Ivydene Gardens Plants:
Groundcover Plant
Name - P

The plants normally selected by most landscapers and designers are by nature low-growing, rampant, spreading, creep-crawly things and yet the concept of ground cover demands no such thing. The ideal description of a groundcover plant includes:-

  • a bold dense mass of leaves completely covering the ground most of the year; evergreens gain gold stars.
  • They should require little or no maintenance - if you have to give the plant more than its share of attention, you might as well save your money and spend the time weeding.
  • use the plant on ground areas that are difficult to maintain, such as steep banks or boggy patches.
  • use the plant to cover areas where not much will grow, such as deep shade or sandy soils.

Ground Cover a thousand beautiful plants for difficult places by John Cushnie (ISBN 1 85626 326 6) provides details of plants that fulfill the above requirements.

Using these groundcover plants in your planting scheme (either between your trees/shrubs in the border or for the whole border) will - with mulching your beds to a 4 inch depth and an irrigation system - provide you with a planted garden with far less time required for border maintenance.
Wildflower Flower Shape and Landscape Uses gallery provides Landscaping List by Use pages which include some of these ground-cover plants. Landscaping with Perennials by Emily Brown. 5th printing 1989 by Timber Press. ISBN 0-88192-063-0 provides the planting site pages for perennials, which include most plant types except Annuals and Biennials.

Plants for Ground-Cover by Graham Stuart Thomas. Published by J. M. Dent & Sons Ltd in 1970 - reprinted (with further revisions) in 1990. ISBN 0-460-12609-1. This gives details on many more ground cover plants with inclusion (in the Index) of figures denoting the Hardiness Zones for each species in the United States of America.

Plant Name

with link to page with photos and mail-order nursery in Comments Row

Type

with link to mail-order nursery in UK

Height x Spread in inches (cms)

Foliage

with link to mail-order nursery in USA

Flower Colour in Month(s).

Use Pest Control using Plants to provide a Companion Plant to aid your selected groundcover plant or deter its pests

Comments

United States Department of Agriculture Plant Hardiness Zone Map - This map of USA is based on a range of average annual minimum winter temperatures, divided into 13 of 10-degree F zones, that this plant will thrive in USA, Alaska, Hawaii and Puerto Rico. There are other Hardiness Zone Maps for the rest of the world including the one for Great Britain and Ireland of zones 7a to 10a. Zone 5-9 indicates that the minimum zone temperature this plant will grow is 5 and top minimum zone temperature is 9 - above this number is too hot or below 5 is too cold for the plant. If your zone in your area of your country is within that range or your zone number is greater, then you can grow it in your garden.

Pachyphragma macrophyllum

Semi-Evergreen Perennial below 24 inches (60 cms) in height

12 x 24 (30 x 60)

Glossy Dark Green

Scented White in
April

Slow-growing ground cover.
Part Shade
Zone 7
Rich, yet well-drained soil with plenty of humus. From northeast Turkey and the Caucasus

Pachysandra terminalis

Evergreen Perennial below 24 inches (60 cms) in height

8 x indefinite (20 x indefinite)

Glossy Dark Green

White in
July

"Japanese Spurge". Good ground cover
Filtered Shade to Full Shade
Moist, acidic soil.

This is the perfect ground cover to use as a large-scale planting under trees or, on a small scale, in the shade of evergreen shrubs.

Pachysandra terminalis 'Green Carpet'

Evergreen Perennial below 24 inches (60 cms) in height

6 x 24
(15 x 60)

Glossy Dark Green

White in
July

Good ground cover

Pachysandra terminalis "Variegata'

Evergreen Perennial below 24 inches (60 cms) in height

10 x 24 (25 x 60)

Glossy Dark Green margined-White

White in
July

Good ground cover

Paeonia 'Dresden'

 

See other Paeonia in
UK Peony Index
and
Peony

Herbaceous Perennial 24-72 inches (60-180 cms) in height

32 x 32 (80 x 80)

Deep Green, turn Red in Autumn

Ivory-White in
July

"Peony".

The Peony Group is a specialist group of the Hardy Plant Society formed in 1987, and exists to stimulate greater and more specialist interest in growing all types of peonies; bringing together amateur and professional enthusiasts worldwide. It also provides members with information about less well-known species, and aims to make peonies in general available to a wider audience.

Paeonia companions - aquilegia, campanula persicifolia, digitalis, iris sibirica, spring bulbs, viola, chaerophyllum, astrantia maxima; the spring cottage garden

Paeonia emodi

Herbaceous Perennial 24-72 inches (60-180 cms) in height

30 x 30 (75 x 75)

Dark Green

Pure White in
June

"Himalayan Peony".
Full Sun
Zone 3-8
Well-drained soil

Paeonia lactiflora
'Jan Van Leeuwen'

Herbaceous Perennial 24-72 inches (60-180 cms) in height

24 x 24 (60 x 60)

Dark Green

White in
May-June

"Peony".
Full Sun
Zone 7
Well-drained soil

Paeonia lactiflora
'Pink Delight'

Herbaceous Perennial 24-72 inches (60-180 cms) in height

24 x 24 (60 x 60)

Dark Green

Pink in
June-July

"Peony".
Full Sun
Zone 7
Well-drained soil

Paeonia lutea var. ludlowii

Deciduous Shrub above 72 inches (180 cms) in height

96 x 96 (240 x 240)

Bright Green

Yellow in
May-June

"Tree Peony".
 

Paeonia mascula

Herbaceous Perennial 24-72 inches (60-180 cms) in height

30 x 30 (75 x 75)

Bluish-Green above, paler Green below

Deep Purplish-Red in
July

"Male Peony". From southern Europe
Full Sun
Zone 8
Well-drained soil

Paeonia mlokosewitschii

Herbaceous Perennial 24-72 inches (60-180 cms) in height

30 x 30 (75 x 75)

Bluish-Green

Lemon-Yellow in
June-July

"Caucasian Peony, Molly the Witch". Erect, short flowering season, good seedpods. Orange-brown autumn foliage
Full Sun, Part Shade
Zone 3-8
Plant beneath deciduous shrubs or trees. From the Caucasus

Paeonia officinalis
'Rubra Plena
'

Herbaceous Perennial 24-72 inches (60-180 cms) in height

30 x 30 (75 x 75)

Deep Green

Crimson in July

"Common Peony, Female Peony".
Full Sun
Zone 3-8
Well-drained soil

Paeonia suffruticosa

Deciduous Shrub above 72 inches (180 cms) in height

84 x 84 (210 x 210)

Dark Green above, Blue-Green beneath

Scented White, Pink, Red or Purple in
June-July
paeoniasuffruticosafflot1

"Moutan".

Paeonia x lemoinei

Deciduous Shrub 24-72 inches (60-180 cms) in height

60 x 60 (150 x 150)

Dark Green

White to Yellow in
July

"Tree Peony".

Papaver orientale

Herbaceous Perennial 24-72 inches (60-180 cms) in height

24 x 30 (60 x 75)

Mid-Green

Orange-Scarlet in
June-August

"Oriental Poppy".
Self seeds, clump-forming, summer dormant, bristly stems and erect.
Full Sun
Zone 3-9
Well-drained soil.

Companions - aquilegia, allium, galium (tall forms), anchusa, nepeta, euphorbia, salvia x superba; that distant wasteland that can go scruffy in summer. Tuse as a cut flower, pick with the bud just splitting open. Stand cut ends in 12 inches (30 cms) of hot water for a short time, and then add cold water, keeping them cool over night. You can also singe the bottom of cut stems with a matich and put them in cold water. Arrange them the next morning.

Papaver croceum

Herbaceous Perennial below 24 inches (60 cms) in height

12 x 6
(30 x 15)

Blue-Green

White-and-Yellow in July-September

"Icelandic Poppy". Needs partial shade

Parahebe catarractae

Evergreen Sub-Shrub below 24 inches (60 cms) in height

12 x 12 (30 x 30)

Dark Green tinged Purple when young

White in
July-September

 

Companions - grasses, artemisia. Plant on a wall or small bank, or atop a rock garden. In a perfect year, these make good container plants, but do not allow them to dry out.

Parahebe hookeriana

Evergreen Sub-Shrub below 24 inches (60 cms) in height

6 x 20
(15 x 50)

Mid-Green

White to Lavender-Blue in
July-September

 

Parahebe lyallii

Evergreen Sub-Shrub below 24 inches (60 cms) in height

10 x 20 (25 x 50)

Dark Green

White to Pink in
July

 

Parahebe perfoliata

Evergreen Perennial 24-72 inches (60-180 cms) in height

30 x 18 (75 x 45)

Blue or Grey-Green

Blue in
July-September

"Diggers Speedwell". Arching stems, will sprawl but looks odd if staked, semi-evergreen
Full Sun
Zone 8-10
Well-drained soil. From Australia

Parahebe x bidwillii 'Kea'

Evergreen Sub-Shrub below 24 inches (60 cms) in height

4 x 6
(10 x 15)

Dark Green

White in
July-September

 

Paris polyphilla

Deciduous Rhizome Perennial 24-72 inches (60-180 cms) in height

30 x 12 (75 x 30)

Mid-Green

Green and Yellowish-Green in
July-September

Deep Shade
Zone 6
Cool, humus-rich soil - protect from spring frosts.

Companions - trillium, helleborus, omphalodes, polygonatum, and other woodlanders. Slugs attack new growth.

Paronychia capitata

Evergreen Perennial below 24 inches (60 cms) in height

2 x 12
(5 x 30)

Silvery Grey-Green

Green in
July-September

"Whitlow-wort".

Paronychia kapela subsp. serpyllifolia

Evergreen Perennial below 24 inches (60 cms) in height

2 x 10
(5 x 25)

Silvery Bluish-Green

Greenish-White in
July-September

"Whitlow-wort".

Parthenocissus tricuspidata 'Veitchii'

Deciduous Climber above 72 inches (180 cms) in height

840 x 240 (2100 x 600)

Bright Green then Red-Purple in Autumn

...

"Boston Ivy".
Full Sun
Rich, moist soil.

It readily climbs trellises and drapes over walls, attaching itself to objects by means of adhesive discs. Do not plant where it can smother shrubs or trees. It is best used to cover large, barren , rocky areas where little else grows and makes an excellent slope cover.

Passiflora caerulea

Evergreen Climber above 72 inches (180 cms) in height

360 x indefinite (900 x indefinite)

Rich Green

White in
July-October

"Blue Passion Flower".

Passiflora mollissima

Evergreen Climber above 72 inches (180 cms) in height

160 x indefinite (150 x indefinite)

Mid-Green

Coral-Pink in
August-December

"Banana Passion Flower".

Paxistima canbyi

Evergreen Shrub below 24 inches (60 cms) in height

16 x 36 (40 x 90)

Glossy Dark Green

Greenish-White in
July-September

"Canby, Pachistima". Native to the mountains of Virginia and the Carolinas of USA.
Full Sun, Part Shade - denser in full sun.
Zone 5
Native to rocky soil, but any well-drained, slightly acidic garden soil is satisfactory.

It grows well under trees and as a low hedge. It is also a good choice for naturalistic and rock gardens.

Pelargonium zonal horticultural group

Evergreen Perennial below 24 inches (60 cms) in height

12 x 12 (30 x 30)

Dark Green

Scarlet, Purple, Pink, White, Orange, Yellow in
May-September

"Zonal Pelargonium, Bedding Geranium". The Zonal Pelargoniums are normally used for Summer bedding in pots or beds, since they are frost-tender.
Full Sun
Zones 10-11
Light, well-drained, neutral soil. If grown in pots, fertilize regularly and cull dead heads. Avoid over-watering; Zonals in particular rot at the base if soil remains wet.

Penstemon cardwellii

Evergreen Sub-Shrub below 24 inches (60 cms) in height

6 x 12
(15 x 30)

Mid-Green

Deep Purple in
July

Use as edging in the short or low border.

Companions - heuchera, aquilegia, kniphofia, smaller euphorbias, smaller cocosmias, artemisia, eryngium, salvia, phlox. Loved by bees and many are good cut flowers

Penstemon davidsonii

Evergreen Sub-Shrub below 24 inches (60 cms) in height

8 x 16
(20 x 40)

Mid-Green

Deep Pink to Purple in
June-July

Use as edging in the short or low border.

