Yellow Flowers.

Fritillaria imperialis (Kaiserkrone).
By JoergJ, via Wikimedia Commons.


Red Flowers.

Fritillaria imperialis.
By Moralist, via Wikimedia Commons.


Red Flowers.

Deutsch: Kaiserkrone (Fritillaria imperialis), fotografiert im nördlichen Baden-Württemberg (Deutschland).
By 4028mdk09, via Wikimedia Commons.


Orange Flowers.

Fritillaria imperialis photo : Jeffdelonge Vantoux et Longevelle 70700 France.
By Jeffdelonge, via Wikimedia Commons.


Opening Flower Buds.

Crown Imperial.
By Ulrich Rahm (1972-1993), uploaded by: Moros, via Wikimedia Commons.


Foliage and Flower Buds.

English: Group of Fritillaria imperialis in spring.

Deutsch: Eine Gruppe von Fritillaria imperialis im Frühling.
By Agadez, via Wikimedia Commons.



Fritillaria imperialis in De koperen tuin in Leeuwarden, the Netherlands Picture taken by Magalhães on 29th of April 2006.
By Magalhães, via Wikimedia Commons.

Plant Name

Fritillaria imperiallis

Common Name

Imperial fritillary, Crown Imperial, Crown Imperial fritillary


Chalk or Sand.

Plants succeed in most fertile, well-drained, humus-rich soils, avoiding pure chalk, heavy clay and boggy sites. Apply 3 inch (7.5 cm) deep spent mushroom compost or leaf-mould in the spring, top-up annually.

Sun Aspect

Full Sun

It can grow in semi-shade (light woodland - the shade of deciduous trees or shrubs) or no shade.

Soil Moisture


It prefers dry or moist soil and can tolerate drought.

Plant Type

Herbaceous Bulb

Height x Spread in inches (cms)
(1 inch = 2.5 cms,
12 inches = 1 foot = 30 cms,
24 inches = 2 feet)

60 x 12 (150 x 30)


Light Green

Flower Colour in Month(s). Fruit

Orange, Yellow or Red in July

The flowers are hermaphrodite (have both male and female organs) and are pollinated by Bees. The flowers smell of wet fur and garlic.


Mat-forming. Use in sunny border or rock garden. Prone to attack by lily beetles. Companion plants are Berberis thunbergii 'Atropurpurea' and the Lily family - see Companion Planting.


"Fritillaria imperialis grows to about 1 m (40 inches) in height, and bears lance-shaped, glossy leaves at intervals along the stem. It bears a prominent whorl of downward facing flowers at the top of the stem, topped by a 'crown' of small leaves, hence the name. While the wild form is usually orange-red, various colours are found in cultivation, ranging from nearly a true scarlet through oranges to yellow. The pendulous flowers make a bold statement in the late spring garden; in the northern hemisphere, flowering takes place in late spring, accompanied by a distinctly foxy odour that repels mice, moles and other small animals.
Due to the way that the bulb is formed, with the stem emerging from a depression, it is best to plant it on its side, to prevent water causing rot at the top of the bulb. Fritillaria imperialis requires full sun for best growth, and sandy, well-drained soil for permanence. After flowering and complete drying of the leaves, the stems should be cut off just above the ground." from Wikipedia. See Wikipedia for its Biological Control.


Fritillaria Growing Guide:-
Bulb size: 20-24 cm 
Plant 3″ deep and 3–4″ apart for smaller species and cultivars, 6–8″ deep and 10–12″ apart for F. imperialis and other large types. F. imperialis has a hollow crown that may collect water, so it's wise to plant bulbs sideways. Fritillarias prefer plenty of moisture while actively growing and very rich soil enriched with plenty of compost. Full sun to part shade. F. meleagris types require part shade. On arrival, bulbs may appear spongy and somewhat discolored. This is normal and does not mean the bulbs are not viable. Only if they are powdery dry are they not worth planting." from White Flower Farm .


"Be prepared to plant bulbs as soon as they arrive. Plant larger bulbs with the base about 5 inches below the soil surface, while smaller Fritillaria bulbs should be planted about 3 inches down. Plant bulbs in well-drained soil and keep it moist until the root system is established.
Fritillaria Care:-
Fritillaria bulbs resist deer, squirrels and bulb digging rodents and may help protect other bulbs that are favorites of the critters. Wildflower Fritillaria lilies, as with other lily bulbs, like cool roots. If possible, plant a low growing ground cover to shade bulbs of the growing Fritillaria plant or mulch the plant to protect it from the summer sun. Separate wildflower Fritillaria lilies every two years. Remove young bulblets and replant in moist, shady conditions for more of this unusual flower every year." from Gardening Know How.


"The larger bulbs can be planted out direct into their permanent positions, but it is best to pot up the smaller bulbs and grow them on in a cold frame for a year before planting them out in the autumn." from Plants for a Future.


"The bulb is poisonous raw, it contains low concentrations of a toxic alkaloid:-
The bulb is diuretic, emollient and resolvent. It is also a cardiac poison. It has been used as an expectorant and also to encourage increased breast milk production. The fresh plant contains the toxic alkaloid 'imperialine'.
Erect form.
Suitable for Border, Container, Massing, Seashore, Specimen, Woodland garden." from Plants for a future.


"As for planting depth, much depends on the soil. Some people recommend planting up to 10 inch (25cm) deep in light soils, and only 4in (10cm) deep in heavy soils. Providing you’ve prepared the soil well, I would suggest you plant at 6in (15cm).
You don’t need a lot of bulbs to make a big splash – usually one to three bulbs will create a great display – but plant more if you want to - and space them 6in (15cm) apart.
Because they are heavy feeders, apply a high potash granular feed when the foliage emerges – I use a rose fertilizer – and mulch around the stems with more organic matter.
Failure to flower after the first year is usually due to a lack of potash fertilizer (which is necessary for bloom formation for the following year), or rotting taking place in the crown of the bulb.
Crown imperials also make great pot plants to adorn the patio or greenhouse. For best effect, plant one bulb into a 6 – 8in (15 – 20cm) pot using a good quality compost..
Avoid disturbing the bulbs at any time and only cut down the stems once they have fully turned brown and died back. Although these plants are fairly pest and disease-free you’ll need to watch out for bright red lily beetles, which attack this fritillary as well." from Dengarden.


"This is one of the favourites of many old cottage gardens.
Tends to be short-lived in the UK, but their life can be extended by having good drainage like in a raised scree bed in the open combined with being well ripened during a long and hot summer.
Perhaps cultivation in pots or deep pans in the alpine house offers the best chance of success. The compost should either be the John Innes Potting Compost with an extra amount of drainage material at the base or else a compost made up of extra grit or coarse sand as might be suitable for the higher alpines." from Collins Guide to Bulbs by Patrick M. Synge. Published by Collins in 1961 reprinted 1973. ISBN 0 00 214016-0.


"Fritillarias do well in any good rich garden soil, but although classed as hardy bulbs it is advisable, except in the most southern parts of England and Ireland, to choose a site for them which is dry and well sheltered, such as the base of south and wet walls. They appreciate shade, which fact should be borne in mind when choosing a site for them.

The bulbs should be planted from Sep-Nov, 4 inches (10 cm) deep and 6 inches (15 cm) apart, and may be left undisturbed for 3 or 4 years. It may be mentioned here that the bulbs of this plant have a particularly unpleasant odour.

For indoor culture a composition consisting of equal parts of loam, peat, leaf mould and sand has been found to be the most suitable. The bulbs may be potted from September to October in pots, varying according to the size of bulbs, from 6-8 inches (15-20 cms). Very little water should be given until growth is well advanced, and then only modserately. As soon as the foliage begins to die down, water should be gradually withheld until the soil is quite dry.

Propagation is best carried out by offsets removed at the time of planting, or by seeds sown 0.125 inches (3mm) deep in sandy soil in spring. This latter method is, however, a tedious one, as seedlings do not flower fr 6 years." from The Culture of Bulbs, Bulbous Plants and Tubers made Plain by Sir J.L. Cotter, Bart., F.R.H.S, F.N.C.S., N.R.S. Published by Hutchinson & Co. Probably originally published in the 1920's.


See Gardenia with their pages on
plant combinations of Fritillaria
with other plants


Available from
Portland Nursery in America and and
Plant World Seeds in UK with worldwide shipping.


Site Map of pages with content (o)


(o)Unusual Colours

(o)Green 1
(o)Green 2
(o)Green 3
(o)Other Colour

(o)Seed Colour



Website Structure Explanation and User Guidelines









7 Flower Colours per Month in Colour Wheel below in BULB, CORM, RHIZOME and TUBER GALLERY.

Click on Black or White box in Colour of Month.



