Ivydene Gardens Companion Planting: Biodynamics Introduction
 

Biodynamic Background

There are cosmic influences from the zodiac on plants: the zodiac is the ring of twelve constellations against which the sun, as seen from the earth, appears to move during the course of the year, and the moon every month. Each constellation has its own quality which is imparted particularly to the sun and moon, when they stand in front of them. There are qualitative differences in sunlight and moonlight during the annual and monthly courses of these bodies. The nature of these differences is connected with the four elements :-

  • earth,
  • water,
  • air/light and
  • fire,

represented in the plant by

  • root,
  • leaf,
  • flower and
  • fruit

respectively.

The moon also affects plant growth. Maria Thun noted the effects on subsequent growth when seeds were sown with the moon standing in front of the different zodiacal constellations, and found that:-

  • the earth constellations, Bull, Virgin and Goat, stimulated root development;
  • the water constellations, Fishes, Crab and Scorpion, leaf development;
  • the air constellations, Twins, Scales and Scorpion, flowering; and
  • the warmth constellations, Ram, Lion and Archer, seed and fruit.

Her calendar has covered the timing of all cultural operations including transplanting, pruning, harvesting etc, together with the application of the biodynamic sprays. The Moon, Mercury and Venus strongly influence the processes of reproduction and growth, while the outer planets, Saturn, Jupiter and Mars are more concerned with qualities such as nutritive value, taste, colour and aroma.

Soil

The creation of soil is a mutual interplay between the plant kingdom, the climate and the rocky part of the mineral kingdom. The lowest types of plant life start the soil-forming process when lichens and then mosses become established on a rock face. Their decaying residues produce weak acids which dissolve parts of the rock, and gradually conditions become favourable for higher order plants to grow; their roots also secrete acids as they penetrate into cracks in the rock, thus accelerating the process. The 'food' in the soil consists of the remains of plant and animal life, which are taken into the soil and digested by its population of micro-organisms; the products of this digestion pass into the soil water and are absorbed by the root hairs of the plants which thus operate like an intestinal wall.

 

Soil, apart from stones and pebbles, is composed of:

  • Coarse sand 2-0.2 mm diameter
  • Fine sand 0.2-0.02 mm diameter
  • Silt 0.02-0.002 mm diameter
  • Clay less than 0.002mm diameter

 

The following 2 tests show the percentages of each of the above constituents:-

  • Take a sample of moist but not wet soil about the size of a golf ball, knead it in the palm of your hand and then squeeze it all together into a lump. See how gritty it feels, thus seeing the proportion of coarse and fine sand. If the lump fails to cohere, then sand particles predominate; if it can be moulded, clay and silt are the major constituents; if it is on the border of coherence, there is a good balance between coarse and fine.
  • In the second, use a tall narrow glass, put tennis ball size of soil in it, almost fill with water and shake it thoroughly. Put it on a windowsill and watch how the soil settles out. The coarse sand, followed by the fine sand, then silt and a day later the clay. The depth of each layer gives the proportions which make up your soil.

If the result is mostly

  • Sand then this light soil will drain easily with no waterlogging. It will have a very small water reserve. It will warm up quickly in the spring. Compost and manure will be washed out quickly. It should be kept covered with growing plants or a green cover crop.
  • Clay then this heavy soil will have drainage problems. Its water reserve may not all be available to plant roots. Treading on this wet clay soil causes 'puddling' (compaction) and the soil becomes impervious to air and water movement, which will kill plants. It is useful to divide up the garden into raised beds about 4-5 feet wide and 6 inches high, leaving 1.5 feet wide paths between, so that you do not tread on that soil.
  • Around the mid point between sand, silt and clay comes the ideal type of loam for gardening.

