Picture Folder Name Pages:-

Since 14 June 2019 I have also started to put my own full-sized 4000 x 3000 digital Camera images into the relevant topics in this website again for use in the Public Domain - since there may be 9 or more to a page the resulting
43 Mb website page may take some time to load
. Since I have more than 26,522 photos using 112.83 GB of my disk space, then the extra upfront cost per annum before creating more folders like Photo coleus is just over 3.16 pence per photo has to be paid for the total number in that entire photo collection before any are sent to the website.
It is hoped that you may find them of interest.

Foord garden flower slides Folder of 35mm 'Ektachrome' Transparency slides taken by Ron & Christine Foord of Rochester, Kent in England during the 20th century. Both have been
dead for years and these slides were passed onto Chris Garnons-Williams.

Slides taken by Ron or Christine Foord have been scanned individually and converted by an F22MP 126PK Super 8 Slides & Negatives All-in-1 Film Scanner to JPEGS by Chris Garnons-Williams in the original size and as a thumbnail during 2020.

Ron and Christine Foord
Garden Flowers - Pages of all these Galleries


Heather -
Calluna AR88,PE89,
Daboecia BI90,
Erica AR91,CI92,CI93,

IR106,IR107, 108, 109, 110,
111, 112, 113, 114, 115,
116, 117,

When I have completed the conversion of all the slides from Ron and Christine Foord and inserted a relevant selection of the digitised images into the Photo Garden Flowers Galleries in some months time, then I will complete their text field in the thumbnail row starting with the
letter A (written 11 November 2020).



Number of Colours required to provide a practical means of roughly differentiating between flower colours, foliage colours and bark/stem colours of plants.

Flower Colour:-
These are the 14 Flower Colours for the UK Native Wildflowers:-
Wild Flower with its
flower colour page, space,
Site Map page in its flower colour
NOTE Gallery
...Blue Note
...Brown Note
...Cream Note
...Green Note
...Mauve Note
...Multi-Cols Note
...Orange Note
...Pink A-G Note
...Pink H-Z Note
...Purple Note
...Red Note
...White A-D Note
...White E-P Note
...White Q-Z Note
...Yellow A-G Note
...Yellow H-Z Note
...Shrub/Tree Note

There are 53 flower colours for All Flowers Colour Wheel and Rock Plant Flowers:-
Dark Tone or Shades (Colours mixed with Black) is the outer circle of colours.
Mid-Tone (Colours mixed with Grey) is the next circle of colours.
Pure Hue (the Primary, Secondary or Tertiary Colour named) is the next circle of colours.
Pastel (Colours mixed with White) is the innermost circle of colours.

These 12 colour spokes of
Dark Tone,
Pure Hue and
Pastel are split into:-


Primary Colour Name

Pure Hue Colour Name Used











Secondary Colour Name

Pure Hue Colour Name Used



Vitamin C








Tertiary Colour Name

Pure Hue Colour Name Used


Red Orange



Yellow Orange



Yellow Green

Lovely Lime


Blue Green

Light Teal


Blue Violet



Dark tone, mid-tone, pure hue followed by pastel colour:-

  1. blood red, fuzzy wuzzy, red, flat pink.
  2. chocolate, heatland, orange, orangelin.
  3. rusty pelican, tuscany, vitamin c, atomic tangerine.
  4. browser caramel, buddha gold, tangerine, sand.
  5. grass stain, pine glade, yellow, bone.
  6. verdun green, slimer 2, lovely lime, limeade.
  7. pakistan green, weak green, lime, offwhite green.
  8. blue stone, aqua, light teal, baby blue.
  9. navy blue, periwinkle, blue, offwhite blue.
  10. violet, the bands, grape, mauve.
  11. royal purple, calihoe, magenta, magenta shift.
  12. dried blood, forbidden, process pagenta, pink.
  13. white, white wildflower, gray, silver, black

There are 7 flower colours:-
blue, white, yellow, unusual, and red, pink or purple as in the
Bulb gallery.

These are the 12 flower colours for
Flower in Month and Bee-Pollinated Plants:-
red, pink, white, cream, mauve, purple, blue, yellow, brown, green, orange and unusual or multi-coloured.

Foliage Colour:-
I have created a Foliage Colour Wheel -
All Foliage 212 - using 212 web-safe colours. My 212 web-safe colours just do not cut the mustard.
This is instead of using the best Colour Wheel of 2058 colours in the
Pantone Goe System, but this link no longer connects to Pantone. So perhaps the Pantone Goe System is no longer sold or maintained.

So as from 18 January 2021, I have decided to use the 53 colours of All Flowers Colour Wheel and Rock Plant Flowers above for the flowers and the foliage in the future combined with the 14 Flower Colours for the UK Native Wildflowers Wild Flower for the UK Wildflowers. I also intend to put the required plant into the respective pages of the Plant Colour Wheel Uses Gallery.
This makes for a practical number of flower and foliage colours for use in the horticultural environment.

List of Pictures in a Picture Folder:-

Ron & Christine Foord took many photos of wildflower plants and stored them as Kodak 'Kodachrome' Transparency 35mm slides in the 1960-80s as well as these 15,000 of Garden Flowers. If they used other film, then the colour on the slides became sepia over a few years, whereas this did not occur with Kodachrome. The green perhaps got darker over a 50 year period. I am adding these scanned slides to my photos for sending to my website for use in the Public Domain starting in February 2020.

Page 27

Babiana stricta May 73

Babiana stricta May 73

Babiana stricta var rubro-cyanea May 72

Begonia hybrida pendula hybrid Aug 71

Begonia hybrida pendula hybrid Aug 71

Bellidiastrum michelii False Daisy in Leichenstein 12 5 71

Bellidiastrum michelii in Triesenburg of Lechenstein 14 5 71

Bellidiastrum michelii eat Einodsbach
15 7 64

Bellis perennis var discoidea May 81

Bellis perennis var discoidea May 81

Bellium minutum Jun 69

Page 28

Berberis darwinii May 84

Berberis darwinii May 84

Berberis darwinii in Sheffield Park
20 4 68

Berberis darwinii May 80

Berberis darwinii fruit

Berberis ottawensis superba Jun 70

Bergenia delavayi in garden
March 68

Bergenia delavayi Mar 74

Bergenia delavayi Mar 90

Bergenia purpurescens 05 91

Bolax glebaria

Page 29

Betula nana May 70

Betula nana May 73

Betula nana May 73

Betula nana May 79 Dwarf Birch

Betula nana May 73

Bilbergia nutans at Kew Mar 65
plant from Brazil - Pineapple Family

Bilbergia nutans at Kew 21 3 65

Boronta megastigma
from Australia at Kew Mar 65

Boronta megastigma
from Australia at Kew Mar 65

Buddleia x weyeriana 08 92

Buddleia x weyeriana

Page 30

Brodiaea laxa Jul 84

Buphthalmum salicifolium 19 5 71
Yellow Oxeye

Burchella capensis at Kew 21 3 65
from South Africa

Calanthe striata May 68

Calceolaria biflora Jul 71

Calendula arvensis - Field Marigold
Sep 78

Calendula arvensis - Field Marigold
Sep 78

Calendula officinalis Oct 78
Pot Marigold

Callistemon citrinus 09 91
Bottle Brush

Callistemon citrinus 09 91
Bottle Brush

Caltha palustris May 85

Page 31

Camellia japonica 20 4 68
Sheffield Park

Camellia japonica 20 4 68
Sheffield Park

Camellia japonica 20 4 68
Sheffield Park

Camellia japonica 20 4 68
Sheffield Park

Camellia japonica 'Adolphe Audusson'