Besides the above Bulb Flower Colour Comparison Pages, you also have the following Comparison Pages:-
...Bulb Flower Shape -
7 pages of Number of Petals ...... 5 petals,
23 pages of Flower Shape ......... Stars and
7 pages of Natural Arrangements Drumstick

...Bulb Form
7 pages of Bulb Form ...Clump-forming
...Bulb Use
33 pages of Bulb Use ...Mass Planting,
Grow in Patio Pot and
Use in Coastal Conditions
...Bulb Preferred Soil

5 pages of Soil preferred by Bulb ...Chalk

BULB, CORM, RHIZOME AND TUBER INDEX - There are over 700 bulbs in the bulb galleries. The respective flower thumbnail, months of flowering, height and width, foliage thumbnail, form thumbnail use and comments are in the relevant index page below:-
(o): A
(o): B
(o): C
(o): D
(o): E
(o): F
(o): G
(o): H
(o): I
....: J
....: K
(o): L
(o): M
(o): N
(o): O
(o): P
....: Q
....: R
(o): S
(o): T
....: U
(o): V
....: W
(o): XYZ








Autumn Bulb Gallery INDEX link to Bulb Description Page

Flower Colour

Flower Thumbnail

Flowering Months

Form Thumbnail and

as its form

Foliage Thumbnail

Height x Width in inches (cms) -
1 inch = 2.5 cms,
12 inches = 1 foot,
36 inches = 3 feet = 1 yard,
40 inches = 100 cms

Seed Head Thumbnail


This is the Old Layout which is being changed plant by plant to

Autumn Bulb Gallery INDEX link to Bulb Description Page

Flower Colour with Flower Thumbnail

Flowering Months

Form Thumbnail and

as its form

Height x Width in inches (cms) -
1 inch = 2.5 cms,
12 inches = 1 foot,
36 inches = 3 feet = 1 yard,
40 inches = 100 cms

Seed Head Thumbnail

Foliage Colour with Foliage Thumbnail

Bulb Use


this New Layout starting in March 2020


(Mouse Plant - In spring cream and brown flowers are produced at ground level. They have a long, thin ‘tail’, making the flower look just like a mouse.

Dark Brown-Purple

Flowers and foliage appear at the same time.

April, May


Hood shape bloom

6 x 10
(15 x 24)

Acidic Sand, Clay, Chalk
Part Shade

Glossy, Bright Green and arrow shaped

Foliage dies down in late summer

A woodland perennial with flowers lasting a long time in indoor arrange-ments. Foliage is groundcover until late summer. Mix with spring-flowering woodland bulbs.

Great Plant Combinations: Waldsteinia ternata, Asplenium scolopendrium, Cyclamen coum, Dryopteris crassirhizoma, Anenome nemorosa. Can be invasive.

Arum italicum

Greenish-Yellow spathes with a yellow spadix followed by spikes of orange-red berries lasting all summer



Mat, Erect

12 x 6
(30 x 15)

Well-drained Chalk, Sand
Part Shade

Mid-Green with Cream veins foliage from late autumn to mid spring


Cottage Garden. Ground cover with hosta. Naturalizes in woodland. Spathes and berries suitable for flower arrangements. Use in patio pots.

Underplant roses, hostas, Hemerocallis, Iris and shrubs.

Aruncus dioicus



June, July



72 x 48
(180 x 120)

Part Shade, Full Shade
Moist or Wet

Pinnately compound, Mid-Green


Moist wood-lands. Good for cutting. Native garden, a specimen, or groups along stream or water gardens. Mass down a slope.

This plant demands space. Mix with gunneras and Campanula latifolia, which are also self-sowing. Border background plant.


"Dwarf Campanulas" by Graham Nicholls - from The Alpine Garden Society Bookshop.

Corydalis - "Bleeding Hearts, Corydalis, and their Relatives" by Mark C Tebbitt, Magnus Liden & Henrick Zetterlund - from the Alpine Garden Society Bookshop.

See Rock Garden Plant Index C for details on more campanulas, corydalis and cyclamen and
"The Cyclamen Society exists to encourage cultivation and conservation, and to disseminate and extend knowledge of the genus Cyclamen and its species, forms and cultivars. It combines scientific study with all the activities of a society for enthusiasts who cultivate the plants."
See Gardenia with their pages on plant combinations of Cyclamen with other plants.
Cyclamen species for the garden article
have flowers that almost span the year depending on the specie.

See Gardenia with their pages on plant combinations of Campanulas (Bellflowers) with other plants.

(Clustered bellflower from the Bellflower Wildflower Family.)



June, July, August


Fragrant 5 Petalled, Bell-shape blooms on a Column

30 x 36
(75 x 90)

Full Sun, Part Shade

Light Green

Houseplant, Woodland, Patio Pot. Grow in meadow on chalk soil.

Native UK plant.

This plant must be planted separate from other plants.

(Peach-leaved bellflower, Harebell)

White to


June, July


5 petalled,
Bell-shape blooms

36 x 12
(90 x 30)

Alkaline Clay, Chalk.
Full Sun, Part Shade.
Appreciates afternoon shade in hot summer climates.

Narrow, toothed, leathery, Bright Green


Open light woodland. Pollinated by bees and self.
Naturalizes in Mountain meadows and woodland. Cottage Garden.
Cut flower.

Use as mound in middle of border. Mix with other plants in large pots.
Colonise with once-flowering roses, its blue colouring in ideal contrast to their pinks and crimsons.

Centaurea montana
(Perennial Cornflower, Mountain bluet, Perennial Bachelor's Button, Great Blue-bottle)



June, July

centaurea montana form

Erect, Clump

18 x 24
(45 x 60)

Full Sun
Moist soil, but well-drained as in a large Rock Garden. See plant combinations

Mid-Green, woolly beneath and densely woolly stems

centaurea montana foliage

Best massed in border fronts, cottage gardens or naturalized areas. Nectar attracts butterflies. Cut flower. Coastal conditions.

Native UK plant - from Kevock Garden. It prepares to flower while deciduous plants are bare. Grows in meadows and open woodland.

(Plumbago, Blue Leadwort)

Brilliant Blue


August, September,

Upright, Mat
5 petalled, star shape in Cluster

18 x 8
(45 x 21)

Chalk, Sand, Clay
Full Sun

Bright Green in Spring and Summer. Rich Red in Autumn.

Ground cover, Edging, Rock Garden. Compact, bushy habit in patio pots and border. Attracts butterflies.

Interplant with spring bulbs. Under-planting for shrubs. Deer, rabbit resistant. Establish in dry walling.

Corydalis lutea
(Golden Corydalis, yellow fumitory, yellow corydalis, Native UK plant)

Golden Yellow


May, June, July, August, September


4 petals in tube-shape in sprays

16 x 12
(39 x 30)

Well-drained Chalk, Sand, Gravel
Full Sun, Part Shade, Full Shade
Moist - Wet soils in winter can be fatal

Finely cut, delicate-looking light-green to blue-green foliage


Shaded Rock Gardens, Edging. Cottage Garden. Naturalizes. Gravel gardens and in cracks within stone walls and dry walling, woodland

Commonly cultivated and naturalized on old walls near gardens scattered throughout the UK. It is toxic to horses.
It combines with Pulmonaria, Tiarella, Hosta, Ligularia, Paeonia.

(Sowbread, Turkish hardy cyclamen, Cicilian cylamen)



August, September,
October, November


Fragrant honey scent, 5 petalled

2 x 3
(6 x 8)

Chalk, Peaty, Scree, Sand.
Considering they grow in rocky/gravelly soil, good drainage will make all the difference and they do prefer a dryer spot in general.
Part Shade under trees or shrubs.

Mid-Green above, Purplish beneath

The plant grows in a mound, 10 cm (3.9 in) tall and broad. The leaves are heart-shaped or oval and green, often patterned with silver

Cyclamen cilicium is hardy down to −5 °C (23 °F), so is best grown in a warm or coastal location. Pot plant in a cold greenhouse. Deciduous woodland.Shade in Rock Garden. Underplant roses. Mix with anemone, ranunculus, chionodoxa, crocus, scilla, galanthus, eranthis, primula, small ferns and hostas.

If not planted - corm should be just breaking surface and 2-3 inches apart - under trees, which provide fallen leaves in the autumn, then mulch with a little sifted leaf mould or peat moss in November. A little bonemeal added to the soil and used as a top dressing each spring will keep them happy.

(Eastern Sowbread)




March, April
March, April


5 Petals

2 x 4
(6 x 9)

Chalk, Peat, Sand
Part Shade under trees and shrubs

Deep Green with Silver pattern

These are fully hardy and are best planted under trees in well drained soil. Native to mountains and coastal areas. Among rocks and roots in unfertilized woodlands. Grow in pots.

Varying in colour from white through to red, cyclamen coum flower March-April, at the same time that the leaves are produced as a winter groundcover.

Cyclamen coum


March, April


5 Petals

2 x 4
(6 x 9)

Chalk, Peat, Sand
Part Shade under trees and shrubs

The green leaves may marked with silver. They are round in shape. It flowers best in poor soils, so do not dig in compost or to add fertiliser as this will provide leaves but few flowers.