Plants are affected by the logarithmic function of the number of free hydrogen ions in the soil water, which is expressed by the symbol pH. pH of

  • 7.0 is neutral and ideal for most crops
  • 8.0 is alkaline and is too high for some plants but best for others (subsoil of chalk usually has alkaline soil)
  • 5.5 is acidic and near to the limit which worms will tolerate (sandy soils are usually acidic, clay with high sodium content can be acidic) and
  • 5.0 or less require remedial measures (1lb of dolomitic limestone dust per square yard) unless heathers and rhododendrons are being grown.

Use the plants which are suitable for their type of soil - acidic or alkaline.

 

Soil structure

Soil must have a structure which will allow free passage of air to the plant roots and soil organisms (usually created by worms creating tunnels), and also the free passage of surplus water into its lower layers while at the same time providing enough for the needs of its plant cover. This is done by

  • there is sufficient humus in the soil to provide the carbon. Mulching a clay soil with a 6" depth of 50% spent mushroom compost and 50% Horticultural Grit will provide this carbon and make garden maintenance far easier (See case studies)
  • encouraging the worm population to keep on digging more tunnels; by having at least a 3" deep organic mulch,
  • avoiding damage to the structure by compaction of people standing on it when it is wet. Use raised beds and kneel on the path alongside to weed/maintain them.
  • there is sufficient clay in the soil to provide the glue with the carbon to bind the soil particles into 'crumbs'. These 'crumbs' as micro-aggregates then join together to form macro-aggregates which then can hold plant nutrients dissolved or in suspension in water within them for the plant roots to use. 1lb of clay dissolved in one gallon of water sprayed onto 1 square yard of very sandy soil will create a more loamy soil.

Besides worms the soil also contains centipedes, mites, springtails, eelworms, amoebae, protozoa, fungi and bacteria; who carry out the digestive process mentioned at the start of this section, mostly within the top 3" of soil (avoid burying this soil by digging or double digging; use a mulch or green manure instead). The total weight of these in a fertile pasture is on a par with that of the maximum number of stock which it can carry. The fungi mycorrhyza act as intermediaries between the soil and the plant. Their hyphae (fine hairs) penetrate both the soil and the plant cells in the surface layer of the roots. They secrete substances from the plant into the soil, and can transfer to the plant complex substances which would not normally be taken up from the soil solution through the root hairs, thus helping the plant to be healthier and grow faster.

 

Water in soil

Plants use water in 3 ways:-

  • for circulating the products of soil digestion to where they are needed and also the products of photosynthesis from the leaves to the actively growing parts of stems and roots,
  • for maintaining turgor in the leaves and keeping them cool by evaporation and
  • an essential ingredient in the synthesis of sugars and starch by the action of light and chlorophyll.

An average crop of wheat needs about 450 tonnes of water per acre from sowing to harvest; 99% of this has to come through the soil with the rest being directly absorbed by the leaves from rain or dew.

When rainwater enters a soil, it sinks down until it reaches the water table, after the 'water-holding capacity' has been topped up. Water is held

  • in the upper regions of the soil partly in very fine channels called capillaries and
  • partly by being absorbed by the soil colloids, humus and clay (some clay can absorb 40% of its own volume in water before becoming a liquid).
  • The water table begins where all the spaces between the micro and macro aggregates are filled with water; which may be close to the surface. Most roots cannot grow and will die in a saturated soil: earthworms are killed and most other soil life comes to halt. If the water table is less than 1 foot down, then either artificial drainage is required or the soil composition must be changed to a loam between the extremes of pure sand, silt or clay as detailed in the soil structure above. As water becomes depleted by evaporation and root absorption, more rises up through the capillaries from the water table.

If the soil is covered by a 3" deep mulch of organic compost/manure or by a green manure, then the action of the wind and the sun in drying it out will be greatly reduced. Melcourt Industries - who supply bark for mulching purposes, path material or playground material - planted young apple trees in a field. They then soaked the ground to full saturation in April and covered half of it with their bark mulch. They took moisture measurements each month of that Spring and hot Summer, and no other further action. In August, the fruit trees with no mulch were severely dehydrated, whereas the others were in no water stress.