Camellia japonica 'Adolphe Audusson'
05 87

Campanula andrewsii 18 6 67

Campanula barbata 12 7 64

Campanula barbata 12 7 64

Campanula barbata 12 7 64

Campanula carpatica Aug 70

Page 32

Campanula carpatica Aug 70

Campanula carpatica Jul 78

Campanula cashmeriana Oct 71

Campanula cashmeriana Oct 71

Campanula cochlearifolia 'Alba' Aug 79

Campanula x wockei 'Puck' Jul 72

Campanula cochlearifolia pusilla

Campanula cochlearifolia pusilla Sep 70

Campanula garganic Jul 69

Campanula glomerata 07 85

Campanula glomerata 07 85

Page 33

Campanula incurva Jul 76

Campanula incurva Jul 72

Campanula isophylla Aug 71

Campanula isophylla Aug 71

Campanula isophylla 07 80

Campanula isophylla album Nov 72

Campanula isophylla Aug 71

Campanula linarifolia 17 5 71
in Liechenstein

Campanula linarifolia 17 5 71
in Liechenstein

Campanula linarifolia 17 5 71
in Liechenstein

Campanula medium 07 90
Canterbury Bells

Page 34

Campanula persicifolia Jul 84

Campanula persicifolia Jul 84

Campanula persicifolia 07 85
Foxgloves and Sweet Briar

Campanula persicifolia 'Alba' 06 90

Campanula poscharskyana 10 10 68
in Rochester

Campanula poscharskyana Jun 72

Campanula poscharskyana 08 89

Campanula raineri Jul 73

Campanula raineri Jul 72

Campanula rupestris Jun 67

Campanula rupestris Jun 67

Page 35

Campanula scheuchzeri 19 5 71

Campanula thessala

Campanula thessala

Campanula thyrsoides Jul 73

Campanula thyrsoides Jul 73

Campanula thyrsoides Jul 75

Campanula thyrsoides Jul 73

Campanula zoysii Jul 71

Campanula zoysii Jul 71

Caragala arborescens May 65
at Kemsing

Caragala arborescens
at Kemsing May 65

Page 36

Cardamine trifolia Mar 74

Cardiocrinum giganteum (lilium)
Jul 78

Cardiocrinum giganteum Jul 78

Carduncellus rhaponticoides Oct 71

Carduncellus rhaponticoides Oct 71

Carduncellus rhaponticoides Jun 70

Carduncellus rhaponticoides Sep 70

Carlina acaulis Aug 70

Carlina acaulis Aug 70

Catalpa bignoides in Rochester Aug 78

Catalpa bignoides Sep 78

Page 37

Catalpa bignoides bloom
in Rochester, Kent Aug 78

Catalpa bignoides
in Rye churchyard Sep 84

Catalpa bignoides
in Rye churchyard Sep 84

Catalpa bignoides tree
in Rochester, Kent -
Indian bean tree Aug 78

Celsio-verbascum 'Golden Wings'

Centaurea cyanus.

Centaurea montana Aug 64

Centaurea montana 06 85

Centaurea montana Jun 79
Mountain Cornflower

Ceratostigma plumbagoides Oct 78

Cerinthe alpina 15 7 64
in Einosbach Austria

Page 38

Chaenomeles japonica 31 3 65
in Borough Green

Chaenomeles japonica 21 4 68

Chaenomeles japonica 21 4 68
Westerham Kent

Chaenomeles japonica May 84

Chaenomeles japonica Apr 73

Chaenomeles japonica Oct 76

Chaenomeles japonica x superba
May 78

Chaenomeles speciosa
May 85 (japonica)

Chaenomeles speciosa Jun 79

Chaenomeles speciosa Apr 85

Chaenomeles speciosa Apr 85

Page 39

Chaenomeles x superba Apr 85

Cheiranthus Wallflower May 84

Chionodoxa lucillae Apr 79

Chionodoxa lucillae Apr 79

Chionodoxa sardensis May 84

Chlorophytum comosum Jun 69
Spider Plant

Chlorophytum elatum variegatum
07 88 Spider Plant

Choisya ternata May 85
Mexican Orange blossom

Choisya ternata May 85
Mexican Orange blossom

Choisya ternata Jun 83
Mexican Orange blossom

Choisya ternata Jun 79
Mexican Orange


Plant Labelling - A suggestion for plant labelling to help visitors

A different solution is that each gardening member of the RHS staff at Wisley be provided with Large White Plastic Angled-Head Labels which are 20 inches (50 cms) in height with a 6 x 4 inch (16 x 10 cms) writing surface and a Marker pen with Black ink to provide a good temporary label for the above broken label (in Lost Flowers page) or for missing labels.
Then, the black background permanent label could be ordered at the end of that working day to replace this temporary label, which has been inserted into the ground in front of the relevant plant section.

If you are concerned about these labels going on "Walkabout", then insert another white label behind the plant and make it invisible to the public.

Site design and content copyright ©February 2020.
Chris Garnons-Williams.

DISCLAIMER: Links to external sites are provided as a
courtesy to visitors. Ivydene Horticultural Services are
not responsible for the content and/or quality of external
web sites linked from this site.  


Ivydene Horticultural Services logo with I design, construct and maintain private gardens. I also advise and teach you in your own garden. 01634 389677

Picture Folder Name Pages:-

Damage to Trees in Pavement in Madeira caused by the action of man during January/February 2019.

Solution to holes in trees.
Remove mesh covers and rot within the hole. Then blast the remaining rot with a high pressure water hose to try and clear more of the rot. Spray with Boron (a water based preservative kills only wood boring insects - not spiders, birds or bats) as a treatment for insect, wet and dry rot attack. While it is still wet, apply a layer of Expanding Foam to the bottom of the hole. Immediately place bottles on this 
and allow to set for 5 minutes. Apply another layer of expanding foam and another layer of bottles. The aim of the bottles is to occupy space, they are not there as a deterrent. That is why the foam has to be in contact with the inside of the tree not the glass bottle. The poisons in the foam will kill anything eating it and the foam does stick better when wet with water. Keep up this operation until the hole is covered. 
Leave to set and then paint the foam surface twice with a recommended water-based, but not oil-based, sealant.

Solutions to stop creating holes in trees.
When a branch is cut off, remember to cut it off on the other side of the Branch Collar. (See Figure 1 - Optimum position of the final pruning cut in "Guide to Tree Pruning" by the Arboricultural Association which shows the branch collar within and outside the tree. My Comments: I disagree with their recommendation not to apply wound paint as you can see the result if you do not paint trees which are dehydrated, starved and gassed as these trees in the pavements of Madeira are.) 
Once that is done, then immediately apply Boron and 2 coats of protective sealant as used for holes in trees above.

Solution to current problem on these mosaic pavements:-
Carefully remove the existing marble mosaic, concrete, tarmac, or paver and 
the concrete/metal enclosures round the trees. If any further solid material like gravel, bricks, stones etc can be removed as well, then do so. Level the ground with sharp sand (Sharp sand is like pyramids which lock together, builder's sand is like ball bearings which displaces itself elsewhere if it can when downward pressure is applied to it). 
The time to execute the above and complete the refilling with sharp sand must 
be completed within 20 minutes, otherwise the exposed roots will dry up and die. 
It is useful to now water it to settle the sand and keep the roots wet. Put the roll 
of continuous geotextile over the top before laying down the
CEDAdrive slabs on 
top. Fill the slabs with the required colours of marble pea-shingle and leave a 
3 inch (7.5 cm) gap between the trunk and the CEDAdrive section (Besides black 
and white marble, you can get many other colours). Spead Green Manure seed in 
the gap and cover to the same level as the top of the CEDAdrive with its pea-shingle; 
with sharp sand. The Green manure will provide a little nourishment for the tree 
and protection for the expanding trunk, together with protection from cigarettes. 
Further protection can be carried out by providing seating round the trunk, so that 
old fogeys like me can rest.
Pop-up irrigation water pipes can be supplied from these water manholes currently in the pavements and they can be set to irrigate each section in rotation from 
Midnight to 06:00 in the morning. A dissolved mixture of seaweed, fully composted animal waste and fully worm composted human food waste from restaurants/hotels can be applied over a pavement an hour before that section is irrigated 3 times a year to provide the same fertilizer regime as practised by the gardeners at the Pestana Mirimar for that hotel's garden. The drained solids from the above fertilizer solution can be applied over the sand between the tree and the CEDAdrive.
An alternative to using marble pea-shingle is Topmix Permeable Concrete within the
CEDAdrive slabs. This would perform the same function as the marble pea-shingle, but it may be cheaper and quicker to use in other pavements. The depth of the Cedadrive slabs might have to be increased if traffic is allowed to cross or park on this type of pavement surface.