Penstemon digitalis

Semi-Evergreen Perennial 24-72 inches (60-180 cms) in height

36 x 18 (90 x 45)

Mid-Green

White in
July-September

"Foxglove Beardtongue". Dense clumps.
Full Sun
Zone 3
Well-drained, fairly rich soil. From USA.

Penstemon fruticosus

Evergreen Sub-Shrub below 24 inches (60 cms) in height

16 x 16 (40 x 40)

Glossy
Mid-Green

Purplish-Blue in
June-July

"Shrubby Penstemon".

Penstemon rupicola

Evergreen Alpine below 24 inches (60 cms) in height

4 x 18
(10 x 45)

Blue-Green

Deep reddish-Pink in
June-July

"Rock Penstemon". Evergreen sub-shrub. Use as edging in the short or low border.

Perovskia
'Blue Spire'

Deciduous Sub-Shrub 24-72 inches (60-180 cms) in height

48 x 36 (120 x 90)

Silver-Grey

Violet-Blue in
August-October

Upright
Zone 4-9

Companions - grasses, crocosmia, artemisia, lavandula, gaura, salvia, rudbeckia, penstemon, phlox, nepeta, echinaops, echinacea; the prairie garden. Russian sages tend to fall forward into a semi-prostrate state so are well sited at tops of walls and stairways or banks, where this habit can be used to advantage.

Persicaria affinis

Evergreen Perennial below 24 inches (60 cms) in height

10 x 24 (25 x 60)

Dark Green turning Red-Bronze in Autumn

Bright Rose-Red in
August-November

"Himalayan Fleeceflower". Vigorous and mat-forming - a good edger.
Zone 4-9

Companions - grasses, aster, aconitum, lilium, hosta, rodgersia, monarda, filipendula, chelone, knautia, anemone japonica, fuchsia magellanica. Problems with snails and slugs.

Persicaria amplexicaulis

Semi-Evergreen Perennial 24-72 inches (60-180 cms) in height

48 x 48 (120 x 120)

Mid-Green

Bright Red to Purple or White in
August-October

"Bistort, Mountain Fleece". Strong clumps, long-blooming.
Part Shade
Zone 4-9
Moist soil among grass or in forests from the Himalaya to western China

Persicaria capitata

Evergreen Perennial below 24 inches (60 cms) in height

3 x 20
(7 x 50)

Dark Green; each with a Purple V-shaped band

Pink in
July-September

Good ground cover

Persicaria vaccinifolia

Semi-Evergreen Perennial below 24 inches (60 cms) in height

8 x 20
(20 x 50)

Glossy Mid-Green turning Red in Autumn

Deep Pink in
September-November

 

Petasites fragrans

Deciduous Rhizome Perennial below 24 inches (60 cms) in height

12 x 60 (30 x 150)

Light Green

Scented Pale Lilac in
February

"Winter Heliotrope". Good cut flower.
Full Sun, Part Shade
Zone 7
Deep, moist, fertile soil

Companions - ferns, aster, japanese iris, typha angustifolia (cattail), equisetum hyemale (common horsetail), primula japonica and other candlebra primroses, lobelia siphilitica, lobelia vedrariensis, lobelia cardinalis, taller astilbes. The flowers arrive in late winter, offering food for bees at a time when it is needed. Suffers from snails and slugs.

Petasites japonicus

Deciduous Rhizome Perennial 24-72 inches (60-180 cms) in height

42 x 60 (105 x 150)

Light Green

Yellowish-White in
March-April

 

Petrophytum caespitosum

Evergreen Sub-Shrub below 24 inches (60 cms) in height

2 x 12
(5 x 30)

Bluish-Green

Creamy-White in
July-September

 

Petrophytum hendersonii

Evergreen Sub-Shrub below 24 inches (60 cms) in height

4 x 8
(10 x 20)

Blue-Green

White to Creamy-White in
July-September

 

Phalaris arundinacea 'Feesey'

Evergreen Grass 24-72 inches (60-180 cms) in height

60 x indefinite (150 x indefinite)

Light Green with broad White stripes

Pale Green Spikelets in
July-August

"Reed Canary Grass".
Full Sun, Part Shade
Zone 4
Moisture-retentive fertile soil.

In a garden, plant Phalaris arundinacea in containers such as a section of concrete or clay pipe 30 inches (75 cm) long (width depends on the size of the clump required, which blocks the runners and prevents the plant from taking over. Once established, it is difficult to eradicate, unless contained.

Use as backdrop for other plants, since the foliage is striking from spring to midsummer.

Phalaris arundinacea var. picta

Evergreen Grass 24-72 inches (60-180 cms) in height

36 x 12 (90 x 30)

Green with White Stripes

Brown spikelets in
June-July

"Gardeners' Garters".
Full Sun, Part Shade
Zone 4
Moisture-retentive fertile soil.

Philadelphus
'Belle Etoile"

Deciduous Shrub 24-72 inches (60-180 cms) in height

48 x 96 (120 x 240)

Mid-Green

Very Fragrant White in
May-June

"Mock Orange". Narrow, tall shrub with stems that arch at the top.
Full Sun, Light Shade
Zones 5-9
Moist, well-drained soil

Philadelphus
'Manteau d'Hermine'

Deciduous Shrub 24-72 inches (60-180 cms) in height

30 x 60 (75 x 150)

Pale to Mid-Green

Very Fragrant Creamy-White in
July-August

"Mock Orange".

Philadelphus
'Aureus'

Deciduous Shrub above 72 inches (180 cms) in height

96 x 60 (240 x 150)

Golden-Yellow in Spring, Yellow-Green in Summer, Greenish-Yellow in Autumn

Creamy-White in
May-June

"Mock Orange".

Phlomis fruticosa

Evergreen Shrub 24-72 inches (60-180 cms) in height

36 x 60 (90 x 150)

Grey-Green

Golden-Yellow in
June-July

"Jerusalem Sage". From southern Europe. New shoots white. Invaluable in mixed herbaceous border, and tolerates coastal areas.
Full Sun, Part Shade
Zone 7-9
Moist, well-drained soil

Companions - grasses, nepeta, salvia, macleaya cordata, helenium, kerria japonica 'Picta', artemisia, olearia, carex.

Phlomis italica

Evergreen Shrub 24-72 inches (60-180 cms) in height

12 x 24 (30 x 60)

Grey-Green

Lilac-Pink in
August

Erect. Invaluable in mixed herbaceous border.
Zone 8-10

Phlomis purpurea

Evergreen Shrub 24-72 inches (60-180 cms) in height

24 x 24 (60 x 60)

Grey-Green

Purple to Pink in
July-September

 

Phlox paniculata 'Sandringham'

Herbaceous Perennial 24-72 inches (60-180 cms) in height

48 x 36 (120 x 90)

Dark Green

Pale Pink in
July-October

"Border Phlox". Use in middle or back of border.
Full Sun, Part Shade
Zone 4
Rich, moist soil - from rich deciduous woods, clearings, floodplains and roadsides from USA and naturalized elsewhere.

Companions - eupatorium, salvia, aster, echinacea, geranium, hardy fuchsias, aconitum. Good cut flower

Phlox bifida

Evergreen Perennial below 24 inches (60 cms) in height

8 x 6
(20 x 15)

Dark Green

Fragrant Lavender-Blue to White in
May-July

"Sand Phlox".

Phlox carolina

Herbaceous Perennial 24-72 inches (60-180 cms) in height

48 x 18 (120 x 45)

Dark Green

Purple to Pink in
July-September

"Thick-leaf Phlox, Carolina Phlox". Lance-shaped long pointed leaves on tall straight stems.
Full Sun, Light Shade
Zone 4
Moist, rich soil from USA

Phlox divaricata

Semi-Evergreen Perennial below 24 inches (60 cms) in height

14 x 20 (35 x 50)

Dark Green

Lavender-Blue to Pale Violet and White in
July

"Blue Phlox, Wild Sweet William". Cut back in early spring. Use in woodland garden like under rhododendrons and other woodland shrubs
Zone 4-9

Phlox douglasii

Evergreen Perennial below 24 inches (60 cms) in height

8 x 12
(20 x 30)

Dark Green

White, Lavender-Blue or Pink in
June-July

 

Phlox nana

Herbaceous Perennial below 24 inches (60 cms) in height

8 x 12
(20 x 30)

Grey-Green

Pink, Purple or White in
July-November

"Santa Fe Phlox".

Phlox paniculata
'Brigadier'

Herbaceous Perennial 24-72 inches (60-180 cms) in height

48 x 24 (120 x 60)

Deep Green

Orange-Red in
July-November

Use in middle or back of border.
Full Sun, Part Shade
Zone 4-9
Rich, moist soil
 

Phlox stolonifera

Herbaceous Alpine Perennial below 24 inches (60 cms) in height

6 x 12
(15 x 30)

Dark Green

Pale to deep Purple in
July

"Creeping Phlox".
Use in middle or back of border.
Light Shade to Full Shade
Zone 2
Humus-rich, moist soil

Phlox subulata

Evergreen Perennial below 24 inches (60 cms) in height

4 x 20
(10 x 50)

Bright Green

Purple or Red in
June-July

phloxflotsubulatatemiskaming2

"Moss Phlox" is a mat-forming perennial that produces a carpet of brilliant flower colour from late spring to midsummer, which cover the needlike foliage completely. Individual plants grow in clumps, spreading rapidly by trailing stems. Different cultivars are available including 'White Delight', Red Wings' and 'Emerald Blue'. In spring set out new plants 12-18 inches (30-45 cm) apart. To stimulate growth and keep plants compact, mow them about halfway to the ground after flowering.
Use in rock garden, accent plant and in large-scale planting.

Phormium cookianum 'Sundowner'

Evergreen Perennial 24-72 inches (60-180 cms) in height

72 x 72 (180 x 180)

Green with Red margin

Yellow-Green in
July-September

Rigid and upright sword-ilike foliage.
Use at back of large border or in gravel
Part Shade
Zone 8
Moisture-retentive soil

Phormium tenax
'Bronze Baby'

Evergreen Perennial below 24 inches (60 cms) in height

30 x 30 (75 x 75)

Wine-Red in Spring and Summer, Bronze in Autumn and Winter

Red in
June-July

"New Zealand Flax".
Full Sun
Zone 8
Happy in most soils though a wetland plant throughout its native New Zealand.

Phormium tenax
'Purpureum'

Evergreen Perennial above 72 inches (180 cms) in height

84 x 36 (210 x 90)

Reddish-Purple in Spring, Dark Copper in Summer, Reddish-Purple in Autumn, Bronze-Purple in Winter

Red in
June-July

"New Zealand Flax".
Full Sun
Zone 8
Happy in most soils though a wetland plant throughout its native New Zealand.

Phormium tenax
'Yellow Wave'

Evergreen Perennial 24-72 inches (60-180 cms) in height

144 x 72 (360 x 180)

Yellow-Green with Mid-Green Stripe

Red in
July-September

"New Zealand Flax".
Full Sun
Zone 8
Happy in most soils though a wetland plant throughout its native New Zealand.

Phygelius capensis

Evergreen Shrub 24-72 inches (60-180 cms) in height

48 x 60 (120 x 150)

Dark Green

Dusty Pink in
July-September

"Cape Figwort, Cape Fuchsia". Sprawling, vigorous.
Zone 7-10

Companions - perovskia, carex, hemerocallis, rudbeckia, salvia, penstemon, alstroemeria, crocosmia, dahlia, persicaria microcephala 'Red Dragon'. They are good cut flowers.

Phygelius x rectus

Evergreen Shrub 24-72 inches (60-180 cms) in height

60 x 60 (150 x 150)

Dark Green

Pale Red in
July-September

This plant and its cultivars tend to be fairly compact plants with large sprays of flowers. Best choice for gardens as they combine toughness with heavy flowering in compact, non-invasive plants.
Full sun, Part Shade
Zones 8-11
Fertile, well-drained soil that is not too dry.

Phygelius x rectus
'Moonraker'

Evergreen Shrub 24-72 inches (60-180 cms) in height

60 x 60 (150 x 150)

Dark Green

Pale Creamy-Yellow in
July-September

Extremely vigorous.
Zone 7-9

Phyllodoce aleutica

Evergreen Shrub below 24 inches (60 cms) in height

8 x 10
(20 x 25)

Bright Dark Green

Pale Yellow-Green inJune-July

 

Phyllodoce caerulea

Evergreen Alpine below 24 inches (60 cms) in height

9 x 12
(23 x 30)

Glossy Dark Green

Purplish Pink in
June-September

"Mountain Heath". Upright Shrub with bell-shaped flowers.

