Ivydene Gardens Companion Planting: Biodynamics Introduction


The Biodynamic Gardening Club has produced an excellent box set of five short videos giving a complete introduction to getting started on mindful biodynamic gardening and growing at home.

Expertly presented by Weleda biodynamic gardener Claire Hattersley and sumptuously produced by Archetype Films.

You can see all five episodes free on the Biodynamic Assocation’s YouTube channel here –

Episode 1 – What is biodynamic gardening? A journey of discovery.

Episode 2 – Using planting calendars. Tuning into nature’s rhythms.

Episode 3 – Using the biodynamic preparations. Bringing vitality to your soil and plants.

Episode 4 – The wonder of soil and biodynamic compost. The foundation for health.

Episode 5 – Biodynamic mindfulness. Growing with your garden.

If the box set inspires you to start biodynamic gardening for health and happiness at home, then check out also joining our Biodynamic Gardening Club here today to learn more.

Biodynamic Background

There are cosmic influences from the zodiac on plants: the zodiac is the ring of twelve constellations against which the sun, as seen from the earth, appears to move during the course of the year, and the moon every month. Each constellation has its own quality which is imparted particularly to the sun and moon, when they stand in front of them. There are qualitative differences in sunlight and moonlight during the annual and monthly courses of these bodies. The nature of these differences is connected with the four elements :-

  • earth,
  • water,
  • air/light and
  • fire,

represented in the plant by

  • root,
  • leaf,
  • flower and
  • fruit


The moon also affects plant growth. Maria Thun noted the effects on subsequent growth when seeds were sown with the moon standing in front of the different zodiacal constellations, and found that:-

  • the earth constellations, Bull, Virgin and Goat, stimulated root development;
  • the water constellations, Fishes, Crab and Scorpion, leaf development;
  • the air constellations, Twins, Scales and Scorpion, flowering; and
  • the warmth constellations, Ram, Lion and Archer, seed and fruit.

Her calendar has covered the timing of all cultural operations including transplanting, pruning, harvesting etc, together with the application of the biodynamic sprays. The Moon, Mercury and Venus strongly influence the processes of reproduction and growth, while the outer planets, Saturn, Jupiter and Mars are more concerned with qualities such as nutritive value, taste, colour and aroma.


The creation of soil is a mutual interplay between the plant kingdom, the climate and the rocky part of the mineral kingdom. The lowest types of plant life start the soil-forming process when lichens and then mosses become established on a rock face. Their decaying residues produce weak acids which dissolve parts of the rock, and gradually conditions become favourable for higher order plants to grow; their roots also secrete acids as they penetrate into cracks in the rock, thus accelerating the process. The 'food' in the soil consists of the remains of plant and animal life, which are taken into the soil and digested by its population of micro-organisms; the products of this digestion pass into the soil water and are absorbed by the root hairs of the plants which thus operate like an intestinal wall.


Soil, apart from stones and pebbles, is composed of:

  • Coarse sand 2-0.2 mm diameter
  • Fine sand 0.2-0.02 mm diameter
  • Silt 0.02-0.002 mm diameter
  • Clay less than 0.002mm diameter


The following 2 tests show the percentages of each of the above constituents:-

  • Take a sample of moist but not wet soil about the size of a golf ball, knead it in the palm of your hand and then squeeze it all together into a lump. See how gritty it feels, thus seeing the proportion of coarse and fine sand. If the lump fails to cohere, then sand particles predominate; if it can be moulded, clay and silt are the major constituents; if it is on the border of coherence, there is a good balance between coarse and fine.
  • In the second, use a tall narrow glass, put tennis ball size of soil in it, almost fill with water and shake it thoroughly. Put it on a windowsill and watch how the soil settles out. The coarse sand, followed by the fine sand, then silt and a day later the clay. The depth of each layer gives the proportions which make up your soil.

If the result is mostly

  • Sand then this light soil will drain easily with no waterlogging. It will have a very small water reserve. It will warm up quickly in the spring. Compost and manure will be washed out quickly. It should be kept covered with growing plants or a green cover crop.
  • Clay then this heavy soil will have drainage problems. Its water reserve may not all be available to plant roots. Treading on this wet clay soil causes 'puddling' (compaction) and the soil becomes impervious to air and water movement, which will kill plants. It is useful to divide up the garden into raised beds about 4-5 feet wide and 6 inches high, leaving 1.5 feet wide paths between, so that you do not tread on that soil.
  • Around the mid point between sand, silt and clay comes the ideal type of loam for gardening.

Plants are affected by the logarithmic function of the number of free hydrogen ions in the soil water, which is expressed by the symbol pH. pH of

  • 7.0 is neutral and ideal for most crops
  • 8.0 is alkaline and is too high for some plants but best for others (subsoil of chalk usually has alkaline soil)
  • 5.5 is acidic and near to the limit which worms will tolerate (sandy soils are usually acidic, clay with high sodium content can be acidic) and
  • 5.0 or less require remedial measures (1lb of dolomitic limestone dust per square yard) unless heathers and rhododendrons are being grown.

Use the plants which are suitable for their type of soil - acidic or alkaline.