166 trees in the pavements in a short section of a road in Funchal, Madeira are being slowly, starved, dehydrated, asphyxiated, poisoned by tarmac and concrete, burnt inside their hollow trunks, roots pounded by 40 ton lorries or shoes of pedestrians, and allowed to rot until killed off during February 2019 (see information in Problems with trees in pavements in Funchal, Madeira in January/February 2018 Page, which appears to have had no effect) as shown by my 433 photos in the following pages within the Home Topic:-

  • Death of tree roots and
  • Death of tree trunks/branches caused by people.
  • Solution to problems for trees caused by people using irrigation -
    Growth of Pollarded Tree in Hotel Garden in 1 year provides a water solution to this destruction.
  • Damage to Tree Trunks 1, 2, 3, 4 caused by people,
  • Damage to Tree Roots caused by people,
  • Area of Open Ground round trees,
  • New Trees in pavements 1, 2,
  • Irrigation of current trees,
  • Watersprouts on trees,
  • Crossing Branches in trees,
  • Utility Equipment with tree Foliage,
  • Lights on trees,
  • Bycycle Lane in Pavement,
  • Public Gardens alongside pavements,
  • Hotel/Private Gardens alongside pavements,
  • Current Permeable Pavement Surface round trees and
  • Irrigation and Fertilising of trees.

Articles on

  • Branch Collar (see Solutions to stop creating holes in trees above) and the importance of leaving all of it while cutting off that branch
  • My repair to a 1300 year old yew tree in my church at the bottom of pages 1-12
  • Some of my work on trees using a chainsaw and chipper-shredder on page 13
  • Protective Dressing, Cavities and 'do not use plastic twine or wire to tie a plant' are at the bottom of pages 14-25 with Forked Leaders, also Terminal Bud and Dormant Branch Growth Bud.
    Details on Boron woodworm, wet and dry wood rot treatment on Page 16.
  • Ways to install trees at the bottom of pages 26-37 includes the following on watering - "Throughout the warm, summer weather, the tree will need the equivalent of 1 inch (2.5 cm) of rain per week and this water needs to be applied about twice each week (My Comments - since this is over the entire root area of this tree - which is at least the radius from the trunk of the height of the tree - then if the CEDAdrive slabs are used, apply 0.5 inchs (1.25 cms) of irrigation twice a week to that entire area).  Approximately 5-10 gallons (20 – 40 liters) of water is sufficient to moisten a 20-inch (50 cm) diameter root ball.  A 40-inch (100 cm) diameter root ball has more than twice the volume and would require 35-45 gallons (130 – 170 liters). 
    Another way to measure water need is with the following formula:   The tree needs 5 gallons minimum and 5 additional gallons per inch of diameter (DBH); hence a 3 inch DBH tree needs 20 gallons of water per week to equal 1 inch of rainfall, in other words, 5 gallons minimum + (3 X 5) 15 gallons = 20 gallons."
  • The Pruning and Maintenance of Mature Trees:
    • 'Lifting' or the removal of the lower branch systems,
    • Crown Thinning and
    • Crown Reduction
    • at the bottom of
      pages 38-45
  • Explaination of watersprouts and watershoots in the Watersprouts on Trees in Pavements in Funchal, Madeira Page. These should be removed from the trees since they are weakly joined to the branch/trunk from which they originated and are dangerous to use as supports for electricians or tree surgeons; as well as likely to fall down in a storm.



The day after I arrived in Funchal in January 2020, I spoke to Rita in Owner Relations and she sent an email. Not knowing about the efficiency of the local or main government, I spoke to the reception staff and they told me that Funchal was a Municipality with its own local government with its offices in Funchal. So I took the bus into town and went round the Municipality Offices until I was escorted to a building where you could ask questions in the A group pay bills in the B group and do something else in the C group. Speaking to an official in the A group, I managed to convince him that I had more details about the tree problems on my website, so as to overcome his response of getting me to send an email. He presented a piece of paper with Eng Francisco Andrade, Est. Marmeiros, No 1, Jardins & Espaces Verdes on it. I handed this to a taxi driver and arrived. I spoke with an english-speaking colleague of his and then he very kindly agreed to talk to me with his english-speaking colleague:-

  • He stated that the local policy was not to apply any wound sealant since diseases, etc could get under it and cause further damage. He asked me if I had any literature to back up my use of black water-based masonry paint (instead of Arbrex, which I had started to use, but I doubted whether my clients would see the point of the expense) and I could not present him with any. Nor could I present any literature to support my use of expanding foam with bottles to fill the hole, since my work on the yew tree in the graveyard of St Margarets Church in Rainham had revised their website and the article about that tree had not yet been transposed.
  • He pointed out that he had employed one of the 6 tree experts from September 2019 to monitor the trees in the pavements. Each tree was tagged with a black plastic disc with a screw through its middle into the tree about 3 metres from the ground. The disc had Funchal and a 5 figure number on it. The location of the tree would then be identified on a town map and details of type of tree, which country it originated in, etc would then probably appear in a catalogue. I was not told when his report about the trees was expected and presumably what if any action to take.
  • I asked about the burnt insides of damaged trees and was told the people used them as waste bins and presumbably if a lighted cigarette was thrown then it woul start the fire and burn the heartwood as well as the rot. Metal grids were attached to try and stop the practice of using the cavities as waste bins, some of which have rusted away.
  • Then we looked at the start of the raw camera images and the one of the gardener with the strimmer to cut the long grass in a public area, I pointed out the problem that grass could absorb a great deal of water each week and leave the ground underneath bone dry with the literature to support that.
    I suggested the replacement of grass/lawn with legumes like green manure would stop the tree roots from being too dry, that the legumes have symbiotic nitrogen-fixing bacteria in structures called root nodules. When a legume plant dies in the field, for example following the harvest, all of its remaining nitrogen, incorporated into amino acids inside the remaining plant parts, is released back into the soil. In the soil, the amino acids are converted to nitrate (NO−3), making the nitrogen available to other plants, thereby serving as fertilizer for future crops.
    If the legumes as green manure are used in between shrubs/bedding/perennials then the ground would not dry out so quickly, so saving water and providing future fertilizer for those other plants.
  • When I touched on the subject of CEDAdrive, he did point out that it might be too expensive to implement and was not sure whether it would be suitable for pavements where vehicles would go over them (even though they will take 400 tonnes per square metre).
  • With electricity cables running through the roots of trees, the electromagnetic field is high and does it affect the tree roots in a very small space, the same way as for humans? Pedestrians between these trees will be exposed to almost the same electromagnetic field for the length of their walk. Maybe putting the electricity cables under the centre of the road would be safer.
  • I thanked them for their time and found a bus stop to get back into Funchal town centre.

The population of Funchal is 111,892.
The population of Madeira is estimated at 244,286 in 2017.
The population of Medway as measured in the 2001 Census was 249,488 of which 99,773 live in Gillingham area which includes Rainham where I live.

No wonder that Cedadrive is expensive for such a small population. So, what can they use that is produced in Madeira, since the transport cost of a container from Portugal is 2000 euros (that figure was given me by an employee of a large builder's merchant, and I saw 2 containers being unloaded at their yard, which were not large ones).

So I took a taxi to a builders merchant (might be Ferreirae in the upper regions of Funchal).

  • They did not sell or know what pea-shingle was. This is what I would have filled the CEDAdrive with.
  • The original mosaic pavements in Funchal were covered in small black basalt and white limestone cobbles. The limestone comes from Portugal. The black basalt is mined in Madeira and the email address of a local stone quarry is geral@ferreiraebrum.pt
    The english-speaking employee showed me a 25kg bag of basalt of probably 20mm rocks which could be dropped 200cms without breaking. Another bag of probably 2mm rocks, which was added to cement to make it a stronger concrete. Both came from a local mine.
  • Madeira has black volcanic sand on its beaches.

So, if the local basalt mine created 10mm x 10mm rocks, these could be used as spacers:-

  • If you start with the concrete pavers, then remove them and put down a depth of 2 inches (5 cms) black sand, cover that with a weed control fabric, then relay the pavers with a 10mm x 10mm spacer on each of the 2 shortest sides and 2 on the 2 longest sides, then fill the gap with the black sand.
  • The created excess of concrete pavers could then be used in a 200cm radius round each tree using the same system as above to replace the solid concrete or tarmac in that area.
  • The same system could be used on the mosaic pavements in replacing the concrete pointing with the black sand and spacers. If the system is not solidified sufficiently then replace the pointing black sand with the 2mm basalt, which would then lock together.
  • Carry out the required irrigation and natural fertiliser system as I have already recommended to provide the water and the humus required by the bacterium to continue rebuilding the soil and providing for the gaseous exchange by the roots in either the whole pavement if it is lined with trees or groups of 3 -5 trees, which can help each other in later years as shown in The Hidden Life of Trees by Peter Wohlleben ISBN 978-0-00-821843-0.