 

Biodynamic Agriculture


In Biodynamic agriculture one works with the energies which create and maintain life. The following materials are not used at all:-

Synthetic nitrogen fertilizers,
soluble phosphate fertilizers,
high percentage pure potash salts containing chlorine, including compound materials,
Sewage,
Sewage sludge and
Composted household rubbish.

Its method produces an organic fertiliser to secure a healthy soil and plants with the following practical steps ( See reference 10 ):-

  1. Build, and properly treat, manure and compost piles. Do not waste any organic offal. Do not burn leaves and trash, but compost them. Collect everything organic. Do not apply crude, undecomposed organic matter to the fields or garden, but make use of the beneficial effects of microlife by first composting manure and all other organic material. Apply - immediately prior to planting or seeding - only predigested material which will not tie down nitrogen, phosphate and other fertiliser elements but will increase their availability. The use of the Biodynamic Compost Preparations or B.D. Starter will greatly help in reaching the goal: good humus.
  2. Introduce soil-protecting crop rotations and cover crops.
  3. Introduce green manuring, but take care that the green manure crop is properly ploughed or disced under without locking up the soil life and nitrogen. In a garden, or wherever feasible, introduce mulching.
  4. Improve your soil cultivation practices.
  5. Establish proper environmental control, wind protection, good drainage, control of the watershed.
  6. To create the right balance between the conserved and cultivated areas between woodland, wetland, pastures and arable land, together with integrating the wildlife and multiple species of domestic animals.

 

The following materials may be used against various insect pests ( See references 19 and 36 ):-

Derris ( contains rotenone to kill insects and fish ),
Pyrethrum ( extract of chrysanthemums to repel insects ),
Nicotine mixtures ( extremely toxic ),
Quassia ( kills some insects but harmless to humans or other animals ) and
Soap solution.

The Biodynamic Preparations fall into 3 categories: two are of a general nature, six for treating compost and manure, and one for dealing with fungus diseases. Their main purpose is to stimulate and enhance the supersensible forces and influences working in from the far spaces of the cosmos and up from the centre of the earth.

These Biodynamic Preparations ( Numbers 500-508 inclusive ) can be purchased from the Biodynamic Farming and Gardening Association, who prepare them as follows:- (see next page)

 

This is from the Members Newsletter for Summer 2019 from the Biodynamic Association:-

"The new Online Biodynamic Gardening Club has launched.
Join via this link https://www.biodynamic.org.uk/garden/#bd-garden-club
 

A month ago we launched our new exciting venture and a first for the BDA; our on line Biodynamic Gardening Club. Our hope and mission for the club is very simple. It has been our dream and objective for as many people as possible to experience what the biodynamic approach to gardening offers; the joy it can bring to you and your garden, as well as helping people to grow delicious food brimming with health and vitality.

The club is for everyone who is curious, would like to learn more, deepen their relationship with nature and their garden, and create mini havens of vitality and biodiversity - above and below ground. Whether anyone has a tiny urban patch, an allotment, belong to a community garden, or just fancies growing their own salad leaves, all are welcome. It's very much a community inspired venture, too, where everyone supports each other and has a real say in how they want the club to develop.

Here's what our new on line club offers:

  • A quarterly seasonal online e-newsletter
  • Members Facebook Group where you can share experience, tips, and advice, communicate with us, and other club members and where to find all the latest news.
  • Interactive webinairs with experts in their field
  • An online resource library
  • News and events
  • Regular offers

We hope you enjoy being part of this growing and dynamic community of biodynamic gardening enthusiasts. We passionately believe in the power of gardeners; supporting and learning from each other, and doing our bit to care for the planet to ensure that we leave it in good shape for our children and future generations."

 

Do you wish to help in providing educational facilities for the public?

 

An invitation to invest in withdrawable shares in the Biodynamic Land Trust Community Benefit Society Limited, a charity at law, so as to raise £326,000 for buying farmland at Week, near Huxham's Cross, Dartington, Totnes, South Devon. The farmland will be leased to the Apricot Centre in order to develop the Week Land for learning, community engagement and bio-dynamic-organic food production.

