erodium reichardi (chamaedryoides) roseum May 70

Erodium reichardi (chamaedryoides) roseum Sep 68

Erodium reichardi (chamaedryoides) roseum Jun 72

Erysimum alpinum May 70

Erysimum alpinum May 70

Erythronium pagoda

Erythronium pagoda

Page 70

Erythronium tuolumnense

Erythronium tuolumnense Apr 71

Erythronium tuolumnense Apr 86

Euonymus fortunei 05 88

Euonymus japonicus in Rochester, Kent

Euphorbia characias Apr 67

Euphorbia characias Apr 67

Euphorbia hislopia Mar 65
in Cactus House of Kew;
origin Madagascar

Euphorbia lathyrus 25 05 95
Caper Spurge

Euryops evansii Jul 75 Acraeus

Euryops evansii May 75 and
Saxatile dubarry May 75

Page 71

Euphorbia myrsinites Apr 70

Euphorbia myrsinites 18 4 70

Euphorbia myrsinites May 78

Euphorbia myrsinites

Euphorbia myrsinites Sep 70

Euphorbia myrsinites Apr 71

Euphorbia myrsinites May 68 in garden

Euphorbia rigida 10 04 97

Euphorbia rigida 10 04 97

Euphorbia rigida 10 04 97

Festuca ovina glauca Jul 66

Page 72

Forsythia with snow on it 11 4 78

Fragaria muricata Sep 78
Plymouth Strawberry

Fragaria muricata Sep 78
Plymouth Strawberry

Frankenia laevis Jul 71 Sea Heath

Frankenia thymifolia 07 90

Fraxinus mariesii Jul 79

Fraxinus mariesii Jul 79

Fraxinus mariesii Jul 79

Fremontia californica 06 87

Fremontia californica 06 87

Fritillaria agrestis 20 4 69

Page 73

Fritillaria acmopetala 28 4 68

Fritillaria acmopetala 28 4 68

Fritillaria assyriaca 1 5 71

Fritillaria assyriaca 04 91

Fritillaria brandegei 20 4 69

Fritillaria brandegei 20 4 69

Fritillaria brandegei

Fritillaria camschatcensis Jun 71

Fritillaria camschatcensis Jun 71

Fritillaria camschatcensis Jun 71

Fritillaria citrina May 70


Plant Labelling - A suggestion for plant labelling to help visitors

A different solution is that each gardening member of the RHS staff at Wisley be provided with Large White Plastic Angled-Head Labels which are 20 inches (50 cms) in height with a 6 x 4 inch (16 x 10 cms) writing surface and a Marker pen with Black ink to provide a good temporary label for the above broken label (in Lost Flowers page) or for missing labels.
Then, the black background permanent label could be ordered at the end of that working day to replace this temporary label, which has been inserted into the ground in front of the relevant plant section.

If you are concerned about these labels going on "Walkabout", then insert another white label behind the plant and make it invisible to the public.

Site design and content copyright ©November 2020.
Chris Garnons-Williams.

DISCLAIMER: Links to external sites are provided as a
courtesy to visitors. Ivydene Horticultural Services are
not responsible for the content and/or quality of external
web sites linked from this site.  


Ivydene Horticultural Services logo with I design, construct and maintain private gardens. I also advise and teach you in your own garden. 01634 389677

Picture Folder Name Pages:-

Damage to Trees in Pavement in Madeira caused by the action of man during January/February 2019.

Solution to holes in trees.
Remove mesh covers and rot within the hole. Then blast the remaining rot with a high pressure water hose to try and clear more of the rot. Spray with Boron (a water based preservative kills only wood boring insects - not spiders, birds or bats) as a treatment for insect, wet and dry rot attack. While it is still wet, apply a layer of Expanding Foam to the bottom of the hole. Immediately place bottles on this 
and allow to set for 5 minutes. Apply another layer of expanding foam and another layer of bottles. The aim of the bottles is to occupy space, they are not there as a deterrent. That is why the foam has to be in contact with the inside of the tree not the glass bottle. The poisons in the foam will kill anything eating it and the foam does stick better when wet with water. Keep up this operation until the hole is covered. 
Leave to set and then paint the foam surface twice with a recommended water-based, but not oil-based, sealant.

Solutions to stop creating holes in trees.
When a branch is cut off, remember to cut it off on the other side of the Branch Collar. (See Figure 1 - Optimum position of the final pruning cut in "Guide to Tree Pruning" by the Arboricultural Association which shows the branch collar within and outside the tree. My Comments: I disagree with their recommendation not to apply wound paint as you can see the result if you do not paint trees which are dehydrated, starved and gassed as these trees in the pavements of Madeira are.) 
Once that is done, then immediately apply Boron and 2 coats of protective sealant as used for holes in trees above.

Solution to current problem on these mosaic pavements:-
Carefully remove the existing marble mosaic, concrete, tarmac, or paver and 
the concrete/metal enclosures round the trees. If any further solid material like gravel, bricks, stones etc can be removed as well, then do so. Level the ground with sharp sand (Sharp sand is like pyramids which lock together, builder's sand is like ball bearings which displaces itself elsewhere if it can when downward pressure is applied to it). 
The time to execute the above and complete the refilling with sharp sand must 
be completed within 20 minutes, otherwise the exposed roots will dry up and die. 
It is useful to now water it to settle the sand and keep the roots wet. Put the roll 
of continuous geotextile over the top before laying down the
CEDAdrive slabs on 
top. Fill the slabs with the required colours of marble pea-shingle and leave a 
3 inch (7.5 cm) gap between the trunk and the CEDAdrive section (Besides black 
and white marble, you can get many other colours). Spead Green Manure seed in 
the gap and cover to the same level as the top of the CEDAdrive with its pea-shingle; 
with sharp sand. The Green manure will provide a little nourishment for the tree 
and protection for the expanding trunk, together with protection from cigarettes. 
Further protection can be carried out by providing seating round the trunk, so that 
old fogeys like me can rest.
Pop-up irrigation water pipes can be supplied from these water manholes currently in the pavements and they can be set to irrigate each section in rotation from 
Midnight to 06:00 in the morning. A dissolved mixture of seaweed, fully composted animal waste and fully worm composted human food waste from restaurants/hotels can be applied over a pavement an hour before that section is irrigated 3 times a year to provide the same fertilizer regime as practised by the gardeners at the Pestana Mirimar for that hotel's garden. The drained solids from the above fertilizer solution can be applied over the sand between the tree and the CEDAdrive.
An alternative to using marble pea-shingle is Topmix Permeable Concrete within the
CEDAdrive slabs. This would perform the same function as the marble pea-shingle, but it may be cheaper and quicker to use in other pavements. The depth of the Cedadrive slabs might have to be increased if traffic is allowed to cross or park on this type of pavement surface.