If you use boron from colemanite (The use of ores like colemanite has declined following concerns over arsenic content) and mix it with the black sand and seawater to fill the bottom section of cavities, it will kill off the rot in the trunk and stop the cavity being filled with waste. The arsenic will also stop ants from eating it. Then mix it with wallpaper paste to fill the top half of the cavity and you have sorted the cavity problem.

Painting the cut ends with the boron prevents the end from rotting (Boric acid is more toxic to insects than to mammals, and is routinely used as an insecticide).

I had forgotten that I did have the supporting literature about wound dressings (as used in my year at Hadlow College to get a HNC in Horticulture) in this course book:-
"Pages 6-7 of The Pruning of Trees, Shrubs and Conifers by
George E. Brown.
ISBN 0-571-11084-3"

It is unfortunate that with all the other responsibilities that the Funchal Municipality has that they will find it very difficult to locate the finance, resources or personnel to carry out whatever remedial work to over 3000 trees being monitored since September 2019 that the Tree Expert from Portugal recommends, especially if someone continues to remove the identity discs.

Coleus Bedding Foliage Trial Folder
from Plant Trials Field in RHS Garden
at Wisley taken on
2 October 2013
1, plus Tables of Annuals with/for:-
2, Blue to Purple Flowers
3, Red to Pink Flowers 1, 2
4, Green Flowers
5, Black or Brown Flowers
6, Yellow, and Orange Flowers
7, White Flowers
9, Low-Growing
11, Medium-Growing
12, Tall-Growing
13, Heat-Tolerant
14, Moist Soil
15, Shade
16, Indoors
17, Cutting
18, Naturalize
19, Decorative Foliage
20, Edging
21, Fragrance
22, Hanging Baskets
23, Vining
24, Wildflower Meadows
25, Coastal Gardens
26, Mounded Habit
27, Erect Habit
28, Clump-Forming Habit
29, Compact/Bushy Habit
30, Spreading/Sprawling Habit
31, To Cover Fences
32, Odds and Sods 1, 2
Coleus Bedding Trial Index
Range, Culture and Description Details of each of the above are within
Essential Annuals The 100 best for Design and Cultivation.
Text by Elizabeth Murray. Photography by Derek Fell.
Published by Crescent Books in 1989. ISBN 0-517-66177-2


Bedding Gallery has
other bedding plants, in their
flower colour,
flower shape and
bedding plant use


Topic - Flower/Foliage Colour
Colour Wheel Galleries

Following your choice using Garden Style then that changes your Plant Selection Process
Garden Style
...Infill Plants
...12 Bloom Colours per Month Index
...12 Foliage Colours per Month Index
...All Plants Index
...Cultivation, Position, Use Index
...Shape, Form

Further details on Bedding from the Infill Plants Galleries of the above topic:-
...for Spring
...for Summer
...for Autumn
...for Winter
...for Sandy Soil
...for Acid Soil
...for Chalky Soil
...for Clay Soil
...Flower Colour:-
...Use of Bedding:-
......Aromatic Fol
......Scented Flo
......Long Flo
......Coloured Fol
......for Bees, etc
......Cut Flos
......Hanging Pot
......Pots/ Troughs
......Window Box
......Bedding Out
......Filling in

Further details on Annuals from the Infill Galleries:-
Uses of Annuals

...Exposed Sites
...Sheltered Sites
...in Greenhouse
...Extra Poor Soil
...Very Rich Soil
...Gap Filling
...Patio Pots
...Cut Flowers 1, 2
...Everlasting Flos
...Attract Insects
...with Fragrance
...Bee Pollinated
...Annual Pairing
...Tall Growing
...Flower Colour:-
...for its Foliage
...in Moist Soil
...in Shade
...as Houseplants
...Edging Beds
...Hanging Basket
...Vining Annuals

Ivydene Gardens Photo Garden Flowers 3 Gallery:
Page 30 has photos from the Foord garden flower slides Folder of 35mm 'Ektachrome'
Transparency slides taken by Ron & Christine Foord of Rochester, Kent in England
during the 20th century. Both have been dead for years and these slides were passed
onto Chris Garnons-Williams. These slides have been converted by an F22MP 126PK
Super 8 Slides & Negatives All-in-1 Film Scanner to JPEGS by Chris Garnons-Williams
in the original size and as a thumbnail during 2020. These can used in the Public Domain
for educational purposes in schools, or at home.

Row 1 has the Pass-Through Camera image of Thumbnail image named in Row 2
and is usually 4000 x 3000 pixels.

Row 2 has same image reduced to fit the image frame of 160 x 120 pixels as a
Passthrough Thumbnail to show all of the Camera Image. This image has been
reduced to 72 pixels per inch by Freeway before I stored it as a Passthrough image
for use both here (from August 2019) and as the image in
Plant with Photo Index of Ivydene Gardens A 1 Gallery.

Click on either image and drag to your desktop.
Then you can crop the Pass-Through Camera image to obtain the particular detail
that you require from that image, before using that cropped result in your endeavour.

Copying the pages and then clicking on the images to drag them may not work.


Brodiaea laxa Jul 84
taken by Ron or Christine Foord



Buphthalmum salicifolium 19 5 71 Yellow Oxeye
taken by Ron or Christine Foord



Burchella capensis at Kew 21 3 65 from South Africa
taken by Ron or Christine Foord



Calanthe striata May 68
taken by Ron or Christine Foord



Calceolaria biflora Jul 71
taken by Ron or Christine Foord



Calendula arvensis - Field Marigold Sep 78
taken by Ron or Christine Foord



Calendula arvensis - Field Marigold Sep 78
taken by Ron or Christine Foord



Calendula officinalis Oct 78 Pot Marigold
taken by Ron or Christine Foord



Callistemon citrinus 09 91 Bottle Brush
taken by Ron or Christine Foord



Callistemon citrinus 09 91 Bottle Brush
taken by Ron or Christine Foord



Caltha palustris May 85
taken by Ron or Christine Foord


I have copied the archived post below, because what is stated there is extremely important, since
99.99% of gardeners in the UK totally ignore the fact that plants require humus and think that
double-digging is beneficial every year. That is why they are killing their soil and their plants do
not grow well.

Why you are continually losing the SOIL STRUCTURE if you leave bare earth between
plants so your soil - will revert to clay, chalk, sand or silt - unless you replace that lost
humus with an organic mulch.
Why the perfect soil for general use is composed of 8.3% lime, 16.6% humus, 25% clay
and 50% sand - The proportion of sand, silt and clay is referred to as its texture and
is described in What is Soil Texture?

Soil Structure - this describes the way in which sand, silt and clay particles are bonded together
in larger units called ‘aggregates’ and is described in What is Soil Structure?
Once microaggregates have formed, they can then coalesce to form macroaggregates. In soils
that have low concentrations of clay, macroaggregate stability is highly dependent on organic matter.
If microaggregates do not have a continuing supply of organic matter, then they will break up so
that soil particles simply return to being sand, silt or clay, and that is why you need an organic
mulch to provide the 'temporary' and 'transit' stabilising agents in the soil.
These are formed when the soil is subjected to shrinking and swelling, plant-root penetration or
freezing. All these processes tend to break the soil into discrete units. Aggregates are said to be
stable when they are able to resist pressures caused by processes such as compaction and sudden
wetting. Rapid wetting is a process in breaking up unstable aggregates, because when dry
aggregates are suddenly exposed to water, pores near the surface of the aggregate become filled
with water, trapping air inside the aggregate; the resulting pressure can sometimes be enough to
break the aggregate apart, and this is called ‘slaking’. Aggregates are divided into microaggregates
(less than 250 millionths of a metre) and macroaggregates (greater than 250 millionths of a metre).
Before microaggregates can form, microscopic clay minerals need to be grouped together in small
stacks called ‘domains’. When clays are bonded together in this way, they are termed ‘flocculated’.
The most important factor influencing flocculation is the presence of ions with more than 1 charge.
When clay minerals are covered with singly charged ions they disperse and become deflocculated
(i.e. they will absorb a great deal of water without it draining).
However, not all ions carry only 1 charge.
For example, calcium (Ca2+) in lime or chalk, Magnesium (Mg2+) and aluminium (Al3+) are 3
very common ions in soils. Ions with multiple charges allow clay minerals to bond together to form
domains. Once clay minerals are stacked together to form domains, they can then bond with organic
matter to form microaggregates.
Lime (Calcium), Magnesia (Magnesium) and Alumina (Aluminium) are 3 of the 11 chemicals with ions
in the soil and are further detailed below followed by their affect on their lack or not; in Sandy,
Calcareous and Clay soils.