By investing in this share offer before 31 December 2014, you will help:-

  • Fund the purchase of a 999-year lease for 33 acres of farmland from the Dartington Hall Trust.
  • Secure land for growing biodynamic, organic food.
  • Restore soil fertility, increase biodiversity, enhance landscape and conservation.
  • Benefit the community through good food, permissive land access, research, education, training, apprenticeships, sustainable livelihoods, volunteering and increasing local resilience.
  • Secure a social, cultural and environmental return - with no interest payable - on these shares.
  • Enable the establishment of a learning, demonstration farm for biodynamic, permacultural and organic food growing.
  • Build the farm infrastructure, as currently this is 'bare ophan land' with no farm buildings.
  • Shares are withdrawable not tradable, so can only be sold back to the BDLT (not to other people) at face value.
  • On investing you become a shareholder.
  • Buying shares gives you membership of the Biodynamic Land Trust.
  • Each member has 1 vote, no matter what the level of shareholding.

 

 

Site design and content copyright ©December 2006 Chris Garnons-Williams. Page structure amended September 2012. May 2017 Template created May 2017 for all pages.

DISCLAIMER: Links to external sites are provided as a courtesy to visitors. Ivydene Horticultural Services are not responsible for the content and/or quality of external web sites linked from this site.  

COMPANION PLANTING
PAGE MENU

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My
Vegetable Garden
Katie Thear Veg Garden
Riotte Veg Garden
Create Companion Garden

Companion Plant A
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Companion Plant C
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Companion Plant E
Companion Plant F
Companion Plant G
Companion Plant H
Companion Plant I
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Companion Plant UV
Companion Plant W
Companion Plant XYZ

Pest Control

Companion References
Companion Library AG
Companion Library GW

Biodynamics Introduction
Preparations
     
Preparation Use
     
Advantages
     
Rotation
     
Cropping Sequence
Gardening

 

The 2 EUREKA EFFECT PAGES FOR UNDERSTANDING SOIL AND HOW PLANTS INTERACT WITH IT OUT OF 15,000:-


Explanation of Structure of this Website with User Guidelines Page for those photo galleries with Photos
(of either ones I have taken myself or others which have been loaned only for use on this website from external sources)

-----------------------------------------------------------

Choose 1 of these different Plant selection Methods:-

1. Choose a plant from 1 of 53 flower colours in the Colour Wheel Gallery.

2. Choose a plant from 1 of 12 flower colours in each month of the year from 12 Bloom Colours per Month Index Gallery.

3. Choose a plant from 1 of 6 flower colours per month for each type of plant:-
Aquatic
Bedding
Bulb
Climber
Conifer
Deciduous Shrub
Deciduous Tree
Evergreen Perennial
Evergreen Shrub
Evergreen Tree
Hedging
Herbaceous Perennial
Herb
Odds and Sods
Rhododendron
Rose
Soft Fruit
Top Fruit
Wild Flower

4. Choose a plant from its Flower Shape:-
Shape, Form
Index

Flower Shape

5. Choose a plant from its foliage:-
Bamboo
Conifer
Fern
Grass
Vegetable

6. There are 6 Plant Selection Levels including Bee Pollinated Plants for Hay Fever Sufferers in
Plants Topic.

or

7. When I do not have my own or ones from mail-order nursery photos , then from March 2016, if you want to start from the uppermost design levels through to your choice of cultivated and wildflower plants to change your Plant Selection Process then use the following galleries:-