Phyllodoce empetriformis

Evergreen Alpine below 24 inches (60 cms) in height

12 x 16 (30 x 40)

Glossy Bright Green

Purple-Pink
in
June-July

"Pink Mountain Heather". Carpet-forming with bell-shaped flowers on long stems.

Physalis alkekengi

Deciduous Rhizome Perennial 24-72 inches (60-180 cms) in height

24 x 36 (60 x 90)

Mid-Green

Cream in
August

"Chinese Lantern, Japanese Lantern". Bright Orange-Scarlet berries fully ripe is edible. Invasive so only grow in a pot.
Full Sun, Part Shade
Zone 5-8
Well-drained soil.
All parts, except the ripe berries, are toxic, and contact with skin may cause a skin allergy.

Companions - Best grown alone in a cutting garden. Slugs eat new shoots.

Physocarpus opulifolius
'Dart's Gold'

Deciduous Shrub above 72 inches (180 cms) in height

84 x 96 (210 x 240)

Bright Yellow juvenile becoming Mid-Green

White/Pink in
July

"Ninebark". From eastern USA
Full Sun
Zones 2-10
Fertile, well-drained soil; but not chalk soil or roots becoming dry

Picea abies
'Nidiformis'

Evergreen Groundcover Conifer 24-72 inches (60-180 cms) in height

60 x 144 (150 x 360)

Dark Green

...

"Christmas Tree, Norway Spruce, Common Spruce". From Scandinavia. Shallow rooted, this tree can be upended by strong winds.
Full Sun
Zones 2-9
Moist but well-drained, neutral to acid soil.

Picea pungens glauca
'Globosa'

Evergreen Bushy Conifer 24-72 inches (60-180 cms) in height

600 x 180 (1500 x 450)

Grey-Blue

...

"Colorado Spruce". From west coast of USA. Pyramid shape. Prune regularly as fresh growth will not bud from dead wood.
Full Sun
Zones 2-10
Moist but well-drained, neutral to acid soil.

Picea pungens glauca
'Koster'

Evergreen Columnar Conifer above 72 inches (180 cms) in height

600 x 180 (1500 x 450)

Silvery-Blue

...

"Colorado Spruce".

Pieris japonica 'Firecrest'

Evergreen Shrub above 72 inches (180 cms) in height

144 x 72 (360 x 180)

Brilliant Red in Spring, Dark Green in Summer, Autumn and Winter

White in
April-May

"Lily-of-the-Valley". From Japan
Part Shade
Zones 4-10
Moist, peaty, acidic soil.

Pieris floribunda

Evergreen Shrub 24-72 inches (60-180 cms) in height

72 x 120 (180 x 300)

Glossy Dark Green

White in
April-May

 

Pieris japonica
'Little Heath'

Evergreen Shrub 24-72 inches (60-180 cms) in height

24 x 24 (60 x 60)

Pink-flushed juvenile, Green with silvery-White margins later

White in
May-June

"Lily-of-the-Valley". From Japan
Part Shade
Zones 4-10
Moist, peaty, acidic soil.

Pileostegia viburnoides

Evergreen Climber above 72 inches (180 cms) in height

216 x 36 (540 x 90)

Dark Green

White in
August-October

 

Pimelea prostrata

Evergreen Shrub below 24 inches (60 cms) in height

8 x 20
(20 x 50)

Grey-Green with Red margins

Fragrant White in
July-September

"Rice Flower". From Australasia. White or Red Fruit
Full Sun
Light, well-drained acidic soil enriched with organic matter.

Pimpinella major

Herbaceous Perennial 24-72 inches (60-180 cms) in height

48 x 24 (120 x 60)

Mid-Green

White, Greenish-White or Pink in
May-June

"Greater Burnet Saxifrage". Best performance in its own space in clay. An effective plant for meadow plantings.
Full Sun
Zone 5
Moist clay - from rough grassland, woodland margins, and hedgerows in much of Europe, except the far north, and into the Middle East and the Caucasus.

Companions - grasses, campanula lactiflora, astrantia maxima, anthriscus sylvestris 'Ravenswing', cryptotaenia, geranium, astilbe (early cultivars), delphinium, aconitum, paeonia, roses.

Pinus mugo 'Mops'

Evergreen Groundcover Conifer above 72 inches (180 cms) in height

132 x 132 (330 x 330)

Green

Dark Brown cones.

"Dwarf Mountain Pine". From mountains of Europe.
Full Sun
Zones 2-9
Well-drained soil
A slow growing pine with small, well-spaced, bright green leaves. It eventually produces dark brown female cones.
 

Pinus nigra

Evergreen Columnar Conifer above 72 inches (180 cms) in height

1200 x 300 (3000 x 750)

Dark Green

Yellow-Brown female cones.

"European Black Pine, Austrian Pine". From central and southern Europe. Open, conical habit.
Full Sun
Zones 4-9
Grow in chalk and clay; tolerates coastal conditions
 

Pittosporum ralphii
'Wheeler's Dwarf'

Evergreen Shrub 24-72 inches (60-180 cms) in height

36 x 24 (90 x 60)

Deep Green above, White to Buff felted beneath

Dark Red in
June-July

"Mock Orange". Mounding growth habit.
Full Sun, Part Shade
Zone 9
Most soils
Use as foreground for taller plants and edging plants, particularly along stepping-stone paths.

Pittosporum tenuifolium

Evergreen Shrub above 72 inches (180 cms) in height

120 x 60 (300 x 150)

Glossy
Mid-Green

Black-Red in
June-July

"Kohuhu, Tawhiwhi". From New Zealand. Its flowers have an intense honey perfume at night.
Full Sun
Zones 9-11
Fertile, well-drained soil and kee moist over summer. Requires sheltered position in colder areas

Pittosporum tenuifolium
'Silver Queen'

Evergreen Shrub above 72 inches (180 cms) in height

96 x 72 (210 x 180)

Green with White margins in Spring, Summer and Autumn, Silvery-Grey Green in Winter

Purple in
June-July

 

Pittosporum tenuifolium
'Tom Thumb'

Evergreen Shrub 24-72 inches (60-180 cms) in height

36 x 24 (90 x 60)

Pale Green in Spring, Deep reddish-Brown in Summer, Autumn and Winter

Purple in
June-July

 

Podocarpus alpinus

Groundcover Conifer 24-72 inches (60-180 cms) in height

72 x 72 (180 x 180)

Dull Green

Yellow Male Flowers,Green Female cone-like flowers in
 

"Tasmanian Podocarp".
Both male and female plants required to produce the Bright Red Fruit.

A good plant for stony sites or scree beds.

Polemonium
'Lambrook Mauve'

Herbaceous Perennial below 24 inches (60 cms) in height

18 x 18 (45 x 45)

Dark Green

Lilac-Blue in
June-July

"Jacob's Ladder, Sky Pilot". Reddish stems, compact mounds. Sterile so is never a nuisance.
Full Sun, Part Shade
Zone 4-8
Well-drained soil.

Companions - ferns, artemisia, euphorbia, campanula, hosta, helleborus, geum, potentilla, pulmonaria, brunnera. Divide clumps every 3 years to rejuvenate the plant.

Polygala calcarea

Evergreen Perennial below 24 inches (60 cms) in height

2 x 8
(5 x 20)

Mid-Green

Deep Blue in
June-July

"Milkwort".

Polygala calcarea
'Lillet'

Evergreen Perennial below 24 inches (60 cms) in height

2 x 8
(5 x 20)

Mid-Green

Blue in
June-August

 

Polygonatum hirtum

Deciduous Rhizome Perennial 24-72 inches (60-180 cms) in height

48 x 24 (120 x 60)

Mid-Green

Green-tipped White in
June-August. Flowers often hidden by the foliage

"Solomon's Seal". Black fruit. Effective in containers with erect stems.
Light Shade
Zone 5
Cool, humus-rich, moist soil

Companions - ferns, galium odoratum, hosta, omphalodes verna, brunnera, helleborus, tiarella, trillium, paris, saruma, smilacina. Lovely cut flowers.

Polygonatum multiflorum

Deciduous Rhizome Perennial 24-72 inches (60-180 cms) in height

36 x 10 (90 x 25)

Mid-Green

Green-tipped White in
June

"Common Solomon's Seal". Blue fruit.
Light Shade
Zone 4-9
Cool, humus-rich, moist soil

Polygonatum multiflorum
'Striatum'

Deciduous Rhizome Perennial 24-72 inches (60-180 cms) in height

36 x 10 (90 x 25)

Mid-Green striped Creamy-White

Green-tipped White in
June

Black fruit
Light Shade
Zone 4-10
Humus-rich, moist soil

Polygonatum x hybridum

Deciduous Rhizome Perennial 24-72 inches (60-180 cms) in height

48 x 36 (120 x 90)

Mid-Green

Green-tipped Creamy-White in
June

"Common Solomon's Seal". Vigorously spreading colonies with lance-shaped mid-green leaves
Blue-Black fruit
Zone 4-9
Humus-rich, moist soil

Polypodium vulgare

Evergreen Fern below 24 inches (60 cms) in height

12 x indefinite (30 x indefinite)

Dark Green

...

"Common Polypody".
Dappled Shade
Zone 3
Well-drained soil - native mainly on acid rocks and soils, and on trees in much of Europe and western Asia.

See further details and photos in Fern Nursery page and Fern Gallery.
The Fern Nursery garden is open on Saturdays from May until September. They have events, talks and ferns photo gallery.
 

Polypodium vulgare
'Cornubiense'

Evergreen Fern below 24 inches (60 cms) in height

14 x indefinite (35 x indefinite)

Dark Green

...

"Common Polypody". Excellent ground cover
Dappled Shade
Zone 3
Well-drained soil

Polystichum aculeatum

Evergreen Fern 24-72 inches (60-180 cms) in height

24 x 36 (60 x 90)

Dark Green

...

"Hard Shield Fern".
Part Shade
Zone 4
Well-drained soil - Grows in woods, hedgebanks and streamsides in much of Europe.

Use Polystichum in shady woodlands and rock gardens.

See further details and photos in Fern Nursery page and Fern Gallery.
The Fern Nursery garden is open on Saturdays from May until September. They have events, talks and ferns photo gallery.
 

Polystichum munitum

Evergreen Fern 24-72 inches (60-180 cms) in height

36 x 48 (90 x 120)

Dark Green

...

"Sword Fern".
Full Sun
Zone 6
Well-drained soil - grows in moist woodland in western North America.

See further details and photos in Fern Nursery page and Fern Gallery.
The Fern Nursery garden is open on Saturdays from May until September. They have events, talks and ferns photo gallery.
 

Polystichum setiferum

Evergreen Fern 24-72 inches (60-180 cms) in height

48 x 36 (120 x 90)

Dark Green

...

"Soft Shield Fern".
Part Shade
Zone 5
Well-drained soil - Native to damp woodland and shady hedgebanks in much of Europe.

See further details and photos in Fern Nursery page and Fern Gallery.
The Fern Nursery garden is open on Saturdays from May until September. They have events, talks and ferns photo gallery.
 

Potentilla
'William Rollison'
(May be listed wrongly as 'William Robinson')

Herbaceous Perennial below 24 inches (60 cms) in height

18 x 24 (45 x 60)

Mid-Green

Yellow or Red-Orange in
June-September

Clump-forming
Full Sun
Zone 5-9
Cool, moist, well-drained, open border. Once the flower blooms have faded, remove the flower stems at ground level.

Companions - grasses, hemerocallis, iris, geranium.

Potentilla alba

Herbaceous Perennial below 24 inches (60 cms) in height

3 x 12
(7 x 30)

Light Green above, Silver-Hairy beneath

White in June-July

Clump-forming
Full Sun
Zone 5
Cool, moist, well-drained, open border. Once the flower blooms have faded, remove the flower stems at ground level. From central and southern Europe

Potentilla atrosanguinea
 

Herbaceous Perennial 24-72 inches (60-180 cms) in height

24 x 24 (60 x 60)

Dark Green

Yellow, Orange or Red in
July-November

"Himalayan Cinquefoil". Sprawling.
Full Sun
Zone 5-9
Cool, moist, well-drained, open border. Once the flower blooms have faded, remove the flower stems at ground level.