The interaction between clay domains, organic matter, silt and sand particles diagram.


Once microaggregates have formed, they can then coalesce to form macroaggregates. In soils that have
low concentrations of clay, macroaggregate stability is highly dependent on organic matter.
The type of organic matter associated with macroaggregates is slightly different from the persistent
organic material found in microaggregates. Type one are those stabilising agents that are referred to
as ‘temporary’. These consist of microbial and plant by-products, the most important of which are
the ‘polysaccharide gums’ that are simply long chains of sugar molecules. Secondly, there are ‘transient’
stabilising agents, which include the fine plant roots and fungal hyphae.
Both stabilising compounds are vulnerable to microbial attack so need to be replenished continuously
through inputs of fresh soil organic matter.
If microaggregates do not have a continuing supply of organic matter, then they will break up so that
soil particles simply return to being sand, silt or clay:-

  • A combination of Green Manure and Spent Mushroom Compost Mulch will provide the continuing
    supply of organic matter for alkaline chalky or clay soil.
  • A combination of Green Manure with leaf mould, bark chippings, pine needles, ericaceous
    compost or your own garden compost as a mulch will provide the continuing supply of organic
    material for acidic sandy or clay soil.
    Unfortunately Monty Don's method of creating garden compost is only suitable for a very large
    garden with its own set of permanent gardeners, since to fill a 72 x 72 inch (180 x 180 cm)
    compost bin would take a very long time for you in your small garden and the longer in between
    adding a small amount each time, then you will end up with a mess. This is still true when you
    use an upended dustbin system - my solution in client's gardens was to do the pruning and put
    it on the lawn, then the weeding and put on the prunings and then mow the lawn. If the weeds
    were couch grass or bindweed, then these were generously donated to the council via its brown
    wheelie system as was the prunings that were too thick for a rotary mower to chop up. Put the
    resulting mixture as a mulch under the shrubs or hedges. The earthworms will take it into the
    ground and it will compost in situ. If you get the client to put their vegetable peelings, coffee
    grounds and tea bags into a small bucket, then you apply that as a mulch before covering it
    with the grass mowings. They could use worm composting instead and give you the results or
    use it themselves on their pots within the house. You are then re-using your waste organic
    material instead of getting somebody else to deal with it.
  • Green manures are fast-growing plants sown to cover bare soil. Often used in the vegetable
    garden, their foliage smothers weeds and their roots prevent soil erosion. When dug into the
    ground while still green, they return valuable nutrients to the soil and improve soil structure.
    There are different green manures for different soils as pointed out in this RHS article.
  • You can provide a free service to the council by going out with your rotary mower - setting its
    cutting height to the maximum - and collect the autumn leaves from the turf or tarmac under
    them in tree-lined streets. This will provide shreded leaves for you to use for free as a mulch
    in your garden and save the council from spending your money to do the same collection.
  • All the above helps to reduce climate change.

The following information comes from pages 30-34 of the 844 in
"Beeton's New Book of Garden Management" by Samuel Orchart Beeton;
published in 1870 by Ward, Lock & Co., Limited.

Soils may be said to consist of a mechanical mixture of 4 substances -

  • 1. Silica, silicious sand, or gravel,
  • 2. Clay,
  • 3. Lime and
  • 4. Humus,

with many of the following 11 chemical substances, in varying proportions:-


is contained in or made from


Potash - is the common term for nutrient forms of the element potassium (K)

This substance is obtained by burning wood, small branches, or leaves, the ash being washed in water, and evaporated in an iron pot and calcined. Add a small quantity of water, decant the liquid, and evaporate to dryness, and pearl-ash is obtained, which is an impure form of potash in combination with carbonic acid, or crude carbonate of potash. When this is boiled with newly-slaked quicklime, it is deprived of carbonic acid, which enters into combination with the lime, and the carbonate of potash is thus converted into pure or caustic potash, which can be separated into a silvery-white soft, metallic substance, potassium, and a gaseous element, oxygen.

The combination in which potash is found in soils is chiefly as silicates of potash. Some kinds of felspar, mica, and granite contain large proportions, as much as 15-20%. Iit also enters into the composition of trap-rock, basalt, and whinstone, though in smaller proportions.

Many plants require a large amount of potash for their food, the only source from which it can be obtained being the soil. This accounts for the fact that wood ashes, which contain carbonate of potash, are so conducive to the healthy growth of clover, beans, potatoes, and other plants whose ashes yield potash in return.

As the rock crumbles, silicates of potash are set free, and rendered available for the plants. Clay, which is chiefly derived from felspar, invariably contains it; and it is partly for this reason that light land, in which potash is usually deficient, is benefitted by claying.

Soda - caustic soda is sodium hydroxide

This is obtained by burning seaweed; and plants growing on the sea-shore are rendered caustic by the same process.

Its most common form, however, is sea-salt, or chloride of sodium. Seakale, asparagus, and similiar plants are benefitted by its use.

Lime - is a calcium-containing (Ca2+) inorganic material in which carbonates, oxides and hydroxides predominate.

Chalk, marble, and limestone are carbonates of lime. Under heat, the carbonic acid is driven out, and pure or caustic lime (Calcium oxide, CaO) remains.

Quicklime sprinkled with water absorbs it; heat is evolved, and it falls to powder, or is slaked. Slaked lime is a white powder, dry to appearance, but contains, in reality, water in an invisible form, chemically combined with lime. If exposed to the air, it attracts carbonic acid from the atmosphere, and becomes partially changed into carbonate of lime.

In its effects on animal and vegetable matters this pure or caustic lime resembles potash and soda, is slower in action, and is used most beneficially on peat land; its excess of organic matter is thus gradually destroyed, and converted into nutritious food for plants.

Salts of lime are found in all ashes of plants; soils, therefore, capable of sustaining vegetable life, must contain lime in some form or other.

Magnesia - a natural mineral of magnesium oxide (Magnesium Mg2+)

The ingredient is never wanting in fertile soils. Magnesian limestone, which is a natural compound of the carbonates of lime and magnesia, contains 30-40%; and in this form it exists in all dolomite and many other solid rocks. Soils containing much carbonate of magnesia absorb moisture with great avidity, and are generally cold soils. Silicate of magnesia enters largely into the composition of serpentine rocks. Soapstone and limestone frequently contain it. Compounds of sulphuric acid and muriatic acid with magnesia are also found in many mineral waters.

Suphate of magnesia, which is the name of the familiar Epsom salts, is formed from the decomposition of dolomitic rocks.

Alumina - Aluminium oxide (Al2O3).
Aluminium is Al3+, so each aluminium ion carries 3 charges.

This is the compound of the metal aluminium with oxygen, or, in other words, oxide of aluminium. It occurs very abundantly in the mineral kingdom, both free and in combination with acids. In its crystallized state it forms the hard mineral known as corundum, and, in combination with oxide of chromium, the saphire and the ruby; and emery is a dark-coloured granular variety of it. In an uncrystallized state it is a white, tasteless, powdery substance, obtained by adding a solution of carbonate of soda to alum.

It constitutes a large proportion of shale and slate rocks, and is a principle ingredient, in combination with silica, in pipe, porcelain, and agricultural clays, to which it gives tenacity and stiffness. It is rarely found in the ashes of plants, and therefore not considered as directly contributing to their nourishment, although useful as a mechanical agent in absorbing ammonia from the atmosphere, and in detaining the volatile as well as the alkaline salts of manures, which would otherwise be dissolved by the first heavy shower, and carried into the subsoil beyond the reach of the roots of the plant.

Iron - is a chemical element with symbol Fe (from Latin: ferrum). Iron compounds are called ferrous.

This metal, both in the black or protoxide, and the red or peroxide state, abounds in all soils, the red being most abundant, and easily observable from the red colour it communicates. Even soils in which the protoxide obtains, which are a bluish-grey colour when brought to the surface, are changed to the red colour by the atmosphere, oxygen uniting with and acting on it. Oxide of iron is found in the ashes of all plants and in the blood of animals.