Soil structure

Soil must have a structure which will allow free passage of air to the plant roots and soil organisms (usually created by worms creating tunnels), and also the free passage of surplus water into its lower layers while at the same time providing enough for the needs of its plant cover. This is done by

  • there is sufficient humus in the soil to provide the carbon. Mulching a clay soil with a 6" depth of 50% spent mushroom compost and 50% Horticultural Grit will provide this carbon and make garden maintenance far easier (See case studies)
  • encouraging the worm population to keep on digging more tunnels; by having at least a 3" deep organic mulch,
  • avoiding damage to the structure by compaction of people standing on it when it is wet. Use raised beds and kneel on the path alongside to weed/maintain them.
  • there is sufficient clay in the soil to provide the glue with the carbon to bind the soil particles into 'crumbs'. These 'crumbs' as micro-aggregates then join together to form macro-aggregates which then can hold plant nutrients dissolved or in suspension in water within them for the plant roots to use. 1lb of clay dissolved in one gallon of water sprayed onto 1 square yard of very sandy soil will create a more loamy soil.

Besides worms the soil also contains centipedes, mites, springtails, eelworms, amoebae, protozoa, fungi and bacteria; who carry out the digestive process mentioned at the start of this section, mostly within the top 3" of soil (avoid burying this soil by digging or double digging; use a mulch or green manure instead). The total weight of these in a fertile pasture is on a par with that of the maximum number of stock which it can carry. The fungi mycorrhyza act as intermediaries between the soil and the plant. Their hyphae (fine hairs) penetrate both the soil and the plant cells in the surface layer of the roots. They secrete substances from the plant into the soil, and can transfer to the plant complex substances which would not normally be taken up from the soil solution through the root hairs, thus helping the plant to be healthier and grow faster.


Water in soil

Plants use water in 3 ways:-

  • for circulating the products of soil digestion to where they are needed and also the products of photosynthesis from the leaves to the actively growing parts of stems and roots,
  • for maintaining turgor in the leaves and keeping them cool by evaporation and
  • an essential ingredient in the synthesis of sugars and starch by the action of light and chlorophyll.

An average crop of wheat needs about 450 tonnes of water per acre from sowing to harvest; 99% of this has to come through the soil with the rest being directly absorbed by the leaves from rain or dew.

When rainwater enters a soil, it sinks down until it reaches the water table, after the 'water-holding capacity' has been topped up. Water is held

  • in the upper regions of the soil partly in very fine channels called capillaries and
  • partly by being absorbed by the soil colloids, humus and clay (some clay can absorb 40% of its own volume in water before becoming a liquid).
  • The water table begins where all the spaces between the micro and macro aggregates are filled with water; which may be close to the surface. Most roots cannot grow and will die in a saturated soil: earthworms are killed and most other soil life comes to halt. If the water table is less than 1 foot down, then either artificial drainage is required or the soil composition must be changed to a loam between the extremes of pure sand, silt or clay as detailed in the soil structure above. As water becomes depleted by evaporation and root absorption, more rises up through the capillaries from the water table.

If the soil is covered by a 3" deep mulch of organic compost/manure or by a green manure, then the action of the wind and the sun in drying it out will be greatly reduced. Melcourt Industries - who supply bark for mulching purposes, path material or playground material - planted young apple trees in a field. They then soaked the ground to full saturation in April and covered half of it with their bark mulch. They took moisture measurements each month of that Spring and hot Summer, and no other further action. In August, the fruit trees with no mulch were severely dehydrated, whereas the others were in no water stress.


Biodynamic Agriculture

In Biodynamic agriculture one works with the energies which create and maintain life. The following materials are not used at all:-

Synthetic nitrogen fertilizers,
soluble phosphate fertilizers,
high percentage pure potash salts containing chlorine, including compound materials,
Sewage sludge and
Composted household rubbish.

Its method produces an organic fertiliser to secure a healthy soil and plants with the following practical steps ( See reference 10 ):-

  1. Build, and properly treat, manure and compost piles. Do not waste any organic offal. Do not burn leaves and trash, but compost them. Collect everything organic. Do not apply crude, undecomposed organic matter to the fields or garden, but make use of the beneficial effects of microlife by first composting manure and all other organic material. Apply - immediately prior to planting or seeding - only predigested material which will not tie down nitrogen, phosphate and other fertiliser elements but will increase their availability. The use of the Biodynamic Compost Preparations or B.D. Starter will greatly help in reaching the goal: good humus.
  2. Introduce soil-protecting crop rotations and cover crops.
  3. Introduce green manuring, but take care that the green manure crop is properly ploughed or disced under without locking up the soil life and nitrogen. In a garden, or wherever feasible, introduce mulching.
  4. Improve your soil cultivation practices.
  5. Establish proper environmental control, wind protection, good drainage, control of the watershed.
  6. To create the right balance between the conserved and cultivated areas between woodland, wetland, pastures and arable land, together with integrating the wildlife and multiple species of domestic animals.