  • Create and input all plants known by Amateur Gardening inserted into their Sanders' Encyclopaedia from their edition published in 1960 (originally published by them in 1895) into these
    • Stage 1 - Garden Style Index Gallery,
      then
    • Stage 2 - Infill Plants Index Gallery being the only gallery from these 7 with photos (from Wikimedia Commons) ,
      then
    • Stage 3 - All Plants Index Gallery with each plant species in its own Plant Type Page followed by choice from Stage 4a, 4b, 4c and/or 4d REMEMBERING THE CONSTRAINTS ON THE SELECTION FROM THE CHOICES MADE IN STAGES 1 AND 2
    • Stage 4a - 12 Bloom Colours per Month Index Gallery,
    • Stage 4b - 12 Foliage Colours per Month Index Gallery with
    • Stage 4c - Cultivation, Position, Use Index Gallery and
    • Stage 4d - Shape, Form Index Gallery
    • Unfortunately, if you want to have 100's of choices on selection of plants from 1000's of 1200 pixels wide by up to 16,300 pixels in length webpages, which you can jump to from almost any of the pages in these 7 galleries above, you have to put up with those links to those choices being on
      • the left topic menu table,
      • the header of the middle data table and on
      • the page/index menu table on the right of every page of those galleries.

 

I like reading and that is shown by the index in my Library, where I provide lists of books to take you between designing, maintaining or building a garden and the hierarchy of books on plants taking you from

There are other pages on Plants which bloom in each month of the year in this website:-

 

 

 

Before reaching for the pesticides, here are a few alternative natural, non-toxic methods of slug control:  

• Watering Schedule - Far and away the best course of action against slugs in your garden is a simple adjustment in the watering schedule. Slugs are most active at night and are most efficient in damp conditions. Avoid watering your garden in the evening if you have a slug problem. Water in the morning - the surface soil will be dry by evening. Studies show this can reduce slug damage by 80%.

 

• Seaweed - If you have access to seaweed, it's well worth the effort to gather. Seaweed is not only a good soil amendment for the garden, it's a natural repellent for slugs. Mulch with seaweed around the base of plants or perimeter of bed. Pile it on 3" to 4" thick - when it dries it will shrink to just an inch or so deep. Seaweed is salty and slugs avoid salt. Push the seaweed away from plant stems so it's not in direct contact. During hot weather, seaweed will dry and become very rough which also deters the slugs.

 

• Copper - Small strips of copper can be placed around flower pots or raised beds as obstructions for slugs to crawl over. Cut 2" strips of thin copper and wrap around the lower part of flower pots, like a ribbon. Or set the strips in the soil on edge, making a "fence" for the slugs to climb. Check to make sure no vegetation hangs over the copper which might provide a 'bridge' for the slugs. Copper barriers also work well around wood barrels used as planters.
A non-toxic copper-based metallic mesh Slug Shield is available which can be wrapped around the stem of plants and acts as a barrier to slugs. When slugs come in contact with the mesh they receive an electric-like shock. The mesh also serves as a physical barrier. These slug shields are reusable, long-lasting and weather-proof.

 

• Diatomaceous Earth - Diatomaceous earth (Also known as "Insect Dust") is the sharp, jagged skeletal remains of microscopic creatures. It lacerates soft-bodied pests, causing them to dehydrate. A powdery granular material, it can be sprinkled around garden beds or individual plants, and can be mixed with water to make a foliar spray.
Diatomaceous earth is less effective when wet, so use during dry weather. Wear protective gear when applying, as it can irritate eyes and lungs. Be sure to buy natural or agricultural grade diatomaceous earth, not pool grade which has smoother edges and is far less effective. Click for more information or to purchase Food Grade Diatomaceous Earth.

 

• Electronic "slug fence" - An electronic slug fence is a non-toxic, safe method for keeping slugs out of garden or flower beds. The Slugs Away fence is a 24-foot long, 5" ribbon-like barrier that runs off a 9 volt battery. When a slug or snail comes in contact with the fence, it receives a mild static sensation that is undetectable to animals and humans. This does not kill the slug, it cause it to look elsewhere for forage. The battery will power the fence for about 8 months before needing to be replaced. Extension kits are availabe for increased coverage. The electronic fence will repel slugs and snails, but is harmless to people and pets.

 

• Lava Rock - Like diatomaceous earth, the abrasive surface of lava rock will be avoided by slugs. Lava rock can be used as a barrier around plantings, but should be left mostly above soil level, otherwise dirt or vegetation soon forms a bridge for slugs to cross.