The presence of iron is easily detected in soils by the ochry deposits in the beds of springs and ditches, where the oxide dissolved in carbonic acid produces the metallic-coloured deposit in question.

Sulphate of iron also occurs in some soils, produced from iron pyrites: such soils are unproductive; for it is a compound of sulphuric acid with protoxide of iron, better known under the name of green vitriol. Lime added to such soils combines with the sulphuric acid, forming gypsum; and sweetens them and removes the injurious properties.

Manganese - Manganese is a chemical element with symbol Mn. It is not found as a free element in nature; it is often found in combination with iron, and in many minerals.

Manganese is also important in photosynthetic oxygen evolution in chloroplasts in plants. The oxygen-evolving complex (OEC) is a part of photosystem II contained in the thylakoid membranes of chloroplasts; it is responsible for the terminal photooxidation of water during the light reactions of photosynthesis, and has a metalloenzyme core containing four atoms of manganese. For this reason, most broad-spectrum plant fertilizers contain manganese.

This metal, in combination with oxygen, associated with oxide of iron, occurs naturally in many soils.

In the ashes of plants traces of it are also found; but iron usually predominates. The ash of the horse chestnut and oak bark is rich in manganese, with no trace of iron.

Silica or Silex - Silicon dioxide, also known as silica (from the Latin silex), is a chemical compound that is an oxide of silicon with the chemical formula SiO2.

This mineral occurs abundantly in nature, either in a free state or in the form of sand, sandstones, flint, chalcedony, rock-crystal, or quartz, and in combination with lime, magnesia, iron, potash, soda, and other minerals. Silica is

  • insoluble in hot or cold water, and resists the action of some strong acids; but hydrofluoric acid dissolves it,
  • when mixed with soda or potash, and exposed to the heat of a glass furnace.

Silica is dissolved, or rather enters into combination with the alkali, and forms glass; or when the alkali is in excess, it dissolves into water. On the addition of muriatic acid, or sulphuric acid, to a solution of this silicate of potash, the silcate separates into a gelatinous mass, in which form it is soluble in water, and thus becomes the food of plants.

Sulphur - sulphur (sulfur) is a chemical element with symbol S.

Sulphur is an essential element for all life, but almost always in the form of organosulfur compounds or metal sulfides.

Sulfur is increasingly used as a component of fertilizers. The most important form of sulfur for fertilizer is the mineral calcium sulfate. Elemental sulfur is hydrophobic (that is, it is not soluble in water) and, therefore, cannot be directly utilized by plants. Over time, soil bacteria can convert it to soluble derivatives, which can then be utilized by plants. Sulfur improves the use efficiency of other essential plant nutrients, particularly nitrogen and phosphorus. Biologically produced sulfur particles are naturally hydrophilic due to a biopolymer coating. This sulfur is, therefore, easier to disperse over the land (via spraying as a diluted slurry), and results in a faster release.

Plant requirements for sulfur are equal to or exceed those for phosphorus. It is one of the major nutrients essential for plant growth, root nodule formation of legumes and plants protection mechanisms. Sulfur deficiency has become widespread in many countries in Europe.

This compound, in the form of sulphuric acid, enters into the composition of all cultivated soils, chiefly in combination with limestone, magnesia, potash, and other bases.

With hydrogen it forms sulhuretted hydrogen, a remarably disagreeable-smelling gas, the product of the decompostion of organic matter contained in the soil and impregnating many medicinal waters, as at Harrogate in North England.

Phosphorus - Phosphorus is a chemical element with symbol P .

Phosphorus is essential for life. Phosphates (compounds containing the phosphate ion, PO4−3) are a component of DNA, RNA, ATP, and also the phospholipids, which form all cell membranes. Demonstrating the link between phosphorus and life, elemental phosphorus was first isolated from human urine, and bone ash was an important early phosphate source. Phosphate minerals are fossils. Low phosphate levels are an important limit to growth in some aquatic systems. Phosphate is needed to replace the phosphorus that plants remove from the soil, and its annual demand is rising nearly twice as fast as the growth of the human population.

This ingredient is a soft, wax-like, highly inflammable substance, which combines with atmospheric oxygen, giving rise to phosphoric acid, which enters into the composition of all our cultivated plants, and is essentially necessary to a healthy condition of vegetable life.

Phosphorus exists in trap-rock, granite, basalt and other igneous rocks, and in lime, ironstone and most minerals.

Chlorine - Chlorine is a chemical element with symbol Cl. In the form of chloride ions, chlorine is necessary to all known species of life. Chloride is one of the most common anions in nature.

This is a highly-noxious, suffocating, yellowish, gaseous element, particularly disagreeable in smell.

In soils it is found in combination with such bases as chloride of sodium, or common salt. It is more necessary as a plant-food to root crops rather than to cereals.


Some of the affects of the above 11 chemicals on the following soils:-


Sandy Soils - If you try to adjust the soil texture by adding silt or clay to a sandy soil, you’ll see some improvement, but most of it will just flush through the soil. There’s not enough organic matter to keep these fine-textured soil components from washing out. Increasing soil organic matter is the key to gardening in sandy soil. You have to make the soil more “sticky”, so water and nutrients don’t just flush through every time it rains.

My suggestion:-
If you fill 30% of cement mixer with water, add 20% of clay and mix till a slurry. Add organic matter and your sandy soil and mix, keeping it as a slurry. Pour into wheelbarrow and move to where it is required and tip the wheelbarrow, spread the result with a rake, before repeating the process for the rest of the ground to be altered. The worms and rain will transport this material down and that will create a loam which is best for your plants as shown in the diagram at the top of this page.

Sandy soils are loose, friable, open and dry, and for that reason easily cultivated. They rest chiefly on the old red sandstone, and granite and coal formations.

Where alumina and calcareous matter are absent, however, they are nearly barren, they absorb manures without benefit to the land.

Where alumina and lime exist, they are more compact and adhesive, and grow good crops of beans, peas, spring wheat, and turnips.

They are capable of improvement by admixture with clay, marl, chalk, and other adhesive soils, which communicate their constituent properties to them

Calcareous Soils - Calcareous soils have often more than 15% CaCO3 (Calcium carbonate) in the soil. Phosphorous is often lacking in calcareous soils. Calcareous soils usually suffer from a lack of micronutrients, especially zinc and iron. Heavy applications of animal manure are helpful in preventing deficiency of iron and zinc.

Calcareous is an adjective meaning "mostly or partly composed of calcium carbonate", in other words, containing lime or being chalky. Calcareous soils are relatively alkaline, in other words they have a high pH.

The availability of N, P, K, Mg, Mn, Zn, and Fe to citrus decreases when soil CaCO3 concentration increases to more than about 3% by weight. These soils generally have a pH value in the range of 7.6 to 8.3. Phosphorus fertilizer applied to calcareous soils becomes fixed in sparingly soluble compounds over time. To maintain continuous P availability, P fertilizer should be applied on a regular, but not necessarily frequent, basis.

Calcareous soils resting on the upper chalk formation are usually deep, dry, loose, friable, and fertile in their nature, but others, resting on the shaly oolite, are stony, poor, thin soils.

Where pure clay is present in such soils, they are called loams or calcareous clays; where silica is in excess, they are termed calcareous sandy soils.

Leguminous plants, as peas, beans, vetches, saintfoin, and clover, do well on such soils, lime being essential to their growth.

Clay Soils - Interesting 4 page article applying compost etc to improve clay soil.

To improve that soil as the quickest solution, I would add a 1 cm (0.5 inch) depth of sharp washed sand, a 1 cm depth of chalk (lime) and 10 cm (4 inch) depth of organic compost and leave it to work itself in from that application in early spring. 2 months later add 3 inches (7.5 cm) depth of cow manure to provide further nutrients.

Clay soils are characterised by stiffness, impenetrability, great power of absorbing and retaining moisture, and great specific gravity; they are, consequently, cold, stiff, heavy, and impervious, costly to cultivate, and often unproductive.

Perfect drainage,
burning the soil with wood faggots, branches of trees, grass sods, and vegetable refuse, and
mixing chalk and sand,
are the only remedies. Burning is the most efficient remedy; the burnt clay acting chemically as a manure, its contstituents being rendered more soluble. Provided a moderate heat has been applied to the process, the potash is rendered soluble, and liberated from the clay in which it occurs in an insoluble combination. Thus treated, clay soils become the most fertile for all heavy crops.