166 trees in the pavements in a short section of a road in Funchal, Madeira are being slowly, starved, dehydrated, asphyxiated, poisoned by tarmac and concrete, burnt inside their hollow trunks, roots pounded by 40 ton lorries or shoes of pedestrians, and allowed to rot until killed off during February 2019 (see information in Problems with trees in pavements in Funchal, Madeira in January/February 2018 Page, which appears to have had no effect) as shown by my 433 photos in the following pages within the Home Topic:-

  • Death of tree roots and
  • Death of tree trunks/branches caused by people.
  • Solution to problems for trees caused by people using irrigation -
    Growth of Pollarded Tree in Hotel Garden in 1 year provides a water solution to this destruction.
  • Damage to Tree Trunks 1, 2, 3, 4 caused by people,
  • Damage to Tree Roots caused by people,
  • Area of Open Ground round trees,
  • New Trees in pavements 1, 2,
  • Irrigation of current trees,
  • Watersprouts on trees,
  • Crossing Branches in trees,
  • Utility Equipment with tree Foliage,
  • Lights on trees,
  • Bycycle Lane in Pavement,
  • Public Gardens alongside pavements,
  • Hotel/Private Gardens alongside pavements,
  • Current Permeable Pavement Surface round trees and
  • Irrigation and Fertilising of trees.

Articles on

  • Branch Collar (see Solutions to stop creating holes in trees above) and the importance of leaving all of it while cutting off that branch
  • My repair to a 1300 year old yew tree in my church at the bottom of pages 1-12
  • Some of my work on trees using a chainsaw and chipper-shredder on page 13
  • Protective Dressing, Cavities and 'do not use plastic twine or wire to tie a plant' are at the bottom of pages 14-25 with Forked Leaders, also Terminal Bud and Dormant Branch Growth Bud.
    Details on Boron woodworm, wet and dry wood rot treatment on Page 16.
  • Ways to install trees at the bottom of pages 26-37 includes the following on watering - "Throughout the warm, summer weather, the tree will need the equivalent of 1 inch (2.5 cm) of rain per week and this water needs to be applied about twice each week (My Comments - since this is over the entire root area of this tree - which is at least the radius from the trunk of the height of the tree - then if the CEDAdrive slabs are used, apply 0.5 inchs (1.25 cms) of irrigation twice a week to that entire area).  Approximately 5-10 gallons (20 – 40 liters) of water is sufficient to moisten a 20-inch (50 cm) diameter root ball.  A 40-inch (100 cm) diameter root ball has more than twice the volume and would require 35-45 gallons (130 – 170 liters). 
    Another way to measure water need is with the following formula:   The tree needs 5 gallons minimum and 5 additional gallons per inch of diameter (DBH); hence a 3 inch DBH tree needs 20 gallons of water per week to equal 1 inch of rainfall, in other words, 5 gallons minimum + (3 X 5) 15 gallons = 20 gallons."
  • The Pruning and Maintenance of Mature Trees:
    • 'Lifting' or the removal of the lower branch systems,
    • Crown Thinning and
    • Crown Reduction
    • at the bottom of
      pages 38-45
  • Explaination of watersprouts and watershoots in the Watersprouts on Trees in Pavements in Funchal, Madeira Page. These should be removed from the trees since they are weakly joined to the branch/trunk from which they originated and are dangerous to use as supports for electricians or tree surgeons; as well as likely to fall down in a storm.



The day after I arrived in Funchal in January 2020, I spoke to Rita in Owner Relations and she sent an email. Not knowing about the efficiency of the local or main government, I spoke to the reception staff and they told me that Funchal was a Municipality with its own local government with its offices in Funchal. So I took the bus into town and went round the Municipality Offices until I was escorted to a building where you could ask questions in the A group pay bills in the B group and do something else in the C group. Speaking to an official in the A group, I managed to convince him that I had more details about the tree problems on my website, so as to overcome his response of getting me to send an email. He presented a piece of paper with Eng Francisco Andrade, Est. Marmeiros, No 1, Jardins & Espaces Verdes on it. I handed this to a taxi driver and arrived. I spoke with an english-speaking colleague of his and then he very kindly agreed to talk to me with his english-speaking colleague:-

  • He stated that the local policy was not to apply any wound sealant since diseases, etc could get under it and cause further damage. He asked me if I had any literature to back up my use of black water-based masonry paint (instead of Arbrex, which I had started to use, but I doubted whether my clients would see the point of the expense) and I could not present him with any. Nor could I present any literature to support my use of expanding foam with bottles to fill the hole, since my work on the yew tree in the graveyard of St Margarets Church in Rainham had revised their website and the article about that tree had not yet been transposed.
  • He pointed out that he had employed one of the 6 tree experts from September 2019 to monitor the trees in the pavements. Each tree was tagged with a black plastic disc with a screw through its middle into the tree about 3 metres from the ground. The disc had Funchal and a 5 figure number on it. The location of the tree would then be identified on a town map and details of type of tree, which country it originated in, etc would then probably appear in a catalogue. I was not told when his report about the trees was expected and presumably what if any action to take.
  • I asked about the burnt insides of damaged trees and was told the people used them as waste bins and presumbably if a lighted cigarette was thrown then it woul start the fire and burn the heartwood as well as the rot. Metal grids were attached to try and stop the practice of using the cavities as waste bins, some of which have rusted away.
  • Then we looked at the start of the raw camera images and the one of the gardener with the strimmer to cut the long grass in a public area, I pointed out the problem that grass could absorb a great deal of water each week and leave the ground underneath bone dry with the literature to support that.
    I suggested the replacement of grass/lawn with legumes like green manure would stop the tree roots from being too dry, that the legumes have symbiotic nitrogen-fixing bacteria in structures called root nodules. When a legume plant dies in the field, for example following the harvest, all of its remaining nitrogen, incorporated into amino acids inside the remaining plant parts, is released back into the soil. In the soil, the amino acids are converted to nitrate (NO−3), making the nitrogen available to other plants, thereby serving as fertilizer for future crops.
    If the legumes as green manure are used in between shrubs/bedding/perennials then the ground would not dry out so quickly, so saving water and providing future fertilizer for those other plants.
  • When I touched on the subject of CEDAdrive, he did point out that it might be too expensive to implement and was not sure whether it would be suitable for pavements where vehicles would go over them (even though they will take 400 tonnes per square metre).
  • With electricity cables running through the roots of trees, the electromagnetic field is high and does it affect the tree roots in a very small space, the same way as for humans? Pedestrians between these trees will be exposed to almost the same electromagnetic field for the length of their walk. Maybe putting the electricity cables under the centre of the road would be safer.
  • I thanked them for their time and found a bus stop to get back into Funchal town centre.

The population of Funchal is 111,892.
The population of Madeira is estimated at 244,286 in 2017.
The population of Medway as measured in the 2001 Census was 249,488 of which 99,773 live in Gillingham area which includes Rainham where I live.

No wonder that Cedadrive is expensive for such a small population. So, what can they use that is produced in Madeira, since the transport cost of a container from Portugal is 2000 euros (that figure was given me by an employee of a large builder's merchant, and I saw 2 containers being unloaded at their yard, which were not large ones).

So I took a taxi to a builders merchant (might be Ferreirae in the upper regions of Funchal).

  • They did not sell or know what pea-shingle was. This is what I would have filled the CEDAdrive with.
  • The original mosaic pavements in Funchal were covered in small black basalt and white limestone cobbles. The limestone comes from Portugal. The black basalt is mined in Madeira and the email address of a local stone quarry is geral@ferreiraebrum.pt
    The english-speaking employee showed me a 25kg bag of basalt of probably 20mm rocks which could be dropped 200cms without breaking. Another bag of probably 2mm rocks, which was added to cement to make it a stronger concrete. Both came from a local mine.
  • Madeira has black volcanic sand on its beaches.

