Picture Folder Name Pages:-

Since 14 June 2019 I have also started to put my own full-sized 4000 x 3000 digital Camera images into the relevant topics in this website again for use in the Public Domain - since there may be 9 or more to a page the resulting
43 Mb website page may take some time to load
. Since I have more than 26,522 photos using 112.83 GB of my disk space, then the extra upfront cost per annum before creating more folders like Photo coleus is just over 3.16 pence per photo has to be paid for the total number in that entire photo collection before any are sent to the website.
It is hoped that you may find them of interest.

Foord garden flower slides Folder of 35mm 'Ektachrome' Transparency slides taken by Ron & Christine Foord of Rochester, Kent in England during the 20th century. Both have been
dead for years and these slides were passed onto Chris Garnons-Williams.

Slides taken by Ron or Christine Foord have been scanned individually and converted by an F22MP 126PK Super 8 Slides & Negatives All-in-1 Film Scanner to JPEGS by Chris Garnons-Williams in the original size and as a thumbnail during 2020-21.

Ron and Christine Foord
Garden Flowers - Pages of all these Galleries

AB1,AC2,AC3,AC4,AC5,
AE6,AG7,AL8,AL9,AL10,
AL11,AM12,AN13,AN14,AN15,
AN16,AN17,AN18,AN19,AQ20,
AR21,AR22,AR23,AR24,AS25,
AR26,
BA27,BE28,BE29,BR30,
CA31,CA32,CA33,CA34,CA35,
CA36,CA37,CH38,CH39,CH40,
CI41,CL42,CL43,CO44,CO45,
CO46,CO47,CO48,CO49,CR50,
CR51,CR52,CR53,CY54,CY55,
CY56,
DA57,DE58,DI59,DI60,
DI61,DO62,DR63,DR64,
ED65,
EL66,EP67,ER68,ER69,ER70,
EU71,
FO72,FR73,FR74,FR75,
FR76,FU77,FU78,
GA79,GE80,
GE81,GE82,GE83,GE84,GE85,
GL86,GL87,

Heather -
Calluna AR88,PE89,
Daboecia BI90,
Erica AR91,CI92,CI93,

HA94,HE95,
HE96,HE97,HE98,HE99,HE100,
HO101,HY102,
IB103,IM104,IR105,
IR106,IR107, 108, 109, 110,
111, 112, 113, 114, 115,
116, 117,

When I have completed the conversion of all the slides from Ron and Christine Foord and inserted a relevant selection of the digitised images into the Photo Garden Flowers Galleries in some months time, then I will complete their text field in the thumbnail row starting with the
letter A (written 11 November 2020).

 

 

Number of Colours required to provide a practical means of roughly differentiating between flower colours, foliage colours and bark/stem colours of plants.

Flower Colour:-
These are the 14 Flower Colours for the UK Native Wildflowers:-
Wild Flower with its
flower colour page, space,
Site Map page in its flower colour
NOTE Gallery
...Blue Note
...Brown Note
...Cream Note
...Green Note
...Mauve Note
...Multi-Cols Note
...Orange Note
...Pink A-G Note
...Pink H-Z Note
...Purple Note
...Red Note
...White A-D Note
...White E-P Note
...White Q-Z Note
...Yellow A-G Note
...Yellow H-Z Note
...Shrub/Tree Note

There are 53 flower colours for All Flowers Colour Wheel and Rock Plant Flowers:-
Dark Tone or Shades (Colours mixed with Black) is the outer circle of colours.
Mid-Tone (Colours mixed with Grey) is the next circle of colours.
Pure Hue (the Primary, Secondary or Tertiary Colour named) is the next circle of colours.
Pastel (Colours mixed with White) is the innermost circle of colours.

These 12 colour spokes of
Dark Tone,
Mid-Tone,
Pure Hue and
Pastel are split into:-

Number

Primary Colour Name

Pure Hue Colour Name Used

1

Red

Red

2

Yellow

Yellow

3

Blue

Blue

Number

Secondary Colour Name

Pure Hue Colour Name Used

10

Orange

Vitamin C

11

Green

Lime

12

Violet

Magenta

Number

Tertiary Colour Name

Pure Hue Colour Name Used

100

Red Orange

Orange

101

Yellow Orange

Tangerine

102

Yellow Green

Lovely Lime

103

Blue Green

Light Teal

104

Blue Violet

Grape

 

Dark tone, mid-tone, pure hue followed by pastel colour:-

  1. blood red, fuzzy wuzzy, red, flat pink.
  2. chocolate, heatland, orange, orangelin.
  3. rusty pelican, tuscany, vitamin c, atomic tangerine.
  4. browser caramel, buddha gold, tangerine, sand.
  5. grass stain, pine glade, yellow, bone.
  6. verdun green, slimer 2, lovely lime, limeade.
  7. pakistan green, weak green, lime, offwhite green.
  8. blue stone, aqua, light teal, baby blue.
  9. navy blue, periwinkle, blue, offwhite blue.
  10. violet, the bands, grape, mauve.
  11. royal purple, calihoe, magenta, magenta shift.
  12. dried blood, forbidden, process pagenta, pink.
  13. white, white wildflower, gray, silver, black

There are 7 flower colours:-
blue, white, yellow, unusual, and red, pink or purple as in the
Bulb gallery.

These are the 12 flower colours for
Flower in Month and Bee-Pollinated Plants:-
red, pink, white, cream, mauve, purple, blue, yellow, brown, green, orange and unusual or multi-coloured.

Foliage Colour:-
I have created a Foliage Colour Wheel -
All Foliage 212 - using 212 web-safe colours. My 212 web-safe colours just do not cut the mustard.
This is instead of using the best Colour Wheel of 2058 colours in the
Pantone Goe System, but this link no longer connects to Pantone. So perhaps the Pantone Goe System is no longer sold or maintained.

So as from 18 January 2021, I have decided to use the 53 colours of All Flowers Colour Wheel and Rock Plant Flowers above for the flowers and the foliage in the future combined with the 14 Flower Colours for the UK Native Wildflowers Wild Flower for the UK Wildflowers. I also intend to put the required plant into the respective pages of the Plant Colour Wheel Uses Gallery.
This makes for a practical number of flower and foliage colours for use in the horticultural environment.

List of Pictures in a Picture Folder:-

Ron & Christine Foord took many photos of wildflower plants and stored them as Kodak 'Kodachrome' Transparency 35mm slides in the 1960-90s as well as these 10,000 of Garden Flowers. If they used other film, then the colour on the slides became sepia over a few years, whereas this did not occur with Kodachrome. The green perhaps got darker over a 50 year period. I am adding these scanned slides to my photos for sending to my website for use in the Public Domain starting in February 2020.
 