These are fully hardy and are best planted under trees in good fertile, well drained soil. Native to mountains and coastal areas. Among rocks and roots in unfertilized woodlands. Grow in pots.

Each white cyclamen coum bloom has a dark red mouth and flowers from late winter through to early spring, at the same time that the leaves are produced as winter groundcover.

Cyclamen hederifolium
(Persian Violet, Syn. Cyclamen neapolitanum)

Pink flowers are produced before the leaves

November, December


5 Petals

5 x 6
(12 x 15)
Chalk, Peat, Sand
Part Shade under trees or shrubs

Ivy-shaped, mottled leaves are variably colored, but usually gray-green with silver and white marbling.

Deciduous and coniferous Woodland. Shaded part of Rock Garden. Coastal conditions as well. Almost evergreen ground cover.
Houseplant and Pot plant. Mass in front of shrubs / trees.

Self-seeds freely. Rare native UK plant from the Primrose Family. Same cultivation techniques as for cyclamen cilicium. Very long lived.


See Rock Garden Plant Index F Page for further details of Fritillaria. The bulbs of all fritillaria are very fragile and must be handled with care.

The Fritillaria Group is a special interest group within the Alpine Garden Society.
See Gardenia with their pages on plant combinations of Fritillaria with other plants.

Fritillaria imperiallis
(Imperial fritillary, Crown Imperial, Crown Imperial fritillary)

Yellow or




6 petall,
Bell-shape flowers in a whorl

60 x 12
(150 x 30)
Plants succeed in most fertile, well-drained, humus-rich soils, avoiding pure chalk, heavy clay and boggy sites. Sand, or raised scree.
Light woodland shade.

Lance-shaped, glossy, Light Green


Use in sunny border or rock garden. Deer, squiirels and rodent resistant. Plant a low ground cover over bulbs to shade these bulbs from the sun. Grow in Pot, Coastal Conditions, Mass and speciman.

The bulbs have an unpleasant foxy odour. Prone to attack by lily beetles. Companion plants are Berberis thunbergii 'Atropurpurea' and the Lily family - see Companion Planting. Use in greenhouse. Cottage garden, Alpine House

Fritillaria imperiallis 'Lutea'

Bright Yellow.




6 petal,
Bell-shape flowers in a whorl

60 x 12
(150 x 30)
Plants succeed in most fertile, well-drained, humus-rich soils, avoiding pure chalk, heavy clay and boggy sites. Sand, or raised scree.
Light woodland shade.

Light Green


Use in sunny border or rock garden. Deer, squiirels and rodent resistant. Plant a low ground cover over bulbs to shade these bulbs from the sun. Grow in Pot, Coastal Conditions, Mass and speciman.

The bulbs have an unpleasant foxy odour. Prone to attack by lily beetles. Companion plants are Berberis thunbergii 'Atropurpurea' and the Lily family - see Companion Planting. Use in greenhouse. Cottage garden, Alpine House

Fritillaria imperiallis
'Rubra Maxima'




6 petal,
Bell-shape flowers in a whorl

48 x 12
(120 x 30)

Light Green


Use in sunny border or rock garden.Deer, squiirels and rodent resistant. Plant a low ground cover over bulbs to shade these bulbs from the sun. Grow in Pot, Coastal Conditions, Mass and speciman.

The bulbs have an unpleasant foxy odour. Prone to attack by lily beetles. Companion plants are Berberis thunbergii 'Atropurpurea' and the Lily family. Use in greenhouse. Cottage garden, Alpine House

G contains information on all aspects of snowdrops, their care and their cultivation; based on their experience.
See Gardenia with their pages on plant combinations of Galanthus (Snowdrops) with other plants.

There are another 207 Gladiolii detailed in the Gladiolus Photo Gallery.
See Gardenia with their pages on plant combinations of Gladiolus (Sword Lilies) with other plants.

Galanthus elwesii (Snowdrop)




Honey scented, 6 tepal, bell-shaped flowers in 2 whorls


8 x 12
(21 x 30)

Chalk, Part Shade

2-3 narrow (to 1.25 inch wide), linear, basal glaucous green leaves (to 4 inch long at flowering)


Best massed in sweeping drifts in areas where they can naturalize, such as open woodland areas, woodland margins or in lawns under large deciduous trees. Rock Garden and Edging. Houseplant.

A giant-flowered snowdrop with honey-scented blooms, which have two delicate green marks on the petals. The leaves are grey-green in colour.

Gladiolus communis
subsp. byzantinus

(Byzantine gladiolus. Known as Jacks or Whistling Jacks in Isles of Scilly, Cornwall and Devon)

Deep Magenta


June, July

6 petal, trumpet shaped blooms in a spike

36 x 12
(90 x 30)

Well-drained Sand, Chalk
Full Sun
Dry - but do not allow soils to dry out during the growing season

Narrow sword-shaped basal mid green leaves in a fan of 3-5.


Use in middle of suuny bed, hedgerows, cottage garden. Good with Centaurea cyanus and Papaver rhoes 'Shirley'. Grow with border phloxes to cover its position later. Houseplant. Plants will naturalize in the garden over time by cormlets and self-seeding.

It is fully hardy but does not like wet winters. Mulch in winter with hay/straw or evergreen boughs. Weed in Australia. When foliage of any gladioli goes yellow, remove corm from pot or ground to dry before planting later in the year

Gladiolus papilio
(Butterfly sword lily)

Red, Yellow, Pink


July, August

4 Ruffled petals of hooded funnel flowers in a spike


24-36 x 6 (60-90 x 15)

Sand, Chalk
Full Sun

Narrow, Grey-Green

Use in Cottage/Informal Garden style beds and borders. Useful Cut Flower. Can be used in Poor Soil. Speciman.
Houseplant -
Gladioli can be forced.

Where the plants are to tower above a groundwork of other material such as Antirrhinums, 12 inches (30 cm) each way is the most satisfactory distance with yellow Antirrhinums and blue Gladioli, scarlet Antirrhinums and white Gladioli, and vice versa.


Helleborus are often very tolerant of dry shade conditions and associate beautifully with snowdrops, Erythronium, Primula, Pulmonaria and Tiarella. Which hellebore should you grow where?
See Gardenia with their pages on plant combinations of Helleborus (Hellebores) with other plants.

The sap of the English Bluebell (Hyacinthoides non-scripta) was used to glue feathers onto arrows in the Middle Ages and to stiffen ruffs in Tudor times.

(Alpine French Honeysuckle, Alpine Sainfoin)



August, September



24 x 36
(60 x 90)

Alkaline Sand
Full Sun



Attractive to Bees and suitable for a Rock Garden.

Native habitat of Alpine French Honeysuckle is gravel river bars, roadsides, rocky hills and meadows, 1200-2500 metres in the Alps.

(Stinking Hellebore is in the Buttercup Wildflower Family, Bear's Foot, Dungwort, Stinkwort.



February, March,
April, May


Terminal clusters of bell-shaped flowers

30 x 18
(75 x 45)

Chalk or well-drained Clay
Full Sun, but prefers Shade

Mulch annually in autumn. Prevent soil from being dry or water-logged.

Dark Grey, palmate, deeply cut leaves


Grow in groups in mixed or shrub border, or naturalized in woodland garden. Contrasts well with Hostas and Ferns.

A native UK plant in woods, and scrub on chalk and limestone. Plant at foot of deciduous shrubs, where it will show up strongly once the shrub's leaves have been shed.

(Christmas Rose, Black Hellebore)



February, March,
April, May


5 Sepals, cup-shaped flower

12 x 18
(30 x 45)

Well-drained Clay, Scree.
Prefers Part Shade instead of Full Shade.

Dark Green

In woods mix with Anemone nemerosa, Anemone trifolia, Cyclamen purpurascens.

Grow in groups in mixed or shrub border, or naturalized in woodland garden. Deer resistant. Place patio pot near kitchen to enjoy the winter bloom.

Mulch the Christmas Rose annually in autumn. Prevent soil from being dry or waterlogged. Always wear gloves when handling hellebores due to its poison. Cottage garden.


(Lenten Rose, Lenten Hellebore, Oriental Hellebore)

White or
Greenish Cream


February, March,
April, May


5 Sepals, Cup-shaped flower

18 x 18
(45 x 45)

Well-drained Clay
Part Shade

Dark Green


Grow Lenten Rose in groups in mixed or shrub border, or naturalized in deciduous woodland garden. Repels deer.

Mulch the Lenten Rose annually in autumn. Prevent soil from being dry or water-logged. Always wear gloves when handling hellebores due to its poison.

Helleborus orientalis
(Lenten Rose)

Pale Green tinted


February, March,
April, May

5 Sepals, cup-shaped flowers - Locate plants near a kitchen window, patio or walkway so that the early bloom may be enjoyed to the fullest.

18 x 18
(45 x 45)
Clay. Shallow rocky soil. Very tolerant of most soils. They prefer a sheltered position in semi shade with a rich, moist free draining soil.