So, if the local basalt mine created 10mm x 10mm rocks, these could be used as spacers:-

  • If you start with the concrete pavers, then remove them and put down a depth of 2 inches (5 cms) black sand, cover that with a weed control fabric, then relay the pavers with a 10mm x 10mm spacer on each of the 2 shortest sides and 2 on the 2 longest sides, then fill the gap with the black sand.
  • The created excess of concrete pavers could then be used in a 200cm radius round each tree using the same system as above to replace the solid concrete or tarmac in that area.
  • The same system could be used on the mosaic pavements in replacing the concrete pointing with the black sand and spacers. If the system is not solidified sufficiently then replace the pointing black sand with the 2mm basalt, which would then lock together.
  • Carry out the required irrigation and natural fertiliser system as I have already recommended to provide the water and the humus required by the bacterium to continue rebuilding the soil and providing for the gaseous exchange by the roots in either the whole pavement if it is lined with trees or groups of 3 -5 trees, which can help each other in later years as shown in The Hidden Life of Trees by Peter Wohlleben ISBN 978-0-00-821843-0.

If you use boron from colemanite (The use of ores like colemanite has declined following concerns over arsenic content) and mix it with the black sand and seawater to fill the bottom section of cavities, it will kill off the rot in the trunk and stop the cavity being filled with waste. The arsenic will also stop ants from eating it. Then mix it with wallpaper paste to fill the top half of the cavity and you have sorted the cavity problem.

Painting the cut ends with the boron prevents the end from rotting (Boric acid is more toxic to insects than to mammals, and is routinely used as an insecticide).

I had forgotten that I did have the supporting literature about wound dressings (as used in my year at Hadlow College to get a HNC in Horticulture) in this course book:-
"Pages 6-7 of The Pruning of Trees, Shrubs and Conifers by
George E. Brown.
ISBN 0-571-11084-3"

It is unfortunate that with all the other responsibilities that the Funchal Municipality has that they will find it very difficult to locate the finance, resources or personnel to carry out whatever remedial work to over 3000 trees being monitored since September 2019 that the Tree Expert from Portugal recommends, especially if someone continues to remove the identity discs.

Coleus Bedding Foliage Trial Folder
from Plant Trials Field in RHS Garden
at Wisley taken on
2 October 2013
1, plus Tables of Annuals with/for:-
2, Blue to Purple Flowers
3, Red to Pink Flowers 1, 2
4, Green Flowers
5, Black or Brown Flowers
6, Yellow, and Orange Flowers
7, White Flowers
9, Low-Growing
11, Medium-Growing
12, Tall-Growing
13, Heat-Tolerant
14, Moist Soil
15, Shade
16, Indoors
17, Cutting
18, Naturalize
19, Decorative Foliage
20, Edging
21, Fragrance
22, Hanging Baskets
23, Vining
24, Wildflower Meadows
25, Coastal Gardens
26, Mounded Habit
27, Erect Habit
28, Clump-Forming Habit
29, Compact/Bushy Habit
30, Spreading/Sprawling Habit
31, To Cover Fences
32, Odds and Sods 1, 2
Coleus Bedding Trial Index
Range, Culture and Description Details of each of the above are within
Essential Annuals The 100 best for Design and Cultivation.
Text by Elizabeth Murray. Photography by Derek Fell.
Published by Crescent Books in 1989. ISBN 0-517-66177-2


Bedding Gallery has
other bedding plants, in their
flower colour,
flower shape and
bedding plant use


Topic - Flower/Foliage Colour
Colour Wheel Galleries

Following your choice using Garden Style then that changes your Plant Selection Process
Garden Style
...Infill Plants
...12 Bloom Colours per Month Index
...12 Foliage Colours per Month Index
...All Plants Index
...Cultivation, Position, Use Index
...Shape, Form

Further details on Bedding from the Infill Plants Galleries of the above topic:-
...for Spring
...for Summer
...for Autumn
...for Winter
...for Sandy Soil
...for Acid Soil
...for Chalky Soil
...for Clay Soil
...Flower Colour:-
...Use of Bedding:-
......Aromatic Fol
......Scented Flo
......Long Flo
......Coloured Fol
......for Bees, etc
......Cut Flos
......Hanging Pot
......Pots/ Troughs
......Window Box
......Bedding Out
......Filling in

Further details on Annuals from the Infill Galleries:-
Uses of Annuals

...Exposed Sites
...Sheltered Sites
...in Greenhouse
...Extra Poor Soil
...Very Rich Soil
...Gap Filling
...Patio Pots
...Cut Flowers 1, 2
...Everlasting Flos
...Attract Insects
...with Fragrance
...Bee Pollinated
...Annual Pairing
...Tall Growing
...Flower Colour:-
...for its Foliage
...in Moist Soil
...in Shade
...as Houseplants
...Edging Beds
...Hanging Basket
...Vining Annuals

Ivydene Gardens Photo Garden Flowers 6 Gallery:
Page 70 has photos from the Foord garden flower slides Folder of 35mm 'Ektachrome'
Transparency slides taken by Ron & Christine Foord of Rochester, Kent in England
during the 20th century. Both have been dead for years and these slides were passed
onto Chris Garnons-Williams. These slides have been converted by an F22MP 126PK
Super 8 Slides & Negatives All-in-1 Film Scanner to JPEGS by Chris Garnons-Williams
in the original size and as a thumbnail during 2020. These can used in the Public Domain
for educational purposes in schools, or at home.

Row 1 has the Pass-Through Camera image of Thumbnail image named in Row 2
and is usually 4000 x 3000 pixels.

Row 2 has same image reduced to fit the image frame of 160 x 120 pixels as a
Passthrough Thumbnail to show all of the Camera Image. This image has been
reduced to 72 pixels per inch by Freeway before I stored it as a Passthrough image
for use both here (from August 2019) and as the image in
Plant with Photo Index of Ivydene Gardens A 1 Gallery.

Click on either image and drag to your desktop.
Then you can crop the Pass-Through Camera image to obtain the particular detail
that you require from that image, before using that cropped result in your endeavour.

Copying the pages and then clicking on the images to drag them may not work.


Erythronium tuolumnense
taken by Ron or Christine Foord



Erythronium tuolumnense Apr 71
taken by Ron or Christine Foord



Erythronium tuolumnense Apr 86
taken by Ron or Christine Foord



Euonymus fortunei 05 88
taken by Ron or Christine Foord



Euonymus japonicus in Rochester, Kent
taken by Ron or Christine Foord



Euphorbia characias Apr 67
taken by Ron or Christine Foord



Euphorbia characias Apr 67
taken by Ron or Christine Foord



Euphorbia hislopia Mar 65 in Cactus House of Kew; origin Madagascar
taken by Ron or Christine Foord



Euphorbia lathyrus 25 05 95 Caper Spurge
taken by Ron or Christine Foord



Euryops evansii Jul 75 Acraeus
taken by Ron or Christine Foord



Euryops evansii May 75 and Saxatile dubarry May 75
taken by Ron or Christine Foord



Every year worldwide erosion, loss of organic matter, desertification, salination, and loss to marshlands
takes an area of almost 20 million acres ( See The biodynamic farm. Agriculture in the service of the
earth and humanity. Herbert Koepf, Ph.D. in cooperation with Roderick Shouldice and Walter Goldstein,
Ph.D. Anthroposophic Press, Inc. 1989.). This is largely caused by man's interference, with some of it
being due to the practice of monoculture cultivation techniques with subsequent failure to replenish
the soil regularly with organic material.
In this case, an unnecessary use of land as a driveway is to be reclaimed as a vegetable garden. The
author's aim is not to use man-made fertilisers, insecticides or herbicides, and so what system is likely
to produce food and deter the non-human life from eating it before my family?
From academic research, Companion Planting with Organic Gardening may help.