Page 52

Crocus 'Golden Bunch' Mar 72
PICT01289.JPG

Crocus laevigatus fontenayi Mar 71
PICT01290.JPG

Crocus laevigatus fontenayi Mar 71
PICT01292.JPG

Crocus 'Princess Beatrix' Mar 85
PICT01266.JPG

Crocus sieberi 'Hubert Edelston'
25 1 71 Rochester
PICT01304.JPG

Crocus sieberi 'Hubert Edelston
25 1 71 Rochester
PICT01303.JPG

Crocus sieberi 'Hubert Edelston'
25 1 71 Rochester
PICT01306.JPG

Crocus speciosus
PICT01315.JPG

Crocus speciosus with Bumble Bee
Oct 71
PICT01318.JPG

Crocus speciosus Nov 71
PICT01325.JPG

Crocus speciosus 11 89
PICT01319.JPG

Page 53

Crocus tomasinianus
PICT01336.JPG

Crocus tomasinianus
PICT01330.JPG

Crocus tomasinianus 03 91
PICT01331.JPG

Crocus tomasinianus Mar 71
PICT01346.JPG

Crocus tomasinianus 'Whitewell Purple'
PICT01333.JPG

Cyclamen cilicium Sep 71
PICT01350.JPG

Cyclamen cilicium
PICT01351.JPG

Cyclamen cilicium Oct 78
PICT01352.JPG

Cyclamen coum album
PICT01353.JPG

Cyclamen hederifolium 3 10 62
Sowbread at Woodchurch
PICT01356.JPG

Cyclamen seeds
PICT01349.JPG

Page 54

Cyclamen neapolitanum Sep 70
PICT01359.JPG

Cyclamen neapolitanum 14 9 68
PICT01432.JPG

Cyclamen neapolitanum Sep 70
flower and seed
PICT01430.JPG

Cyclamen neapolitanum Oct 71
PICT01426.JPG

Cyclamen neapolitanum Oct 71
PICT01428.JPG

Cyperus alternifolius
Umbrella Plant Oct 98
PICT01410.JPG

Cyperus alternifolius
Umbrella Plant Aug 94
PICT01409.JPG

Cyperus alternifolius
Umbrella Plant
PICT01405.JPG

Cyperus alternifolius
Umbrella Plant
PICT01408.JPG

Cyperus alternifolius
Umbrella Plant 06 92
PICT01407.JPG

Cyperus alternifolius 03 89
Young Umbrella Plant
PICT01406.JPG

Page 55

Cytisus battandieri Jul 84
PICT01373.JPG

Cytisus battandieri 06 90
PICT01370.JPG

Cytisus battandieri 06 90
PICT01369.JPG

Cytisus battandieri
PICT01380.JPG

Cytisus battandieri Jul 84
PICT01363.JPG

Cytisus battandieri 08 89
PICT01374.JPG

Cytisus 'Joan Clark'
PICT01389.JPG

Cytisus 'Lena' 25 05 95
PICT01401.JPG

Cytisus 'Peter Pan' Jul 77
PICT01391.JPG

Cytisus scoparius andreanus Broom
PICT01394.JPG

Cytisus scoparius andreanus
Broom seed pods
PICT01395.JPG

Page 56

Cytisus purpureus incarnatus Jun 81
PICT01392.JPG

Cytisus scoparius May 85 Broom
PICT01400.JPG

Cytisus x beanii 4 5 70
PICT01397.JPG

Cytisus x beanii Jun 72
PICT01388.JPG

Cytisus x beanii May 73
PICT01386.JPG

Dahlia 'Baby Royal' Nov 71
PICT01433.JPG

Dahlia 'Blue Moon' 08 85
PICT01435.JPG

Dahlia 'Fleur de Holland' 09 89
PICT01439.JPG

Daphne collina Apr 73
PICT01452.JPG

Delphinium nudicaule
PICT01477.JPG

Delphinium nudicaule
PICT01475.JPG

Page 57

Daphne cneorum 20 5 71
in Liechenstein
PICT01444.JPG

Daphne cneorum 15 5 71
Furstensteig in Liechenstein
PICT01448.JPG

Daphne cneorum
furstensteig in Liechenstein 15 5 71
PICT01441.JPG

Daphne mesereum 04 86
PICT01456.JPG

Daphne mesereum Apr 85
PICT01457.JPG

Daphne mesereum berry 08 89
PICT01460.JPG

Daphne mesereum alba Mar 71
PICT01454.JPG

Darlingtonia californica Oct 98
Cobra lily
PICT01463.JPG

Darlingtonia californica 09 08 95
Cobra lily
PICT01464.JPG

Darlingtonia californica Aug 94
Cobra lily
PICT01466.JPG

Dianthus erinaceus
PICT01496.JPG

Page 58

Delphinium ajacis 6 7 67
Larkspur in Strood
PICT01469.JPG

Delphinium ajacis Aug 72
Larkspur
PICT01474.JPG

Delphinium ajacis Larkspur
PICT01472.JPG

Delphinium ajacis Aug 72
Larkspur
PICT01471.JPG

Dendromecon rigida 23 5 70
at Wisley
PICT01480.JPG

Dendromecon rigida 23 5 70
at Wisley
PICT01479.JPG

Dendromecon rigida 23 5 70
at Wisley
PICT01481.JPG

Deutzia scabra 'Pride of Rochester'
PICT01483.JPG

Deutzia scabra 'Pride of Rochester'
PICT01489.JPG

Deutzia scabra 'Pride of Rochester'
PICT01486.JPG

Dianthus barbatus 08 90
Sweet William
PICT01492.JPG

Page 59

Dianthus neglectus Jun 78
PICT01498.JPG

Diascia barberae 07 90
PICT01499.JPG

Diascia barberae 07 90
PICT01501.JPG

Diascia cordata Jul 78
PICT01506.JPG

Diascia cordata 9 7 70
at Bressingham Hall
PICT01508.JPG

Diascia cordata 08 92
PICT01505.JPG

Dicentra alba 06 91
PICT01512.JPG

Dicentra eximia alba 14 9 68
PICT01510.JPG

Dictamnus albus 07 91
PICT01514.JPG

Dictamnus albus 26 06 97
PICT01515.JPG

Dictamnus albus 08 90 Seed head
PICT01521.JPG

Page 60

Dierama pulcherrimum Jul 79
PICT01525.JPG

Digitalis ambigua
PICT01526.JPG

Digitalis lutea Sep 66
PICT01527.JPG

Digitalis lutea x purpurea Aug 80
PICT01532.JPG

Digitalis lutea x purpurea Jul 79
PICT01534.JPG

Digitalis lutea x purpurea Jun 83
PICT01531.JPG

Digitalis purpurea Jun 76 Foxglove
PICT01544.JPG

Digitalis purpurea Jun 76 Foxglove
PICT01545.JPG

Digitalis purpurea 07 85 Foxgloves
PICT01546.JPG

Dionysia oreodoxa 19 4 69 at Wisley
PICT01600.JPG

Dionysia oreodoxa 19 4 69 at Wisley
PICT01601.JPG

Page 61

Dimorphotheca barberiae Jun 73
PICT01548.JPG

Dimorphotheca barberiae
PICT01551.JPG

Dimorphotheca barberiae
PICT01554.JPG

Dionysia aretioides Apr 75
PICT01576.JPG

Dionysia aretioides Mar 74
PICT01556.JPG

Dionysia aretioides Apr 75
PICT01589.JPG

Dionysia aretioides
PICT01560.JPG

Dionysia aretioides Jan 74
PICT01562.JPG

Dionysia aretioides Jul 75
PICT01588.JPG

Dionysia aretioides -
One year in garden May 75
PICT01585.JPG

Dionysia aretioides Jan 74
PICT01584.JPG

Page 62

Dodecatheon meadia 23 5 70
at Wisley
PICT01608.JPG

Dodecatheon meadia 23 5 70
at Wisley
PICT01609.JPG

Dodecatheon meadia dark form
25 5 70 at Wisley
PICT01604.JPG

Dodecatheon meadia Jun 83
PICT01606.JPG

Dodecatheon meadia Jun 81
PICT01610.JPG

Douglasia vitaliana 1 5 71
PICT01614.JPG

Douglasia vitaliana May 73
PICT01616.JPG

Douglasia vitaliana May 76
PICT01617.JPG

Draba aizoides Apr 71
PICT01625.JPG

Draba aizoides Mar 72
PICT01635.JPG

Draba aizoides May 73
Howard Avenue
PICT01627.JPG

 

Plant Labelling - A suggestion for plant labelling to help visitors

A different solution is that each gardening member of the RHS staff at Wisley be provided with Large White Plastic Angled-Head Labels which are 20 inches (50 cms) in height with a 6 x 4 inch (16 x 10 cms) writing surface and a Marker pen with Black ink to provide a good temporary label for the above broken label (in Lost Flowers page) or for missing labels.
Then, the black background permanent label could be ordered at the end of that working day to replace this temporary label, which has been inserted into the ground in front of the relevant plant section.

If you are concerned about these labels going on "Walkabout", then insert another white label behind the plant and make it invisible to the public.

Site design and content copyright ©November 2020.
Chris Garnons-Williams.

DISCLAIMER: Links to external sites are provided as a
courtesy to visitors. Ivydene Horticultural Services are
not responsible for the content and/or quality of external
web sites linked from this site.  

 

Ivydene Horticultural Services logo with I design, construct and maintain private gardens. I also advise and teach you in your own garden. 01634 389677

Picture Folder Name Pages:-

Damage to Trees in Pavement in Madeira caused by the action of man during January/February 2019.

Solution to holes in trees.
Remove mesh covers and rot within the hole. Then blast the remaining rot with a high pressure water hose to try and clear more of the rot. Spray with Boron (a water based preservative kills only wood boring insects - not spiders, birds or bats) as a treatment for insect, wet and dry rot attack. While it is still wet, apply a layer of Expanding Foam to the bottom of the hole. Immediately place bottles on this 
and allow to set for 5 minutes. Apply another layer of expanding foam and another layer of bottles. The aim of the bottles is to occupy space, they are not there as a deterrent. That is why the foam has to be in contact with the inside of the tree not the glass bottle. The poisons in the foam will kill anything eating it and the foam does stick better when wet with water. Keep up this operation until the hole is covered. 
Leave to set and then paint the foam surface twice with a recommended water-based, but not oil-based, sealant.

Solutions to stop creating holes in trees.
When a branch is cut off, remember to cut it off on the other side of the Branch Collar. (See Figure 1 - Optimum position of the final pruning cut in "Guide to Tree Pruning" by the Arboricultural Association which shows the branch collar within and outside the tree. My Comments: I disagree with their recommendation not to apply wound paint as you can see the result if you do not paint trees which are dehydrated, starved and gassed as these trees in the pavements of Madeira are.) 
Once that is done, then immediately apply Boron and 2 coats of protective sealant as used for holes in trees above.