Weeds indicate what the soil is that they naturally grow on
as detailed in
Encyclopedia of Gardening by J.C. Loudon and published in 1827; as shown in
What is Soil Structure? page.

You never know that reviewing the situation about your gardening knowledge through reading the Soil pages might be useful.

Topic -
Case Studies
...Drive Foundations
Ryegrass and turf kills plants within Roadstone and in Topsoil due to it starving and dehydrating them.
CEDAdrive creates stable drive surface and drains rain into your ground, rather than onto the public road.
8 problems caused by building house on clay or with house-wall attached to clay.
Pre-building work on polluted soil.

Companion Planting
...A, B, C, D, E,
...F, G, H, I, J, K,
...L, M, N, O, P, Q,
...R, S, T, U, V, W,
...X, Y, Z
...Pest Control
...using Plants
to provide a Companion Plant to aid your selected plant or deter its pests


with ground drains
Garden Design
...How to Use the Colour Wheel Concepts for Selection of Flowers, Foliage and Flower Shape
...RHS Mixed

......Bedding Plants
......Her Perennials
......Other Plants
......Camera photos of Plant supports

Glossary with a tomato teaching cauliflowers
Library of over 1000 books
Offbeat Glossary with DuLally Bird in its flower clock.

...in Chalk
(Alkaline) Soil
......A-F1, A-F2,
......A-F3, G-L, M-R,
......M-R Roses, S-Z
...in Heavy
Clay Soil
......A-F, G-L, M-R,
...in Lime-Free
(Acid) Soil
......A-F, G-L, M-R,
...in Light
Sand Soil
......A-F, G-L, M-R,
...Poisonous Plants.
...Extra Plant Pages
with its 6 Plant Selection Levels

Interaction between 2 Quartz Sand Grains to make soil
How roots of plants are in control in the soil
Without replacing Soil Nutrients, the soil will break up to only clay, sand or silt
Subsidence caused by water in Clay
Use water ring for trees/shrubs for first 2 years.

Tool Shed with 3 kneeling pads
Useful Data with benefits of Seaweed


Topic -
Plant Photo Galleries

If the plant type below has flowers, then the first gallery will include the flower thumbnail in each month of 1 of 6 or 7 flower colour comparison pages of each plant in its subsidiary galleries, as a low-level Plant Selection Process
...by Flower Shape

Bulb with its 7 Flower Colours per Month Comparison Pages
...Allium/ Anemone
...Colchicum/ Crocus
...Gladiolus with its 40 Flower Colours
......European A-E
......European F-M
......European N-Z
......Eur Non-classified
......American A
......American B
......American C
......American D
......American E
......American F
......American G
......American H
......American I
......American J
......American K
......American L
......American M
......American N
......American O
......American P
......American Q
......American R
......American S
......American T
......American U
......American V
......American W
......American XYZ
......Ame Non-classified
......Australia - empty
...Hippeastrum/ Lily
...Late Summer
...Each of the above ...Bulb Galleries has its own set of Flower Colour Pages
...Flower Shape
...Bulb Form

...Bulb Use

...Bulb in Soil

Further details on bulbs from the Infill Galleries:-
Hardy Bulbs



...Forcing Lily of the Valley



...Hyacinths in Pots


...Lilium in Pots
...Narcissi in Pots



Half-Hardy Bulbs



Uses of Bulbs:-
...for Bedding
...in Windowboxes
...in Border
...naturalized in Grass
...in Bulb Frame
...in Woodland Garden
...in Rock Garden
...in Bowls
...in Alpine House
...Bulbs in Greenhouse or Stove:-




...Plant Bedding in

...Bulb houseplants flowering inside House during:-
...Bulbs and other types of plant flowering during:-
...Selection of the smaller and choicer plants for the Smallest of Gardens with plant flowering during the same 6 periods as in the previous selection

Climber in
3 Sector Vertical Plant System
Deciduous Shrub
...Shrubs - Decid
Deciduous Tree
...Trees - Decid
Evergreen Perennial
...P-Evergreen A-L
...P-Evergreen M-Z
...Flower Shape
Evergreen Shrub
...Shrubs - Evgr
...Heather Shrub
Evergreen Tree
...Trees - Evgr

...P -Herbaceous
...Flower Shape
...RHS Wisley
......Mixed Border
......Other Borders
Odds and Sods

...RHS Wisley A-F
...RHS Wisley G-R
...RHS Wisley S-Z
...Rose Use - page links in row 6. Rose, RHS Wisley and Other Roses rose indices on each Rose Use page
...Other Roses A-F
...Other Roses G-R
...Other Roses S-Z
Pruning Methods
Photo Index
R 1, 2, 3
Peter Beales Roses
RV Roger

Soft Fruit
Top Fruit

Wild Flower and
Butterfly page links are in next row

Topic -
Butterflies in the UK mostly use native UK wildflowers.

Butterfly Species.

Egg, Caterpillar, Chrysalis and Butterfly Usage
of Plants.

Plant Usage by
Egg, Caterpillar, Chrysalis and Butterfly.

Wild Flower
with its
flower colour page,
Site Map page in its flower colour NOTE Gallery
...Blue Note
...Brown Botanical Names
...Cream Common Names
...Green Note
...Mauve Note
...Multi-Cols Note
...Orange Note
...Pink A-G Note
...Pink H-Z Note
...Purple Note
...Red Note
...White A-D Note
...White E-P Note
...White Q-Z Note
...Yellow A-G Note
...Yellow H-Z Note
...Shrub/Tree Note

Wildflower Plants.

You know its name, use
Wild Flower Plant Index a-h, i-p, q-z.
You know which habitat it lives in, use
Acid Soil,
(Chalk) Soil
Marine Soil,
Neutral Soil,
is a
is a
is a
Rush, or
is a
You have seen its flower, use Comparison Pages containing Wild Flower Plants and Cultivated Plants in the
Colour Wheel Gallery.

Each plant named in each of the 180 Wildflower Family Pages within their 23 Galleries may have a link to:-
1) its Plant Description Page in its Common Name column in one of those Wildflower Plant Galleries and will have links,
2) to external sites to purchase the plant or seed in its Botanical Name column,
3) to see photos in its Flowering Months column and
4) to read habitat details in its Habitat Column.

(o)Adder's Tongue
(o)Bog Myrtle
(o)Cornel (Dogwood)
(o)Crucifer (Cabbage/Mustard) 1
(o)Crucifer (Cabbage/Mustard) 2
(o)Daisy Cudweeds
(o)Daisy Chamomiles
(o)Daisy Thistle
(o)Daisy Catsears (o)Daisy Hawkweeds
(o)Daisy Hawksbeards
(o)Dock Bistorts
(o)Dock Sorrels
(o)Filmy Fern
(o)Royal Fern
(o)Figwort - Mulleins
(o)Figwort - Speedwells
(o)Grass 1
(o)Grass 2
(o)Grass 3
(o)Grass Soft
Bromes 1

(o)Grass Soft
Bromes 2

(o)Grass Soft
Bromes 3

(o)Jacobs Ladder
(o)Lily Garlic
(o)Marsh Pennywort
(o)Melon (Gourd/Cucumber)
(o)Orchid 1
(o)Orchid 2
(o)Orchid 3
(o)Orchid 4
Clover 1

Clover 2

Clover 3

(o)Peaflower Vetches/Peas
(o)Pink 1
(o)Pink 2
Rannock Rush
(o)Rose 1
(o)Rose 2
(o)Rose 3
(o)Rose 4
(o)Rush Woodrushes
(o)Saint Johns Wort
Saltmarsh Grasses
(o)Sea Lavender
(o)Sedge Rush-like
(o)Sedges Carex 1
(o)Sedges Carex 2
(o)Sedges Carex 3
(o)Sedges Carex 4
Tassel Pondweed
(o)Thyme 1
(o)Thyme 2
(o)Umbellifer 1
(o)Umbellifer 2
(o)Water Fern
(o)Water Milfoil
(o)Water Plantain
(o)Water Starwort

Topic -
The following is a complete hierarchical Plant Selection Process

dependent on the Garden Style chosen
Garden Style
...Infill Plants
...12 Bloom Colours per Month Index
...12 Foliage Colours per Month Index
...All Plants Index
...Cultivation, Position, Use Index
...Shape, Form

Topic -
Plant Selection Process comparing relevant plants of all types within each of the number of colours for each Flower or Foliage Colour Gallery.