Companion Planting
Companion planting cultivation is concerned with which plants will respond well to a certain environment,
and in which environment, pests can be discouraged and diseases prevented. In order to make such
mixed vegetable cultivation possible, monoculture in beds is replaced by row-crop cultivation, in which
the right plants will be properly spaced.
The companion-planted garden has to be considered not only in relation to its plant material above
ground, but also the affects on the soil and the biomass of that plant's roots.
Ten ways that companion planting works is provided in the garden design section.
Provision is then made for the continuous nourishment of plant life, via chopped organic plant matter
covering the surface where there are no plants growing ( sheet surface composting ).
Companion Planting can also be used for pest control rather than chemicals.
Gertrude Franck's Companion Planting Method.
The selection of suitable beneficial plants, the seasonable preparation of suitable beds as well as
soil composition and organic pest control to provide healthy food for yourself or a family in a way
that will be helpful to the environment and the animals therein, is shown by this book:-
"Companion Planting - successful gardening the organic way" by Gertrude Franck (based on her
35 years of practical experience in Germany) Thorsons Publishing Group 1983, ISBN 0-7225-0695-3.


Ivydene Gardens Companion Planting: How to use Companion Planting in your Garden.

Companion planting in an organic garden should avoid the following:-

  • Planting in blocks - provides a feast for the pests which prey on them,
  • Mixing plants solely on the basis of their size and colour, without taking into consideration their companion planting effect for other plants,
  • Leaving beds of exposed soil.


There is no heavy digging to do, since the exposed soil should be covered with

  • shredded compost,
  • by the under-sowing of shrubs/trees with spinach, mustard or phacelia (phacelia is a small feathery plant, which with its blue flowers is attractive to bees) in the spring,
  • and by the following under-planting:-

This means the land is overgrown with green to hold the weeds down, the roots keep the soil broken up and the soil is shaded to prevent it drying out.

It is useful when planting a tree or shrub to put prime barley grain in the hole to lie just under the roots. A handful for a small shrub, a pail-full for a large tree. As the grain germinates beneath the roots, heat is generated and growth hormones released. Since the barley is unable to shoot after germinating, it eventually rots away to provide still more nourishment to the roots.

In the spring sow spinach, mustard or nasturtium round the base to shade the ground (3 feet radius from trunk). Keep grass away from all trees/shrubs by at least 3 feet radius to prevent it from taking all the nutrients and its rainwater. Chase Organics (www.chaseorganics.co.uk) are suppliers of liquid extracts of seaweed, which is useful in providing the small amounts of trace elements in exactly the right proportions for all plants including your lawn in the early spring.


Under-plant with plant

to help

Useful references:-

1 Carrots love Tomatoes.

  • Secrets of Companion Planting for Successful Gardening.
    Louise Riotte.
    ISBN: 0-88266-064-0 paperback
    Storey Communications, Inc. February 1984.

2. Roses love Garlic.

  • Louise Riotte.
  • ISBN: 0-88266-331-3
  • Garden Way, Inc. 1983.



inhibit the growth of weeds



in shady places (USE FEW plants and check periwinkles invasiveness of climbing over the roses)



to keep pests away with the help of sage, thyme, hyssop and lavender around the border edges



discourage mice and voles


lillies/ fritillaria

lillies require shade at their feet with garlic to discourage snails and mice



inhibits nematodes, as does French Marigold


euphorbia lathyris

discourages voles


lamium galeobdolon

yellow dead nettle is a good ground cover requiring no maintenance, as are the other lamiums.

In the garden the following relationships should be observed:-

  • Plants need other plants as partners in many different connections - see the Companion Plant A-Z Table as linked to in the bottom row,
  • Cultivated plants need various herbs to accompany them, i.e to promote their health and growth, to give shade and to protect them from pests and diseases,
  • Animals in the garden need plants; bees must be able to feed themselves,
  • Plants need 'animals' bees to pollinate some flowers, and most ants ventilate the soil, crumble it and de-acidify it,
  • Birds need plants to supply them with food,
  • 'Animals' need other 'animals' as regulators. Ladybirds eat aphids.
  • 'Animals' need wild flowers, on which to lay their eggs and rear their progeny. Butterflies (see Butterfly Wildlife on Plant Photo Gallery
    Usage of Plants
    by Egg, Caterpillar, Chrysalis and Butterfly

    Egg, Caterpillar, Chrysalis and Butterfly usage of
    Plant A-C
    Plant C-M
    Plant N-W
    Butterfly usage of Plant ) and ladybirds need stinging nettles as breeding places.
  • Trees are required to provide shade and/or a windbreak.
  • The following combination of plants means that growth can be hindered:-
    • beans and onions,
    • cabbages and onions,
    • red cabbages and tomatoes,
    • parsley and cabbage lettuce,
    • beetroot and tomatoes,
    • potatoes and onions.

the following are useful plants for these relationships:-

Common Name

Plant Name

Balm. Bees obtain honey from the flowers. Culinary use with all uncooked food.


Basil. Plant with cucumber and sweet pepper (Capsicum frutescens var. grossum). Use as flavouring in all raw and cooked foods




Birch. Attracts Butterfly and beeS. Encourages humus formation in manure and compost heaps, when planted 6 feet away.


Blackberry. Emperor moth. Aids Tansy and Grape. Attracts bees. Do not grow blackberries near raspberries. Use mulberries, chokeberries and elderberries to attract birds away from valued blackberry crops.


Bleeding heart


Borage. Plant with brassicas, Cabbage, Cucumber, Tomato, Strawberry, Bean, Beet,
Lettuce, Onion and Carrot. Borage loosens heavy or hard ground. Culinary use in salads. Bees love it. It is antagonistic to Fennel and Tomato worm.






Chervil. Plant with Radish, Carrot, Lettuce, Endive, Dill and Coriander. Culinary use in soups and gravies. Use chervil as a flavouring for grated baby carrots.


Chives. Attracts bees. Wards off fungal diseases. Plant with roses. Culinary use in soup, sandwiches and salad dressings.


Coriander. Attracts bees. Culinary use with cabbages, potatoes, beetroot and in bread. Coriander will wilt when Fennel is planted alongside and prevent fennel from forming seed.


Costmary, Bible Leaf, Alecost or Mint Geranium.

Chrysanthemum balsamita

Comfrey. Attracts bees. It prefers damp ground. Can use the mown leaves as a fertilising mulch or having placed its leaves with nettle into a container and covered with water, this liquid after 4 weeks can be used as a fertiliser.


Cummin. Attracts bees

Carum carvi

Daffodil. Plant with roses and Star-of-Bethlehem (Ornithogalum). They discourage moles.