• Salt - If all else fails, go out at night with the salt shaker and a flashlight. Look at the plants which have been getting the most damage and inspect the leaves, including the undersides. Sprinkle a bit of salt on the slug and it will kill it quickly. Not particularly pleasant, but use as a last resort. (Note: some sources caution the use of salt, as it adds a toxic element to the soil. This has not been our experience, especially as very little salt is used.)

• Beer - Slugs are attracted to beer. Set a small amount of beer in a shallow wide jar buried in the soil up to its neck. Slugs will crawl in and drown. Take the jar lid and prop it up with a small stick so rain won't dilute the beer. Leave space for slugs to enter the trap.

• Overturned Flowerpots, Grapefruit Halves, Board on Ground - Overturned flowerpots, with a stone placed under the rim to tilt it up a bit, will attract slugs. Leave overnight, and you'll find the slugs inside in the morning. Grapefruit halves work the same way, with the added advantage of the scent of the fruit as bait.
Another trap method, perhaps the simplest of all, is to set a wide board on the ground by the affected area. Slugs will hide under the board by day. Simply flip the board over during the day to reveal the culprits. Black plastic sheeting also works the same way.

 

• Garlic-based slug repellents
Laboratory tests at the University of Newcastle-Upon-Tyne (UK) revealed that a highly refined garlic product (ECOguard produced by ECOspray Ltd, a British company that makes organic pesticides) was an effective slug killer. Look for garlic-based slug deterrents which will be emerging under various brand names, as well as ECOguard.

• Coffee grounds; new caffeine-based slug/snail poisons - Coffee grounds scattered on top of the soil will deter slugs. The horticultural side effects of using strong grounds such as espresso on the garden, however, are less certain. When using coffee grounds, moderation is advised.
A study in June 2002 reported in the journal Nature found that slugs and snails are killed when sprayed with a caffeine solution, and that spraying plants with this solution prevents slugs from eating them. The percentage of caffeine required in a spray (1 - 2%) is greater than what is found in a cup of coffee (.05 - 07%), so homemade sprays are not as effective. Look for new commercial sprays which are caffeine-based.


Topic
Case Studies
...Drive
...Foundations

Companion
Planting
*
...A, B, C, D, E,
...F, G, H, I, J, K,
...L, M, N, O, P, Q,
...R, S, T, U, V, W,
...X, Y, Z
...Pest Control
...using Plants

Garden Construction
Garden Design
...How to Use the Colour Wheel Concepts for Selection of Flowers, Foliage and Flower Shape
...RHS Mixed Borders
......Bedding Plants
......Her Perennials
......Other Plants Garden Maintenance
Glossary
Home
Library
Offbeat Glossary
Plants
...Poisonous Plants
Soil
...Soil Nutrients
Tool Shed
Useful Data

................

Topic - Plant Photo Galleries
Aquatic
Bamboo
Bedding
...by Flower Shape

Bulb
...Allium/ Anemone
...Autumn
...Colchicum/ Crocus
...Dahlia
...Gladiolus
...Hippeastrum/ Lily
...Late Summer
...Narcissus
...Spring
...Tulip
...Winter
Climber
...Clematis
...Climbers
Conifer
Deciduous Shrub
...Shrubs - Decid
Deciduous Tree
...Trees - Decid
Evergreen Perennial
...P-Evergreen A-L
...P-Evergreen M-Z
...Flower Shape
Evergreen Shrub
...Shrubs - Evgr
...Heather Shrub
Evergreen Tree
...Trees - Evgr
Fern
Grass
Hedging
Herbaceous
Perennial

...P -Herbaceous
...Peony
...Flower Shape
...RHS Wisley
......Mixed Border
......Other Borders
Herb
Odds and Sods
Rhododendron
Rose
...RHS Wisley A-F
...RHS Wisley G-R
...RHS Wisley S-Z
...Rose Use
...Other Roses A-F
...Other Roses G-R
...Other Roses S-Z
Soft Fruit
Top Fruit
...Apple