Potentilla fruticosa
'Abbotswood'

Deciduous Shrub 24-72 inches (60-180 cms) in height

30 x 48 (75 x 120)

Dark Blue-Green

White in
June-November

"Bush Cinquefoil".
Full Sun
Zones 2-9
Any well-drained, fertile soil

Potentilla eriocarpa

Herbaceous Perennial below 24 inches (60 cms) in height

3 x 12
(7 x 30)

Bright Green

Deep Yellow in
July

 

Potentilla fruticosa
'Beesii'

Deciduous Shrub 24-72 inches (60-180 cms) in height

24 x 48 (60 x 120)

Silver-Hairy

Golden Yellow in
June-November

 

Potentilla fruticosa
'Elizabeth'

Deciduous Shrub 24-72 inches (60-180 cms) in height

36 x 60 (90 x 150)

Dark Green

Bright Yellow in
May-October

 

Potentilla fruticosa
'Longacre'

Deciduous Shrub 24-72 inches (60-180 cms) in height

24 x 24 (60 x 60)

Dark Green

Sulphur-Yellow in
May-October

 

Potentilla fruticosa
'Manchu'

Deciduous Shrub below 24 inches (60 cms) in height

12 x 30 (30 x 75)

Silvery-Grey

White in
May-October

 

Potentilla fruticosa
'Princess'

Deciduous Shrub 24-72 inches (60-180 cms) in height

24 x 36 (60 x 90)

Dark Green

Pale Pink in
May-October

 

Potentilla fruticosa
'Red Ace'

Deciduous Shrub 24-72 inches (60-180 cms) in height

36 x 60 (90 x 150)

Mid-Green

Vermilion-Red in
May-October

 

Potentilla fruticosa
'Sunset'

Deciduous Shrub 24-72 inches (60-180 cms) in height

36 x 36 (90 x 90)

Mid-Green

Deep Orange in
June-October

 

Potentilla fruticosa
'Tilford Cream'

Deciduous Shrub 24-72 inches (60-180 cms) in height

24 x 36 (60 x 90)

Dark Green

Creamy-White in
May-October

 

Primula auricula

Evergreen Perennial below 24 inches (60 cms) in height

8 x 10
(20 x 25)

Pale Green to Grey Green

Deep Yellow in
April-June

"Auricula"
Dappled Shade
Zone 3-9
Moisture retentive, well-drained soil with well-rotted leafmould, grit and pulverized bark mulch. From limestone crevices in cliffs and boulders in the Alps, Jura, Appenines, and Carpathians, Europe.

Companions - The minor spring bulbs, kerria, hamamelis, rhododendron, ferns, brunnera, bergenia, corylopsis, ribes, meconopsis, hosta, myosotis, pulmonaria, trillium, omphalodes; the spring garden

Primula bulleyana

Semi-Evergreen Perennial 24-72 inches (60-180 cms) in height

24 x 24 (60 x 60)

Mid-Green

Crimson fading to Orange in
July-September

Long-blooming, disappears in late autumn
Open or Part Shaded
Zone 5-8
Humus-rich, sheltered sites that never dry out, ideally by ponds or streams. From wet meadows in northwest Yunnan extending to southwest Sichuan, China

Primula florindae

Herbaceous Perennial 24-72 inches (60-180 cms) in height

48 x 36 (120 x 90)

Mid-Green

Fragrant Sulphur-Yellow in
July-September

"Giant Cowslip, Tibetan Primrose, Himalayan Cowslip". Good cut flower and long lived.
Full Sun
Zone 6-8
Moist soil that does not dry out and tolerant of considerable flooding in winter. Confined to a few wet river flood-plains high in relatively dry parts of southeastern Tibet.

Primula hirsutae

Evergreen Perennial below 24 inches (60 cms) in height

4 x 10
(10 x 25)

Mid-Green

Mauve-Pink in
June-July

 

Primula luteola

Evergreen Perennial below 24 inches (60 cms) in height

14 x 18 (35 x 45)

Mid-Green

Yellow in
April-June

 

Primula veris

Semi-Evergreen Perennial below 24 inches (60 cms) in height

7 x 7
(17 x 17)

Mid Green

Yellow in Spring

"Primula, Cowslip". Long-lived.
Full Sun
Zone 4-8
Fertile, well-drained soil. Often used for naturalizing in rough grass or meadows. From well-drained neutral to alkaline grasslands and scrub in the British Isles, from Norway to Spain, Turkey and eastern Siberia
 

Primula vulgaris

Semi-Evergreen Perennial below 24 inches (60 cms) in height

8 x 14
(20 x 35)

Bright Green

Fragrant Yellow in
April-June

"Primrose, Common Primrose, Primula". Solitary flowers on stems
Part Shade
Zone 4-9
Good for naturalizing in woodland or shaded grassland. From deciduous woodlands, banks, and shaded grassland in Britain, southern Norway and northern Spain to north Africa, Lebanon, Iran and the Caucasus.

Prostanthera cuneata

Evergreen Shrub 24-72 inches (60-180 cms) in height

24 x 24 (60 x 60)

Glossy Mid to dark Green. Strongly Aromatic when crushed

White in
July-September

"Alpine Mint Bush". Compact shrub from southeastern Australia.
Full Sun sheltered from strong winds
Zones 8-9
Thrives in medium to heavy soils if kept moist over the summer. Prune after flowering.

Prunella grandiflora

Semi-Evergreen Perennial below 24 inches (60 cms) in height

6 x 36
(15 x 90)

Deep Green

Purple in
July-September
prunellaflotgrandiflora2

"Large Self-Heal". Forms dense, creeping patches of foliage. Remove spent flowers to prevent prolific sel-seeding.
Full Sun, Part Shade
Zone 5
Found usually on dryish, alkaline soils in continental Europe northwards to southern Sweden and central Russia

Prunella grandiflora
'White Loveliness'

Semi-Evergreen Perennial below 24 inches (60 cms) in height

6 x 36
(15 x 90)

Deep Green

Pure White in
July-September

White flowers of above

Prunus 'Accolade'

Deciduous Tree above 72 inches (180 cms) in height

300 x 300 (750 x 750)

Mid-Green in Spring and Summer, Orange-Red in Autumn

Deep Pink in
March

 

Prunus blireana

Deciduous Tree above 72 inches (180 cms) in height

144 x 144 (360 x 360)

Purple

Rose-Pink in
April

"Double Flowering Plum". Rounded shrub.
Full Sun but with protection from strong wind for the spring blossom
Zones 5-10
Moist, well-drained. Keep the base of trees free of weeds and long grass. Feed young trees with a high-nitrogen fertilizer.

Prunus cerasifera
'Pissardii'

Deciduous Shrub above 72 inches (180 cms) in height

360 x 360 (900 x 900)

Red in Spring, Deeper Red in Summer, Purple in Autumn

Fragrant White in
April

"Cherry Plum, Myrobalan, Purple-leafed Plum". Native to Turkey and the Caucasus region.
Zones 3-10

Prunus laurocerasus
'Otto Luyken'

Evergreen Shrub 24-72 inches (60-180 cms) in height

72 x 72 (180 x 180)

Dark Green

White in
May

"Cherry Laurel, Laurel Cherry". Native to the Balkans, Turkey and the Caspian region. Commonly grown as a hedge, but unclipped it can reach 600 inches (1500 cms) in height.
Zones 6-10

Prunus spinosa

Deciduous Tree above 72 inches (180 cms) in height

180 x 144 (450 x 360)

Mid to Dark Green

White in
April-May

"Blackthorn, Sloe". Edible Black Plum fruit.
Zones 4-9

Prunus subhirtella 'Autumnalis'

Deciduous Tree above 72 inches (180 cms) in height

300 x 300 (750 x 750)

Dark Green in Spring and Summer, Yellow in Autumn

White in
December-February

"Higan Cherry, Rosebud Cherry". From Japan.
Zones 5-9

Prunus tenella
'Fire Hill'

Deciduous Shrub 24-72 inches (60-180 cms) in height

72 x 72 (180 x 180)

Dark Green

Rose-Red in
April-May

"Dwarf Russian Almond".

Prunus x cistena

Deciduous Shrub 24-72 inches (60-180 cms) in height

60 x 60 (150 x 150)

Red in Spring, Reddish-Purple in Summer and Autumn

Pinkish-White in
April-May

 

Prunus 'Spire'

Deciduous Tree above 72 inches (180 cms) in height

360 x 180 (900 x 450)

Bronze in Spring, Dark Green in Summer, Brilliant Orange-Red in Autumn

Soft Pink in
March-April

 

Pseudowintera colorata
(Drimys colorata)

Evergreen Shrub 24-72 inches (60-180 cms) in height

36 x 60 (90 x 150)

Yellow-Green marked Pink and margined dark Red-Purple above, glaucous beneath

Greenish-Yellow in
May

"Alpine Pepper Tree, Horopito". Spreading bushy shrub from New Zealand.
Full Sun, Light Shade
Zones 8-10
Moist, well-drained soil
 

Pterocephalus perennis
(Pterocephalus parnassii)

Evergreen Perennial below 24 inches (60 cms) in height

3 x 8
(7 x 20)

Grey-Green

Pale Pinkish-Purple in
July-September

Papery seed heads.Full Sun
Zone 6
Well-draining soil. From Greece and Albania

Pulmonaria angustifolia

Deciduous Perennial below 24 inches (60 cms) in height

12 x 18 (30 x 45)

Mid to Dark Green

Rich Blue in
April-June

"Blue Cowslip". Mildew resistant. Neat Clump-forming.
Light Shade
Zone 3-9
moist, well-drained, from acid to neutral sand.

The Pulmonaria Hardy Plant Society Group was formed in 1992.

Companions - Early bulbs, dicentra, hosta, astilbe, forsythia, helleborus, polygonatum, epimedium, ranunculus ficaria, tiarella, hamamellis, corylopsis; pair the coral-coloured forms with daphne odora 'Aureomarginata', ribes sanguineum, and tulipa 'Toronto'.
Interweave with Ranunculus ficaria 'Brazen Hussy" to have brassy yellow coming up amongst the rich blue flowers.

Pulmonaria longifolia

Deciduous Perennial below 24 inches (60 cms) in height

12 x 18 (30 x 45)

Dark Green spotted Silvery-White

Blue in
March-June

"Spotted Dog"
Clump-forming.
Full Sun
Zone 3-9
Heavy clay. Apply annual mulch of leafmould or composted bark. From western Europe

Pulmonaria officinalis

Evergreen Perennial below 24 inches (60 cms) in height

10 x 18 (25 x 45)

White-spotted, Bright Mid-Green

Blue in
April-June

"Jerusalem Cowslip, Soldiers and Sailors, Spotted Dog, Common Lungwort". Clump-forming.
Part Shade
Zone 3-9
Fertile, humus-rich soil that is not too dry.

Pulmonaria officinalis
'Sissinghurst White'

Evergreen Perennial below 24 inches (60 cms) in height

12 x 18 (30 x 45)

White Spotted, Bright Mid-Green

Pure White in
April-June

White flowers of above

Pulmonaria saccharata

Evergreen Perennial below 24 inches (60 cms) in height

12 x 24 (30 x 60)

White-Spotted, Mid-Green

Violet or White in
March-June

"Jerusalem Sage, Bethlehem Sage". Clumps
Part Shade
Zone 3-9
Fertile, humus-rich soil that is not too dry

Pulsatilla vulgaris
(Anemone pulsatilla)

Herbaceous Perennial below 24 inches (60 cms) in height

6 x 8
(15 x 20)

Light Green

Deep to Pale Purple, sometimes White in
April-June

"Pasque Flower". Large feathery seedheads
Full Sun
Zone 6-8
Well-drained, fertile soil. From short grassland and mountain meadows in Europe, from eastern England to the Ukraine

Companions - viola, smaller grasses (festuca), paeonia (emerging foliage), aubretia, phlox subulata, lychnis viscaria, dwarf narcissus, crocus; a good rock garden plant, shows off well when backlit.

Putoria calabrica

Evergreen Shrub below 24 inches (60 cms) in height

3 x 12
(7 x 30)

Mid-Green

Pink in
July-September

"Stinking Madder".