The following materials may be used against various insect pests ( See references 19 and 36 ):-

Derris ( contains rotenone to kill insects and fish ),
Pyrethrum ( extract of chrysanthemums to repel insects ),
Nicotine mixtures ( extremely toxic ),
Quassia ( kills some insects but harmless to humans or other animals ) and
Soap solution.

The Biodynamic Preparations fall into 3 categories: two are of a general nature, six for treating compost and manure, and one for dealing with fungus diseases. Their main purpose is to stimulate and enhance the supersensible forces and influences working in from the far spaces of the cosmos and up from the centre of the earth.

These Biodynamic Preparations ( Numbers 500-508 inclusive ) can be purchased from the Biodynamic Farming and Gardening Association, who prepare them as follows:- (see next page)


This is from the Members Newsletter for Summer 2019 from the Biodynamic Association:-

"The new Online Biodynamic Gardening Club has launched.
Join via this link https://www.biodynamic.org.uk/garden/#bd-garden-club

A month ago we launched our new exciting venture and a first for the BDA; our on line Biodynamic Gardening Club. Our hope and mission for the club is very simple. It has been our dream and objective for as many people as possible to experience what the biodynamic approach to gardening offers; the joy it can bring to you and your garden, as well as helping people to grow delicious food brimming with health and vitality.

The club is for everyone who is curious, would like to learn more, deepen their relationship with nature and their garden, and create mini havens of vitality and biodiversity - above and below ground. Whether anyone has a tiny urban patch, an allotment, belong to a community garden, or just fancies growing their own salad leaves, all are welcome. It's very much a community inspired venture, too, where everyone supports each other and has a real say in how they want the club to develop.

Here's what our new on line club offers:

  • A quarterly seasonal online e-newsletter
  • Members Facebook Group where you can share experience, tips, and advice, communicate with us, and other club members and where to find all the latest news.
  • Interactive webinairs with experts in their field
  • An online resource library
  • News and events
  • Regular offers

We hope you enjoy being part of this growing and dynamic community of biodynamic gardening enthusiasts. We passionately believe in the power of gardeners; supporting and learning from each other, and doing our bit to care for the planet to ensure that we leave it in good shape for our children and future generations."


Do you wish to help in providing educational facilities for the public?


An invitation to invest in withdrawable shares in the Biodynamic Land Trust Community Benefit Society Limited, a charity at law, so as to raise £326,000 for buying farmland at Week, near Huxham's Cross, Dartington, Totnes, South Devon. The farmland will be leased to the Apricot Centre in order to develop the Week Land for learning, community engagement and bio-dynamic-organic food production.

By investing in this share offer before 31 December 2014, you will help:-

  • Fund the purchase of a 999-year lease for 33 acres of farmland from the Dartington Hall Trust.
  • Secure land for growing biodynamic, organic food.
  • Restore soil fertility, increase biodiversity, enhance landscape and conservation.
  • Benefit the community through good food, permissive land access, research, education, training, apprenticeships, sustainable livelihoods, volunteering and increasing local resilience.
  • Secure a social, cultural and environmental return - with no interest payable - on these shares.
  • Enable the establishment of a learning, demonstration farm for biodynamic, permacultural and organic food growing.
  • Build the farm infrastructure, as currently this is 'bare ophan land' with no farm buildings.
  • Shares are withdrawable not tradable, so can only be sold back to the BDLT (not to other people) at face value.
  • On investing you become a shareholder.
  • Buying shares gives you membership of the Biodynamic Land Trust.
  • Each member has 1 vote, no matter what the level of shareholding.



Site design and content copyright ©December 2006 Chris Garnons-Williams. Page structure amended September 2012. May 2017 Template created May 2017 for all pages.

DISCLAIMER: Links to external sites are provided as a courtesy to visitors. Ivydene Horticultural Services are not responsible for the content and/or quality of external web sites linked from this site.  


Gertrude Franck's Companion Planting Method with

her Vegetable Garden Plan.
Vegetable Garden with Plan followed by
Katie Thears answer to rotation/companion problems
with another answer for vegetables by Louise
How to use Companion Planting in your Garden.

Companion Plant A This shows:-
Companion Plant B 1 - Name of Original Plant
Companion Plant C .....in alphabetical order.
Companion Plant D 2 - Name of Pest/Disease
Companion Plant E .....of that Original Plant.
Companion Plant F 3 - Name of Antidote to
Companion Plant G .....that Pest/Disease as a
Companion Plant H .....companion plant, or name
Companion Plant I ......of Companion Plant
Companion Plant J ......or Beneficial Insect or Animal
Companion Plant K .....to the Original Plant.
Companion Plant L 4 - Name of Antagonistic Plant
Companion Plant M .....to that Original Plant
Companion Plant N .....or name of a
Companion Plant O .....Pest/Disease that this
Companion Plant P .....Original Plant is
Companion Plant Q ......antagonistic to.
Companion Plant R
Companion Plant S
Companion Plant T
Companion Plant UV
Companion Plant W
Companion Plant XYZ

Pest/Disease Control by Companion Planting

Companion Planting References.
Companion Planting Books from the
Ivydene Library AG
Companion Planting Books from the
Ivydene Library GW

Biodynamics as next step from Companion Planting . *
Preparations with their
Biodynamic Preparation and Use.
Advantages of use of these
Biodynamic Preparations, with

the biodynamic Rotation and
the Biodynamic Cropping Sequence.
How to use Biodynamics in your Garden.