Single dahlias. Food for butterfly. Plant with Marigold. Dahlias protect nearby flowers against nematodes.


Dame’s violet


Day lily. If you have a slope or terrace too steep to mow, try planting daylilies and iris together. Their roots will hold the soil, and their blossoms, which arrive successively (the iris blooming first), will delight you all summer. Daylilies are unaffected by the juglone washed from the black walnut's leaves.


Dill. Plant with carrots, cucumber, cabbage, beetroot to keep those plants healthy. Lowers the blood sugar level. Culinary use as food seasoning. Dill added to cooking cabbage nullifies the smell of cabbage. Dill is antagonistic to carrots and tomato.

Anthemum graveolens

Elder. Discourages mice, voles and moles by placing elder leaves in their runs.


Elecampane (horseheal, horse alder). Useful in providing a bit of shade for lower-growing mints.


Euphorbia. Food for butterflies. Attracts bees. Caper spurge (Euphorbia lathyrus) will deter moles and mice and thus are good to plant near young fruit trees. They are also useful to repel rats and mice.


Fennel. Culinary use of main plant as a vegetable. Plant with Lettuce, Leek, Cabbage, Basil. Bees love fennel. Use besides dog kennels to repel dog fleas. Antagonistic to Bush bean, Caraway, Kohlrabi,Tomato, Turnip, Wormwood, Coriander, Dill.


Foxglove. Plant with Pine, Potato, Tomato, Apple to stimulate growth and protect them against fungal disease.


Garlic. Discourages aphids. Culinary use daily as a seasoning, often combined with parsley to counteract high blood pressure. Keeps roses free from aphids. Protects apple trees from scab. Protects peach trees from leaf-curl.Protects tomatoes from red spider. Plant with Vetch, Raspberry,Carrot. Antagonistic to Pea, Bean, Cabbage, Grain Weevil, Solanum late blight, Stone fruit brown rot, Strawberry. Mosquitos keep away from areas where garlic is growing.


Gooseberry. A straw mulch up to the bottom branches to stop weeds. 1 wormwood to 3 gooseberries to stop rust and tansy to promote health. Grow with Tomato and chives.


Grape hyacinth


Hazel. Attracts Butterflies. Growing round compost and manure heaps assists fermentation. Beneficial to cows.



Heliotropium arborescens

Honeysuckle. Food for butterflies


Iris. Grow with Grape hyacinth and Daylily.


Larkspur. Wild larkspur is poisonous to cattle.


Lavender. Attracts bees and butterflies. Plant with roses and other shrubs which suffer from aphids. Discourages ants. Discourages moths when placed in cupboards. Plant with cabbage or scotch broom. Plants must be grown in poor soil to produce the most fragrance; in good soil they grow more luxuriantly but fragrant essential oils are lacking.


Lemon balm. Outstanding plant for bees. Culinary use in salads. Plant with tomato.


Lilac. Butterfly and Bees.


Lillies. Plant with Cotinus 'Royal Purple', Corylus 'Purpurea', Agapanthus, Santolina, Euphorbia wulfenii, Senecio laxifolius, Rhododendron, Hosta, Delphinium, Aster and Marigold.


Lovage. Attracts bees. Culinary use in soups to cleanse the kidneys and aid digestion. Plant with beans.


Lupins. Plant with Aconitum, Digitalis, Inula, Cynoglossum, Lychnis, Hesperis, Aster,
Chrysanthemum balsamita, Iris germanica, Hemerocallis, Matthiola, Delphinium, Campanula, Helianthus, Dicentra, Lilium candidum.


Marigold. Can be added to soups and sauces.
The roots of marigolds exude material that repels eelworms/ nematodes and so it should be planted near to:-

  • Potatoes,
  • Chrysanthemums,
  • Calendula,
  • Dahlia,
  • Tomatoes and
  • Roses.

Carrot, Onion, Tomato, Lettuce, Bean, Turnip, Rose, Potato, Base of trees




Michaelmas daisy. Food for butterflies. Pests find the leaves of perennial asters disagreeable to the smell and bitter to the taste, so they are good flowers to grow both for massing and cutting.




Mugwort. Attracts bees. Promotes digestion as a tea. Planted in chicken yards it will help repel lice, and since the chickens like it as food, it is also thought to be helpful in ridding them of worms. The roots and leaves exude a toxic substance. This soluble toxic, absinthin, washed off by rain, soaks into the soil near the plant and has a growth-retarding effect on other nearby garden plants.


Mullein. Emperor moth


Mustard and Marigold. Sow with strawberries after picking and cleaning the rows ( after the leaves have been cut off, the weeds removed and the soil loosened) to ward off nematodes. Culinary use of mustard seeds with water for breakfast to heal, cleanse, disinfect, regenerate and regulate the intestines. Plant with grape and turnip.

Sinapis alba
and Calendula

Nasturtium. Tortoise-shell butterfly lays eggs on it. Culinary use of leaves in salad. Grow through apple trees to control woolly aphid. Nasturtiums ward off Cucumber Beetle. Planted with radish improves the radish to give a good hot taste. Plant with Squash, Broccoli, Potato, Cucurbit including Cucumber, Cabbage family, Cauliflower, Brussels Sprout, Kohlrabi, Turnip, Zucchini (Courgette).


Onion. It contains cardio-active substances and some onion should be eaten daily. Grow in alternate rows with Carrots to ward off each others flies. Onions planted near apple trees ward off apple-scab. Plant with Amaranth, 1 Camomile plant per 12 feet. Cabbage family, Beet including Beetroot, Strawberry, Tomato, Lettuce, Summer Savory, Potato, Parsley, Kohlrabi, Radish.


Parsley. Plant with onion and tomato. Plant next to border. The leaves and roots regulate the digestion and should be used three times a week in dressings, uncooked food or with vegetables. Grow Parsley with Asparagus, Rose, and Tomato to deter aphids. Grow with Celery, Leek, Dwarf Pea, Carrot and Chive. Bees love its flowers.


Peony. Ants help the peony to exhibit the most perfect blooms.


Privet. Butterfly. Attracts bees.


Raspberry. Avoid animal manure, mulch with straw instead. Marigolds promote health. Grow with Rue.Tansy or Marigold.

Rubus idaeus

Roses. Emperor moth. When planting roses, put parsley and a clove of garlic to grow with it ( with a bamboo stick alongside to indicate that the leaf is garlic not grass!). The roots of the rose will take up the exudation from the garlic and so become less smell atractive to the greenfly. Grow with:-

  • Allium family including Garlic against aphids.
  • Common Rue and White Geranium against Japanese Beetle.
  • Chives against Black Spot.
  • Marigold (Calendula officinalis) against Nematodes.
  • Hardy Geraniums, Petunias and Tree Onions provide protection against Rose chafer.
  • Grow Mignonette as a low ground cover in rose-beds to benefit the rose-bushes.
  • Parsley, Onion, Tomato, Lupine, Tansy, Leek,
  • Banana-skins have calcium, sodium, silica, sulphur, magnesium and phosphates so provide plant-food when covered with top-soil around each plant.