Pyracantha
'Golden Dome'

Evergreen Shrub 24-72 inches (60-180 cms) in height

72 x 120 (180 x 300)

Glossy Dark Green

White in
July

"Firethorn".
Golden-Yellow Berries.

Pyracantha
'Orange Glow'

Evergreen Shrub above 72 inches (180 cms) in height

180 x 120 (450 x 300)

Glossy Dark Green

White in
June

"Firethorn".
Orange-Red to Dark Orange berries that are very attractive to birds. Well suited to espaliering.
Full Sun
Zones 7-10
Wide range of moist soils.

Pyracantha
'Red Column'

Evergreen Shrub above 72 inches (180 cms) in height

96 x 72 (210 x 180)

Glossy Dark Green

White in
July

"Firethorn".
Red berries.

Excellent as edging, rough thorny hedges or trailing down rocky slopes. The ripe fruits are edible and can be used to make a bland jelly.

Pyracantha
'Santa Cruz'

Deciduous Shrub 24-72 inches (60-180 cms) in height

36 x 72 (90 x 180)

Dark Green

White in
July

"Firethorn".
Red berries.

Pyracantha
'Teton'

Evergreen Shrub above 72 inches (180 cms) in height

144 x 144 (360 x 360)

Glossy Bright Green

White in
July

"Firethorn".
Yellow-Orange berries.

Pyracantha rogersiana
'Flava'

Evergreen Shrub above 72 inches (180 cms) in height

120 x 120 (300 x 300)

Glossy Bright Green

White in
April-June

"Firethorn".
Yellow berries.

Pyrola rotundifolia

Evergreen Perennial below 24 inches (60 cms) in height

8 x 6
(20 x 15)

Mid to Dark Green

Pure White in
July-September

"Round-leaved Winter-Green, Wild Lily-Of-The-Valley".

Pyrus calleryana 'Chanticleer'

Deciduous Tree above 72 inches (180 cms) in height

480 x 240 (1200 x 600)

Glossy Dark Green in Spring and Summer, Red in Autumn

White in
April-May

"Callery Pear". From China. Tolerating heat, dry conditions, wind and poor soil, it makes an ideal street tree.
Full Sun
Zones 5-9
Having modest moisture needs they suit coastal areas with heavy, sandy loams and good drainage.

 

Height in inches (cms):-

25.4mm = 1 inch
304.8mm = 12 inches
12 inches = 1 foot
3 feet = 1 yard
914.4mm = 1 yard

I normally round this to
25mm = 1 inch
300mm = 30 cms = 12 inches =1 foot,
900 mm = 3 feet = 1 yard and
1000mm = 100 cms = 1 metre = 40 inches

 

Site design and content copyright ©December 2006. Page structure changed September 2012. Height x Spread in feet changed to Height x Spread in inches (cms) May 2015. Data added to existing pages December 2017. Zone and Companion Data added April 2022. Chris Garnons-Williams.

DISCLAIMER: Links to external sites are provided as a courtesy to visitors. Ivydene Horticultural Services are not responsible for the content and/or quality of external web sites linked from this site.  

Details of smaller Papaver, Penstemon, Petrophytum, Phlox, Phyllodoce, Pieris, Pimelea, Polygala, Potentilla, Primula and Pulsatilla and which container to grow the plant in:-

  • A. The plant can be grown in sinks, trough, pans or scree beds
  • B. The plant is best accommodated in a trough or sink.
  • C. Suitable for peat beds and raised beds (suitable for alpine rhododendrons)

 

"Welcome to Barnhaven - the world-renowned hardy primrose specialists.

Florence Bellis began her famous hybridizing programme in the USA in 1936 and 84 years later, we are still committed to producing seeds and plants using her traditional hand-pollinating methods. We aim to keep the original Barnhaven strains going, to continue her creative work and to spread the enjoyment and delight that comes from growing beautiful primroses." It is superb dedication by family after family to keep the primrose breeding and its cultivars available to the world by these passionate people.

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Clay Soil Other

Info - Lime-Free (Acid) Soil
Lime-Free (Acid) A-F 1
Lime-Free (Acid) A-F 2
Lime-Free (Acid) A-F 3
Lime-Free (Acid) G-L
Lime-Free (Acid) M-R
Lime-Free (Acid) S-Z

Info - Sandy Soil
Sandy Soil A-F 1
Sandy Soil A-F 2
Sandy Soil A-F 3
Sandy Soil G-L
Sandy Soil M-R
Sandy Soil S-Z

Info - Peaty Soils
Peaty Soil A-F
Peaty Soil G-L
Peaty Soil M-R
Peaty Soil S-Z

Following parts of Level 2a,
Level 2b,
Level 2c and
Level 2d are included in separate columns
together with
Acid Soil,
Alkaline Soil,
Any Soil,
Height and Spread,
Flowering Months and
Flower Colour in their Columns,
and also
Companion Plants to aid this plant Page,
Alpine Plant for Rock Garden Index Page
Native to UK WildFlower Plant in its Family Page in this website

and/or
Level 2cc
in the Comment Column
within each
of the Soil Type Pages of
Level 2

Explanation of Structure of this Website with User Guidelines Page for those photo galleries with Photos (of either ones I have taken myself or others which have been loaned only for use on this website from external sources)

PLANTS PAGE MENU

Plant Selection by Plant Requirements
Level 2a
Sun aspect, Moisture


Plant Selection by Form
Level 2b
Tree Growth Shape
Columnar
Oval
Rounded / Spherical
Flattened Spherical
Narrow Conical
Broad Pyramidal
Ovoid / Egg
Broad Ovoid
Narrow Vase
Fan
Broad Fan
Narrow Weeping
Broad Weeping
Single-stem Palm
Multi-stem Palm
Shrub/Perennial Growth Habit
Mat
Prostrate / Trailing
Cushion / Mound
Spreading / Creeping
Clump
Stemless
Erect or Upright
Climbing
Arching


Plant Selection by Garden Use
Level 2c
Bedding
Photos - Bedding
Bog Garden
Coastal Conditions
Containers in Garden
Front of Border
Edibles in Containers
Hanging Basket
Hedge
Photos - Hedging
Pollution Barrier 1, 2
Rest of Border
Rock Garden
Photos - Rock Garden
Thorny Hedge
Windbreak
Woodland


Plant Selection by Garden Use
Level 2cc Others
Aquatic
Back of Shady Border
Crevice Garden
Desert Garden
Raised Bed
Scree Bed
Specimen Plant
Trees for Lawns
Trees for Small Garden
Wildflower
Photos - Wildflowers


Plant Selection by Plant Type
Level 2d
Alpine
Photos - Evergr Per
Photos - Herbac Per
Photos - RHS Herbac
Photos - Rock Garden
Annual
Bamboo
Photos - Bamboo
Biennial

Bulb
Photos - Bulb
Climber
Photos - Climber
Conifer
Deciduous Rhizome
Deciduous Shrub
Photos - Decid Shrub
Evergreen Perennial
Photos - Evergr Per

Evergreen Shrub
0-24 inches 1, 2, 3
24-72 inches 1, 2, 3
Above 72 inches 1, 2

Semi-Evergreen Shrub
Photos - Evergr Shrub
Fern
Photos - Fern
Fruit Plant
Grass
Herb
Herbaceous Perennial
Photos - Herbac Per
Remaining Top Fruit
Soft Fruit
Sub-Shrub
Top Fruit
Tuber
Vegetable
Photos - Vegetable

 

Photos - with its link; provides a link to its respective Plant Photo Gallery in this website to provide comparison photos.
Click on required comparison page and then centre of selected plant thumbnail. Further details on that plant will be shown in a separate Plant Description webpage.
Usually the Available from Mail Order Plant Nursery link will link you to the relevant page on that website.
I started this website in 2005 - it is possible that those particular links no longer connect, so you may need to search for that plant instead.

When I started, a click on the centre of the thumbnail ADDED the Plant Description Page, now I CHANGE the page instead. Mobile phones do not allow ADDING a page, whereas stand alone computers do. The User Guidelines Page shows which Plant Photo Galleries have been modified to CHANGE rather than ADD.

PLANTS PAGE MENU

REFINING SELECTION
Plant Selection by
Flower Colour
Level 3a

Blue Flowers
Photos -
Bedding
Bulb
Climber
Evergr Per
Evergr Shrub
Wild Flower

Orange Flowers
Photos -
Bedding
Wild Flower

Other Colour Flowers
Photos -
Bedding
Bulb
Climber
Evergr Per
Evergr Shrub
Wild Flower

Red Flowers
Photos -
Bedding
Bulb
Climber
Decid Shrub
Evergr Per
Evergr Shrub
Herbac Per
Rose
Wild Flower

White Flowers
Photos -
Bedding
Bulb
Climber
Decid Shrub
Decid Tree
Evergr Per
Evergr Shrub
Herbac Per
Rose
Wild Flower

Yellow Flowers
Photos -
Bedding
Bulb
Climber
Decid Shrub
Evergr Per
Evergr Shrub
Herbac Per
Rose
Wild Flower


Photos - 53 Colours in its Colour Wheel Gallery

Photos - 12 Flower Colours per Month in its Bloom Colour Wheel Gallery


Plant Selection by Flower Shape
Level 3b

Photos -
Bedding
Evergr Per
Herbac Per


Plant Selection by Foliage Colour
Level 3c

Aromatic Foliage
Finely Cut Leaves
Large Leaves
Other
Non-Green Foliage 1
Non-Green Foliage 2
Sword-shaped Leaves


PRUNING
Plant Selection by Pruning Requirements
Level 4

Pruning Plants


GROUNDCOVER PLANT DETAIL
Plant Selection Level 5

Plant Name - A from Ground Cover a thousand beautiful plants for difficult places by John Cushnie
ISBN 1 85626 326 6

Plant Name - B
Plant Name - C
Plant Name - D with Ground Cover. How to use flowering and foliage plants to cover areas of soil by Mineke Kurpershoek.
ISBN 1 901094 41 3
Plant combinations for normal garden soil.
Plant combinations for sandy soil.
Plant combinations for clay soil.
Plant combinations for Woodland, heaths and wet soil.
Shrubs for slopes and large beds.

Plant Name - E
Plant Name - F
Plant Name - G
Plant Name - H
Plant Name - I How about using staging in your unheated greenhouse and stock it with bulbs and ferns for looking at from the house from autumn to spring, before using it for salads during the spring/summer from The Culture of Bulbs, Bulbous Plants and Tubers Made Plain by Sir J. L. Cotter.
Plant Name - J
Plant Name - K
Plant Name - L If you have no garden but only a concrete or tarmac area why not use 1 of the 8 Garden on a Roll garden borders and then maintain your garden using their Maintaining your border instructions.
Plant Name - M Importance of providing a mulch with the ground cover
Plant Name - N
Plant Name - O
Plant Name - P
Plant Name - Q
Plant Name - R
Plant Name - S
Plant Name - T
Plant Name - U
Plant Name - V
Plant Name - W
Plant Name - XYZ with 14 Special Situations. Ground cover plants for:-
1 Dry Shade
2 Damp Shade
3 Full Sun
4 Banks and Terraces
5 Woodland
6 Alkaline Sites
7 Acid Sites
8 Heavy Clay Soil
9 Dry Sandy Soil
10 Exposed Sites
11 Under Hedges
12 Patios and Paths
13 Formal Gardens
14 Swimming Pools and Tennis Courts
Why grass/lawn should never be used as a groundcover
and
Why seaweed is a necessary ingredient for gardens

Groundcover Height
0-24 inches
(0-60 cms)
1,2,3
24-72 inches
(60-180 cms)
4,5,6
Above 72 inches
(180 cms)
7


Then, finally use
COMPANION PLANTING to

aid your plant selected or to
deter Pests
Plant Selection Level 6

 

To locate mail-order nursery for plants from the UK in this gallery try using search in RHS Find a Plant.

To locate plants in the European Union (EU) try using Search Term in Gardens4You and Meilland Richardier in France.

To locate mail-order nursery for plants from America in this gallery try using search in Plant Lust.

To locate plant information in Australia try using Plant Finder in Gardening Australia.