Companion Planting Site Map



Explanation of Structure of this Website with User Guidelines Page for those photo galleries with Photos
(of either ones I have taken myself or others which have been loaned only for use on this website from external sources)


Choose 1 of these different Plant selection Methods:-

1. Choose a plant from 1 of 53 flower colours in the Colour Wheel Gallery.

2. Choose a plant from 1 of 12 flower colours in each month of the year from 12 Bloom Colours per Month Index Gallery.

3. Choose a plant from 1 of 6 flower colours per month for each type of plant:-
Deciduous Shrub
Deciduous Tree
Evergreen Perennial
Evergreen Shrub
Evergreen Tree
Herbaceous Perennial
Odds and Sods
Soft Fruit
Top Fruit
Wild Flower

4. Choose a plant from its Flower Shape:-
Shape, Form

Flower Shape

5. Choose a plant from its foliage:-

6. There are 6 Plant Selection Levels including Bee Pollinated Plants for Hay Fever Sufferers in
Plants Topic.


7. When I do not have my own or ones from mail-order nursery photos , then from March 2016, if you want to start from the uppermost design levels through to your choice of cultivated and wildflower plants to change your Plant Selection Process then use the following galleries:-

  • Create and input all plants known by Amateur Gardening inserted into their Sanders' Encyclopaedia from their edition published in 1960 (originally published by them in 1895) into these
    • Stage 1 - Garden Style Index Gallery,
    • Stage 2 - Infill Plants Index Gallery being the only gallery from these 7 with photos (from Wikimedia Commons) ,
    • Stage 3 - All Plants Index Gallery with each plant species in its own Plant Type Page followed by choice from Stage 4a, 4b, 4c and/or 4d REMEMBERING THE CONSTRAINTS ON THE SELECTION FROM THE CHOICES MADE IN STAGES 1 AND 2
    • Stage 4a - 12 Bloom Colours per Month Index Gallery,
    • Stage 4b - 12 Foliage Colours per Month Index Gallery with
    • Stage 4c - Cultivation, Position, Use Index Gallery and
    • Stage 4d - Shape, Form Index Gallery
    • Unfortunately, if you want to have 100's of choices on selection of plants from 1000's of 1200 pixels wide by up to 16,300 pixels in length webpages, which you can jump to from almost any of the pages in these 7 galleries above, you have to put up with those links to those choices being on
      • the left topic menu table,
      • the header of the middle data table and on
      • the page/index menu table on the right of every page of those galleries.


I like reading and that is shown by the index in my Library, where I provide lists of books to take you between designing, maintaining or building a garden and the hierarchy of books on plants taking you from

There are other pages on Plants which bloom in each month of the year in this website:-




Before reaching for the pesticides, here are a few alternative natural, non-toxic methods of slug control:  

• Watering Schedule - Far and away the best course of action against slugs in your garden is a simple adjustment in the watering schedule. Slugs are most active at night and are most efficient in damp conditions. Avoid watering your garden in the evening if you have a slug problem. Water in the morning - the surface soil will be dry by evening. Studies show this can reduce slug damage by 80%.


• Seaweed - If you have access to seaweed, it's well worth the effort to gather. Seaweed is not only a good soil amendment for the garden, it's a natural repellent for slugs. Mulch with seaweed around the base of plants or perimeter of bed. Pile it on 3" to 4" thick - when it dries it will shrink to just an inch or so deep. Seaweed is salty and slugs avoid salt. Push the seaweed away from plant stems so it's not in direct contact. During hot weather, seaweed will dry and become very rough which also deters the slugs.


• Copper - Small strips of copper can be placed around flower pots or raised beds as obstructions for slugs to crawl over. Cut 2" strips of thin copper and wrap around the lower part of flower pots, like a ribbon. Or set the strips in the soil on edge, making a "fence" for the slugs to climb. Check to make sure no vegetation hangs over the copper which might provide a 'bridge' for the slugs. Copper barriers also work well around wood barrels used as planters.
A non-toxic copper-based metallic mesh Slug Shield is available which can be wrapped around the stem of plants and acts as a barrier to slugs. When slugs come in contact with the mesh they receive an electric-like shock. The mesh also serves as a physical barrier. These slug shields are reusable, long-lasting and weather-proof.


• Diatomaceous Earth - Diatomaceous earth (Also known as "Insect Dust") is the sharp, jagged skeletal remains of microscopic creatures. It lacerates soft-bodied pests, causing them to dehydrate. A powdery granular material, it can be sprinkled around garden beds or individual plants, and can be mixed with water to make a foliar spray.
Diatomaceous earth is less effective when wet, so use during dry weather. Wear protective gear when applying, as it can irritate eyes and lungs. Be sure to buy natural or agricultural grade diatomaceous earth, not pool grade which has smoother edges and is far less effective. Click for more information or to purchase Food Grade Diatomaceous Earth.