Dark Green. New leaves develop in April with a second generation in the autumn.
Remove old leaves in late December.


Grow in groups in mixed or shrub border, or naturalized in woodland garden. May also be massed to form an attractive ground cover.

Mulch the Lenten Rose annually in autumn. Prevent soil from being dry or water-logged. Always wear gloves when handling hellebores due to its poison.

Hyacinthoides hispanica
(Scilla hispanica, Scilla campanulata, Endymion hispanicus, Spanish Bluebell, Wood Hyacinth)



April, May


6 petal, bell-shaped, not fragrant flowers in Spike

17 x 5
(42 x 12)

Chalk, Prefers Sand.
Part Shade

Resistant to deer and rodents

2-6 Glossy Dark Green strap-shaped


Cut flower, bedding.

Grow in groups as underplanting in shrub border, or naturalized in grass or woodland garden. Edging and Rock Garden.

May be grown in pots/containers, alone or in combination with other spring flowering bulbs.
The Spanish Bluebell self-seeds.

(formerly Endymion non-scriptus or Scilla non-scripta,
English Bluebell, Common Bluebell, Bluebell)

The English Bluebell is Native UK plant in the Lily Family.

Mid-Blue or


April, May
April, May


Scented, recurved tepal, tubular flowers in one-sided spike

12 x 3
(30 x 8)

Part Shade

Good in woodland in association with Red Campion and Greater Stitchwort.

Glossy Dark Green

Plant them in pots and once they have flowered , replace the pots into the greenhouse until the following year, because of their dying foliage.

Grow in groups as under-planting in shrub border, or naturalized in grass or woodland garden.

Its natural Habitat is Woodland, hedgerows, shady banks, under bracken on coastal cliffs and uplands. Pollinated by bumblebees. They flower at the same time as hyacinths, Narcissus and some tulips.


The British Iris Society was founded in 1922 by iris enthusiasts whose interests were primarily to establish a forum for the exchange of views and knowledge of the genus.


Scented White


July, August,
September, October

The butterfly-shaped flowers appear at the tops of the branches most months of the year.  The spur-shaped blossoms are white with red streaks, and have a curved, red spur in back that's almost 5 inches long!  The blooms have a sweet aroma and are especially fragrant in the morning.

96 x 36
(240 x 90)

John Innes No. 2 for pots.
Full Sun - It prefers filtered sunlight, or bright shade with some morning sun.
Moderate to high humidity - over 40% is recommended.

Large, ovate-lanceolate, Green

Can be grown as houseplant in the UK, since it is frost tender.

The plant can be brought indoors over the winter, where it may stay evergreen and continue flowering.  It will need a very large pot - at least 15 gallons.  If the pot is too small, the tubers may break it!  It can be grown outdoors in the ground in the Isle of Wight and the Channel Islands if mulched heavily and given overhead protection. 

Impatiens tinctoria comes from higher elevations in central Africa, where the climate is relatively cool.  Ideally it prefers temperatures between about 50 and 80 degrees Centigrade.  It can tolerate temperatures in the 80s and even above, but it might decline in consistently hot temperatures, especially if nights are warm. Like most Impatiens, it enjoys moist, well draining soil and regular feeding. 

(Stinking Iris, Coral Fruit Iris, Gladwin Iris)

Roast-Beef Plant is a Native UK plant from the Iris Family.

Purple tinged
with Yellow



June, July

Stemless. Clump.

Good for seaside gardens and can be naturalized in hedge bottoms or wooded corners.

24 x 6
(60 x 15)


seed capsules.
Acidic Sand with leaf-mould.
Full Sun, Part Shade.

Dark Green, sword-shaped leaves, up to 30 inches (75 cm) long


Use a compost of equal parts light loam (sandy loam), leaf mould, and silver sand for pots inhouse.

Stinking gladwin is a species of iris found in open woodland, hedgebanks and sea-cliffs. The burst seedpods make good cuttings for bouquets. Grow in pots. Deer, Rabbit resistant. Pollinated by bumblebees.

Partially expose the rhizome when planting in groups of three; 6-12 inches apart. Mulch the Stinking Iris with organic matter in the Spring. After 4 years, divide and replant in fresh soil. Self-seeds.

Iris laevigata
(Japanese Water Iris, Rabbit-ear Iris, Kakitsubata, Kombirei )

The Species Iris Group of North America (SIGNA) has further details on this plant.



May, June

6 petals in an umbel

30 x 6
(75 x 15)

Acidic Sand with composted organic material.
Full Sun
Wet - It is found growing in shallow waters and seems to prefer marshy and still ponds although it can also be grown in damp soil if conditions are right.

Mid Green, sword-shaped leaves


Double-pot your plants for insulation from the sun’s radiant heat, also for decorative purposes and let them flower in a cold greenhouse

The Japanese Water Iris much prefers to be grown in water. Can be used in small water features as well as a marginal in ponds.

Recom-mended water depth over crown of plant:
0 - 10cm (0 - 4 inches)

Broad sword-shaped leaves with tall mid-blue iris flowers which have a narrow cream splash on the falls. For cultivation indoors of bulbous Irises, a compost of equal parts light loam (sandy loam), leaf mould, and silver sand

Iris pseudacorus
(Yellow Flag, Pale yellow iris, water flag)

Yellow Flag is a Native UK plant from the Iris Family.


3 large downward-spreading sepals and 3 smaller erect petals

August, September


3 petals in star-shaped flower.

36-48 x 12 (90-120 x 30)

Acidic Sand.
Full Sun
Wet - Grows in water to 25 cm deep, or very near water, such as lakeside muds.

Grey-Green, sword-like


Mulch with organic matter in the Spring.

Yellow Flag can be invasive when planted as a marginal in a pond. Clumped distribution in grasslands, more linear growth in woodlands. Indoor plant within water.

Partially expose the rhizome when planting in groups of three 6-12 inches apart. After 4 years, divide and replant in fresh soil. It is a weed in New Zealand and prohibited in USA. It is used as an erosion control plant


Mitella breweri
(Bishop's Cap, Mitrewort)



May, June, July


5 petals in saucer-shaped flowers on a

6 x 8
(15 x 21)

Leafy Acidic Sand.
Part Shade

Mid Green, shiny, hairy


Use for groundcover in a woodland garden. Grows in moist meadows, moist woods, along streams and mountain forests. Suitable for containers.

Self-seeds freely. Very pretty tiny pale green flowers on many short flower spikes. It creeps to form dense carpets under trees and shrubs.

(Erythranthe primuloides, Monkey Flower, Musk)
UK native plant Primrose Monkeyflower from the Figwort Family

Yellow with Red-spotted


July, August


Moss-like Mat.
5 Sepal, tubular-shaped flower on a stem

4 x 8
(9 x 21)

Clay, Peaty.
Full Sun, Part Shade.
Very Moist - Native USA Plant in Western Mountains, Valleys, and Coast.

Light to Mid Green, lance-shaped leaves in a basal rosette.


Plant in damp section of rock garden. A ground cover for small, moist situations, creek side situations.

It grows in wet habitat in mountains and plateau areas, such as stream banks.
The plant forms like bulblets which go dormant in winter so it should emerge again in Spring.


(Cappadocian Navelwort, Blue-eyed Mary)

azure Blue




5 petal, star-shaped flower on a spray

10 x 16
(24 x 39)

Chalk, Peaty.
Part Shade

The foliage is a very bright green and heart shaped, forming 40cm patches of tight rosettes all year round.


Use Navelwort as groundcover in a moist, shady, border, rock garden or woodland garden to create a slowly creeping carpet of shiny leaves

Prefers areas with moist soil and dappled shade in the afternoon but can tolerate occasional periods of drought.
Native to woodland habitats in Turkey.

(Lilyturf, Mondo Grass)

Pale Purplish-White


July, August


Clump, Spreading.
5 petal, bell-shaped flowers on a spike

8 x 12
(21 x 30)

Acid Sand with Peaty.
Full Sun, Part Shade

The Japanese have been selecting new color forms, some may be grown by Plant Delights Nursery.

Tufts of grass-like, Dark Green leaves


Can be used as a turf subst-itute (no mowing though)

Grow as grassy groundcover, for border edging, in a rock garden, in pots, edging or peat bed. It is native to Japan, where it grows on open and forested slopes.

Top-dress annually with leaf mould in the autumn.
The plants spread by underground stolons with thick fleshy roots making fair sized colonies which can be separated by division in the spring.

(Lilyturf, Mondo Grass)

Pale Purplish-White


July, August


Clump, stemless,
5 petal, bell-shaped flowers on a Short spike

8 x 12
(21 x 30)


seed capsules

Acid Sand with Peaty.
Full Sun, but prefers Part Shade.

Almost Black foliage


Can be used as a turf subst-itute (no mowing though)

Grow as grassy groundcover in raised beds, for border edging, in a rock garden or peat bed. Also alongside streams and pond margins. This may also be grown in containers and wintered indoors in a sunny window.