Solution to current problem on these mosaic pavements:-
Carefully remove the existing marble mosaic, concrete, tarmac, or paver and 
the concrete/metal enclosures round the trees. If any further solid material like gravel, bricks, stones etc can be removed as well, then do so. Level the ground with sharp sand (Sharp sand is like pyramids which lock together, builder's sand is like ball bearings which displaces itself elsewhere if it can when downward pressure is applied to it). 
The time to execute the above and complete the refilling with sharp sand must 
be completed within 20 minutes, otherwise the exposed roots will dry up and die. 
It is useful to now water it to settle the sand and keep the roots wet. Put the roll 
of continuous geotextile over the top before laying down the
CEDAdrive slabs on 
top. Fill the slabs with the required colours of marble pea-shingle and leave a 
3 inch (7.5 cm) gap between the trunk and the CEDAdrive section (Besides black 
and white marble, you can get many other colours). Spead Green Manure seed in 
the gap and cover to the same level as the top of the CEDAdrive with its pea-shingle; 
with sharp sand. The Green manure will provide a little nourishment for the tree 
and protection for the expanding trunk, together with protection from cigarettes. 
Further protection can be carried out by providing seating round the trunk, so that 
old fogeys like me can rest.
Pop-up irrigation water pipes can be supplied from these water manholes currently in the pavements and they can be set to irrigate each section in rotation from 
Midnight to 06:00 in the morning. A dissolved mixture of seaweed, fully composted animal waste and fully worm composted human food waste from restaurants/hotels can be applied over a pavement an hour before that section is irrigated 3 times a year to provide the same fertilizer regime as practised by the gardeners at the Pestana Mirimar for that hotel's garden. The drained solids from the above fertilizer solution can be applied over the sand between the tree and the CEDAdrive.
An alternative to using marble pea-shingle is Topmix Permeable Concrete within the
CEDAdrive slabs. This would perform the same function as the marble pea-shingle, but it may be cheaper and quicker to use in other pavements. The depth of the Cedadrive slabs might have to be increased if traffic is allowed to cross or park on this type of pavement surface.

166 trees in the pavements in a short section of a road in Funchal, Madeira are being slowly, starved, dehydrated, asphyxiated, poisoned by tarmac and concrete, burnt inside their hollow trunks, roots pounded by 40 ton lorries or shoes of pedestrians, and allowed to rot until killed off during February 2019 (see information in Problems with trees in pavements in Funchal, Madeira in January/February 2018 Page, which appears to have had no effect) as shown by my 433 photos in the following pages within the Home Topic:-

  • Death of tree roots and
  • Death of tree trunks/branches caused by people.
  • Solution to problems for trees caused by people using irrigation -
    Growth of Pollarded Tree in Hotel Garden in 1 year provides a water solution to this destruction.
  • Damage to Tree Trunks 1, 2, 3, 4 caused by people,
  • Damage to Tree Roots caused by people,
  • Area of Open Ground round trees,
  • New Trees in pavements 1, 2,
  • Irrigation of current trees,
  • Watersprouts on trees,
  • Crossing Branches in trees,
  • Utility Equipment with tree Foliage,
  • Lights on trees,
  • Bycycle Lane in Pavement,
  • Public Gardens alongside pavements,
  • Hotel/Private Gardens alongside pavements,
  • Current Permeable Pavement Surface round trees and
  • Irrigation and Fertilising of trees.

Articles on

  • Branch Collar (see Solutions to stop creating holes in trees above) and the importance of leaving all of it while cutting off that branch
  • My repair to a 1300 year old yew tree in my church at the bottom of pages 1-12
  • Some of my work on trees using a chainsaw and chipper-shredder on page 13
  • Protective Dressing, Cavities and 'do not use plastic twine or wire to tie a plant' are at the bottom of pages 14-25 with Forked Leaders, also Terminal Bud and Dormant Branch Growth Bud.
    Details on Boron woodworm, wet and dry wood rot treatment on Page 16.
  • Ways to install trees at the bottom of pages 26-37 includes the following on watering - "Throughout the warm, summer weather, the tree will need the equivalent of 1 inch (2.5 cm) of rain per week and this water needs to be applied about twice each week (My Comments - since this is over the entire root area of this tree - which is at least the radius from the trunk of the height of the tree - then if the CEDAdrive slabs are used, apply 0.5 inchs (1.25 cms) of irrigation twice a week to that entire area).  Approximately 5-10 gallons (20 – 40 liters) of water is sufficient to moisten a 20-inch (50 cm) diameter root ball.  A 40-inch (100 cm) diameter root ball has more than twice the volume and would require 35-45 gallons (130 – 170 liters). 
    Another way to measure water need is with the following formula:   The tree needs 5 gallons minimum and 5 additional gallons per inch of diameter (DBH); hence a 3 inch DBH tree needs 20 gallons of water per week to equal 1 inch of rainfall, in other words, 5 gallons minimum + (3 X 5) 15 gallons = 20 gallons."
  • The Pruning and Maintenance of Mature Trees:
    • 'Lifting' or the removal of the lower branch systems,
    • Crown Thinning and
    • Crown Reduction
    • at the bottom of
      pages 38-45
  • Explaination of watersprouts and watershoots in the Watersprouts on Trees in Pavements in Funchal, Madeira Page. These should be removed from the trees since they are weakly joined to the branch/trunk from which they originated and are dangerous to use as supports for electricians or tree surgeons; as well as likely to fall down in a storm.

 

 

The day after I arrived in Funchal in January 2020, I spoke to Rita in Owner Relations and she sent an email. Not knowing about the efficiency of the local or main government, I spoke to the reception staff and they told me that Funchal was a Municipality with its own local government with its offices in Funchal. So I took the bus into town and went round the Municipality Offices until I was escorted to a building where you could ask questions in the A group pay bills in the B group and do something else in the C group. Speaking to an official in the A group, I managed to convince him that I had more details about the tree problems on my website, so as to overcome his response of getting me to send an email. He presented a piece of paper with Eng Francisco Andrade, Est. Marmeiros, No 1, Jardins & Espaces Verdes on it. I handed this to a taxi driver and arrived. I spoke with an english-speaking colleague of his and then he very kindly agreed to talk to me with his english-speaking colleague:-

  • He stated that the local policy was not to apply any wound sealant since diseases, etc could get under it and cause further damage. He asked me if I had any literature to back up my use of black water-based masonry paint (instead of Arbrex, which I had started to use, but I doubted whether my clients would see the point of the expense) and I could not present him with any. Nor could I present any literature to support my use of expanding foam with bottles to fill the hole, since my work on the yew tree in the graveyard of St Margarets Church in Rainham had revised their website and the article about that tree had not yet been transposed.
  • He pointed out that he had employed one of the 6 tree experts from September 2019 to monitor the trees in the pavements. Each tree was tagged with a black plastic disc with a screw through its middle into the tree about 3 metres from the ground. The disc had Funchal and a 5 figure number on it. The location of the tree would then be identified on a town map and details of type of tree, which country it originated in, etc would then probably appear in a catalogue. I was not told when his report about the trees was expected and presumably what if any action to take.
  • I asked about the burnt insides of damaged trees and was told the people used them as waste bins and presumbably if a lighted cigarette was thrown then it woul start the fire and burn the heartwood as well as the rot. Metal grids were attached to try and stop the practice of using the cavities as waste bins, some of which have rusted away.
  • Then we looked at the start of the raw camera images and the one of the gardener with the strimmer to cut the long grass in a public area, I pointed out the problem that grass could absorb a great deal of water each week and leave the ground underneath bone dry with the literature to support that.
    I suggested the replacement of grass/lawn with legumes like green manure would stop the tree roots from being too dry, that the legumes have symbiotic nitrogen-fixing bacteria in structures called root nodules. When a legume plant dies in the field, for example following the harvest, all of its remaining nitrogen, incorporated into amino acids inside the remaining plant parts, is released back into the soil. In the soil, the amino acids are converted to nitrate (NO−3), making the nitrogen available to other plants, thereby serving as fertilizer for future crops.
    If the legumes as green manure are used in between shrubs/bedding/perennials then the ground would not dry out so quickly, so saving water and providing future fertilizer for those other plants.
  • When I touched on the subject of CEDAdrive, he did point out that it might be too expensive to implement and was not sure whether it would be suitable for pavements where vehicles would go over them (even though they will take 400 tonnes per square metre).
  • With electricity cables running through the roots of trees, the electromagnetic field is high and does it affect the tree roots in a very small space, the same way as for humans? Pedestrians between these trees will be exposed to almost the same electromagnetic field for the length of their walk. Maybe putting the electricity cables under the centre of the road would be safer.
  • I thanked them for their time and found a bus stop to get back into Funchal town centre.