All Flowers 53 with
...Use of Plant and
Flower Shape
- page links in next row

All Foliage 53
instead of redundant
...(All Foliage 212)

All Flowers
per Month 12

Bee instead of wind pollinated plants for hay-fever sufferers
All Bee-Pollinated Flowers
per Month

Rock Garden and Alpine Flowers
Rock Plant Flowers 53

...Rock Plant Photos

Flower Colour Wheel without photos, but with links to photos
12 Bloom Colours
per Month Index

...All Plants Index

Topic -
Use of Plant in your Plant Selection Process

Plant Colour Wheel Uses
1. Perfect general use soil is composed of 8.3% lime, 16.6% humus, 25% clay and 50% sand, and
2. Why you are continually losing the SOIL STRUCTURE so your soil - will revert to clay, chalk, sand or silt.
Uses of Plant and Flower Shape:-
...Foliage Only
...Other than Green Foliage
...Trees in Lawn
...Trees in Small Gardens
...Wildflower Garden
...Attract Bird
...Attract Butterfly
, 2
...Climber on House Wall
...Climber not on House Wall
...Climber in Tree
...Pollution Barrier
...Part Shade
...Full Shade
...Single Flower provides Pollen for Bees
, 2, 3
...Covering Banks
...Patio Pot
...Edging Borders
...Back of Border
...Adjacent to Water
...Bog Garden
...Tolerant of Poor Soil
...Not Fragrant
...Standard Plant is 'Ball on Stick'
...Upright Branches or Sword-shaped leaves
...Plant to Prevent Entry to Human or Animal
...Coastal Conditions
...Tolerant on North-facing Wall
...Cut Flower
...Potted Veg Outdoors
...Potted Veg Indoors
...Raised Bed Outdoors Veg
...Grow in Alkaline Soil A-F, G-L, M-R,
...Grow in Acidic Soil
...Grow in Any Soil
...Grow in Rock Garden
...Grow Bulbs Indoors

Uses of Bedding
...Bedding Out
...Filling In
...Pots and Troughs
...Window Boxes
...Hanging Baskets
...Spring Bedding
...Summer Bedding
...Winter Bedding
...Foliage instead of Flower
...Coleus Bedding Photos for use in Public Domain 1

Uses of Bulb
...Other than Only Green Foliage
...Bedding or Mass Planting
...Tolerant of Shade
...In Woodland Areas
...Tolerant of Poor Soil
...Covering Banks
...In Water
...Beside Stream or Water Garden
...Coastal Conditions
...Edging Borders
...Back of Border or Back-ground Plant
...Fragrant Flowers
...Not Fragrant Flowers

...Grow in a Patio Pot
...Grow in an Alpine Trough
...Grow in an Alpine House
...Grow in Rock Garden
...Speciman Plant
...Into Native Plant Garden
...Naturalize in Grass
...Grow in Hanging Basket
...Grow in Window-box
...Grow in Green-house
...Grow in Scree
...Naturalized Plant Area
...Grow in Cottage Garden
...Attracts Butterflies
...Attracts Bees
...Resistant to Wildlife
...Bulb in Soil:-
......Lime-Free (Acid)

Uses of Rose
...Climber /Pillar
...Exhibition, Speciman
...Grow In A Container
...Climber in Tree
...Edging Borders
...Tolerant of Poor Soil
...Tolerant of Shade
...Back of Border
...Adjacent to Water

Topic -
Camera Photo Galleries showing all 4000 x 3000 pixels of each photo on your screen that you can then click and drag it to your desktop as part of a Plant Selection Process:-

RHS Garden at Wisley

Plant Supports -
When supporting plants in a bed, it is found that not only do those plants grow upwards, but also they expand their roots and footpad sideways each year. Pages
, 2, 3, 8, 11,
12, 13,
Plants 4, 7, 10,
Bedding Plants 5,
Plant Supports for Unknown Plants 5
Clematis Climbers 6,
the RHS does not appear to either follow it's own pruning advice or advice from The Pruning of Trees, Shrubs and Conifers by George E. Brown.
ISBN 0-571-11084-3 with the plants in Pages 1-7 of this folder. You can see from looking at both these resources as to whether the pruning carried out on the remainder of the plants in Pages 7-15 was correct.

Narcissus (Daffodil) 9,
Phlox Plant Supports 14, 15

Coleus Bedding Foliage Trial - Pages
1, 2, 3, 4, 5,
6, 7, 8, 9, 10,
11, 12, 13, 14, 15,
16, 17, 18, 19, 20,
21, 22, 23, 24, 25,
26, 27, 28, 29, 30,
31, 32, Index

National Trust Garden at Sissinghurst Castle
Plant Supports -
Pages for Gallery 1

with Plant Supports
1, 5, 10
2, 3, 4, 6, 7, 8, 9,
11, 12
Recommended Rose Pruning Methods 13
Pages for Gallery 2
with Plant Supports
Plants 1, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7

Dry Garden of
RHS Garden at
Hyde Hall

Plants - Pages
without Plant Supports
Plants 1
, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9

Nursery of
Peter Beales Roses
Display Garden

Roses Pages
1, 2, 3, 4, 5,
6, 7, 8, 9, 10,
11, 12, 13

Nursery of
RV Roger

Roses - Pages
V76,Z77, 78,

Damage by Plants in Chilham Village - Pages
1, 2, 3, 4

Pavements of Funchal, Madeira
Damage to Trees - Pages
1, 2, 3, 4, 5,
6, 7, 8, 9, 10,
11, 12, 13
for trees 1-54,
14, 15,
16, 17, 18, 19, 20,
21, 22, 23, 24, 25,
for trees 55-95,
26, 27, 28, 29, 30,
31, 32, 33, 34, 35,
36, 37,
for trees 95-133,
38, 39, 40,
41, 42, 43, 44, 45,
for trees 133-166

Chris Garnons-Williams
Work Done - Pages
1, 2, 3, 4, 5,
6, 7, 8, 9, 10,
11, 12, 13

Identity of Plants
Label Problems - Pages
1, 2, 3, 4, 5,
6, 7, 8, 9, 10,

Ron and Christine Foord - 1036 photos only inserted so far - Garden Flowers - Start Page of each Gallery
AB1 ,AN14,BA27,

Plant with Photo Index of Ivydene Gardens - 1187
A 1, 2, Photos - 43
B 1, Photos - 13
C 1, Photos - 35
D 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7,
Photos - 411
with Plants causing damage to buildings in Chilham Village and Damage to Trees in Pavements of Funchal
E 1, Photos - 21
F 1, Photos - 1
G 1, Photos - 5
H 1, Photos - 21
I 1, Photos - 8
J 1, Photos - 1
K 1, Photos - 1
L 1, Photos - 85
with Label Problems
M 1, Photos - 9
N 1, Photos - 12
O 1, Photos - 5
P 1, Photos - 54
Q 1, Photos -
R 1, 2, 3,
Photos - 229
S 1, Photos - 111
T 1, Photos - 13
U 1, Photos - 5
V 1, Photos - 4
W 1, Photos - 100
with Work Done by Chris Garnons-Williams
X 1 Photos -
Y 1, Photos -
Z 1 Photos -
Articles/Items in Ivydene Gardens - 88
Flower Colour, Num of Petals, Shape and
Plant Use of:-
Rock Garden
within linked page

Topic -
Fragrant Plants as a Plant Selection Process for your sense of smell:-

Sense of Fragrance from Roy Genders

Fragrant Plants:-
Trees and Shrubs with Scented Flowers
, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6
Shrubs bearing Scented Flowers for an Acid Soil
, 2, 3, 4
Shrubs bearing Scented Flowers for a
Chalky or Limestone Soil
, 2, 3, 4
Shrubs bearing Scented leaves for a
Sandy Soil
, 2, 3
Herbaceous Plants with Scented Flowers
, 2, 3
Annual and Biennial Plants with Scented Flowers or Leaves
, 2
Bulbs and Corms with Scented Flowers
, 2, 3, 4, 5
Scented Plants of Climbing and Trailing Habit
, 2, 3
Winter-flowering Plants with Scented Flowers
, 2
Night-scented Flowering Plants
, 2

Topic -
Website User Guidelines

My Gas Service Engineer found Flow and Return pipes incorrectly positioned on gas boilers and customers had refused to have positioning corrected in 2020.