For growth as a ground cover, plants are best spaced 4” apart.
Top-dress annually with leaf mould in the autumn. Contrast this with yellow or grey-foliaged plants, such as Golden Creeping Jenny (Lysimachia nummularia ‘Aurea') or Creeping Lamium (Lamium maculatum).


Scilla siberica is 1 of the 4 scilla detailed in the Rock Garden Plant Index S Page, which can be used as an alpine in a rock garden.

Scilla siberica
(Siberian Squill, Wood Squill)

Bright Blue


April, May

Stemless, Erect.

6 Petal, star or bell-shaped flowers in a spike

6 x 6
(15 x 15)

Deep, fertile, well-drained Chalk or Sand.
Full Sun, Part Shade

Thin, sword-like, Mid Green leaves


Grow very well in the garden, thriving under trees or the open border.
Grow under edge of deciduous woodland and shrubs, naturalizes in grass or scattered in rock garden. Grow in pans in Alpine House

Plant 3-4 inches deep and 6-8 inches apart in grass, and it will spread by seed to form large colonies that go dormant by the time grass needs to be mowed. Keep dry during summer dormancy. To extend the spring floral show, mix scilla with other early spring bulbs that spread, such as  snowdrops and glory-of-the-snow, which bloom a little earlier. Or try planting them under the forsythia.

(Portuguese Squill, Giant Scilla)

Purplish-Blue or


Poisonous if ingested.




Up to 100 of
6 tepal,
star-shaped flowers within a 6 inch (15 cm) sphere

12 x 12
(30 x 30)

Deep fertile Chalk, but prefers Sand.
Full Sun, Part Shade.

24 inch
(60 cm) long green strap-shaped leaves develops in the autumn as old leaves fade.


Plant with neck at soil level and 6-8 inches apart.

Grow under deciduous trees and shrubs, or in grass.
Suitable for growing in sheltered gardens only, otherwise grow it in pots.

Completely unlike any of the other Scillas. Plant with neck at soil level and 6-8 inches apart. It mixes brightly with pinks and whites, and contrast crisply with yellows and golds - from Scilla Planting Guide

(Symphytum grandiflorum of gardens, Comfrey, Dwarf Comfrey, Georgian Comfrey, Iberium Comfrey)

Pale Yellow


May, June

Upright Mounds.
Tubular flowers in a terminal spray

16 x 24
(39 x 60)

Fertile Chalk, Fertile Clay, or Sand with Peaty.
Full Sun, Part Shade

Hairy Mid Green


Excellent ground-cover plant for a shady border or woodland garden, but they can be rampant. Attracts bees and butterflies. Suitable for coastal conditions.

Erect Form becomes Decumbent (Growing close to the ground but usually with upward-growing tips). Makes impenetrable weed-cover in shade - particularly beneath trees and shrubs where it is difficult to establish other plants.


Tricyrtis hirta
(Tricyrtis japonica, Toad Lily, Japanese Toad Lily)



August, September,

6 tepal, star-shaped flowers in a bunch

30 x 24
(75 x 60)

Deep fertile humus in Chalk or prefers acidic Sand.
Part Shade, Full Shade.

Pale Green


Use Toad Lily in woodland garden, a shady border, naturalized or a peat bank. Useful cut flower, and in pots which never dry out.

Plant in areas where they can be easily observed at close range, because the beauty and detail of the small flowers becomes lost at a distance.
Plant it with Astilbes for a nice textural contrast, or with Cimifuga ‘Black Negligee’ to bring out the purple of the flowers.

Ivydene Horticultural Services logo with I design, construct and maintain private gardens. I also advise and teach you in your own garden. 01634 389677


Site design and content copyright ©January 2007.
Page structure amended November 2012.
Feet changed to inches (cms) July 2015.
Index structure changed and links from thumbnail to another bulb page changed from adding that bulb description page to changing page to that bulb description page November 2015.
Colour Wheel per Month and Index to other Bulbs in other Bulb Galleries added May 2017.
Bulb Description Pages updated April 2018.

Chris Garnons-Williams.

DISCLAIMER: Links to external sites are provided as a courtesy to visitors. Ivydene Horticultural Services are not responsible for the content and/or quality of external web sites linked from this site.  








There are other pages on Plants which bloom in each month of the year in this website:-




Explanation of Structure of this Website with User Guidelines Page for those photo galleries with Photos
(of either ones I have taken myself or others which have been loaned only for use on this website from external sources)


Choose 1 of these different Plant selection Methods:-

1. Choose a plant from 1 of 53 flower colours in the Colour Wheel Gallery.

2. Choose a plant from 1 of 12 flower colours in each month of the year from 12 Bloom Colours per Month Index Gallery.

3. Choose a plant from 1 of 6 flower colours per month for each type of plant:-
Deciduous Shrub
Deciduous Tree
Evergreen Perennial
Evergreen Shrub
Evergreen Tree
Herbaceous Perennial
Odds and Sods
Soft Fruit
Top Fruit
Wild Flower

4. Choose a plant from its Flower Shape:-
Shape, Form

Flower Shape

5. Choose a plant from its foliage:-

6. There are 6 Plant Selection Levels including Bee Pollinated Plants for Hay Fever Sufferers in
Plants Topic.


7. When I do not have my own or ones from mail-order nursery photos , then from March 2016, if you want to start from the uppermost design levels through to your choice of cultivated and wildflower plants to change your Plant Selection Process then use the following galleries:-

  • Create and input all plants known by Amateur Gardening inserted into their Sanders' Encyclopaedia from their edition published in 1960 (originally published by them in 1895) into these
    • Stage 1 - Garden Style Index Gallery,
    • Stage 2 - Infill Plants Index Gallery being the only gallery from these 7 with photos (from Wikimedia Commons) ,
    • Stage 3 - All Plants Index Gallery with each plant species in its own Plant Type Page followed by choice from Stage 4a, 4b, 4c and/or 4d REMEMBERING THE CONSTRAINTS ON THE SELECTION FROM THE CHOICES MADE IN STAGES 1 AND 2
    • Stage 4a - 12 Bloom Colours per Month Index Gallery,
    • Stage 4b - 12 Foliage Colours per Month Index Gallery with
    • Stage 4c - Cultivation, Position, Use Index Gallery and
    • Stage 4d - Shape, Form Index Gallery
    • Unfortunately, if you want to have 100's of choices on selection of plants from 1000's of 1200 pixels wide by up to 16,300 pixels in length webpages, which you can jump to from almost any of the pages in these 7 galleries above, you have to put up with those links to those choices being on
      • the left topic menu table,
      • the header of the middle data table and on
      • the page/index menu table on the right of every page of those galleries.


I like reading and that is shown by the index in my Library, where I provide lists of books to take you between designing, maintaining or building a garden and the hierarchy of books on plants taking you from

Functional combinations in the border from the International Flower Bulb Centre in Holland:-

"Here is a list of the perennials shown by research to be the best plants to accompany various flower bulbs. The flower bulbs were tested over a period of years in several perennial borders that had been established for at least three years.

In combination with hyacinths:

In combination with tulips:

In combination with narcissi:

For narcissi, the choice was difficult to make. The list contains only some of the perennials that are very suitable for combining with narcissi. In other words, narcissi can easily compete with perennials.

In combination with specialty bulbs:


Before reaching for the pesticides, here are a few alternative natural, non-toxic methods of slug control:  

• Watering Schedule - Far and away the best course of action against slugs in your garden is a simple adjustment in the watering schedule. Slugs are most active at night and are most efficient in damp conditions. Avoid watering your garden in the evening if you have a slug problem. Water in the morning - the surface soil will be dry by evening. Studies show this can reduce slug damage by 80%.


• Seaweed - If you have access to seaweed, it's well worth the effort to gather. Seaweed is not only a good soil amendment for the garden, it's a natural repellent for slugs. Mulch with seaweed around the base of plants or perimeter of bed. Pile it on 3" to 4" thick - when it dries it will shrink to just an inch or so deep. Seaweed is salty and slugs avoid salt. Push the seaweed away from plant stems so it's not in direct contact. During hot weather, seaweed will dry and become very rough which also deters the slugs.


• Copper - Small strips of copper can be placed around flower pots or raised beds as obstructions for slugs to crawl over. Cut 2" strips of thin copper and wrap around the lower part of flower pots, like a ribbon. Or set the strips in the soil on edge, making a "fence" for the slugs to climb. Check to make sure no vegetation hangs over the copper which might provide a 'bridge' for the slugs. Copper barriers also work well around wood barrels used as planters.
A non-toxic copper-based metallic mesh Slug Shield is available which can be wrapped around the stem of plants and acts as a barrier to slugs. When slugs come in contact with the mesh they receive an electric-like shock. The mesh also serves as a physical barrier. These slug shields are reusable, long-lasting and weather-proof.