• Electronic "slug fence" - An electronic slug fence is a non-toxic, safe method for keeping slugs out of garden or flower beds. The Slugs Away fence is a 24-foot long, 5" ribbon-like barrier that runs off a 9 volt battery. When a slug or snail comes in contact with the fence, it receives a mild static sensation that is undetectable to animals and humans. This does not kill the slug, it cause it to look elsewhere for forage. The battery will power the fence for about 8 months before needing to be replaced. Extension kits are availabe for increased coverage. The electronic fence will repel slugs and snails, but is harmless to people and pets.


• Lava Rock - Like diatomaceous earth, the abrasive surface of lava rock will be avoided by slugs. Lava rock can be used as a barrier around plantings, but should be left mostly above soil level, otherwise dirt or vegetation soon forms a bridge for slugs to cross.

• Salt - If all else fails, go out at night with the salt shaker and a flashlight. Look at the plants which have been getting the most damage and inspect the leaves, including the undersides. Sprinkle a bit of salt on the slug and it will kill it quickly. Not particularly pleasant, but use as a last resort. (Note: some sources caution the use of salt, as it adds a toxic element to the soil. This has not been our experience, especially as very little salt is used.)

• Beer - Slugs are attracted to beer. Set a small amount of beer in a shallow wide jar buried in the soil up to its neck. Slugs will crawl in and drown. Take the jar lid and prop it up with a small stick so rain won't dilute the beer. Leave space for slugs to enter the trap.

• Overturned Flowerpots, Grapefruit Halves, Board on Ground - Overturned flowerpots, with a stone placed under the rim to tilt it up a bit, will attract slugs. Leave overnight, and you'll find the slugs inside in the morning. Grapefruit halves work the same way, with the added advantage of the scent of the fruit as bait.
Another trap method, perhaps the simplest of all, is to set a wide board on the ground by the affected area. Slugs will hide under the board by day. Simply flip the board over during the day to reveal the culprits. Black plastic sheeting also works the same way.


• Garlic-based slug repellents
Laboratory tests at the University of Newcastle-Upon-Tyne (UK) revealed that a highly refined garlic product (ECOguard produced by ECOspray Ltd, a British company that makes organic pesticides) was an effective slug killer. Look for garlic-based slug deterrents which will be emerging under various brand names, as well as ECOguard.

• Coffee grounds; new caffeine-based slug/snail poisons - Coffee grounds scattered on top of the soil will deter slugs. The horticultural side effects of using strong grounds such as espresso on the garden, however, are less certain. When using coffee grounds, moderation is advised.
A study in June 2002 reported in the journal Nature found that slugs and snails are killed when sprayed with a caffeine solution, and that spraying plants with this solution prevents slugs from eating them. The percentage of caffeine required in a spray (1 - 2%) is greater than what is found in a cup of coffee (.05 - 07%), so homemade sprays are not as effective. Look for new commercial sprays which are caffeine-based.



It is worth remembering that especially with roses that the colour of the petals of the flower may change - The following photos are of Rosa 'Lincolnshire Poacher' which I took on the same day in R.V. Roger's Nursery Field:-


Closed Bud


Opening Bud


Juvenile Flower


Older Juvenile Flower


Middle-aged Flower - Flower Colour in Season in its
Rose Description Page is
"Buff Yellow, with a very slight pink tint at the edges in May-October."


Mature Flower


Juvenile Flower and Dying Flower


Form of Rose Bush

There are 720 roses in the Rose Galleries; many of which have the above series of pictures in their respective Rose Description Page.

So one might avoid the disappointment that the 2 elephants had when their trunks were entwined instead of them each carrying their trunk using their own trunk, and your disappointment of buying a rose to discover that the colour you bought it for is only the case when it has its juvenile flowers; if you look at all the photos of the roses in the respective Rose Description Page!!!!


Topic -
Case Studies
...Drive Foundations
Ryegrass and turf kills plants within Roadstone and in Topsoil due to it starving and dehydrating them.
CEDAdrive creates stable drive surface and drains rain into your ground, rather than onto the public road.
8 problems caused by building house on clay or with house-wall attached to clay.
Pre-building work on polluted soil.

Companion Planting
...A, B, C, D, E,
...F, G, H, I, J, K,
...L, M, N, O, P, Q,
...R, S, T, U, V, W,
...X, Y, Z
...Pest Control
...using Plants
to provide a Companion Plant to aid your selected plant or deter its pests


with ground drains
Garden Design
...How to Use the Colour Wheel Concepts for Selection of Flowers, Foliage and Flower Shape
...RHS Mixed

......Bedding Plants
......Her Perennials
......Other Plants
......Camera photos of Plant supports

Glossary with a tomato teaching cauliflowers
Library of over 1000 books
Offbeat Glossary with DuLally Bird in its flower clock.