To see what plants that I have described in this website see
Plant Botanical Index
...A, B, C, D, E,
...F, G, H, I, J, K,
...L, M, N, O, P, Q,
...R, S, T, U, V, W,
...X, Y, Z

 

 

Top ten plants that are bad for bees from Countryfile Magazine

"Lavender, alliums, fuschias, sweet peas - keen gardeners know the very best flowers to entice bees to their gardens. But what about plants that are  bad for bees? Here is our expert guide to the top ten plants that you should avoid to keep bees happy and buzzing, plus the perfect alternatives.

1. Rhododendron
Spectacular and beautiful, not many people know the common rhododendron hides a poisonous secret – its nectar is toxic to bees. It’s common practice for beekeepers to keep their hives closed until the flowering season is over. The resulting honey from rhododendrons has also been known to contaminate honey, making it unsafe for humans to eat.
Alternative: Clematis have beautiful, wide flowers and are 100 per cent bee-friendly.

2. Azalea
Rhododendron’s sister, azaleas are also toxic to bees.
Alternative: Foxgloves (Digitalis) are a bee favourite and despite being poisonous if consumed by humans, they are both honey and bee safe.

3. Trumpet flower, or angel’s trumpet (Brugmansia suaveolens)
Though ornamental and sweet smelling, the trumpet flower’s nectar can cause brood death in bees and is best avoided.
Alternative: Try honeysuckle (Lonicera) instead for deliciously scented results.

4. Oleander (Nerium oleander)
Harmful to butterflies as well as bees, oleander has a severe effect on hives. Nectar taken to the hive concentrates as it dries out, which increases the amount of toxins and usually results in a mass hive wipeout. 
Alternative: Snapdragons (Antirrhinum majus) are equally as bright and arguably more attractive in small or large gardens.

5. Yellow Jessamine (Gelsemium sempervirens)
Pleasantly aromatic and attractive as they are, bees are often poisoned by the vines and flowers of the yellow jessamine and its toxins are said to be as severe as hemlock.
Alternative: Plant Black-eyed Susans (Rudbeckia hirta) in tubs and along fences for a pretty, easy-to-grow substitute.

6. Mountain Laurel (Kalmia latifolia)
Part of the blueberry family, the mountain laurel is an evergreen shrub with sweet, white or pink flowers when in bloom. Pretty they may be, but the honey produced by mountain laurel is toxic to humans and is often bitter tasting.
Alternative: Lilacs (Syringa) are both beautiful and wonderfully sweet smelling. Easy to grow and are loved by bees and butterflies. 

7. Stargazer lily (Lilium 'Stargazer')
Stunning but deadly to cats, stargazer lilies’ pollen is poisonous to bees.
Alternative: Hollyhocks (Alcea) are impressive and just as beautiful as the stargazer but bee-friendly.

8. Heliconia Exotic and interesting, heliconia, or lobster-claws as its sometimes called, is very toxic to bees. You should not prune your heliconias, as the 'stem' is actually made up of rolled leaf bases and the flowers emerge from the top of these 'pseudostems'. However, each stem will only flower once, so after flowering you can cut that stem out. This is recommended, to encourage more flowering, to increase airflow in between the stems of your plant, and also to generally tidy it up and improve the appearance.
Alternative: Although not quite as exotic, hyacinths are fragrant, gorgeous and easy to grow. Hyacinth bulbs are poisonous; they contain oxalic acid. Handling hyacinth bulbs can cause mild skin irritation. Protective gloves are recommended.

9. Bog rosemary (Andromeda polifolia -
All parts of the plant contain andromedotoxin and are considered poisonous)
Not to be confused with the herb, bog rosemary is acutely poisonous and the honey produced from the nectar of Andromeda polifolia contains high enough levels of grayanotoxin to cause full body paralysis and potentially fatal breathing difficulties due to diaphragm paralysis.
Alternative: Why not try planting a classic rosemary bush (Rosmarinus officinalis) – aromatic, resilient and favoured by bees.

10. Amaryllis (Hippeastrum)
Now most commonly recognised as decorative Christmas flowers, amaryllis are gorgeous in bloom but their pollen produces toxic honey. Bulbs, chewing or ingestion of the bulbs, leaves or flowers poisons goats and sheep with Lycorine (An emetic) and small amounts of alkaloids.
Alternative: Dahlias are a highlight of late summer gardens. Beautiful and simple to grow, dahlias often flower until the first frosts of the year."

This is another list of Plants toxic to bees, which includes:-
Aesculus californica,
Astralagus species,
Cuscuta species,
Cyrilla racemiflora,
Solanum nigram,
Veratrum cailfornicum,
Zygadenus cenesosus,
Corynocarpus laevigata,
Angelica triqueta,
Astralagus lentiginosus,
Camellia thea,
Ochrama lagopus,
Sophora microphylla,
Tillia species,
Verartrum californicum,
Asclepias species,
Astralagus miser v. serotibus.

 

The following details come from Cactus Art:-

"A flower is the the complex sexual reproductive structure of Angiosperms, typically consisting of an axis bearing perianth parts, androecium (male) and gynoecium (female).    

Bisexual flower show four distinctive parts arranged in rings inside each other which are technically modified leaves: Sepal, petal, stamen & pistil. This flower is referred to as complete (with all four parts) and perfect (with "male" stamens and "female" pistil). The ovary ripens into a fruit and the ovules inside develop into seeds.

Incomplete flowers are lacking one or more of the four main parts. Imperfect (unisexual) flowers contain a pistil or stamens, but not both. The colourful parts of a flower and its scent attract pollinators and guide them to the nectary, usually at the base of the flower tube.

partsofaflowersmallest

 

Androecium (male Parts or stamens)
It is made up of the filament and anther, it is the pollen producing part of the plant.
Anther This is the part of the stamen that produces and contains pollen. 
Filament This is the fine hair-like stalk that the anther sits on top of.
Pollen This is the dust-like male reproductive cell of flowering plants.

Gynoecium (female Parts or carpels or pistil)
 It is made up of the stigma, style, and ovary. Each pistil is constructed of one to many rolled leaflike structures.
Stigma
This is the part of the pistil  which receives the pollen grains and on which they germinate. 
Style
This is the long stalk that the stigma sits on top of ovary. 
Ovary
The part of the plant that contains the ovules. 
Ovule
The part of the ovary that becomes the seeds. 

Petal 
The colorful, often bright part of the flower (corolla). 
Sepal 
The parts that look like little green leaves that cover the outside of a flower bud (calix). 
(Undifferentiated "Perianth segment" that are not clearly differentiated into sepals and petals, take the names of tepals.)"

 

 

 

The following details come from Nectary Genomics:-

"NECTAR. Many flowering plants attract potential pollinators by offering a reward of floral nectar. The primary solutes found in most nectars are varying ratios of sucrose, glucose and fructose, which can range from as little a 8% (w/w) in some species to as high as 80% in others. This abundance of simple sugars has resulted in the general perception that nectar consists of little more than sugar-water; however, numerous studies indicate that it is actually a complex mixture of components. Additional compounds found in a variety of nectars include other sugars, all 20 standard amino acids, phenolics, alkaloids, flavonoids, terpenes, vitamins, organic acids, oils, free fatty acids, metal ions and proteins.

NECTARIES. An organ known as the floral nectary is responsible for producing the complex mixture of compounds found in nectar. Nectaries can occur in different areas of flowers, and often take on diverse forms in different species, even to the point of being used for taxonomic purposes. Nectaries undergo remarkable morphological and metabolic changes during the course of floral development. For example, it is known that pre-secretory nectaries in a number of species accumulate large amounts of starch, which is followed by a rapid degradation of amyloplast granules just prior to anthesis and nectar secretion. These sugars presumably serve as a source of nectar carbohydrate.

WHY STUDY NECTAR? Nearly one-third of all worldwide crops are dependent on animals to achieve efficient pollination. In addition, U.S. pollinator-dependent crops have been estimated to have an annual value of up to $15 billion. Many crop species are largely self-incompatible (not self-fertile) and rely almost entirely on animal pollinators to achieve full fecundity; poor pollinator visitation has been reported to reduce yields of certain species by up to 50%."

 

The following details about DOUBLE FLOWERS comes from Wikipedia:-

"Double-flowered" describes varieties of flowers with extra petals, often containing flowers within flowers. The double-flowered trait is often noted alongside the scientific name with the abbreviation fl. pl. (flore pleno, a Latin ablative form meaning "with full flower"). The first abnormality to be documented in flowers, double flowers are popular varieties of many commercial flower types, including roses, camellias and carnations. In some double-flowered varieties all of the reproductive organs are converted to petals — as a result, they are sexually sterile and must be propagated through cuttings. Many double-flowered plants have little wildlife value as access to the nectaries is typically blocked by the mutation.

 

There is further photographic, diagramatic and text about Double Flowers from an education department - dept.ca.uky.edu - in the University of Kentucky in America.

 

"Meet the plant hunter obsessed with double-flowering blooms" - an article from The Telegraph.

 

THE 2 EUREKA EFFECT PAGES FOR UNDERSTANDING SOIL AND HOW PLANTS INTERACT WITH IT OUT OF 10,000:-


Explanation of Structure of this Website with User Guidelines Page for those photo galleries with Photos
(of either ones I have taken myself or others which have been loaned only for use on this website from external sources)

Choose 1 of these different Plant selection Methods:-

 

1. Choose a plant from 1 of 53 flower colours in the Colour Wheel Gallery.

 

2. Choose a plant from 1 of 12 flower colours in each month of the year from 12 Bloom Colours per Month Index Gallery.

 

3. Choose a plant from 1 of 6 flower colours per month for each type of plant:-

Aquatic
Bedding
Bulb
Climber
Conifer
Deciduous Shrub
Deciduous Tree
Evergreen Perennial
Evergreen Shrub
Evergreen Tree
Hedging
Herbaceous Perennial
Herb
Odds and Sods
Rhododendron nectar and the nectar from the plants in the fifth row above are toxic to bees
Rose
Soft Fruit
Top Fruit
Wild Flower

 

4. Choose a plant from its Flower Shape:-

Shape, Form
Index

Flower Shape

 

5. Choose a plant from its foliage:-

Bamboo
Conifer
Fern
Grass
Vegetable

 

6. There are 6 Plant Selection Levels including Bee Pollinated Plants for Hay Fever Sufferers in Plants Topic.

 

or

 

7. when I do not have my own or ones from mail-order nursery photos , then from March 2016, if you want to start from the uppermost design levels through to your choice of cultivated and wildflower plants to change your Plant Selection Process then use the following galleries:-

  • Create and input all plants known by Amateur Gardening inserted into their Sanders' Encyclopaedia from their edition published in 1960 (originally published by them in 1895) into these
    • Stage 1 - Garden Style Index Gallery,
      then
    • Stage 2 - Infill Plants Index Gallery being the only gallery from these 7 with photos (from Wikimedia Commons) ,
      then
    • Stage 3 - All Plants Index Gallery with each plant species in its own Plant Type Page followed by choice from Stage 4a, 4b, 4c and/or 4d REMEMBERING THE CONSTRAINTS ON THE SELECTION FROM THE CHOICES MADE IN STAGES 1 AND 2
    • Stage 4a - 12 Bloom Colours per Month Index Gallery,
    • Stage 4b - 12 Foliage Colours per Month Index Gallery with
    • Stage 4c - Cultivation, Position, Use Index Gallery and
    • Stage 4d - Shape, Form Index Gallery
    • Unfortunately, if you want to have 100's of choices on selection of plants from 1000's of 1200 pixels wide by up to 16,300 pixels in length webpages, which you can jump to from almost any of the pages in these 7 galleries above, you have to put up with those links to those choices being on
      • the left topic menu table,
      • the header of the middle data table and on
      • the page/index menu table on the right of every page of those galleries.

There are other pages on Plants which bloom in each month of the year in this website:-

 

 

Topic - Over 1060 links in this table to a topic in a topic folder or page within that folder of this website
Case Studies
...Drive Foundations
Ryegrass and turf kills plants within Roadstone and in Topsoil due to it starving and dehydrating them.
CEDAdrive creates stable drive surface and drains rain into your ground, rather than onto the public road.
8 problems caused by building house on clay or with house-wall attached to clay.
Pre-building work on polluted soil.