The population of Funchal is 111,892.
The population of Madeira is estimated at 244,286 in 2017.
The population of Medway as measured in the 2001 Census was 249,488 of which 99,773 live in Gillingham area which includes Rainham where I live.

No wonder that Cedadrive is expensive for such a small population. So, what can they use that is produced in Madeira, since the transport cost of a container from Portugal is 2000 euros (that figure was given me by an employee of a large builder's merchant, and I saw 2 containers being unloaded at their yard, which were not large ones).

So I took a taxi to a builders merchant (might be Ferreirae in the upper regions of Funchal).

  • They did not sell or know what pea-shingle was. This is what I would have filled the CEDAdrive with.
  • The original mosaic pavements in Funchal were covered in small black basalt and white limestone cobbles. The limestone comes from Portugal. The black basalt is mined in Madeira and the email address of a local stone quarry is geral@ferreiraebrum.pt
    The english-speaking employee showed me a 25kg bag of basalt of probably 20mm rocks which could be dropped 200cms without breaking. Another bag of probably 2mm rocks, which was added to cement to make it a stronger concrete. Both came from a local mine.
  • Madeira has black volcanic sand on its beaches.

So, if the local basalt mine created 10mm x 10mm rocks, these could be used as spacers:-

  • If you start with the concrete pavers, then remove them and put down a depth of 2 inches (5 cms) black sand, cover that with a weed control fabric, then relay the pavers with a 10mm x 10mm spacer on each of the 2 shortest sides and 2 on the 2 longest sides, then fill the gap with the black sand.
  • The created excess of concrete pavers could then be used in a 200cm radius round each tree using the same system as above to replace the solid concrete or tarmac in that area.
  • The same system could be used on the mosaic pavements in replacing the concrete pointing with the black sand and spacers. If the system is not solidified sufficiently then replace the pointing black sand with the 2mm basalt, which would then lock together.
  • Carry out the required irrigation and natural fertiliser system as I have already recommended to provide the water and the humus required by the bacterium to continue rebuilding the soil and providing for the gaseous exchange by the roots in either the whole pavement if it is lined with trees or groups of 3 -5 trees, which can help each other in later years as shown in The Hidden Life of Trees by Peter Wohlleben ISBN 978-0-00-821843-0.

If you use boron from colemanite (The use of ores like colemanite has declined following concerns over arsenic content) and mix it with the black sand and seawater to fill the bottom section of cavities, it will kill off the rot in the trunk and stop the cavity being filled with waste. The arsenic will also stop ants from eating it. Then mix it with wallpaper paste to fill the top half of the cavity and you have sorted the cavity problem.

Painting the cut ends with the boron prevents the end from rotting (Boric acid is more toxic to insects than to mammals, and is routinely used as an insecticide).

I had forgotten that I did have the supporting literature about wound dressings (as used in my year at Hadlow College to get a HNC in Horticulture) in this course book:-
"Pages 6-7 of The Pruning of Trees, Shrubs and Conifers by
George E. Brown.
ISBN 0-571-11084-3"

It is unfortunate that with all the other responsibilities that the Funchal Municipality has that they will find it very difficult to locate the finance, resources or personnel to carry out whatever remedial work to over 3000 trees being monitored since September 2019 that the Tree Expert from Portugal recommends, especially if someone continues to remove the identity discs.


Coleus Bedding Foliage Trial Folder
from Plant Trials Field in RHS Garden
at Wisley taken on
2 October 2013
1, plus Tables of Annuals with/for:-
2, Blue to Purple Flowers
3, Red to Pink Flowers 1, 2
4, Green Flowers
5, Black or Brown Flowers
6, Yellow, and Orange Flowers
7, White Flowers
8,
9, Low-Growing
10,
11, Medium-Growing
12, Tall-Growing
13, Heat-Tolerant
14, Moist Soil
15, Shade
16, Indoors
17, Cutting
18, Naturalize
19, Decorative Foliage
20, Edging
21, Fragrance
22, Hanging Baskets
23, Vining
24, Wildflower Meadows
25, Coastal Gardens
26, Mounded Habit
27, Erect Habit
28, Clump-Forming Habit
29, Compact/Bushy Habit
30, Spreading/Sprawling Habit
31, To Cover Fences
32, Odds and Sods 1, 2
Coleus Bedding Trial Index
Range, Culture and Description Details of each of the above are within
Essential Annuals The 100 best for Design and Cultivation.
Text by Elizabeth Murray. Photography by Derek Fell.
Published by Crescent Books in 1989. ISBN 0-517-66177-2

 

Bedding Gallery has
other bedding plants, in their
flower colour,
flower shape and
bedding plant use
pages.

 

Topic - Flower/Foliage Colour
Colour Wheel Galleries

Following your choice using Garden Style then that changes your Plant Selection Process
Garden Style
...Infill Plants
...12 Bloom Colours per Month Index
...12 Foliage Colours per Month Index
...All Plants Index
...Cultivation, Position, Use Index
...Shape, Form
Index

Further details on Bedding from the Infill Plants Galleries of the above topic:-
...for Spring
...for Summer
...for Autumn
...for Winter
...for Sandy Soil
...for Acid Soil
...for Chalky Soil
...for Clay Soil
...Flower Colour:-
......Black
......Blue
......Orange
......Pink
......Purple
......Red
......White
......Yellow
......Multi-coloured
...Use of Bedding:-
......Aromatic Fol
......Scented Flo
......Long Flo
......Coloured Fol
......for Bees, etc
......Cut Flos
......Hanging Pot
......Pots/ Troughs
......Screening
......Window Box
......Bedding Out
......Filling in

Further details on Annuals from the Infill Galleries:-
Uses of Annuals

...Exposed Sites
...Sheltered Sites
...in Greenhouse
...Extra Poor Soil
...Very Rich Soil
...Gap Filling
...Patio Pots
...Cut Flowers 1, 2
...Everlasting Flos
...Attract Insects
...with Fragrance
...Bee Pollinated
...Annual Pairing
...Low-Growing
...Med-Growing
...Tall Growing
...Flower Colour:-
......Black/Brown
......Blue-Purple
......Green
......Red-Pink
......White
......Yellow/Orange
...for its Foliage
...in Moist Soil
...in Shade
...as Houseplants
...Edging Beds
...Hanging Basket
...Vining Annuals

Ivydene Gardens Photo Garden Flowers 5 Gallery:
Page 60 has photos from the Foord garden flower slides Folder of 35mm 'Ektachrome'
Transparency slides taken by Ron & Christine Foord of Rochester, Kent in England
during the 20th century. Both have been dead for years and these slides were passed
onto Chris Garnons-Williams. These slides have been converted by an F22MP 126PK
Super 8 Slides & Negatives All-in-1 Film Scanner to JPEGS by Chris Garnons-Williams
in the original size and as a thumbnail during 2020. These can used in the Public Domain
for educational purposes in schools, or at home.

Row 1 has the Pass-Through Camera image of Thumbnail image named in Row 2
and is usually 4000 x 3000 pixels.

Row 2 has same image reduced to fit the image frame of 160 x 120 pixels as a
Passthrough Thumbnail to show all of the Camera Image. This image has been
reduced to 72 pixels per inch by Freeway before I stored it as a Passthrough image
for use both here (from August 2019) and as the image in
Plant with Photo Index of Ivydene Gardens A 1 Gallery.

Click on either image and drag to your desktop.
Then you can crop the Pass-Through Camera image to obtain the particular detail
that you require from that image, before using that cropped result in your endeavour.