...in Chalk
(Alkaline) Soil
......A-F1, A-F2,
......A-F3, G-L, M-R,
......M-R Roses, S-Z
...in Heavy
Clay Soil
......A-F, G-L, M-R,
...in Lime-Free
(Acid) Soil
......A-F, G-L, M-R,
...in Light
Sand Soil
......A-F, G-L, M-R,
...Poisonous Plants.
...Extra Plant Pages
with its 6 Plant Selection Levels

Interaction between 2 Quartz Sand Grains to make soil
How roots of plants are in control in the soil
Without replacing Soil Nutrients, the soil will break up to only clay, sand or silt
Subsidence caused by water in Clay
Use water ring for trees/shrubs for first 2 years.

Tool Shed with 3 kneeling pads
Useful Data with benefits of Seaweed


Topic -
Plant Photo Galleries

If the plant type below has flowers, then the first gallery will include the flower thumbnail in each month of 1 of 6 or 7 flower colour comparison pages of each plant in its subsidiary galleries, as a low-level Plant Selection Process
...by Flower Shape

Bulb with its 7 Flower Colours per Month Comparison Pages
...Allium/ Anemone
...Colchicum/ Crocus
...Gladiolus with its 40 Flower Colours
......European A-E
......European F-M
......European N-Z
......Eur Non-classified
......American A
......American B
......American C
......American D
......American E
......American F
......American G
......American H
......American I
......American J
......American K
......American L
......American M
......American N
......American O
......American P
......American Q
......American R
......American S
......American T
......American U
......American V
......American W
......American XYZ
......Ame Non-classified
......Australia - empty
...Hippeastrum/ Lily
...Late Summer
...Each of the above ...Bulb Galleries has its own set of Flower Colour Pages
...Flower Shape
...Bulb Form

...Bulb Use

...Bulb in Soil

Further details on bulbs from the Infill Galleries:-
Hardy Bulbs



...Forcing Lily of the Valley



...Hyacinths in Pots


...Lilium in Pots
...Narcissi in Pots



Half-Hardy Bulbs



Uses of Bulbs:-
...for Bedding
...in Windowboxes
...in Border
...naturalized in Grass
...in Bulb Frame
...in Woodland Garden
...in Rock Garden
...in Bowls
...in Alpine House
...Bulbs in Greenhouse or Stove:-




...Plant Bedding in

...Bulb houseplants flowering inside House during:-
...Bulbs and other types of plant flowering during:-
...Selection of the smaller and choicer plants for the Smallest of Gardens with plant flowering during the same 6 periods as in the previous selection

Climber in
3 Sector Vertical Plant System
Deciduous Shrub
...Shrubs - Decid
Deciduous Tree
...Trees - Decid
Evergreen Perennial
...P-Evergreen A-L
...P-Evergreen M-Z
...Flower Shape
Evergreen Shrub
...Shrubs - Evgr
...Heather Shrub
Evergreen Tree
...Trees - Evgr

...P -Herbaceous
...Flower Shape
...RHS Wisley
......Mixed Border
......Other Borders
Odds and Sods

...RHS Wisley A-F
...RHS Wisley G-R
...RHS Wisley S-Z
...Rose Use - page links in row 6. Rose, RHS Wisley and Other Roses rose indices on each Rose Use page
...Other Roses A-F
...Other Roses G-R
...Other Roses S-Z
Pruning Methods
Photo Index
R 1, 2, 3
Peter Beales Roses
RV Roger

Soft Fruit
Top Fruit

Wild Flower and
Butterfly page links are in next row

Topic -
Butterflies in the UK mostly use native UK wildflowers.

Butterfly Species.

Egg, Caterpillar, Chrysalis and Butterfly Usage
of Plants.

Plant Usage by
Egg, Caterpillar, Chrysalis and Butterfly.

Wild Flower
with its
flower colour page,
Site Map page in its flower colour NOTE Gallery
...Blue Note
...Brown Botanical Names
...Cream Common Names
...Green Note
...Mauve Note
...Multi-Cols Note
...Orange Note
...Pink A-G Note
...Pink H-Z Note
...Purple Note
...Red Note
...White A-D Note
...White E-P Note
...White Q-Z Note
...Yellow A-G Note
...Yellow H-Z Note
...Shrub/Tree Note

Wildflower Plants.

You know its name, use
Wild Flower Plant Index a-h, i-p, q-z.
You know which habitat it lives in, use
Acid Soil,
(Chalk) Soil
Marine Soil,
Neutral Soil,
is a
is a
is a
Rush, or
is a
You have seen its flower, use Comparison Pages containing Wild Flower Plants and Cultivated Plants in the
Colour Wheel Gallery.

Each plant named in each of the 180 Wildflower Family Pages within their 23 Galleries may have a link to:-
1) its Plant Description Page in its Common Name column in one of those Wildflower Plant Galleries and will have links,
2) to external sites to purchase the plant or seed in its Botanical Name column,
3) to see photos in its Flowering Months column and
4) to read habitat details in its Habitat Column.