...Cherry
...Pear
Vegetable

Wild Flower
with its
flower colour page,
space,
Site Map page in its flower colour
NOTE Gallery
...Blue Note
...Brown Note
...Cream Note
...Green Note
...Mauve Note
...Multi-Cols Note
...Orange Note
...Pink A-G Note
...Pink H-Z Note
...Purple Note
...Red Note
...White A-D Note
...White E-P Note
...White Q-Z Note
...Yellow A-G Note
...Yellow H-Z Note
...Shrub/Tree Note
Poisonous
Wildflower Plants

............

Topic - Flower/Foliage Colour
Colour Wheel Galleries

Following your choice using Garden Style then that changes your Plant Selection Process
Garden Style
...Infill Plants
...12 Bloom Colours per Month Index
...12 Foliage Colours per Month Index
...All Plants Index
...Cultivation, Position, Use Index
...Shape, Form
Index

or
you could use these Flower Colour Wheels with number of colours
All Flowers 53

All Flowers per Month 12
with its
Explanation of
Structure of this Website with

...User Guidelines
All Bee-Pollinated Flowers per Month 12
...Index
Rock Garden and Alpine Flower Colour Wheel with number of colours
Rock Plant Flowers 53

...Rock Plant Photos

or
these Foliage Colour Wheels structures, which I have done but until I can take the photos and I am certain of the plant label's validity, these may not progress much further
All Foliage 212

All Spring Foliage 212
All Summer Foliage 212
All Autumn Foliage 212
All Winter Foliage 212

or
Flower Colour Wheel without photos, but with links to photos
12 Bloom Colours per Month Index
...All Plants Index

............

Topic - Wildlife on Plant Photo Gallery
Butterfly
Usage of Plants
by Egg, Caterpillar, Chrysalis and Butterfly

Egg, Caterpillar, Chrysalis and Butterfly usage of
Plant A-C
Plant C-M
Plant N-W
Butterfly usage of Plant

followed by all the Wild Flower Family Pages:-

WILD FLOWER FAMILY
PAGE MENU 1


(o)Adder's Tongue
Amaranth
(o)Arrow-Grass
(o)Arum
(o)Balsam
Bamboo
(o)Barberry
(o)Bedstraw
(o)Beech
(o)Bellflower
(o)Bindweed
(o)Birch
(o)Birds-Nest
(o)Birthwort
(o)Bogbean
(o)Bog Myrtle
(o)Borage
(o)Box
(o)Broomrape
(o)Buckthorn
(o)Buddleia
(o)Bur-reed
(o)Buttercup
(o)Butterwort
(o)Cornel (Dogwood)
(o)Crowberry
(o)Crucifer (Cabbage/Mustard) 1
(o)Crucifer (Cabbage/Mustard) 2
Cypress
(o)Daffodil
(o)Daisy
(o)Daisy Cudweeds
(o)Daisy Chamomiles
(o)Daisy Thistle
(o)Daisy Catsears (o)Daisy Hawkweeds
(o)Daisy Hawksbeards
(o)Daphne
(o)Diapensia
(o)Dock Bistorts
(o)Dock Sorrels

WILD FLOWER FAMILY
PAGE MENU 2


(o)Clubmoss
(o)Duckweed
(o)Eel-Grass
(o)Elm
(o)Filmy Fern
(o)Horsetail
(o)Polypody
Quillwort
(o)Royal Fern
(o)Figwort - Mulleins
(o)Figwort - Speedwells
(o)Flax
(o)Flowering-Rush
(o)Frog-bit
(o)Fumitory
(o)Gentian
(o)Geranium
(o)Glassworts
(o)Gooseberry
(o)Goosefoot
(o)Grass 1
(o)Grass 2
(o)Grass 3
(o)Grass Soft Bromes 1
(o)Grass Soft Bromes 2
(o)Grass Soft Bromes 3 (o)Hazel
(o)Heath
(o)Hemp
(o)Herb-Paris
(o)Holly
(o)Honeysuckle
(o)Horned-Pondweed
(o)Hornwort
(o)Iris
(o)Ivy
(o)Jacobs Ladder
(o)Lily
(o)Lily Garlic
(o)Lime
(o)Lobelia
(o)Loosestrife
(o)Mallow
(o)Maple
(o)Mares-tail
(o)Marsh Pennywort
(o)Melon (Gourd/Cucumber)
 