Companion Planting
A ,B ,C ,D ,E ,
F ,G ,H ,I ,J ,K ,
L ,M ,N ,O ,P ,Q ,
R ,S ,T ,U ,V ,W ,
X, Y, Z
...Pest Control
...using Plants
to provide a Companion Plant to aid your selected plant or deter its pests

Garden
Construction

with ground drains
Garden Design
...How to Use the Colour Wheel Concepts for Selection of Flowers, Foliage and Flower Shape
...RHS Mixed
Borders

......Bedding Plants
......Her Perennials
......Other Plants
......Camera photos of Plant supports
Garden
Maintenance

Glossary with a tomato teaching cauliflowers
Home
Library of over 1000 books
Offbeat Glossary with DuLally Bird in its flower clock.

Plants
...Groundcover A,
B, C, D, E, F, G, H,
I, J, K, L, M, N, O,
P, Q, R, S, T, U, V,
W, XYZ with 14 Special Situations.
...in Chalk (Alkaline) Soil A-F1, A-F2,
A-F3, G-L, M-R,
M-R Roses, S-Z
...in Heavy Clay Soil A-F, G-L, M-R, S-Z
...in Lime-Free (Acid) Soil A-F, G-L, M-R,
S-Z
...in Light Sand Soil
A-F, G-L, M-R, S-Z.
...Poisonous Plants.
...Extra Plant Pages
with its 6 Plant Selection Levels

Soil
...
Interaction between 2 Quartz Sand Grains to make soil
...
How roots of plants are in control in the soil
...
Without replacing Soil Nutrients, the soil will break up to only clay, sand or silt
...
Subsidence caused by water in Clay
...
Use water ring for trees/shrubs for first 2 years.

Tool Shed with 3 kneeling pads
Useful Data with benefits of Seaweed

Topic -
Plant Photo Galleries
with Plant Botanical Index

...A, B, C, D, E,
...F, G, H, I, J, K,
...L, M, N, O, P, Q,
...R, S, T, U, V, W,
...X, Y, Z

If the plant type below has flowers, then the first gallery will include the flower thumbnail in each month of 1 of 6 or 7 flower colour comparison pages of each plant in its subsidiary galleries, as a low-level Plant Selection Process
Aquatic
Bamboo
Bedding
...by Flower Shape


Bulb Index
A1, 2, 3, B, C1, 2,
D, E, F, G, Glad,
H, I, J, K, L1, 2,
M, N, O, P, Q, R,
S, T, U, V, W, XYZ
...Allium/ Anemone
...Autumn
...Colchicum/ Crocus
...Dahlia
...Gladiolus with its 40 Flower Colours
......European A-E
......European F-M
......European N-Z
......Eur Non-classified
......American A
......American B
......American C
......American D
......American E
......American F
......American G
......American H
......American I
......American J
......American K
......American L
......American M
......American N
......American O
......American P
......American Q
......American R
......American S
......American T
......American U
......American V
......American W
......American XYZ
......Ame Non-classified
......Australia - empty
......India
......Lithuania
...Hippeastrum/ Lily
...Late Summer
...Narcissus
...Spring
...Tulip
...Winter
...Each of the above ...Bulb Galleries has its own set of Flower Colour Pages
...Flower Shape
...Bulb Form

...Bulb Use

...Bulb in Soil


Further details on bulbs from the Infill Galleries:-
Hardy Bulbs
...Aconitum
...Allium
...Alstroemeria
...Anemone

...Amaryllis
...Anthericum
...Antholyzas
...Apios
...Arisaema
...Arum
...Asphodeline

...Asphodelus
...Belamcanda
...Bloomeria
...Brodiaea
...Bulbocodium

...Calochorti
...Cyclobothrias
...Camassia
...Colchicum
...Convallaria 
...Forcing Lily of the Valley
...Corydalis
...Crinum
...Crosmia
...Montbretia
...Crocus

...Cyclamen
...Dicentra
...Dierama
...Eranthis
...Eremurus
...Erythrnium
...Eucomis

...Fritillaria
...Funkia
...Galanthus
...Galtonia
...Gladiolus
...Hemerocallis

...Hyacinth
...Hyacinths in Pots
...Scilla
...Puschkinia
...Chionodoxa
...Chionoscilla
...Muscari

...Iris
...Kniphofia
...Lapeyrousia
...Leucojum

...Lilium
...Lilium in Pots
...Malvastrum
...Merendera
...Milla
...Narcissus
...Narcissi in Pots

...Ornithogalum
...Oxalis
...Paeonia
...Ranunculus
...Romulea
...Sanguinaria
...Sternbergia
...Schizostylis
...Tecophilaea
...Trillium

...Tulip
...Zephyranthus

Half-Hardy Bulbs
...Acidanthera
...Albuca
...Alstroemeri
...Andro-stephium
...Bassers
...Boussing-aultias
...Bravoas
...Cypellas
...Dahlias
...Galaxis,
...Geissorhizas
...Hesperanthas

...Gladioli
...Ixias
...Sparaxises
...Babianas
...Morphixias
...Tritonias

...Ixiolirions
...Moraeas
...Ornithogalums
...Oxalises
...Phaedra-nassas
...Pancratiums
...Tigridias
...Zephyranthes
...Cooperias

Uses of Bulbs:-
...for Bedding
...in Windowboxes
...in Border
...naturalized in Grass
...in Bulb Frame
...in Woodland Garden
...in Rock Garden
...in Bowls
...in Alpine House
...Bulbs in Greenhouse or Stove:-
...Achimenes
...Alocasias
...Amorpho-phalluses
...Arisaemas
...Arums
...Begonias
...Bomareas
...Caladiums

...Clivias
...Colocasias
...Crinums
...Cyclamens
...Cyrtanthuses
...Eucharises
...Urceocharis
...Eurycles

...Freesias
...Gloxinias
...Haemanthus
...Hippeastrums

...Lachenalias
...Nerines
...Lycorises
...Pencratiums
...Hymenocallises
...Richardias
...Sprekelias
...Tuberoses
...Vallotas
...Watsonias
...Zephyranthes

...Plant Bedding in
......Spring

......Summer
...Bulb houseplants flowering inside House during:-
......January
......February
......March
......April
......May
......June
......July
......August
......September
......October
......November
......December
...Bulbs and other types of plant flowering during:-
......Dec-Jan
......Feb-Mar
......Apr-May
......Jun-Aug
......Sep-Oct
......Nov-Dec
...Selection of the smaller and choicer plants for the Smallest of Gardens with plant flowering during the same 6 periods as in the previous selection


Climber in
3 Sector Vertical Plant System
...Clematis
...Climbers
Conifer
Deciduous Shrub
...Shrubs - Decid
Deciduous Tree
...Trees - Decid
Evergreen Perennial
...P-Evergreen A-L
...P-Evergreen M-Z
...A,B,C,D,E,F,G,
...H,I,J,K,L,M,N,
...O,P,Q,R,S,T,U,
...V,W,X,Y,Z
...Flower Shape
Evergreen Shrub
...Shrubs - Evergreen
...Heather Shrub
...Heather Index
......Andromeda
......Bruckenthalia
......Calluna
......Daboecia
......Erica: Carnea
......Erica: Cinerea
......Erica: Others
Evergreen Tree
...Trees - Evergreen
Fern
Grass
Hedging
Herbaceous
Perennial

...A1,2,B,C,D,E,F,G,
...H,I,J,K,L,M,N,
...O,P1,2,Q,R,S,T,U,
...V,W,XYZ,
...Diascia Photo Album,
...UK Peony Index

...P -Herbaceous
...Peony
...Flower Shape
...RHS Wisley
......Mixed Border
......Other Borders
Herb
Odds and Sods
Rhododendron

Rose
...RHS Wisley A-F
...RHS Wisley G-R
...RHS Wisley S-Z
...Rose Use - page links in row 6. Rose, RHS Wisley and Other Roses rose indices on each Rose Use page
...Other Roses A-F
...Other Roses G-R
...Other Roses S-Z
Pruning Methods
Photo Index
R 1, 2, 3
Peter Beales Roses
RV Roger
Roses

Soft Fruit
Top Fruit
...Apple

...Cherry
...Pear
Vegetable
Wild Flower and
Butterfly page links are in next row


Topic -
Butterflies in the UK mostly use native UK wildflowers.

Butterfly Species.

Egg, Caterpillar, Chrysalis and Butterfly Usage
of Plants.

Plant Usage by
Egg, Caterpillar, Chrysalis and Butterfly.

Wild Flower
...Flower Shape and Landscape Uses


with its
flower colour page,
space,
Site Map page in its flower colour NOTE Gallery
...Blue Note
...Brown Botanical Names
...Cream Common Names
...Green Note
...Mauve Note
...Multi-Cols Note
...Orange Note
...Pink A-G Note
...Pink H-Z Note
...Purple Note
...Red Note
...White A-D Note
...White E-P Note
...White Q-Z Note
...Yellow A-G Note
...Yellow H-Z Note
...Shrub/Tree Note

Poisonous
Wildflower Plants.


You know its name, use
Wild Flower Plant Index a-h, i-p, q-z.
You know which habitat it lives in, use
on
Acid Soil,
on
Calcareous
(Chalk) Soil
,
on
Marine Soil,
on
Neutral Soil,
is a
Fern,
is a
Grass,
is a
Rush, or
is a
Sedge.
You have seen its flower, use Comparison Pages containing Wild Flower Plants and Cultivated Plants in the
Colour Wheel Gallery.

Each plant named in each of the 180 Wildflower Family Pages within their 23 Galleries may have a link to:-
1) its Plant Description Page in its Common Name column in one of those Wildflower Plant Galleries and will have links,
2) to external sites to purchase the plant or seed in its Botanical Name column,
3) to see photos in its Flowering Months column and
4) to read habitat details in its Habitat Column.

WILD FLOWER FAMILY PAGE MENU
(o)Adder's Tongue
Amaranth
(o)Arrow-Grass
(o)Arum
(o)Balsam
Bamboo
(o)Barberry
(o)Bedstraw
(o)Beech
(o)Bellflower
(o)Bindweed
(o)Birch
(o)Birds-Nest
(o)Birthwort
(o)Bogbean
(o)Bog Myrtle
(o)Borage
(o)Box
(o)Broomrape
(o)Buckthorn
(o)Buddleia
(o)Bur-reed
(o)Buttercup
(o)Butterwort
(o)Cornel (Dogwood)
(o)Crowberry
(o)Crucifer (Cabbage/Mustard) 1
(o)Crucifer (Cabbage/Mustard) 2
Cypress
(o)Daffodil
(o)Daisy
(o)Daisy Cudweeds
(o)Daisy Chamomiles
(o)Daisy Thistle
(o)Daisy Catsears (o)Daisy Hawkweeds
(o)Daisy Hawksbeards
(o)Daphne
(o)Diapensia
(o)Dock Bistorts
(o)Dock Sorrels
(o)Clubmoss
(o)Duckweed
(o)Eel-Grass
(o)Elm
(o)Filmy Fern
(o)Horsetail
(o)Polypody
Quillwort
(o)Royal Fern
(o)Figwort - Mulleins
(o)Figwort - Speedwells
(o)Flax
(o)Flowering-Rush
(o)Frog-bit
(o)Fumitory
(o)Gentian
(o)Geranium
(o)Glassworts
(o)Gooseberry
(o)Goosefoot
(o)Grass 1
(o)Grass 2
(o)Grass 3
(o)Grass Soft
Bromes 1

(o)Grass Soft
Bromes 2

(o)Grass Soft
Bromes 3

(o)Hazel
(o)Heath
(o)Hemp
(o)Herb-Paris
(o)Holly
(o)Honeysuckle
(o)Horned-Pondweed
(o)Hornwort
(o)Iris
(o)Ivy
(o)Jacobs Ladder
(o)Lily
(o)Lily Garlic
(o)Lime
(o)Lobelia
(o)Loosestrife
(o)Mallow
(o)Maple
(o)Mares-tail
(o)Marsh Pennywort
(o)Melon (Gourd/Cucumber)
(o)Mesem-bryanthemum
(o)Mignonette
(o)Milkwort
(o)Mistletoe
(o)Moschatel
Naiad
(o)Nettle
(o)Nightshade
(o)Oleaster
(o)Olive
(o)Orchid 1
(o)Orchid 2
(o)Orchid 3
(o)Orchid 4
(o)Parnassus-Grass
(o)Peaflower
(o)Peaflower
Clover 1