Copying the pages and then clicking on the images to drag them may not work.

dieramapulcherrimumjul79PICT01525a

Dierama pulcherrimum Jul 79
PICT01525.JPG
taken by Ron or Christine Foord

rrcPICT01525indexdieramapulcherrimumjul79foord

digitalisambiguaPICT01526a

Digitalis ambigua
PICT01526.JPG
taken by Ron or Christine Foord

rrcPICT01526indexdigitalisambiguafoord

digitalisluteasep66PICT01527a

Digitalis lutea Sep 66
PICT01527.JPG
taken by Ron or Christine Foord

rrcPICT01527indexdigitalisluteasep66foord

digitalisluteaxpurpureaaug80PICT01532a

Digitalis lutea x purpurea Aug 80
PICT01532.JPG
taken by Ron or Christine Foord

rrcPICT01532indexdigitalisluteaxpurpureaaug80foord

digitalisluteaxpurpureajul79PICT01534a

Digitalis lutea x purpurea Jul 79
PICT01534.JPG
taken by Ron or Christine Foord

rrcPICT01534indexdigitalisluteaxpurpureajul79foord

digitalisluteaxpurpureajun83PICT01531a

Digitalis lutea x purpurea Jun 83
PICT01531.JPG
taken by Ron or Christine Foord

rrcPICT01531indexdigitalisluteaxpurpureajun83foord

digitalispurpureajun76foxglovePICT01544a

Digitalis purpurea Jun 76 Foxglove
PICT01544.JPG
taken by Ron or Christine Foord

rrcPICT01544indexdigitalispurpureajun76foxglovefoord

digitalispurpureajun76foxglovePICT01545a

Digitalis purpurea Jun 76 Foxglove
PICT01545.JPG
taken by Ron or Christine Foord

rrcPICT01545indexdigitalispurpureajun76foxglovefoord

digitalispurpurea0785foxglovesPICT01546a

Digitalis purpurea 07 85 Foxgloves
PICT01546.JPG
taken by Ron or Christine Foord

rrcPICT01546indexdigitalispurpurea0785foxglovesfoord

dionysiaoreodoxa19469atwisleyPICT01600a

Dionysia oreodoxa 19 4 69 at Wisley
PICT01600.JPG
taken by Ron or Christine Foord

rrcPICT01600indexdionysiaoreodoxa19469atwisleyfoord

dionysiaoreodoxa19469atwisleyPICT01601a

Dionysia oreodoxa 19 4 69 at Wisley
PICT01601.JPG
taken by Ron or Christine Foord

rrcPICT01601indexdionysiaoreodoxa19469atwisleyfoord

I have copied the archived post below, because what is stated there is extremely important, since
99.99% of gardeners in the UK totally ignore the fact that plant roots require oxygen, water and
organic nutrientss.
If you do not drink water and dont breathe, eventually you are are going to die.

 

damagetotreetrunks127garnonswilliams1a

Photo 127 - tree 70 from pestana mirimar branch stump with holes dehydration IMG_6404.JPG on
Damage to tree Trunks in Madeira caused by People Page 3 of 4.
How did the holes in this
stump get there while the tree was still growing? Was this due to the lack of irrigation to
these mature trees as the earth was replaced with concrete between the black and white
blocks of marble in the pavement surrounding more than 99.99% of their roots?

In the situation below that tree will get a limited supply of oxygen, water and
nutrients fom the ground, before within a few days it is exhausted. All the
nutrients get brought to the roots by water via organisms and if the tree has absorbed
all the water, then it cannot get any more nutrients from the soil. Because
of the impermeable layer above it then it will have replaced the oxygen with carbon
dioxide etc.

All the tree can do is to use what it has in its roots and its growth above
ground and so you can see one of the results above where it has removed as
much of any remaining water from the primary and secondary xylem for each
year, when there was insufficient irrigation from rain or irrigation applied by
human intervention to the ground to get to the tree roots. Could it be that
it was provided with irrigation in the spring for the spring wood either from
the water stored in the roots from the previous year or from that human
engineered irrigation in the spring? The summer wood grew but the amount
of water available from the tree roots to be transported to the leaves became
insufficient for the leaf transpiration and all the stored water was abstracted
from the summer wood and perhaps the spring wood of that year in order
for the tree to survive. This could lead to holes in the annual growth rings for
each year that this occurred.

 

The following Diagram is from Wikipedia.org/wiki/wood.jpg:-

evergreentreediagram1a

 

"When a tree grows it has Bark on the outside, which is the tree's growth area. 
Inside that are the xylem sections which are responsible for the transport of water and soluble
mineral nutrients from the roots throughout the plant. 
Inside that is Heartwood. Heartwood is wood that has become more resistant to decay as a
result of deposition of chemical substances (a genetically programmed process). Once
heartwood formation is complete, the heartwood is dead. Some uncertainty still exists as to
whether heartwood is truly dead, as it can still chemically react to decay organisms, but
only once (Shigo 1986, 54)." from Death of tree trunks/branches Madeira caused by people page.

 

The maintenance treatment of fruit trees, berries and
shrubs from
How to use Biodynamics in your garden page.

While the annual seeks its nutrients in the surface layer of the soil, the tree grows its
two root systems – one with feeder roots near the surface, the other sending mechanically
supporting and feeder roots into the deeper layers or subsoil.

A tree dislikes standing moisture in the root area, which hinders the even development of a
spreading root system. The soil should be prepared by deep subsoiling in order to break
any hardpan and establish water and air circulation.
A plant root absorbs oxygen to the total of its own root volume per day.

guernseymaturetreesurroundedbytarmac1a

Mature tree surrounded by tarmac in St Julian's Avenue in St Peter Port, Guernsey.
IMG 00016 is 4000 x 3000 pixels image can be viewed from Problems with Trees in
Pavements in Guernsey, in September 2019
page.
I WONDER IF THE IDIOTS WHO DO THIS TO TREES THROUGHOUT THE WORLD REALISE
JUST EXACTLY WHAT THEY ARE DOING IN PREVENTING THE ROOTS OF TREES FROM
BREATHING OXYGEN AND GETTING ANY IRRIGATION!

In the first year of a garden, rotovating and grading is to be done prior to any planting
(use a rotovator or double dig in a garden, then apply 3” thick layer of cow manure or
spent mushroom compost before rotovating or double digging again). Sow mustard or
phacalia as a cover crop in the spring before rotovating this in the autumn to provide more
humus, so that the roots of the new trees/shrubs can grow faster. Trees/shrubs do not
like raw manure or raw organic matter.

When planting in the early spring of the second year, the narrow hole - just deep enough
to hold the tree/shrub and its initial root development – should be filled with a mixture of the
soil and very well rotted compost. Be sure that the soil is tightly pressed around the plant, so
that it does not wobble in its hole. The soil level round the base should be the same as the
rest of the ground level to prevent rotting of the bark and roots. The grafting scar should be
2” above ground level. A supporting post at 45 degrees may be used to stop it coming out of
its hole by being tied at no more than 18” high (use a rubber tie in a figure of eight, which
can be loosened at the end of the first year). This post must be removed after 2 years.

The relationship between rootstock and graft occurs for roses, fruit bushes, fruit trees and some
shrubs/trees. It is advisable to use the new small fruit trees with East Malling rootstocks to
overcome the possibility of either a fast growing and a strongly pushing root with a slow growing
variety grafted onto it or the other way round.

Trees

Suggested planting distances in feet

12 inches = 1 foot = 30 cms
24 inches = 2 feet = 60 cms

Trees per acre

Apple

35

36

Cherry, sour

18

135

Cherry, sweet

20

135

Peach

20

110

Pear

20

110

Pear

20

110

Plum

20

110

Berries

Feet between rows

Feet apart in rows

Blackberries

6

6

Grapes

8

8

Raspberries

4

3

Strawberries

4

1.5

 

Clover, nasturtium and alfalfa can be sown as a cover crop under the fruit tree/shrub orchard
during the interim phase of the young growth when the trees do not as yet shelter the soil.
Mow this in September and leave the mown bits as a mulch. Nasturtiums are disagreeable to aphids.

Berries and grapes require a dressing of 30 lbs of 2 year-old cow manure/compost per plant each spring.

 

Pruning

"The root system is a replica of the tree crown. On naturally grown trees, the individual root “branch”
supplies the tree branch directly above it, the sap carrying vessels leading straight up to that branch.
On grafted trees this anatomical correspondence is less evident. The feeder roots are right
underneath the crown drip and from there on outward. No feeder roots are near the trunk. Any
application of compost, mulch, irrigation, should be applied in a space from 2 feet inside to 2 feet
outside of the crown drip. All these measures should stay away at least 2 feet from the trunk in
older, and 1 foot in younger, trees." - these measures should be used with trees in pavements as
in the ones in Madeira as written by the experts the Biodynamic Association, instead of the distances
that I specified elsewhere. So if the irrigation and fertilising system was started 3 feet (90 cms)
from the just planted trunk and extended to the next tree's fertilising and irrigation system, which is then
followed by the gap between the trunk and the walking area of 12 inches having the organic
fertiliser and green manure in it to stop cigarettes from burning the tree roots.

The pruning of a young tree/shrub – in the first two or three years - shapes it for a lifetime.
The idea of this pruning is

• to stimulate growth,

• to form a balance between vegetative growth (shoots) and fruit growth,

• to allow the light to enter to all parts of the branches.

Branches should not criss-cross and shade each other; they should be removed. The
pyramid-shaped pattern which opens upward and outward has its advantages.

New growth of fruit tree/shrub from one season is to be cut to about 7 buds from the base of the
growth. The last outermost bud should be underneath the shoot.

Water shoots or suckers coming out from the root must be pulled off that root, not cut off. Vertical
water shoots in the crown indicate that the plant has not been properly pruned or that the plant is undernourished. These must be cut off, well rotted compost applied to between 2 feet and 4 feet
radius round the base and mustard seed sown from the trunk to 4 feet radius to provide shade and
allow rain penetration to the roots.