WILD FLOWER FAMILY
PAGE MENU 3


(o)Mesem-bryanthemum
(o)Mignonette
(o)Milkwort
(o)Mistletoe
(o)Moschatel
Naiad
(o)Nettle
(o)Nightshade
(o)Oleaster
(o)Olive
(o)Orchid 1
(o)Orchid 2
(o)Orchid 3
(o)Orchid 4
(o)Parnassus-Grass
(o)Peaflower
(o)Peaflower Clover 1
(o)Peaflower Clover 2
(o)Peaflower Clover 3
(o)Peaflower Vetches/Peas
Peony
(o)Periwinkle
Pillwort
Pine
(o)Pink 1
(o)Pink 2
Pipewort
(o)Pitcher-Plant
(o)Plantain
(o)Pondweed
(o)Poppy
(o)Primrose
(o)Purslane
Rannock Rush
(o)Reedmace
(o)Rockrose
(o)Rose 1
(o)Rose 2
(o)Rose 3
(o)Rose 4
(o)Rush
(o)Rush Woodrushes
(o)Saint Johns Wort
Saltmarsh Grasses
(o)Sandalwood
(o)Saxifrage
 

WILD FLOWER FAMILY
PAGE MENU 4


Seaheath
(o)Sea Lavender
(o)Sedge Rush-like
(o)Sedges Carex 1
(o)Sedges Carex 2
(o)Sedges Carex 3
(o)Sedges Carex 4
(o)Spindle-Tree
(o)Spurge
(o)Stonecrop
(o)Sundew
(o)Tamarisk
Tassel Pondweed
(o)Teasel
(o)Thyme 1
(o)Thyme 2
(o)Umbellifer 1
(o)Umbellifer 2
(o)Valerian
(o)Verbena
(o)Violet
(o)Water Fern
(o)Waterlily
(o)Water Milfoil
(o)Water Plantain
(o)Water Starwort
Waterwort
(o)Willow
(o)Willow-Herb
(o)Wintergreen
(o)Wood-Sorrel
(o)Yam
(o)Yew

 

It is worth remembering that especially with roses that the colour of the petals of the flower may change - The following photos are of Rosa 'Lincolnshire Poacher' which I took on the same day in R.V. Roger's Nursery Field:-

rosalincolnshirepoacherflot91a1a1a1

Closed Bud

rosalincolnshirepoacherflot92a1a1a1

Opening Bud

rosalincolnshirepoacherflot93a1a1a1

Juvenile Flower

rosalincolnshirepoacherflot94a1a1a1

Older Juvenile Flower

rosalincolnshirepoacherflot95a1a1a1

Middle-aged Flower - Flower Colour in Season in its
Rose Description Page is
"Buff Yellow, with a very slight pink tint at the edges in May-October."

rosalincolnshirepoacherflot96a1a1a1

Mature Flower

rosalincolnshirepoacherflot97a1a1a1

Juvenile Flower and Dying Flower

rosalincolnshirepoacherflot98a1a1a1

Form of Rose Bush

There are 720 roses in the Rose Galleries; many of which have the above series of pictures in their respective Rose Description Page.

So one might avoid the disappointment that the 2 elephants had when their trunks were entwined instead of them each carrying their trunk using their own trunk, and your disappointment of buying a rose to discover that the colour you bought it for is only the case when it has its juvenile flowers; if you look at all the photos of the roses in the respective Rose Description Page!!!!