(o)Peaflower
Clover 2

(o)Peaflower
Clover 3

(o)Peaflower Vetches/Peas
Peony
(o)Periwinkle
Pillwort
Pine
(o)Pink 1
(o)Pink 2
Pipewort
(o)Pitcher-Plant
(o)Plantain
(o)Pondweed
(o)Poppy
(o)Primrose
(o)Purslane
Rannock Rush
(o)Reedmace
(o)Rockrose
(o)Rose 1
(o)Rose 2
(o)Rose 3
(o)Rose 4
(o)Rush
(o)Rush Woodrushes
(o)Saint Johns Wort
Saltmarsh Grasses
(o)Sandalwood
(o)Saxifrage
Seaheath
(o)Sea Lavender
(o)Sedge Rush-like
(o)Sedges Carex 1
(o)Sedges Carex 2
(o)Sedges Carex 3
(o)Sedges Carex 4
(o)Spindle-Tree
(o)Spurge
(o)Stonecrop
(o)Sundew
(o)Tamarisk
Tassel Pondweed
(o)Teasel
(o)Thyme 1
(o)Thyme 2
(o)Umbellifer 1
(o)Umbellifer 2
(o)Valerian
(o)Verbena
(o)Violet
(o)Water Fern
(o)Waterlily
(o)Water Milfoil
(o)Water Plantain
(o)Water Starwort
Waterwort
(o)Willow
(o)Willow-Herb
(o)Wintergreen
(o)Wood-Sorrel
(o)Yam
(o)Yew


Topic -
The following is a complete hierarchical Plant Selection Process

dependent on the Garden Style chosen
Garden Style
...Infill Plants
...12 Bloom Colours per Month Index
...12 Foliage Colours per Month Index
...All Plants Index
...Cultivation, Position, Use Index
...Shape, Form
Index

 


Topic -
Flower/Foliage Colour Wheel Galleries with number of colours as a high-level Plant Selection Process

All Flowers 53 with
...Use of Plant and
Flower Shape
- page links in bottom row

All Foliage 53
instead of redundant
...(All Foliage 212)


All Flowers
per Month 12


Bee instead of wind pollinated plants for hay-fever sufferers
All Bee-Pollinated Flowers
per Month
12
...Index

Rock Garden and Alpine Flowers
Rock Plant Flowers 53
INDEX
A, B, C, D, E, F,
G, H, I, J, K, L,
M, NO, PQ, R, S,
T, UVWXYZ
...Rock Plant Photos

Flower Colour Wheel without photos, but with links to photos
12 Bloom Colours
per Month Index

...All Plants Index


Topic -
Use of Plant in your Plant Selection Process

Plant Colour Wheel Uses
with
1. Perfect general use soil is composed of 8.3% lime, 16.6% humus, 25% clay and 50% sand, and
2. Why you are continually losing the SOIL STRUCTURE so your soil - will revert to clay, chalk, sand or silt.
Uses of Plant and Flower Shape:-
...Foliage Only
...Other than Green Foliage
...Trees in Lawn
...Trees in Small Gardens
...Wildflower Garden
...Attract Bird
...Attract Butterfly
1
, 2
...Climber on House Wall
...Climber not on House Wall
...Climber in Tree
...Rabbit-Resistant
...Woodland
...Pollution Barrier
...Part Shade
...Full Shade
...Single Flower provides Pollen for Bees
1
, 2, 3
...Ground-Cover
<60
cm
60-180cm
>180cm
...Hedge
...Wind-swept
...Covering Banks
...Patio Pot
...Edging Borders
...Back of Border
...Poisonous
...Adjacent to Water
...Bog Garden
...Tolerant of Poor Soil
...Winter-Flowering
...Fragrant
...Not Fragrant
...Exhibition
...Standard Plant is 'Ball on Stick'
...Upright Branches or Sword-shaped leaves
...Plant to Prevent Entry to Human or Animal
...Coastal Conditions
...Tolerant on North-facing Wall
...Cut Flower
...Potted Veg Outdoors
...Potted Veg Indoors
...Thornless
...Raised Bed Outdoors Veg
...Grow in Alkaline Soil A-F, G-L, M-R,
S-Z
...Grow in Acidic Soil
...Grow in Any Soil
...Grow in Rock Garden
...Grow Bulbs Indoors

Uses of Bedding
...Bedding Out
...Filling In
...Screen-ing
...Pots and Troughs
...Window Boxes
...Hanging Baskets
...Spring Bedding
...Summer Bedding
...Winter Bedding
...Foliage instead of Flower
...Coleus Bedding Photos for use in Public Domain 1

Uses of Bulb
...Other than Only Green Foliage
...Bedding or Mass Planting
...Ground-Cover
...Cut-Flower
...Tolerant of Shade
...In Woodland Areas
...Under-plant
...Tolerant of Poor Soil
...Covering Banks
...In Water
...Beside Stream or Water Garden
...Coastal Conditions
...Edging Borders
...Back of Border or Back-ground Plant
...Fragrant Flowers
...Not Fragrant Flowers
...Indoor
House-plant

...Grow in a Patio Pot
...Grow in an Alpine Trough
...Grow in an Alpine House
...Grow in Rock Garden
...Speciman Plant
...Into Native Plant Garden
...Naturalize in Grass
...Grow in Hanging Basket
...Grow in Window-box
...Grow in Green-house
...Grow in Scree
...Naturalized Plant Area
...Grow in Cottage Garden
...Attracts Butterflies
...Attracts Bees
...Resistant to Wildlife
...Bulb in Soil:-
......Chalk
......Clay
......Sand
......Lime-Free (Acid)
......Peat

Uses of Rose
Rose Index

...Bedding 1, 2
...Climber /Pillar
...Cut-Flower 1, 2
...Exhibition, Speciman
...Ground-Cover
...Grow In A Container 1, 2
...Hedge 1, 2
...Climber in Tree
...Woodland
...Edging Borders
...Tolerant of Poor Soil 1, 2
...Tolerant of Shade
...Back of Border
...Adjacent to Water
...Page for rose use as ARCH ROSE, PERGOLA ROSE, COASTAL CONDITIONS ROSE, WALL ROSE, STANDARD ROSE, COVERING BANKS or THORNLESS ROSES.
...FRAGRANT ROSES
...NOT FRAGRANT ROSES


Topic -
Camera Photo Galleries showing all 4000 x 3000 pixels of each photo on your screen that you can then click and drag it to your desktop:-

RHS Garden at Wisley

Plant Supports -
When supporting plants in a bed, it is found that not only do those plants grow upwards, but also they expand their roots and footpad sideways each year. Pages
1
, 2, 3, 8, 11,
12, 13,
Plants 4, 7, 10,
Bedding Plants 5,
Plant Supports for Unknown Plants 5
,
Clematis Climbers 6,
the RHS does not appear to either follow it's own pruning advice or advice from The Pruning of Trees, Shrubs and Conifers by George E. Brown.
ISBN 0-571-11084-3 with the plants in Pages 1-7 of this folder. You can see from looking at both these resources as to whether the pruning carried out on the remainder of the plants in Pages 7-15 was correct.

Narcissus (Daffodil) 9,
Phlox Plant Supports 14, 15

Coleus Bedding Foliage Trial - Pages
1, 2, 3, 4, 5,
6, 7, 8, 9, 10,
11, 12, 13, 14, 15,
16, 17, 18, 19, 20,
21, 22, 23, 24, 25,
26, 27, 28, 29, 30,
31, 32, Index

National Trust Garden at Sissinghurst Castle
Plant Supports -
Pages for Gallery 1

with Plant Supports
1, 5, 10
Plants
2, 3, 4, 6, 7, 8, 9,
11, 12
Recommended Rose Pruning Methods 13
Pages for Gallery 2
with Plant Supports
2
,
Plants 1, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7

Dry Garden of
RHS Garden at
Hyde Hall

Plants - Pages
without Plant Supports
Plants 1
, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9

Nursery of
Peter Beales Roses
Display Garden

Roses Pages
1, 2, 3, 4, 5,
6, 7, 8, 9, 10,
11, 12, 13

Nursery of
RV Roger

Roses - Pages
A1,A2,A3,A4,A5,
A6,A7,A8,A9,A10,
A11,A12,A13,A14,
B15,
B16,B17,B18,B19,
B20,
B21,B22,B23,B24,
B25,
B26,B27,B28,B29,
B30,
C31,C32,C33,C34,
C35,
C36,C37,C38,C39,
C40,
C41,CD2,D43,D44,
D45,
D46,D47,D48,D49,
E50,
E51,E52,F53,F54,
F55,
F56,F57,G58,G59,
H60,
H61,I62,K63,L64,
M65,
M66,N67,P68,P69,
P70,
R71,R72,S73,S74,
T75,
V76,Z77, 78,

Damage by Plants in Chilham Village - Pages
1, 2, 3, 4

Pavements of Funchal, Madeira
Damage to Trees - Pages
1, 2, 3, 4, 5,
6, 7, 8, 9, 10,
11, 12, 13
for trees 1-54,
14, 15,
16, 17, 18, 19, 20,
21, 22, 23, 24, 25,
for trees 55-95,
26, 27, 28, 29, 30,
31, 32, 33, 34, 35,
36, 37,
for trees 95-133,
38, 39, 40,
41, 42, 43, 44, 45,
for trees 133-166

Chris Garnons-Williams
Work Done - Pages
1, 2, 3, 4, 5,
6, 7, 8, 9, 10,
11, 12, 13

Identity of Plants
Label Problems - Pages
1, 2, 3, 4, 5,
6, 7, 8, 9, 10,
11

Ron and Christine Foord - 1036 photos only inserted so far - Garden Flowers - Start Page of each Gallery
AB1 ,AN14,BA27,
CH40,CR52,DR63,
FR74,GE85,HE96,

Plant with Photo Index of Ivydene Gardens - 1187
A 1, 2, Photos - 43
B 1, Photos - 13
C 1, Photos - 35
D 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7,
Photos - 411
with Plants causing damage to buildings in Chilham Village and Damage to Trees in Pavements of Funchal
E 1, Photos - 21
F 1, Photos - 1
G 1, Photos - 5
H 1, Photos - 21
I 1, Photos - 8
J 1, Photos - 1
K 1, Photos - 1
L 1, Photos - 85
with Label Problems
M 1, Photos - 9
N 1, Photos - 12
O 1, Photos - 5
P 1, Photos - 54
Q 1, Photos -
R 1, 2, 3,
Photos - 229
S 1, Photos - 111
T 1, Photos - 13
U 1, Photos - 5
V 1, Photos - 4
W 1, Photos - 100
with Work Done by Chris Garnons-Williams
X 1 Photos -
Y 1, Photos -
Z 1 Photos -
Articles/Items in Ivydene Gardens - 88
Flower Colour, Num of Petals, Shape and
Plant Use of:-
Rock Garden
within linked page


 

 

Topic -
Fragrant Plants:-

Sense of Fragrance from Roy Genders

Fragrant Plants:-
Trees and Shrubs with Scented Flowers
1
, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6
Shrubs bearing Scented Flowers for an Acid Soil
1
, 2, 3, 4
Shrubs bearing Scented Flowers for a
Chalky or Limestone Soil
1
, 2, 3, 4
Shrubs bearing Scented leaves for a
Sandy Soil
1
, 2, 3
Herbaceous Plants with Scented Flowers
1
, 2, 3
Annual and Biennial Plants with Scented Flowers or Leaves
1
, 2
Bulbs and Corms with Scented Flowers
1
, 2, 3, 4, 5
Scented Plants of Climbing and Trailing Habit
1
, 2, 3
Winter-flowering Plants with Scented Flowers
1
, 2
Night-scented Flowering Plants
1
, 2
 


Topic -
Website User Guidelines


My Gas Service Engineer found Flow and Return pipes incorrectly positioned on gas boilers and customers had refused to have positioning corrected in 2020.
 


Topic
Table of this Page has moved to the right hand side.

 

 

 

Look for:-
Topic - Camera Photo Galleries showing all 4000 x 3000 pixels of each photo on your screen that you can then click and drag to your desktop:-
in a row of the Topic Table on the right hand side for more than 2000 informative photos to aid your plant choice using the:-
Plant with Photo Index of Ivydene Gardens -
A 1

 

item5a item5a item8b item8b