    Narcissi, Salvia officinalis, Ajuga reptans, Hemerocallis, Lilium candidum, Dictamnus albus, Spinach, Nasturtium, Mallow, Fritillaria.
  • Santolina grown as 2 feet high groundcover in the rose-bed provides a silver-grey backdrop.

Damask and
moss roses

Rosemary. Attracts bees. Grow with Sage, Bean, Cabbage or Carrot.


Rue. Attracts bees. Grow with Fig, Rose or Raspberry. Grow in Window-box to keep out flies. Cats and Slugs avoid it. Sage and Basil are both poisoned by Rue.

Ruta graveolens

Sage. Attracts bees. Plant with hyssop and thyme around the vegetable patch as a protective barrier against caterpillars, aphids and snails. Culinary use in sauces to purify the blood. Companion plant with Carrot. Cabbage. Rosemary, Stinging nettle, Marjoram, Strawberry, Tomato.

Salvia officinalis

St John’s Wort


Salad burnet. Attracts bees.


Sorrel. Attracts bees.

Rumex acetosa

Sloe. Emperor moth

Prunus spinesa



Stinging Nettle. Food for caterpillars of red admiral, brimstone and painted lady butterflies. Lay down flat as sheet compost between vegetables and hostas. Snails discouraged by nettle’s stinging hairs. Culinary use of young leaves in salads as blood purefying. Aids plants to grow more resistant to spoiling, increases oil content in herbs, stimulates humus formation. Attracts Bees.

Urtica dioica

Strawberry. Sow mustard in spring to provide shade and interplant with leeks to ward off nematodes. Mulch with straw to keep strawberries clean by stopping rain spattering mud on the fruit. Mow off the leaves after all fruit picked, plant mustard seed to become compost in the winter. Grow with:-

  • Marigold, White hellebore.
  • Borage and lettuce in the border area.
  • Mulch of Pine needles or fir cones gives the strawberry fruit added flavour.
  • Pyrethrum (Chrysanthemum coccineum) as an edging will keep many pests away.
  • Spruce hedge, Bush Bean, Spinach, Sage, Lettuce, Nectarine, Peach, Onion, Leek


Sunflower. Grow with Chives, Sweetcorn. Beneficial to bees for pollen and nectar and birds for the seeds. Squash and Cucumber grow better in the shade of the tall Sunflowers.


Summer savory. Plant with beans and onion. Culinary use of leaves with steamed vegetables to strengthen the nerves.


Tansy. Tansy aids Cabbage, Rose, Raspberry, Grape and Peach by concentrating potassium in the soil close by these plants.


Tarragon. Attracts bees. Culinary use of fresh leaves in uncooked food to strengthen the stomach and against rheumatism.


Thyme. Attracts bees. Plant with hyssop and sage around the vegetable patch as a protective barrier against caterpillars, aphids and snails. Culinary use as flavouring or as a tea in the treatment of worms. Be careful - An overdose is possible. Plant with cabbage.


Valerian. Attracts bees. Infusion of the blossom stimulates fruiting vegetables including beans, peas, tomatoes, cucumbers, courgettes, roses and irises. Do not use on lettuces, carrots or onions. Medical use as a tea for sleep-promoting, for no more than 2 weeks at a time. Be careful - An overdose is possible. Plant with Stinging nettle. Attracts earthworms, which moles eat, so might persuade the moles to move out of your lawn if Valerian is planted by your hedge or in your shrub bed.


Violet. Food for butterflies. Attracts bees. The violet blossoms are 3 times as rich in vitamin C, wight for weight, as oranges.


Wild chamomile. Plant with cabbage.


Wormwood. Attracts bees. Plant with currants to ward off rust. Do not put into compost bin as worms hate it. Plant wormwood round Fruit Trees to deter Leaf-eating Caterpillars, Aphids and Moths. Plant with Cabbage.


Useful addresses:-

Chase Organics
Gibraltar House
Middlesex. TW17 8AQ


Organic Growers Association
Aeron Park

Henry Doubleday Research Association
Convent Lane
Essex. CM7 6RW


Soil Association
Walnut Tree Manor
Suffolk. IP14 3RS


Organic Farm Supplies
Toke Place
Kent. ME17 4AP

Wyartt Seeds
Stone Cottage
Bury St Edmunds
Suffolk. IP30 9AF

Tel: 01359 270410

Companion planting can be considered as a complement to organic gardening.

Taking account of cosmic influences is one of the main differences between Bio-dynamic and Organic methods, as shall be shown on the Biodynamics page.


Companion Plant A This shows:-
Companion Plant B 1 - Name of Original Plant
Companion Plant C .....in alphabetical order.
Companion Plant D 2 - Name of Pest/Disease
Companion Plant E .....of that Original Plant.
Companion Plant F 3 - Name of Antidote to
Companion Plant G .....that Pest/Disease as a
Companion Plant H .....companion plant, or name
Companion Plant I ......of Companion Plant
Companion Plant J ......or Beneficial Insect or Animal
Companion Plant K .....to the Original Plant.
Companion Plant L 4 - Name of Antagonistic Plant
Companion Plant M .....to that Original Plant
Companion Plant N .....or name of a
Companion Plant O .....Pest/Disease that this
Companion Plant P .....Original Plant is
Companion Plant Q ......antagonistic to.
Companion Plant R
Companion Plant S
Companion Plant T
Companion Plant UV
Companion Plant W
Companion Plant XYZ

Topic -
Case Studies
...Drive Foundations
Ryegrass and turf kills plants within Roadstone and in Topsoil due to it starving and dehydrating them.
CEDAdrive creates stable drive surface and drains rain into your ground, rather than onto the public road.
8 problems caused by building house on clay or with house-wall attached to clay.
Pre-building work on polluted soil.

Companion Planting
...A, B, C, D, E,
...F, G, H, I, J, K,
...L, M, N, O, P, Q,
...R, S, T, U, V, W,
...X, Y, Z
...Pest Control
...using Plants
to provide a Companion Plant to aid your selected plant or deter its pests


with ground drains
Garden Design
...How to Use the Colour Wheel Concepts for Selection of Flowers, Foliage and Flower Shape
...RHS Mixed

......Bedding Plants
......Her Perennials
......Other Plants
......Camera photos of Plant supports

Glossary with a tomato teaching cauliflowers
Library of over 1000 books
Offbeat Glossary with DuLally Bird in its flower clock.

...in Chalk
(Alkaline) Soil
......A-F1, A-F2,
......A-F3, G-L, M-R,
......M-R Roses, S-Z
...in Heavy
Clay Soil
......A-F, G-L, M-R,
...in Lime-Free
(Acid) Soil
......A-F, G-L, M-R,
...in Light
Sand Soil
......A-F, G-L, M-R,
...Poisonous Plants.
...Extra Plant Pages
with its 6 Plant Selection Levels

Interaction between 2 Quartz Sand Grains to make soil
How roots of plants are in control in the soil
Without replacing Soil Nutrients, the soil will break up to only clay, sand or silt
Subsidence caused by water in Clay
Use water ring for trees/shrubs for first 2 years.