Apples and pears should be pruned in January, Peaches in June, stone fruits (Cherry, Plum, Greengage)
after the fruit has been picked.

During January the following tree/shrub care can be carried out on all those plants:-

• Remove all dead wood

• Removal of suckers

• Removal of all dead and loose bark, moss and lichen by brushing with a soft wire brush. This
will remove a lot of insect pests and their hiding places.

The book “The biodynamic treatment of fruit trees berries and shrubs” by Ehrenfried E. Pfeiffer
describes the added benefits of the biodynamic preparations and their uses in this area to add to
this organic method.

 

Some useful addresses:-

The Biodynamic Preparations are available from Bio-dynamic Supplies, Lorieneen, Bridge of
Muchalls, Stonehaven, Aberdeen, Scotland AB39 3RU.

The annually produced catalogue for mail order vegetable, herb and flower seeds from Stormy
Hall Seeds, Bottom Village, Danby, Whitby, North Yorks. YO21 2NJ.

Biodynamically grown herb plants and seeds from Poyntzfield Herb Nursery, Black Isle, by
Dingwall, Ross & Cromarty, Scotland. IV7 8LX

The Biodynamic Agricultural Association publishes a journal, Star and Furrow, twice a year in
summer and winter; it contains articles both of a philosophical and practical nature, accounts of
conferences and meetings, book reviews, correspondence from members and notes of work
being carried out in other countries. It also covers subjects related to agriculture including nutrition.

Groups exist in various areas of the United Kingdom for the purposes of study, discussion and
practical application of the biodynamic methods recommended.

Books on biodynamic gardening, farming and related subjects from the Biodynamic Agricultural
Association, Painswick Inn Project, Gloucester Street, Stroud. GL5 1QG. Tel: 01453 759501. email: bdaa@biodynamic.freeserve.co.uk

 

The Biodynamic Gardening Club has produced an excellent box set of five short videos giving
a complete introduction to getting started on mindful biodynamic gardening and growing at home.

Expertly presented by Weleda biodynamic gardener Claire Hattersley and sumptuously produced
by Archetype Films.

You can see all five episodes free on the Biodynamic Assocation’s YouTube channel here –

Episode 1 – What is biodynamic gardening? A journey of discovery.

Episode 2 – Using planting calendars. Tuning into nature’s rhythms.

Episode 3 – Using the biodynamic preparations. Bringing vitality to your soil and plants.

Episode 4 – The wonder of soil and biodynamic compost. The foundation for health.

Episode 5 – Biodynamic mindfulness. Growing with your garden.

If the box set inspires you to start biodynamic gardening for health and happiness at home, then
check out also joining our
Biodynamic Gardening Club here today to learn more.

Topic -
Case Studies
...Drive Foundations
Ryegrass and turf kills plants within Roadstone and in Topsoil due to it starving and dehydrating them.
CEDAdrive creates stable drive surface and drains rain into your ground, rather than onto the public road.
8 problems caused by building house on clay or with house-wall attached to clay.
Pre-building work on polluted soil.

Companion Planting
...A, B, C, D, E,
...F, G, H, I, J, K,
...L, M, N, O, P, Q,
...R, S, T, U, V, W,
...X, Y, Z
...Pest Control
...using Plants
to provide a Companion Plant to aid your selected plant or deter its pests

Garden
Construction

with ground drains
Garden Design
...How to Use the Colour Wheel Concepts for Selection of Flowers, Foliage and Flower Shape
...RHS Mixed
Borders

......Bedding Plants
......Her Perennials
......Other Plants
......Camera photos of Plant supports
Garden
Maintenance

Glossary with a tomato teaching cauliflowers
Home
Library of over 1000 books
Offbeat Glossary with DuLally Bird in its flower clock.

Plants
...in Chalk
(Alkaline) Soil
......A-F1, A-F2,
......A-F3, G-L, M-R,
......M-R Roses, S-Z
...in Heavy
Clay Soil
......A-F, G-L, M-R,
......S-Z
...in Lime-Free
(Acid) Soil
......A-F, G-L, M-R,
......S-Z
...in Light
Sand Soil
......A-F, G-L, M-R,
......S-Z.
...Poisonous Plants.
...Extra Plant Pages
with its 6 Plant Selection Levels

Soil
...
Interaction between 2 Quartz Sand Grains to make soil
...
How roots of plants are in control in the soil
...
Without replacing Soil Nutrients, the soil will break up to only clay, sand or silt
...
Subsidence caused by water in Clay
...
Use water ring for trees/shrubs for first 2 years.

Tool Shed with 3 kneeling pads
Useful Data with benefits of Seaweed

 

Topic -
Plant Photo Galleries

If the plant type below has flowers, then the first gallery will include the flower thumbnail in each month of 1 of 6 or 7 flower colour comparison pages of each plant in its subsidiary galleries, as a low-level Plant Selection Process
Aquatic
Bamboo
Bedding
...by Flower Shape



Bulb with its 7 Flower Colours per Month Comparison Pages
...Allium/ Anemone
...Autumn
...Colchicum/ Crocus
...Dahlia
...Gladiolus with its 40 Flower Colours
......European A-E
......European F-M
......European N-Z
......Eur Non-classified
......American A
......American B
......American C
......American D
......American E
......American F
......American G
......American H
......American I
......American J
......American K
......American L
......American M
......American N
......American O
......American P
......American Q
......American R
......American S
......American T
......American U
......American V
......American W
......American XYZ
......Ame Non-classified
......Australia - empty
......India
......Lithuania
...Hippeastrum/ Lily
...Late Summer
...Narcissus
...Spring
...Tulip
...Winter
...Each of the above ...Bulb Galleries has its own set of Flower Colour Pages
...Flower Shape
...Bulb Form

...Bulb Use

...Bulb in Soil


Further details on bulbs from the Infill Galleries:-
Hardy Bulbs
...Aconitum
...Allium
...Alstroemeria
...Anemone

...Amaryllis
...Anthericum
...Antholyzas
...Apios
...Arisaema
...Arum
...Asphodeline

...Asphodelus
...Belamcanda
...Bloomeria
...Brodiaea
...Bulbocodium

...Calochorti
...Cyclobothrias
...Camassia
...Colchicum
...Convallaria 
...Forcing Lily of the Valley
...Corydalis
...Crinum
...Crosmia
...Montbretia
...Crocus

...Cyclamen
...Dicentra
...Dierama
...Eranthis
...Eremurus
...Erythrnium
...Eucomis

...Fritillaria
...Funkia
...Galanthus
...Galtonia
...Gladiolus
...Hemerocallis

...Hyacinth
...Hyacinths in Pots
...Scilla
...Puschkinia
...Chionodoxa
...Chionoscilla
...Muscari

...Iris
...Kniphofia
...Lapeyrousia
...Leucojum

...Lilium
...Lilium in Pots
...Malvastrum
...Merendera
...Milla
...Narcissus
...Narcissi in Pots

...Ornithogalum
...Oxalis
...Paeonia
...Ranunculus
...Romulea
...Sanguinaria
...Sternbergia
...Schizostylis
...Tecophilaea
...Trillium

...Tulip
...Zephyranthus

Half-Hardy Bulbs
...Acidanthera
...Albuca
...Alstroemeri
...Andro-stephium
...Bassers
...Boussing-aultias
...Bravoas
...Cypellas
...Dahlias
...Galaxis,
...Geissorhizas
...Hesperanthas

...Gladioli
...Ixias
...Sparaxises
...Babianas
...Morphixias
...Tritonias

...Ixiolirions
...Moraeas
...Ornithogalums
...Oxalises
...Phaedra-nassas
...Pancratiums
...Tigridias
...Zephyranthes
...Cooperias

Uses of Bulbs:-
...for Bedding
...in Windowboxes
...in Border
...naturalized in Grass
...in Bulb Frame
...in Woodland Garden
...in Rock Garden
...in Bowls
...in Alpine House
...Bulbs in Greenhouse or Stove:-
...Achimenes
...Alocasias
...Amorpho-phalluses
...Arisaemas
...Arums
...Begonias
...Bomareas
...Caladiums

...Clivias
...Colocasias
...Crinums
...Cyclamens
...Cyrtanthuses
...Eucharises
...Urceocharis
...Eurycles

...Freesias
...Gloxinias
...Haemanthus
...Hippeastrums

...Lachenalias
...Nerines
...Lycorises
...Pencratiums
...Hymenocallises
...Richardias
...Sprekelias
...Tuberoses
...Vallotas
...Watsonias
...Zephyranthes