• Diatomaceous Earth - Diatomaceous earth (Also known as "Insect Dust") is the sharp, jagged skeletal remains of microscopic creatures. It lacerates soft-bodied pests, causing them to dehydrate. A powdery granular material, it can be sprinkled around garden beds or individual plants, and can be mixed with water to make a foliar spray.
Diatomaceous earth is less effective when wet, so use during dry weather. Wear protective gear when applying, as it can irritate eyes and lungs. Be sure to buy natural or agricultural grade diatomaceous earth, not pool grade which has smoother edges and is far less effective. Click for more information or to purchase Food Grade Diatomaceous Earth.


• Electronic "slug fence" - An electronic slug fence is a non-toxic, safe method for keeping slugs out of garden or flower beds. The Slugs Away fence is a 24-foot long, 5" ribbon-like barrier that runs off a 9 volt battery. When a slug or snail comes in contact with the fence, it receives a mild static sensation that is undetectable to animals and humans. This does not kill the slug, it cause it to look elsewhere for forage. The battery will power the fence for about 8 months before needing to be replaced. Extension kits are availabe for increased coverage. The electronic fence will repel slugs and snails, but is harmless to people and pets.


• Lava Rock - Like diatomaceous earth, the abrasive surface of lava rock will be avoided by slugs. Lava rock can be used as a barrier around plantings, but should be left mostly above soil level, otherwise dirt or vegetation soon forms a bridge for slugs to cross.

• Salt - If all else fails, go out at night with the salt shaker and a flashlight. Look at the plants which have been getting the most damage and inspect the leaves, including the undersides. Sprinkle a bit of salt on the slug and it will kill it quickly. Not particularly pleasant, but use as a last resort. (Note: some sources caution the use of salt, as it adds a toxic element to the soil. This has not been our experience, especially as very little salt is used.)

• Beer - Slugs are attracted to beer. Set a small amount of beer in a shallow wide jar buried in the soil up to its neck. Slugs will crawl in and drown. Take the jar lid and prop it up with a small stick so rain won't dilute the beer. Leave space for slugs to enter the trap.

• Overturned Flowerpots, Grapefruit Halves, Board on Ground - Overturned flowerpots, with a stone placed under the rim to tilt it up a bit, will attract slugs. Leave overnight, and you'll find the slugs inside in the morning. Grapefruit halves work the same way, with the added advantage of the scent of the fruit as bait.
Another trap method, perhaps the simplest of all, is to set a wide board on the ground by the affected area. Slugs will hide under the board by day. Simply flip the board over during the day to reveal the culprits. Black plastic sheeting also works the same way.


• Garlic-based slug repellents
Laboratory tests at the University of Newcastle-Upon-Tyne (UK) revealed that a highly refined garlic product (ECOguard produced by ECOspray Ltd, a British company that makes organic pesticides) was an effective slug killer. Look for garlic-based slug deterrents which will be emerging under various brand names, as well as ECOguard.

• Coffee grounds; new caffeine-based slug/snail poisons - Coffee grounds scattered on top of the soil will deter slugs. The horticultural side effects of using strong grounds such as espresso on the garden, however, are less certain. When using coffee grounds, moderation is advised.
A study in June 2002 reported in the journal Nature found that slugs and snails are killed when sprayed with a caffeine solution, and that spraying plants with this solution prevents slugs from eating them. The percentage of caffeine required in a spray (1 - 2%) is greater than what is found in a cup of coffee (.05 - 07%), so homemade sprays are not as effective. Look for new commercial sprays which are caffeine-based.


If you want to read some light relief material about plants visit Plants are the Strangest People.

White Flower Farm's list of Deer-and-Rodent-Resistant Bulbs.


The following details come from Cactus Art:-

"A flower is the the complex sexual reproductive structure of Angiosperms, typically consisting of an axis bearing perianth parts, androecium (male) and gynoecium (female).    

Bisexual flower show four distinctive parts arranged in rings inside each other which are technically modified leaves: Sepal, petal, stamen & pistil. This flower is referred to as complete (with all four parts) and perfect (with "male" stamens and "female" pistil). The ovary ripens into a fruit and the ovules inside develop into seeds.

Incomplete flowers are lacking one or more of the four main parts. Imperfect (unisexual) flowers contain a pistil or stamens, but not both. The colourful parts of a flower and its scent attract pollinators and guide them to the nectary, usually at the base of the flower tube.



Androecium (male Parts or stamens)
It is made up of the filament and anther, it is the pollen producing part of the plant.
Anther This is the part of the stamen that produces and contains pollen. 
Filament This is the fine hair-like stalk that the anther sits on top of.
Pollen This is the dust-like male reproductive cell of flowering plants.

Gynoecium (female Parts or carpels or pistil)
 It is made up of the stigma, style, and ovary. Each pistil is constructed of one to many rolled leaflike structures.
This is the part of the pistil  which receives the pollen grains and on which they germinate. 
This is the long stalk that the stigma sits on top of ovary. 
The part of the plant that contains the ovules. 
The part of the ovary that becomes the seeds. 

The colorful, often bright part of the flower (corolla). 
The parts that look like little green leaves that cover the outside of a flower bud (calix). 
(Undifferentiated "Perianth segment" that are not clearly differentiated into sepals and petals, take the names of tepals.)"




The following details come from Nectary Genomics:-

"NECTAR. Many flowering plants attract potential pollinators by offering a reward of floral nectar. The primary solutes found in most nectars are varying ratios of sucrose, glucose and fructose, which can range from as little a 8% (w/w) in some species to as high as 80% in others. This abundance of simple sugars has resulted in the general perception that nectar consists of little more than sugar-water; however, numerous studies indicate that it is actually a complex mixture of components. Additional compounds found in a variety of nectars include other sugars, all 20 standard amino acids, phenolics, alkaloids, flavonoids, terpenes, vitamins, organic acids, oils, free fatty acids, metal ions and proteins.

NECTARIES. An organ known as the floral nectary is responsible for producing the complex mixture of compounds found in nectar. Nectaries can occur in different areas of flowers, and often take on diverse forms in different species, even to the point of being used for taxonomic purposes. Nectaries undergo remarkable morphological and metabolic changes during the course of floral development. For example, it is known that pre-secretory nectaries in a number of species accumulate large amounts of starch, which is followed by a rapid degradation of amyloplast granules just prior to anthesis and nectar secretion. These sugars presumably serve as a source of nectar carbohydrate.

WHY STUDY NECTAR? Nearly one-third of all worldwide crops are dependent on animals to achieve efficient pollination. In addition, U.S. pollinator-dependent crops have been estimated to have an annual value of up to $15 billion. Many crop species are largely self-incompatible (not self-fertile) and almost entirely on animal pollinators to achieve full fecundity; poor pollinator visitation has been reported to reduce yields of certain species by up to 50%."









Number of Flower Petals







Above 5








Flower Shape - Simple

Stars with Single Flowers


Cups and Saucers


Goblets and Chalices











Flower Shape - Simple
















Flower Shape - Elabor-ated

Tubes, Lips and Straps

Slippers, Spurs and Lockets

Hats, Hoods and Helmets

Stan-dards, Wings and Keels

Discs and Florets


Tufts and Petal-less Cluster









Flower Shape - Elabor-ated



Buttons with Double Flowers


Stars with Semi-Double Flowers











Natural Arrange-ments

Bunches, Posies and Sprays (Group)

Columns, Spikes and Spires

Whorls, Tiers and Cande-labra

Plumes and Tails

Chains and Tassels

Clouds, Garlands and Cascades

Sphere, Dome (Clusters), Drumstick and Plate










Bulbs in Cultivation
including vital bulb soil preparation from

Bulbs for Small Garden by E.C.M. Haes. Published by Pan Books in 1967:-

Bulbs in the Small Garden with Garden Plan and its different bulb sections

A choice of Outdoor Bulbs

False Bulbs

Bulbs Indoors

Bulb Calendar

Planting Times and Depth


Bulb Form


Prostrate or Trailing

Cushion or Mound-forming

Spreading or Creeping


Stemless. Sword-shaped Leaves

Erect or Upright

Bulb Use

Other than Only Green Foliage

Bedding or Mass Planting


, 2

Tolerant of Shade

In Woodland Areas


Tolerant of Poor Soil

Covering Banks

In Water

Beside Stream or Water Garden

Coastal Conditions

Edging Borders

Back of Border or Back-ground Plant

Fragrant Flowers

Not Fragrant Flowers

Indoor House-plant

Grow in a Patio Pot
, 2

Grow in an Alpine Trough

Grow in an Alpine House

Grow in Rock Garden

Speciman Plant

Into Native Plant Garden

Naturalize in Grass

Grow in Hanging Basket

Grow in Window-box

Grow in Green-house

Grow in Scree



Natural-ized Plant Area

Grow in Cottage Garden

Attracts Butter-flies

Attracts Bees

Resistant to Wildlife

Bulb in Soil

Chalk 1, 2


Sand 1, 2

Lime-Free (Acid)












Bulb Height from Text Border

Brown= 0-12 inches (0-30 cms)

Blue = 12-24 inches (30-60 cms)

Green= 24-36 inches (60-90 cms)

Red = 36+ inches (90+ cms)

Bulb Soil Moisture from Text Background

Wet Soil

Moist Soil

Dry Soil

Flowering months range abreviates month to its first 3 letters (Apr-Jun is April, May and June).