(o)Adder's Tongue
(o)Bog Myrtle
(o)Cornel (Dogwood)
(o)Crucifer (Cabbage/Mustard) 1
(o)Crucifer (Cabbage/Mustard) 2
(o)Daisy Cudweeds
(o)Daisy Chamomiles
(o)Daisy Thistle
(o)Daisy Catsears (o)Daisy Hawkweeds
(o)Daisy Hawksbeards
(o)Dock Bistorts
(o)Dock Sorrels
(o)Filmy Fern
(o)Royal Fern
(o)Figwort - Mulleins
(o)Figwort - Speedwells
(o)Grass 1
(o)Grass 2
(o)Grass 3
(o)Grass Soft
Bromes 1

(o)Grass Soft
Bromes 2

(o)Grass Soft
Bromes 3

(o)Jacobs Ladder
(o)Lily Garlic
(o)Marsh Pennywort
(o)Melon (Gourd/Cucumber)
(o)Orchid 1
(o)Orchid 2
(o)Orchid 3
(o)Orchid 4
Clover 1

Clover 2

Clover 3

(o)Peaflower Vetches/Peas
(o)Pink 1
(o)Pink 2
Rannock Rush
(o)Rose 1
(o)Rose 2
(o)Rose 3
(o)Rose 4
(o)Rush Woodrushes
(o)Saint Johns Wort
Saltmarsh Grasses
(o)Sea Lavender
(o)Sedge Rush-like
(o)Sedges Carex 1
(o)Sedges Carex 2
(o)Sedges Carex 3
(o)Sedges Carex 4
Tassel Pondweed
(o)Thyme 1
(o)Thyme 2
(o)Umbellifer 1
(o)Umbellifer 2
(o)Water Fern
(o)Water Milfoil
(o)Water Plantain
(o)Water Starwort

Topic -
The following is a complete hierarchical Plant Selection Process

dependent on the Garden Style chosen
Garden Style
...Infill Plants
...12 Bloom Colours per Month Index
...12 Foliage Colours per Month Index
...All Plants Index
...Cultivation, Position, Use Index
...Shape, Form

Topic -
Plant Selection Process comparing relevant plants of all types within each of the number of colours for each Flower or Foliage Colour Gallery.

All Flowers 53 with
...Use of Plant and
Flower Shape
- page links in next row

All Foliage 53
instead of redundant
...(All Foliage 212)

All Flowers
per Month 12

Bee instead of wind pollinated plants for hay-fever sufferers
All Bee-Pollinated Flowers
per Month

Rock Garden and Alpine Flowers
Rock Plant Flowers 53

...Rock Plant Photos

Flower Colour Wheel without photos, but with links to photos
12 Bloom Colours
per Month Index

...All Plants Index

Topic -
Use of Plant in your Plant Selection Process

Plant Colour Wheel Uses
1. Perfect general use soil is composed of 8.3% lime, 16.6% humus, 25% clay and 50% sand, and
2. Why you are continually losing the SOIL STRUCTURE so your soil - will revert to clay, chalk, sand or silt.
Uses of Plant and Flower Shape:-
...Foliage Only
...Other than Green Foliage
...Trees in Lawn
...Trees in Small Gardens
...Wildflower Garden
...Attract Bird
...Attract Butterfly
, 2
...Climber on House Wall
...Climber not on House Wall
...Climber in Tree
...Pollution Barrier
...Part Shade
...Full Shade
...Single Flower provides Pollen for Bees
, 2, 3
...Covering Banks
...Patio Pot
...Edging Borders
...Back of Border
...Adjacent to Water
...Bog Garden
...Tolerant of Poor Soil
...Not Fragrant
...Standard Plant is 'Ball on Stick'
...Upright Branches or Sword-shaped leaves
...Plant to Prevent Entry to Human or Animal
...Coastal Conditions
...Tolerant on North-facing Wall
...Cut Flower
...Potted Veg Outdoors
...Potted Veg Indoors
...Raised Bed Outdoors Veg
...Grow in Alkaline Soil A-F, G-L, M-R,
...Grow in Acidic Soil
...Grow in Any Soil
...Grow in Rock Garden
...Grow Bulbs Indoors

Uses of Bedding
...Bedding Out
...Filling In
...Pots and Troughs
...Window Boxes
...Hanging Baskets
...Spring Bedding
...Summer Bedding
...Winter Bedding
...Foliage instead of Flower
...Coleus Bedding Photos for use in Public Domain 1

Uses of Bulb
...Other than Only Green Foliage
...Bedding or Mass Planting
...Tolerant of Shade
...In Woodland Areas
...Tolerant of Poor Soil
...Covering Banks
...In Water
...Beside Stream or Water Garden
...Coastal Conditions
...Edging Borders
...Back of Border or Back-ground Plant
...Fragrant Flowers
...Not Fragrant Flowers

...Grow in a Patio Pot
...Grow in an Alpine Trough
...Grow in an Alpine House
...Grow in Rock Garden
...Speciman Plant
...Into Native Plant Garden
...Naturalize in Grass
...Grow in Hanging Basket
...Grow in Window-box
...Grow in Green-house
...Grow in Scree
...Naturalized Plant Area
...Grow in Cottage Garden
...Attracts Butterflies
...Attracts Bees
...Resistant to Wildlife
...Bulb in Soil:-
......Lime-Free (Acid)

Uses of Rose
...Climber /Pillar
...Exhibition, Speciman
...Grow In A Container
...Climber in Tree
...Edging Borders
...Tolerant of Poor Soil
...Tolerant of Shade
...Back of Border
...Adjacent to Water