...Plant Bedding in
......Spring

......Summer
...Bulb houseplants flowering inside House during:-
......January
......February
......March
......April
......May
......June
......July
......August
......September
......October
......November
......December
...Bulbs and other types of plant flowering during:-
......Dec-Jan
......Feb-Mar
......Apr-May
......Jun-Aug
......Sep-Oct
......Nov-Dec
...Selection of the smaller and choicer plants for the Smallest of Gardens with plant flowering during the same 6 periods as in the previous selection


Climber in
3 Sector Vertical Plant System
...Clematis
...Climbers
Conifer
Deciduous Shrub
...Shrubs - Decid
Deciduous Tree
...Trees - Decid
Evergreen Perennial
...P-Evergreen A-L
...P-Evergreen M-Z
...Flower Shape
Evergreen Shrub
...Shrubs - Evgr
...Heather Shrub
Evergreen Tree
...Trees - Evgr
Fern
Grass
Hedging
Herbaceous
Perennial

...P -Herbaceous
...Peony
...Flower Shape
...RHS Wisley
......Mixed Border
......Other Borders
Herb
Odds and Sods
Rhododendron

Rose
...RHS Wisley A-F
...RHS Wisley G-R
...RHS Wisley S-Z
...Rose Use - page links in row 6. Rose, RHS Wisley and Other Roses rose indices on each Rose Use page
...Other Roses A-F
...Other Roses G-R
...Other Roses S-Z
Pruning Methods
Photo Index
R 1, 2, 3
Peter Beales Roses
RV Roger
Roses

Soft Fruit
Top Fruit
...Apple

...Cherry
...Pear
Vegetable
Wild Flower and
Butterfly page links are in next row


Topic -
Butterflies in the UK mostly use native UK wildflowers.

Butterfly Species.

Egg, Caterpillar, Chrysalis and Butterfly Usage
of Plants.

Plant Usage by
Egg, Caterpillar, Chrysalis and Butterfly.

Wild Flower
with its
flower colour page,
space,
Site Map page in its flower colour NOTE Gallery
...Blue Note
...Brown Botanical Names
...Cream Common Names
...Green Note
...Mauve Note
...Multi-Cols Note
...Orange Note
...Pink A-G Note
...Pink H-Z Note
...Purple Note
...Red Note
...White A-D Note
...White E-P Note
...White Q-Z Note
...Yellow A-G Note
...Yellow H-Z Note
...Shrub/Tree Note

Poisonous
Wildflower Plants.


You know its name, use
Wild Flower Plant Index a-h, i-p, q-z.
You know which habitat it lives in, use
on
Acid Soil,
on
Calcareous
(Chalk) Soil
,
on
Marine Soil,
on
Neutral Soil,
is a
Fern,
is a
Grass,
is a
Rush, or
is a
Sedge.
You have seen its flower, use Comparison Pages containing Wild Flower Plants and Cultivated Plants in the
Colour Wheel Gallery.

Each plant named in each of the 180 Wildflower Family Pages within their 23 Galleries may have a link to:-
1) its Plant Description Page in its Common Name column in one of those Wildflower Plant Galleries and will have links,
2) to external sites to purchase the plant or seed in its Botanical Name column,
3) to see photos in its Flowering Months column and
4) to read habitat details in its Habitat Column.

WILD FLOWER FAMILY PAGE MENU
(o)Adder's Tongue
Amaranth
(o)Arrow-Grass
(o)Arum
(o)Balsam
Bamboo
(o)Barberry
(o)Bedstraw
(o)Beech
(o)Bellflower
(o)Bindweed
(o)Birch
(o)Birds-Nest
(o)Birthwort
(o)Bogbean
(o)Bog Myrtle
(o)Borage
(o)Box
(o)Broomrape
(o)Buckthorn
(o)Buddleia
(o)Bur-reed
(o)Buttercup
(o)Butterwort
(o)Cornel (Dogwood)
(o)Crowberry
(o)Crucifer (Cabbage/Mustard) 1
(o)Crucifer (Cabbage/Mustard) 2
Cypress
(o)Daffodil
(o)Daisy
(o)Daisy Cudweeds
(o)Daisy Chamomiles
(o)Daisy Thistle
(o)Daisy Catsears (o)Daisy Hawkweeds
(o)Daisy Hawksbeards
(o)Daphne
(o)Diapensia
(o)Dock Bistorts
(o)Dock Sorrels
(o)Clubmoss
(o)Duckweed
(o)Eel-Grass
(o)Elm
(o)Filmy Fern
(o)Horsetail
(o)Polypody
Quillwort
(o)Royal Fern
(o)Figwort - Mulleins
(o)Figwort - Speedwells
(o)Flax
(o)Flowering-Rush
(o)Frog-bit
(o)Fumitory
(o)Gentian
(o)Geranium
(o)Glassworts
(o)Gooseberry
(o)Goosefoot
(o)Grass 1
(o)Grass 2
(o)Grass 3
(o)Grass Soft
Bromes 1

(o)Grass Soft
Bromes 2

(o)Grass Soft
Bromes 3

(o)Hazel
(o)Heath
(o)Hemp
(o)Herb-Paris
(o)Holly
(o)Honeysuckle
(o)Horned-Pondweed
(o)Hornwort
(o)Iris
(o)Ivy
(o)Jacobs Ladder
(o)Lily
(o)Lily Garlic
(o)Lime
(o)Lobelia
(o)Loosestrife
(o)Mallow
(o)Maple
(o)Mares-tail
(o)Marsh Pennywort
(o)Melon (Gourd/Cucumber)
(o)Mesem-bryanthemum
(o)Mignonette
(o)Milkwort
(o)Mistletoe
(o)Moschatel
Naiad
(o)Nettle
(o)Nightshade
(o)Oleaster
(o)Olive
(o)Orchid 1
(o)Orchid 2
(o)Orchid 3
(o)Orchid 4
(o)Parnassus-Grass
(o)Peaflower
(o)Peaflower
Clover 1

(o)Peaflower
Clover 2

(o)Peaflower
Clover 3

(o)Peaflower Vetches/Peas
Peony
(o)Periwinkle
Pillwort
Pine
(o)Pink 1
(o)Pink 2
Pipewort
(o)Pitcher-Plant
(o)Plantain
(o)Pondweed
(o)Poppy
(o)Primrose
(o)Purslane
Rannock Rush
(o)Reedmace
(o)Rockrose
(o)Rose 1
(o)Rose 2
(o)Rose 3
(o)Rose 4
(o)Rush
(o)Rush Woodrushes
(o)Saint Johns Wort
Saltmarsh Grasses
(o)Sandalwood
(o)Saxifrage
Seaheath
(o)Sea Lavender
(o)Sedge Rush-like
(o)Sedges Carex 1
(o)Sedges Carex 2
(o)Sedges Carex 3
(o)Sedges Carex 4
(o)Spindle-Tree
(o)Spurge
(o)Stonecrop
(o)Sundew
(o)Tamarisk
Tassel Pondweed
(o)Teasel
(o)Thyme 1
(o)Thyme 2
(o)Umbellifer 1
(o)Umbellifer 2
(o)Valerian
(o)Verbena
(o)Violet
(o)Water Fern
(o)Waterlily
(o)Water Milfoil
(o)Water Plantain
(o)Water Starwort
Waterwort
(o)Willow
(o)Willow-Herb
(o)Wintergreen
(o)Wood-Sorrel
(o)Yam
(o)Yew


Topic -
The following is a complete hierarchical Plant Selection Process

dependent on the Garden Style chosen
Garden Style
...Infill Plants
...12 Bloom Colours per Month Index
...12 Foliage Colours per Month Index
...All Plants Index
...Cultivation, Position, Use Index
...Shape, Form
Index


Topic -
Plant Selection Process comparing relevant plants of all types within each of the number of colours for each Flower or Foliage Colour Gallery.