Click on thumbnail to change this comparison page to the Plant Description Page of the Bulb named in the Text box below that photo.
The Comments Row of that Plant Description Page links to where you personally can purchase that bulb via mail-order.

Topic - Over 1060 links in this table to a topic in a topic folder or page within that folder of this website
Case Studies
...Drive Foundations
Ryegrass and turf kills plants within Roadstone and in Topsoil due to it starving and dehydrating them.
CEDAdrive creates stable drive surface and drains rain into your ground, rather than onto the public road.
8 problems caused by building house on clay or with house-wall attached to clay.
Pre-building work on polluted soil.

Companion Planting
A ,B ,C ,D ,E ,
F ,G ,H ,I ,J ,K ,
L ,M ,N ,O ,P ,Q ,
R ,S ,T ,U ,V ,W ,
X, Y, Z
...Pest Control
...using Plants
to provide a Companion Plant to aid your selected plant or deter its pests


with ground drains
Garden Design
...How to Use the Colour Wheel Concepts for Selection of Flowers, Foliage and Flower Shape
...RHS Mixed

......Bedding Plants
......Her Perennials
......Other Plants
......Camera photos of Plant supports

Glossary with a tomato teaching cauliflowers
Library of over 1000 books
Offbeat Glossary with DuLally Bird in its flower clock.

Plants Chalk
(Alkaline) Soil
......A-F1, A-F2,
......A-F3, G-L, M-R,
......M-R Roses, S-Z Heavy
Clay Soil
......A-F, G-L, M-R,
......S-Z Lime-Free
(Acid) Soil
......A-F, G-L, M-R,
......S-Z Light
Sand Soil
......A-F, G-L, M-R,
...Poisonous Plants.
...Extra Plant Pages
with its 6 Plant Selection Levels

Interaction between 2 Quartz Sand Grains to make soil
How roots of plants are in control in the soil
Without replacing Soil Nutrients, the soil will break up to only clay, sand or silt
Subsidence caused by water in Clay
Use water ring for trees/shrubs for first 2 years.

Tool Shed with 3 kneeling pads
Useful Data with benefits of Seaweed

Topic -
Plant Photo Galleries
with Plant Botanical Index

...A, B, C, D, E,
...F, G, H, I, J, K,
...L, M, N, O, P, Q,
...R, S, T, U, V, W,
...X, Y, Z

If the plant type below has flowers, then the first gallery will include the flower thumbnail in each month of 1 of 6 or 7 flower colour comparison pages of each plant in its subsidiary galleries, as a low-level Plant Selection Process
Bedding Flower Shape

Bulb Index
A1, 2, 3, B, C1, 2,
D, E, F, G, Glad,
H, I, J, K, L1, 2,
M, N, O, P, Q, R,
S, T, U, V, W, XYZ
...Allium/ Anemone
...Colchicum/ Crocus
...Gladiolus with its 40 Flower Colours
......European A-E
......European F-M
......European N-Z
......Eur Non-classified
......American A
......American B
......American C
......American D
......American E
......American F
......American G
......American H
......American I
......American J
......American K
......American L
......American M
......American N
......American O
......American P
......American Q
......American R
......American S
......American T
......American U
......American V
......American W
......American XYZ
......Ame Non-classified
......Australia - empty
...Hippeastrum/ Lily
...Late Summer
...Each of the above ...Bulb Galleries has its own set of Flower Colour Pages
...Flower Shape
...Bulb Form

...Bulb Use

...Bulb in Soil

Further details on bulbs from the Infill Galleries:-
Hardy Bulbs



...Forcing Lily of the Valley



...Hyacinths in Pots


...Lilium in Pots
...Narcissi in Pots



Half-Hardy Bulbs



Uses of Bulbs:-
...for Bedding Windowboxes Border
...naturalized in Grass Bulb Frame Woodland Garden Rock Garden Bowls Alpine House
...Bulbs in Greenhouse or Stove:-




...Plant Bedding in

...Bulb houseplants flowering inside House during:-
...Bulbs and other types of plant flowering during:-
...Selection of the smaller and choicer plants for the Smallest of Gardens with plant flowering during the same 6 periods as in the previous selection

Climber in
3 Sector Vertical Plant System
Deciduous Shrub
...Shrubs - Decid
Deciduous Tree
...Trees - Decid
Evergreen Perennial
...P-Evergreen A-L
...P-Evergreen M-Z
...Flower Shape
Evergreen Shrub
...Shrubs - Evergreen
...Heather Shrub
...Heather Index
......Erica: Carnea
......Erica: Cinerea
......Erica: Others
Evergreen Tree
...Trees - Evergreen

...Diascia Photo Album,
...UK Peony Index

...P -Herbaceous
...Flower Shape
...RHS Wisley
......Mixed Border
......Other Borders
Odds and Sods

...RHS Wisley A-F
...RHS Wisley G-R
...RHS Wisley S-Z
...Rose Use - page links in row 6. Rose, RHS Wisley and Other Roses rose indices on each Rose Use page
...Other Roses A-F
...Other Roses G-R
...Other Roses S-Z
Pruning Methods
Photo Index
R 1, 2, 3
Peter Beales Roses
RV Roger

Soft Fruit
Top Fruit

Wild Flower and
Butterfly page links are in next row

Topic -
Butterflies in the UK mostly use native UK wildflowers.

Butterfly Species.

Egg, Caterpillar, Chrysalis and Butterfly Usage
of Plants.

Plant Usage by
Egg, Caterpillar, Chrysalis and Butterfly.

Wild Flower
with its
flower colour page,
Site Map page in its flower colour NOTE Gallery
...Blue Note
...Brown Botanical Names
...Cream Common Names
...Green Note
...Mauve Note
...Multi-Cols Note
...Orange Note
...Pink A-G Note
...Pink H-Z Note
...Purple Note
...Red Note
...White A-D Note
...White E-P Note
...White Q-Z Note
...Yellow A-G Note
...Yellow H-Z Note
...Shrub/Tree Note

Wildflower Plants.

You know its name, use
Wild Flower Plant Index a-h, i-p, q-z.
You know which habitat it lives in, use
Acid Soil,
(Chalk) Soil
Marine Soil,
Neutral Soil,
is a
is a
is a
Rush, or
is a
You have seen its flower, use Comparison Pages containing Wild Flower Plants and Cultivated Plants in the
Colour Wheel Gallery.

Each plant named in each of the 180 Wildflower Family Pages within their 23 Galleries may have a link to:-
1) its Plant Description Page in its Common Name column in one of those Wildflower Plant Galleries and will have links,
2) to external sites to purchase the plant or seed in its Botanical Name column,
3) to see photos in its Flowering Months column and
4) to read habitat details in its Habitat Column.

(o)Adder's Tongue
(o)Bog Myrtle
(o)Cornel (Dogwood)
(o)Crucifer (Cabbage/Mustard) 1
(o)Crucifer (Cabbage/Mustard) 2
(o)Daisy Cudweeds
(o)Daisy Chamomiles
(o)Daisy Thistle
(o)Daisy Catsears (o)Daisy Hawkweeds
(o)Daisy Hawksbeards
(o)Dock Bistorts
(o)Dock Sorrels
(o)Filmy Fern
(o)Royal Fern
(o)Figwort - Mulleins
(o)Figwort - Speedwells
(o)Grass 1
(o)Grass 2
(o)Grass 3
(o)Grass Soft
Bromes 1

(o)Grass Soft
Bromes 2

(o)Grass Soft
Bromes 3

(o)Jacobs Ladder
(o)Lily Garlic
(o)Marsh Pennywort
(o)Melon (Gourd/Cucumber)
(o)Orchid 1
(o)Orchid 2
(o)Orchid 3
(o)Orchid 4
Clover 1

Clover 2

Clover 3

(o)Peaflower Vetches/Peas
(o)Pink 1
(o)Pink 2
Rannock Rush
(o)Rose 1
(o)Rose 2
(o)Rose 3
(o)Rose 4
(o)Rush Woodrushes
(o)Saint Johns Wort
Saltmarsh Grasses
(o)Sea Lavender
(o)Sedge Rush-like
(o)Sedges Carex 1
(o)Sedges Carex 2
(o)Sedges Carex 3
(o)Sedges Carex 4
Tassel Pondweed
(o)Thyme 1
(o)Thyme 2
(o)Umbellifer 1
(o)Umbellifer 2
(o)Water Fern
(o)Water Milfoil
(o)Water Plantain
(o)Water Starwort