Topic -
Camera Photo Galleries showing all 4000 x 3000 pixels of each photo on your screen that you can then click and drag it to your desktop as part of a Plant Selection Process:-

RHS Garden at Wisley

Plant Supports -
When supporting plants in a bed, it is found that not only do those plants grow upwards, but also they expand their roots and footpad sideways each year. Pages
, 2, 3, 8, 11,
12, 13,
Plants 4, 7, 10,
Bedding Plants 5,
Plant Supports for Unknown Plants 5
Clematis Climbers 6,
the RHS does not appear to either follow it's own pruning advice or advice from The Pruning of Trees, Shrubs and Conifers by George E. Brown.
ISBN 0-571-11084-3 with the plants in Pages 1-7 of this folder. You can see from looking at both these resources as to whether the pruning carried out on the remainder of the plants in Pages 7-15 was correct.

Narcissus (Daffodil) 9,
Phlox Plant Supports 14, 15

Coleus Bedding Foliage Trial - Pages
1, 2, 3, 4, 5,
6, 7, 8, 9, 10,
11, 12, 13, 14, 15,
16, 17, 18, 19, 20,
21, 22, 23, 24, 25,
26, 27, 28, 29, 30,
31, 32, Index

National Trust Garden at Sissinghurst Castle
Plant Supports -
Pages for Gallery 1

with Plant Supports
1, 5, 10
2, 3, 4, 6, 7, 8, 9,
11, 12
Recommended Rose Pruning Methods 13
Pages for Gallery 2
with Plant Supports
Plants 1, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7

Dry Garden of
RHS Garden at
Hyde Hall

Plants - Pages
without Plant Supports
Plants 1
, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9

Nursery of
Peter Beales Roses
Display Garden

Roses Pages
1, 2, 3, 4, 5,
6, 7, 8, 9, 10,
11, 12, 13

Nursery of
RV Roger

Roses - Pages
V76,Z77, 78,

Damage by Plants in Chilham Village - Pages
1, 2, 3, 4

Pavements of Funchal, Madeira
Damage to Trees - Pages
1, 2, 3, 4, 5,
6, 7, 8, 9, 10,
11, 12, 13
for trees 1-54,
14, 15,
16, 17, 18, 19, 20,
21, 22, 23, 24, 25,
for trees 55-95,
26, 27, 28, 29, 30,
31, 32, 33, 34, 35,
36, 37,
for trees 95-133,
38, 39, 40,
41, 42, 43, 44, 45,
for trees 133-166

Chris Garnons-Williams
Work Done - Pages
1, 2, 3, 4, 5,
6, 7, 8, 9, 10,
11, 12, 13

Identity of Plants
Label Problems - Pages
1, 2, 3, 4, 5,
6, 7, 8, 9, 10,

Ron and Christine Foord - 1036 photos only inserted so far - Garden Flowers - Start Page of each Gallery
AB1 ,AN14,BA27,

Plant with Photo Index of Ivydene Gardens - 1187
A 1, 2, Photos - 43
B 1, Photos - 13
C 1, Photos - 35
D 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7,
Photos - 411
with Plants causing damage to buildings in Chilham Village and Damage to Trees in Pavements of Funchal
E 1, Photos - 21
F 1, Photos - 1
G 1, Photos - 5
H 1, Photos - 21
I 1, Photos - 8
J 1, Photos - 1
K 1, Photos - 1
L 1, Photos - 85
with Label Problems
M 1, Photos - 9
N 1, Photos - 12
O 1, Photos - 5
P 1, Photos - 54
Q 1, Photos -
R 1, 2, 3,
Photos - 229
S 1, Photos - 111
T 1, Photos - 13
U 1, Photos - 5
V 1, Photos - 4
W 1, Photos - 100
with Work Done by Chris Garnons-Williams
X 1 Photos -
Y 1, Photos -
Z 1 Photos -
Articles/Items in Ivydene Gardens - 88
Flower Colour, Num of Petals, Shape and
Plant Use of:-
Rock Garden
within linked page


Topic -
Fragrant Plants as a Plant Selection Process for your sense of smell:-

Sense of Fragrance from Roy Genders

Fragrant Plants:-
Trees and Shrubs with Scented Flowers
, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6
Shrubs bearing Scented Flowers for an Acid Soil
, 2, 3, 4
Shrubs bearing Scented Flowers for a
Chalky or Limestone Soil
, 2, 3, 4
Shrubs bearing Scented leaves for a
Sandy Soil
, 2, 3
Herbaceous Plants with Scented Flowers
, 2, 3
Annual and Biennial Plants with Scented Flowers or Leaves
, 2
Bulbs and Corms with Scented Flowers
, 2, 3, 4, 5
Scented Plants of Climbing and Trailing Habit
, 2, 3
Winter-flowering Plants with Scented Flowers
, 2
Night-scented Flowering Plants
, 2

Topic -
Website User Guidelines

My Gas Service Engineer found Flow and Return pipes incorrectly positioned on gas boilers and customers had refused to have positioning corrected in 2020.