All Flowers 53 with
...Use of Plant and
Flower Shape
- page links in next row

All Foliage 53
instead of redundant
...(All Foliage 212)


All Flowers
per Month 12


Bee instead of wind pollinated plants for hay-fever sufferers
All Bee-Pollinated Flowers
per Month
12
...Index

Rock Garden and Alpine Flowers
Rock Plant Flowers 53

...Rock Plant Photos

Flower Colour Wheel without photos, but with links to photos
12 Bloom Colours
per Month Index

...All Plants Index


Topic -
Use of Plant in your Plant Selection Process

Plant Colour Wheel Uses
with
1. Perfect general use soil is composed of 8.3% lime, 16.6% humus, 25% clay and 50% sand, and
2. Why you are continually losing the SOIL STRUCTURE so your soil - will revert to clay, chalk, sand or silt.
Uses of Plant and Flower Shape:-
...Foliage Only
...Other than Green Foliage
...Trees in Lawn
...Trees in Small Gardens
...Wildflower Garden
...Attract Bird
...Attract Butterfly
1
, 2
...Climber on House Wall
...Climber not on House Wall
...Climber in Tree
...Rabbit-Resistant
...Woodland
...Pollution Barrier
...Part Shade
...Full Shade
...Single Flower provides Pollen for Bees
1
, 2, 3
...Ground-Cover
<60
cm
60-180cm
>180cm
...Hedge
...Wind-swept
...Covering Banks
...Patio Pot
...Edging Borders
...Back of Border
...Poisonous
...Adjacent to Water
...Bog Garden
...Tolerant of Poor Soil
...Winter-Flowering
...Fragrant
...Not Fragrant
...Exhibition
...Standard Plant is 'Ball on Stick'
...Upright Branches or Sword-shaped leaves
...Plant to Prevent Entry to Human or Animal
...Coastal Conditions
...Tolerant on North-facing Wall
...Cut Flower
...Potted Veg Outdoors
...Potted Veg Indoors
...Thornless
...Raised Bed Outdoors Veg
...Grow in Alkaline Soil A-F, G-L, M-R,
S-Z
...Grow in Acidic Soil
...Grow in Any Soil
...Grow in Rock Garden
...Grow Bulbs Indoors

Uses of Bedding
...Bedding Out
...Filling In
...Screen-ing
...Pots and Troughs
...Window Boxes
...Hanging Baskets
...Spring Bedding
...Summer Bedding
...Winter Bedding
...Foliage instead of Flower
...Coleus Bedding Photos for use in Public Domain 1

Uses of Bulb
...Other than Only Green Foliage
...Bedding or Mass Planting
...Ground-Cover
...Cut-Flower
...Tolerant of Shade
...In Woodland Areas
...Under-plant
...Tolerant of Poor Soil
...Covering Banks
...In Water
...Beside Stream or Water Garden
...Coastal Conditions
...Edging Borders
...Back of Border or Back-ground Plant
...Fragrant Flowers
...Not Fragrant Flowers
...Indoor
House-plant

...Grow in a Patio Pot
...Grow in an Alpine Trough
...Grow in an Alpine House
...Grow in Rock Garden
...Speciman Plant
...Into Native Plant Garden
...Naturalize in Grass
...Grow in Hanging Basket
...Grow in Window-box
...Grow in Green-house
...Grow in Scree
...Naturalized Plant Area
...Grow in Cottage Garden
...Attracts Butterflies
...Attracts Bees
...Resistant to Wildlife
...Bulb in Soil:-
......Chalk
......Clay
......Sand
......Lime-Free (Acid)
......Peat

Uses of Rose
...Bedding
...Climber /Pillar
...Cut-Flower
...Exhibition, Speciman
...Ground-Cover
...Grow In A Container
...Hedge
...Climber in Tree
...Woodland
...Edging Borders
...Tolerant of Poor Soil
...Tolerant of Shade
...Back of Border
...Adjacent to Water
...Page for rose use as ARCH ROSE, PERGOLA ROSE, COASTAL CONDITIONS ROSE, WALL ROSE, STANDARD ROSE, COVERING BANKS or THORNLESS ROSES.
...FRAGRANT ROSES
...NOT FRAGRANT ROSES


Topic -
Camera Photo Galleries showing all 4000 x 3000 pixels of each photo on your screen that you can then click and drag it to your desktop as part of a Plant Selection Process:-

RHS Garden at Wisley

Plant Supports -
When supporting plants in a bed, it is found that not only do those plants grow upwards, but also they expand their roots and footpad sideways each year. Pages
1
, 2, 3, 8, 11,
12, 13,
Plants 4, 7, 10,
Bedding Plants 5,
Plant Supports for Unknown Plants 5
,
Clematis Climbers 6,
the RHS does not appear to either follow it's own pruning advice or advice from The Pruning of Trees, Shrubs and Conifers by George E. Brown.
ISBN 0-571-11084-3 with the plants in Pages 1-7 of this folder. You can see from looking at both these resources as to whether the pruning carried out on the remainder of the plants in Pages 7-15 was correct.

Narcissus (Daffodil) 9,
Phlox Plant Supports 14, 15

Coleus Bedding Foliage Trial - Pages
1, 2, 3, 4, 5,
6, 7, 8, 9, 10,
11, 12, 13, 14, 15,
16, 17, 18, 19, 20,
21, 22, 23, 24, 25,
26, 27, 28, 29, 30,
31, 32, Index

National Trust Garden at Sissinghurst Castle
Plant Supports -
Pages for Gallery 1

with Plant Supports
1, 5, 10
Plants
2, 3, 4, 6, 7, 8, 9,
11, 12
Recommended Rose Pruning Methods 13
Pages for Gallery 2
with Plant Supports
2
,
Plants 1, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7

Dry Garden of
RHS Garden at
Hyde Hall

Plants - Pages
without Plant Supports
Plants 1
, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9

Nursery of
Peter Beales Roses
Display Garden

Roses Pages
1, 2, 3, 4, 5,
6, 7, 8, 9, 10,
11, 12, 13

Nursery of
RV Roger

Roses - Pages
A1,A2,A3,A4,A5,
A6,A7,A8,A9,A10,
A11,A12,A13,A14,
B15,
B16,B17,B18,B19,
B20,
B21,B22,B23,B24,
B25,
B26,B27,B28,B29,
B30,
C31,C32,C33,C34,
C35,
C36,C37,C38,C39,
C40,
C41,CD2,D43,D44,
D45,
D46,D47,D48,D49,
E50,
E51,E52,F53,F54,
F55,
F56,F57,G58,G59,
H60,
H61,I62,K63,L64,
M65,
M66,N67,P68,P69,
P70,
R71,R72,S73,S74,
T75,
V76,Z77, 78,

Damage by Plants in Chilham Village - Pages
1, 2, 3, 4

Pavements of Funchal, Madeira
Damage to Trees - Pages
1, 2, 3, 4, 5,
6, 7, 8, 9, 10,
11, 12, 13
for trees 1-54,
14, 15,
16, 17, 18, 19, 20,
21, 22, 23, 24, 25,
for trees 55-95,
26, 27, 28, 29, 30,
31, 32, 33, 34, 35,
36, 37,
for trees 95-133,
38, 39, 40,
41, 42, 43, 44, 45,
for trees 133-166

Chris Garnons-Williams
Work Done - Pages
1, 2, 3, 4, 5,
6, 7, 8, 9, 10,
11, 12, 13

Identity of Plants
Label Problems - Pages
1, 2, 3, 4, 5,
6, 7, 8, 9, 10,
11

Ron and Christine Foord - 1036 photos only inserted so far - Garden Flowers - Start Page of each Gallery
AB1 ,AN14,BA27,
CH40,CR52,DR63,
FR74,GE85,HE96,

Plant with Photo Index of Ivydene Gardens - 1187
A 1, 2, Photos - 43
B 1, Photos - 13
C 1, Photos - 35
D 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7,
Photos - 411
with Plants causing damage to buildings in Chilham Village and Damage to Trees in Pavements of Funchal
E 1, Photos - 21
F 1, Photos - 1
G 1, Photos - 5
H 1, Photos - 21
I 1, Photos - 8
J 1, Photos - 1
K 1, Photos - 1
L 1, Photos - 85
with Label Problems
M 1, Photos - 9
N 1, Photos - 12
O 1, Photos - 5
P 1, Photos - 54
Q 1, Photos -
R 1, 2, 3,
Photos - 229
S 1, Photos - 111
T 1, Photos - 13
U 1, Photos - 5
V 1, Photos - 4
W 1, Photos - 100
with Work Done by Chris Garnons-Williams
X 1 Photos -
Y 1, Photos -
Z 1 Photos -
Articles/Items in Ivydene Gardens - 88
Flower Colour, Num of Petals, Shape and
Plant Use of:-
Rock Garden
within linked page


Topic -
Fragrant Plants as a Plant Selection Process for your sense of smell:-

Sense of Fragrance from Roy Genders

Fragrant Plants:-
Trees and Shrubs with Scented Flowers
1
, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6
Shrubs bearing Scented Flowers for an Acid Soil
1
, 2, 3, 4
Shrubs bearing Scented Flowers for a
Chalky or Limestone Soil
1
, 2, 3, 4
Shrubs bearing Scented leaves for a
Sandy Soil
1
, 2, 3
Herbaceous Plants with Scented Flowers
1
, 2, 3
Annual and Biennial Plants with Scented Flowers or Leaves
1
, 2
Bulbs and Corms with Scented Flowers
1
, 2, 3, 4, 5
Scented Plants of Climbing and Trailing Habit
1
, 2, 3
Winter-flowering Plants with Scented Flowers
1
, 2
Night-scented Flowering Plants
1
, 2


Topic -
Website User Guidelines


My Gas Service Engineer found Flow and Return pipes incorrectly positioned on gas boilers and customers had refused to have positioning corrected in 2020.