Tool Shed with 3 kneeling pads
Useful Data with benefits of Seaweed


Topic -
Plant Photo Galleries

If the plant type below has flowers, then the first gallery will include the flower thumbnail in each month of 1 of 6 or 7 flower colour comparison pages of each plant in its subsidiary galleries, as a low-level Plant Selection Process
...by Flower Shape

Bulb with its 7 Flower Colours per Month Comparison Pages
...Allium/ Anemone
...Colchicum/ Crocus
...Gladiolus with its 40 Flower Colours
......European A-E
......European F-M
......European N-Z
......Eur Non-classified
......American A
......American B
......American C
......American D
......American E
......American F
......American G
......American H
......American I
......American J
......American K
......American L
......American M
......American N
......American O
......American P
......American Q
......American R
......American S
......American T
......American U
......American V
......American W
......American XYZ
......Ame Non-classified
......Australia - empty
...Hippeastrum/ Lily
...Late Summer
...Each of the above ...Bulb Galleries has its own set of Flower Colour Pages
...Flower Shape
...Bulb Form

...Bulb Use

...Bulb in Soil

Further details on bulbs from the Infill Galleries:-
Hardy Bulbs



...Forcing Lily of the Valley



...Hyacinths in Pots


...Lilium in Pots
...Narcissi in Pots



Half-Hardy Bulbs



Uses of Bulbs:-
...for Bedding
...in Windowboxes
...in Border
...naturalized in Grass
...in Bulb Frame
...in Woodland Garden
...in Rock Garden
...in Bowls
...in Alpine House
...Bulbs in Greenhouse or Stove:-




...Plant Bedding in

...Bulb houseplants flowering inside House during:-
...Bulbs and other types of plant flowering during:-
...Selection of the smaller and choicer plants for the Smallest of Gardens with plant flowering during the same 6 periods as in the previous selection

Climber in
3 Sector Vertical Plant System
Deciduous Shrub
...Shrubs - Decid
Deciduous Tree
...Trees - Decid
Evergreen Perennial
...P-Evergreen A-L
...P-Evergreen M-Z
...Flower Shape
Evergreen Shrub
...Shrubs - Evgr
...Heather Shrub
Evergreen Tree
...Trees - Evgr

...P -Herbaceous
...Flower Shape
...RHS Wisley
......Mixed Border
......Other Borders
Odds and Sods

...RHS Wisley A-F
...RHS Wisley G-R
...RHS Wisley S-Z
...Rose Use - page links in row 6. Rose, RHS Wisley and Other Roses rose indices on each Rose Use page
...Other Roses A-F
...Other Roses G-R
...Other Roses S-Z
Pruning Methods
Photo Index
R 1, 2, 3
Peter Beales Roses
RV Roger

Soft Fruit
Top Fruit

Wild Flower and
Butterfly page links are in next row

Topic -
Butterflies in the UK mostly use native UK wildflowers.

Butterfly Species.

Egg, Caterpillar, Chrysalis and Butterfly Usage
of Plants.

Plant Usage by
Egg, Caterpillar, Chrysalis and Butterfly.

Wild Flower
with its
flower colour page,
Site Map page in its flower colour NOTE Gallery
...Blue Note
...Brown Botanical Names
...Cream Common Names
...Green Note
...Mauve Note
...Multi-Cols Note
...Orange Note
...Pink A-G Note
...Pink H-Z Note
...Purple Note
...Red Note
...White A-D Note
...White E-P Note
...White Q-Z Note
...Yellow A-G Note
...Yellow H-Z Note
...Shrub/Tree Note

Wildflower Plants.

You know its name, use
Wild Flower Plant Index a-h, i-p, q-z.
You know which habitat it lives in, use
Acid Soil,
(Chalk) Soil
Marine Soil,
Neutral Soil,
is a
is a
is a
Rush, or
is a
You have seen its flower, use Comparison Pages containing Wild Flower Plants and Cultivated Plants in the
Colour Wheel Gallery.

Each plant named in each of the 180 Wildflower Family Pages within their 23 Galleries may have a link to:-
1) its Plant Description Page in its Common Name column in one of those Wildflower Plant Galleries and will have links,
2) to external sites to purchase the plant or seed in its Botanical Name column,
3) to see photos in its Flowering Months column and
4) to read habitat details in its Habitat Column.

(o)Adder's Tongue
(o)Bog Myrtle
(o)Cornel (Dogwood)
(o)Crucifer (Cabbage/Mustard) 1
(o)Crucifer (Cabbage/Mustard) 2
(o)Daisy Cudweeds
(o)Daisy Chamomiles
(o)Daisy Thistle
(o)Daisy Catsears (o)Daisy Hawkweeds
(o)Daisy Hawksbeards
(o)Dock Bistorts
(o)Dock Sorrels
(o)Filmy Fern
(o)Royal Fern
(o)Figwort - Mulleins
(o)Figwort - Speedwells
(o)Grass 1
(o)Grass 2
(o)Grass 3
(o)Grass Soft
Bromes 1

(o)Grass Soft
Bromes 2

(o)Grass Soft
Bromes 3

(o)Jacobs Ladder
(o)Lily Garlic
(o)Marsh Pennywort
(o)Melon (Gourd/Cucumber)
(o)Orchid 1
(o)Orchid 2
(o)Orchid 3
(o)Orchid 4
Clover 1

Clover 2

Clover 3

(o)Peaflower Vetches/Peas
(o)Pink 1
(o)Pink 2
Rannock Rush
(o)Rose 1
(o)Rose 2
(o)Rose 3
(o)Rose 4
(o)Rush Woodrushes
(o)Saint Johns Wort
Saltmarsh Grasses
(o)Sea Lavender
(o)Sedge Rush-like
(o)Sedges Carex 1
(o)Sedges Carex 2
(o)Sedges Carex 3
(o)Sedges Carex 4
Tassel Pondweed
(o)Thyme 1
(o)Thyme 2
(o)Umbellifer 1
(o)Umbellifer 2
(o)Water Fern
(o)Water Milfoil
(o)Water Plantain
(o)Water Starwort

Topic -
The following is a complete hierarchical Plant Selection Process

dependent on the Garden Style chosen
Garden Style
...Infill Plants
...12 Bloom Colours per Month Index
...12 Foliage Colours per Month Index
...All Plants Index
...Cultivation, Position, Use Index
...Shape, Form

Topic -
Plant Selection Process comparing relevant plants of all types within each of the number of colours for each Flower or Foliage Colour Gallery.

All Flowers 53 with
...Use of Plant and
Flower Shape
- page links in next row

All Foliage 53
instead of redundant
...(All Foliage 212)

All Flowers
per Month 12

Bee instead of wind pollinated plants for hay-fever sufferers
All Bee-Pollinated Flowers
per Month

Rock Garden and Alpine Flowers
Rock Plant Flowers 53

...Rock Plant Photos

Flower Colour Wheel without photos, but with links to photos
12 Bloom Colours
per Month Index