Topic -
The following is a complete hierarchical Plant Selection Process

dependent on the Garden Style chosen
Garden Style
...Infill Plants
...12 Bloom Colours per Month Index
...12 Foliage Colours per Month Index
...All Plants Index
...Cultivation, Position, Use Index
...Shape, Form


Topic -
Many types of plant in the following Flower/Foliage Colour Wheel Galleries with their number of colours appended as a high-level Plant Selection Process

All Flowers 53 with
...Use of Plant and
Flower Shape
- page links in bottom row

All Foliage 53
instead of redundant
...(All Foliage 212)

All Flowers
per Month 12

Bee instead of wind pollinated plants for hay-fever sufferers
All Bee-Pollinated Flowers
per Month

Rock Garden and Alpine Flowers
Rock Plant Flowers 53

...Rock Plant Photos

Flower Colour Wheel without photos, but with links to photos
12 Bloom Colours
per Month Index

...All Plants Index

Topic -
Use of Plant in your Plant Selection Process

Plant Colour Wheel Uses
1. Perfect general use soil is composed of 8.3% lime, 16.6% humus, 25% clay and 50% sand, and
2. Why you are continually losing the SOIL STRUCTURE so your soil - will revert to clay, chalk, sand or silt.
Uses of Plant and Flower Shape:-
...Foliage Only
...Other than Green Foliage
...Trees in Lawn
...Trees in Small Gardens
...Wildflower Garden
...Attract Bird
...Attract Butterfly
, 2
...Climber on House Wall
...Climber not on House Wall
...Climber in Tree
...Pollution Barrier
...Part Shade
...Full Shade
...Single Flower provides Pollen for Bees
, 2, 3
...Covering Banks
...Patio Pot
...Edging Borders
...Back of Border
...Adjacent to Water
...Bog Garden
...Tolerant of Poor Soil
...Not Fragrant
...Standard Plant is 'Ball on Stick'
...Upright Branches or Sword-shaped leaves
...Plant to Prevent Entry to Human or Animal
...Coastal Conditions
...Tolerant on North-facing Wall
...Cut Flower
...Potted Veg Outdoors
...Potted Veg Indoors
...Raised Bed Outdoors Veg
...Grow in Alkaline Soil A-F, G-L, M-R,
...Grow in Acidic Soil
...Grow in Any Soil
...Grow in Rock Garden
...Grow Bulbs Indoors

Uses of Bedding
...Bedding Out
...Filling In
...Pots and Troughs
...Window Boxes
...Hanging Baskets
...Spring Bedding
...Summer Bedding
...Winter Bedding
...Foliage instead of Flower
...Coleus Bedding Photos for use in Public Domain 1

Uses of Bulb
...Other than Only Green Foliage
...Bedding or Mass Planting
...Tolerant of Shade
...In Woodland Areas
...Tolerant of Poor Soil
...Covering Banks
...In Water
...Beside Stream or Water Garden
...Coastal Conditions
...Edging Borders
...Back of Border or Back-ground Plant
...Fragrant Flowers
...Not Fragrant Flowers

...Grow in a Patio Pot
...Grow in an Alpine Trough
...Grow in an Alpine House
...Grow in Rock Garden
...Speciman Plant
...Into Native Plant Garden
...Naturalize in Grass
...Grow in Hanging Basket
...Grow in Window-box
...Grow in Green-house
...Grow in Scree
...Naturalized Plant Area
...Grow in Cottage Garden
...Attracts Butterflies
...Attracts Bees
...Resistant to Wildlife
...Bulb in Soil:-
......Lime-Free (Acid)

Uses of Rose
Rose Index

...Bedding 1, 2
...Climber /Pillar
...Cut-Flower 1, 2
...Exhibition, Speciman
...Grow In A Container 1, 2
...Hedge 1, 2
...Climber in Tree
...Edging Borders
...Tolerant of Poor Soil 1, 2
...Tolerant of Shade
...Back of Border
...Adjacent to Water

Topic -
Camera Photo Galleries showing all 4000 x 3000 pixels of each photo on your screen that you can then click and drag it to your desktop as part of a Plant Selection Process:-

RHS Garden at Wisley

Plant Supports -
When supporting plants in a bed, it is found that not only do those plants grow upwards, but also they expand their roots and footpad sideways each year. Pages
, 2, 3, 8, 11,
12, 13,
Plants 4, 7, 10,
Bedding Plants 5,
Plant Supports for Unknown Plants 5
Clematis Climbers 6,
the RHS does not appear to either follow it's own pruning advice or advice from The Pruning of Trees, Shrubs and Conifers by George E. Brown.
ISBN 0-571-11084-3 with the plants in Pages 1-7 of this folder. You can see from looking at both these resources as to whether the pruning carried out on the remainder of the plants in Pages 7-15 was correct.

Narcissus (Daffodil) 9,
Phlox Plant Supports 14, 15

Coleus Bedding Foliage Trial - Pages
1, 2, 3, 4, 5,
6, 7, 8, 9, 10,
11, 12, 13, 14, 15,
16, 17, 18, 19, 20,
21, 22, 23, 24, 25,
26, 27, 28, 29, 30,
31, 32, Index

National Trust Garden at Sissinghurst Castle
Plant Supports -
Pages for Gallery 1

with Plant Supports
1, 5, 10
2, 3, 4, 6, 7, 8, 9,
11, 12
Recommended Rose Pruning Methods 13
Pages for Gallery 2
with Plant Supports
Plants 1, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7

Dry Garden of
RHS Garden at
Hyde Hall

Plants - Pages
without Plant Supports
Plants 1
, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9

Nursery of
Peter Beales Roses
Display Garden

Roses Pages
1, 2, 3, 4, 5,
6, 7, 8, 9, 10,
11, 12, 13

Nursery of
RV Roger

Roses - Pages
V76,Z77, 78,

Damage by Plants in Chilham Village - Pages
1, 2, 3, 4

Pavements of Funchal, Madeira
Damage to Trees - Pages
1, 2, 3, 4, 5,
6, 7, 8, 9, 10,
11, 12, 13
for trees 1-54,
14, 15,
16, 17, 18, 19, 20,
21, 22, 23, 24, 25,
for trees 55-95,
26, 27, 28, 29, 30,
31, 32, 33, 34, 35,
36, 37,
for trees 95-133,
38, 39, 40,
41, 42, 43, 44, 45,
for trees 133-166

Chris Garnons-Williams
Work Done - Pages
1, 2, 3, 4, 5,
6, 7, 8, 9, 10,
11, 12, 13

Identity of Plants
Label Problems - Pages
1, 2, 3, 4, 5,
6, 7, 8, 9, 10,

Ron and Christine Foord - 1036 photos only inserted so far - Garden Flowers - Start Page of each Gallery
AB1 ,AN14,BA27,

Plant with Photo Index of Ivydene Gardens - 1187
A 1, 2, Photos - 43
B 1, Photos - 13
C 1, Photos - 35
D 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7,
Photos - 411
with Plants causing damage to buildings in Chilham Village and Damage to Trees in Pavements of Funchal
E 1, Photos - 21
F 1, Photos - 1
G 1, Photos - 5
H 1, Photos - 21
I 1, Photos - 8
J 1, Photos - 1
K 1, Photos - 1
L 1, Photos - 85
with Label Problems
M 1, Photos - 9
N 1, Photos - 12
O 1, Photos - 5
P 1, Photos - 54
Q 1, Photos -
R 1, 2, 3,
Photos - 229
S 1, Photos - 111
T 1, Photos - 13
U 1, Photos - 5
V 1, Photos - 4
W 1, Photos - 100
with Work Done by Chris Garnons-Williams
X 1 Photos -
Y 1, Photos -
Z 1 Photos -
Articles/Items in Ivydene Gardens - 88
Flower Colour, Num of Petals, Shape and
Plant Use of:-
Rock Garden
within linked page



Topic -
Fragrant Plants as a Plant Selection Process for your sense of smell:-

Sense of Fragrance from Roy Genders

Fragrant Plants:-
Trees and Shrubs with Scented Flowers
, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6
Shrubs bearing Scented Flowers for an Acid Soil
, 2, 3, 4
Shrubs bearing Scented Flowers for a
Chalky or Limestone Soil
, 2, 3, 4
Shrubs bearing Scented leaves for a
Sandy Soil
, 2, 3
Herbaceous Plants with Scented Flowers
, 2, 3
Annual and Biennial Plants with Scented Flowers or Leaves
, 2
Bulbs and Corms with Scented Flowers
, 2, 3, 4, 5
Scented Plants of Climbing and Trailing Habit
, 2, 3
Winter-flowering Plants with Scented Flowers
, 2
Night-scented Flowering Plants
, 2

Topic -
Website User Guidelines

My Gas Service Engineer found Flow and Return pipes incorrectly positioned on gas boilers and customers had refused to have positioning corrected in 2020.

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