...All Plants Index

Topic -
Use of Plant in your Plant Selection Process

Plant Colour Wheel Uses
1. Perfect general use soil is composed of 8.3% lime, 16.6% humus, 25% clay and 50% sand, and
2. Why you are continually losing the SOIL STRUCTURE so your soil - will revert to clay, chalk, sand or silt.
Uses of Plant and Flower Shape:-
...Foliage Only
...Other than Green Foliage
...Trees in Lawn
...Trees in Small Gardens
...Wildflower Garden
...Attract Bird
...Attract Butterfly
, 2
...Climber on House Wall
...Climber not on House Wall
...Climber in Tree
...Pollution Barrier
...Part Shade
...Full Shade
...Single Flower provides Pollen for Bees
, 2, 3
...Covering Banks
...Patio Pot
...Edging Borders
...Back of Border
...Adjacent to Water
...Bog Garden
...Tolerant of Poor Soil
...Not Fragrant
...Standard Plant is 'Ball on Stick'
...Upright Branches or Sword-shaped leaves
...Plant to Prevent Entry to Human or Animal
...Coastal Conditions
...Tolerant on North-facing Wall
...Cut Flower
...Potted Veg Outdoors
...Potted Veg Indoors
...Raised Bed Outdoors Veg
...Grow in Alkaline Soil A-F, G-L, M-R,
...Grow in Acidic Soil
...Grow in Any Soil
...Grow in Rock Garden
...Grow Bulbs Indoors

Uses of Bedding
...Bedding Out
...Filling In
...Pots and Troughs
...Window Boxes
...Hanging Baskets
...Spring Bedding
...Summer Bedding
...Winter Bedding
...Foliage instead of Flower
...Coleus Bedding Photos for use in Public Domain 1

Uses of Bulb
...Other than Only Green Foliage
...Bedding or Mass Planting
...Tolerant of Shade
...In Woodland Areas
...Tolerant of Poor Soil
...Covering Banks
...In Water
...Beside Stream or Water Garden
...Coastal Conditions
...Edging Borders
...Back of Border or Back-ground Plant
...Fragrant Flowers
...Not Fragrant Flowers

...Grow in a Patio Pot
...Grow in an Alpine Trough
...Grow in an Alpine House
...Grow in Rock Garden
...Speciman Plant
...Into Native Plant Garden
...Naturalize in Grass
...Grow in Hanging Basket
...Grow in Window-box
...Grow in Green-house
...Grow in Scree
...Naturalized Plant Area
...Grow in Cottage Garden
...Attracts Butterflies
...Attracts Bees
...Resistant to Wildlife
...Bulb in Soil:-
......Lime-Free (Acid)

Uses of Rose
...Climber /Pillar
...Exhibition, Speciman
...Grow In A Container
...Climber in Tree
...Edging Borders
...Tolerant of Poor Soil
...Tolerant of Shade
...Back of Border
...Adjacent to Water

Topic -
Camera Photo Galleries showing all 4000 x 3000 pixels of each photo on your screen that you can then click and drag it to your desktop as part of a Plant Selection Process:-

RHS Garden at Wisley

Plant Supports -
When supporting plants in a bed, it is found that not only do those plants grow upwards, but also they expand their roots and footpad sideways each year. Pages
, 2, 3, 8, 11,
12, 13,
Plants 4, 7, 10,
Bedding Plants 5,
Plant Supports for Unknown Plants 5
Clematis Climbers 6,
the RHS does not appear to either follow it's own pruning advice or advice from The Pruning of Trees, Shrubs and Conifers by George E. Brown.
ISBN 0-571-11084-3 with the plants in Pages 1-7 of this folder. You can see from looking at both these resources as to whether the pruning carried out on the remainder of the plants in Pages 7-15 was correct.

Narcissus (Daffodil) 9,
Phlox Plant Supports 14, 15

Coleus Bedding Foliage Trial - Pages
1, 2, 3, 4, 5,
6, 7, 8, 9, 10,
11, 12, 13, 14, 15,
16, 17, 18, 19, 20,
21, 22, 23, 24, 25,
26, 27, 28, 29, 30,
31, 32, Index

National Trust Garden at Sissinghurst Castle
Plant Supports -
Pages for Gallery 1

with Plant Supports
1, 5, 10
2, 3, 4, 6, 7, 8, 9,
11, 12
Recommended Rose Pruning Methods 13
Pages for Gallery 2
with Plant Supports
Plants 1, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7

Dry Garden of
RHS Garden at
Hyde Hall

Plants - Pages
without Plant Supports
Plants 1
, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9

Nursery of
Peter Beales Roses
Display Garden

Roses Pages
1, 2, 3, 4, 5,
6, 7, 8, 9, 10,
11, 12, 13

Nursery of
RV Roger

Roses - Pages
V76,Z77, 78,

Damage by Plants in Chilham Village - Pages
1, 2, 3, 4

Pavements of Funchal, Madeira
Damage to Trees - Pages
1, 2, 3, 4, 5,
6, 7, 8, 9, 10,
11, 12, 13
for trees 1-54,
14, 15,
16, 17, 18, 19, 20,
21, 22, 23, 24, 25,
for trees 55-95,
26, 27, 28, 29, 30,
31, 32, 33, 34, 35,
36, 37,
for trees 95-133,
38, 39, 40,
41, 42, 43, 44, 45,
for trees 133-166

Chris Garnons-Williams
Work Done - Pages
1, 2, 3, 4, 5,
6, 7, 8, 9, 10,
11, 12, 13

Identity of Plants
Label Problems - Pages
1, 2, 3, 4, 5,
6, 7, 8, 9, 10,

Ron and Christine Foord - 1036 photos only inserted so far - Garden Flowers - Start Page of each Gallery
AB1 ,AN14,BA27,

Plant with Photo Index of Ivydene Gardens - 1187
A 1, 2, Photos - 43
B 1, Photos - 13
C 1, Photos - 35
D 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7,
Photos - 411
with Plants causing damage to buildings in Chilham Village and Damage to Trees in Pavements of Funchal
E 1, Photos - 21
F 1, Photos - 1
G 1, Photos - 5
H 1, Photos - 21
I 1, Photos - 8
J 1, Photos - 1
K 1, Photos - 1
L 1, Photos - 85
with Label Problems
M 1, Photos - 9
N 1, Photos - 12
O 1, Photos - 5
P 1, Photos - 54
Q 1, Photos -
R 1, 2, 3,
Photos - 229
S 1, Photos - 111
T 1, Photos - 13
U 1, Photos - 5
V 1, Photos - 4
W 1, Photos - 100
with Work Done by Chris Garnons-Williams
X 1 Photos -
Y 1, Photos -
Z 1 Photos -
Articles/Items in Ivydene Gardens - 88
Flower Colour, Num of Petals, Shape and
Plant Use of:-
Rock Garden
within linked page

Topic -
Fragrant Plants as a Plant Selection Process for your sense of smell:-

Sense of Fragrance from Roy Genders

Fragrant Plants:-
Trees and Shrubs with Scented Flowers
, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6
Shrubs bearing Scented Flowers for an Acid Soil
, 2, 3, 4
Shrubs bearing Scented Flowers for a
Chalky or Limestone Soil
, 2, 3, 4
Shrubs bearing Scented leaves for a
Sandy Soil
, 2, 3
Herbaceous Plants with Scented Flowers
, 2, 3
Annual and Biennial Plants with Scented Flowers or Leaves
, 2
Bulbs and Corms with Scented Flowers
, 2, 3, 4, 5
Scented Plants of Climbing and Trailing Habit
, 2, 3
Winter-flowering Plants with Scented Flowers
, 2
Night-scented Flowering Plants
, 2

Topic -
Website User Guidelines

My Gas Service Engineer found Flow and Return pipes incorrectly positioned on gas boilers and customers had refused to have positioning corrected in 2020.