Flowers with Butterfly.

Deutsch: Admiral (Vanessa atalanta) auf der Blüte einer Christrose (Helleborus niger), fotografiert in Nordbaden (Baden-Württemberg, Deutschland) bei einer Außentemperatur von 13 Grad Celsius
By 4028mdk09, via Wikimedia Commons.



Helleborus niger

Български: черен кукуряк, коледна роза

Čeština: Čemeřice černá

Dansk: Almindelig Julerose

Deutsch: Christrose, Schneerose, Schwarze Nieswurz

English: Christmas rose, Black hellebore

Français : Rose de Noël

Italiano: Rosa di Natale, Elleboro nero, Erba rocca

Lietuvių: Baltažiedis eleboras

Nederlands: Kerstroos

Norsk bokmål: Julerose

Polski: ciemiernik biały

Svenska: Julros
By Wildfeuer, via Wikimedia Commons.



English: Helloborus niger leaves. Taken in the Chernel arboretum, Kőszeg, Hungary

Magyar: Fekete hunyor levelei. A fotó a kőszegi Chernel arborétumban készült.
By Syp, via Wikimedia Commons.



English: Helleborus niger, Ranunculaceae, Christmas Rose, Black Hellebore, infrutescence. The dried rootstock is used in homeopathy as remedy: Helleborus (Hell.)

Deutsch: Helleborus niger, Ranunculaceae, Schneerose, Christrose, Fruchtstand. Der getrocknete Wurzelstock wird in der Homöopathie als Arzneimittel verwendet: Helleborus (Hell.)
By H. Zell, via Wikimedia Commons.



Helleborus niger.

Original book source: Prof. Dr. Otto Wilhelm Thomé Flora von Deutschland, Österreich und der Schweiz 1885, Gera, Germany, via Wikimedia Commons.
The author died in 1925, so this work is in the public domain in its country of origin and other countries and areas where the copyright term is the author's life plus 80 years or less.

Plant Name

Helleborus niger

The genus name, Helleborus comes from the Greek elein, meaning "to injure" and bora, meaning "food" alluding to the plant's poisonous nature.

Common Name

Christmas Rose, Black Hellebore


Clay, Scree

Sun Aspect

Part Shade to Full Shade

Soil Moisture


Plant Type

Deciduous Rhizome

Height x Spread in inches (cms)
(1 inch = 2.5 cms,
12 inches = 1 foot = 30 cms,
24 inches = 2 feet)

12 x 18 (30 x 45)


Dark Green

Flower Colour in Month(s). Fruit

White fading to blush pink with yellow stamens in February-May.


Clump-forming form. Grow in groups in mixed or shrub border, or naturalized in woodland garden. Mulch annually in autumn. Prevent soil from being dry or waterlogged.


"Hellebore is native to much of Europe and is commonly found in early spring and shade gardens in North America as well. The flowers have five petal-like sepals that surround a ring of cup-like nectaries (petals modified to hold nectar). These sepals stay on the plant sometimes for many months giving hellebores a long "blooming" time. They often flower in winter and early spring with some evergreen species and are shade and frost hardy, making them quite useful for problem garden areas.
Hellebore will brighten up the shady corners of your garden and perhaps discourage critters from raiding it. It is one of the earliest flowers to bloom in the spring.
Although Hellebore is extremely poisonous, it is also extremely unpleasant to put into one's mouth. Thus, it's not as dangerous as it could be. Animals and children who may put it in their mouth will likely spit it right back out. If this happens, they should see a doctor immediately because toxins can still be absorbed through the skin and mucus membranes. Always wear gloves when handling hellebore.
Hellebore will grow in any well-drained garden soil and is extremely shade tolerant. It is great for under plantings around shrubs and troublesome shady spots in the garden. Seedlings can be directly sowed or started indoors and transplanted no later than their second year. Sometimes it takes a few years for flowers to appear. Be patient and your Hellebore will bloom by its third year.
Divide as necessary in Mid to late summer once the root stock is big enough to be cut." from Witchipedia.


"This herbaceous or evergreen perennial is disliked by deer and other animal pests prone to munching on plants.
When planting from seed or division, place the hellebore into well-draining, organic soil in a filtered sun or shady location. The hellebore plant will return for many years; make sure the space will accommodate growth and has proper sunlight. Hellebores need no more than a few hours of dappled light and grow successfully in shady areas. Plant the hellebore under deciduous trees or scattered through a woodland garden or shaded natural area.
Plant hellebore seeds in the fall. A 60-day moist chilling period is needed when planting seeds of the hellebore plant. Planting seed in fall allows this to happen naturally in areas with cold winters. Wait three to four years for blooms on young plants grown from seed." from Gardening Know How.


"Best grown in moist, organically rich, humusy, neutral to alkaline, well-drained soils in part shade to full shade. Prefers light to moderate shade. Locate plants in sheltered locations in areas protected from cold winter winds. Plants usually take several years to establish. Clumps may be divided for propagation, but clumps never require division and will form and grow best when left undisturbed.
It features large, cup-shaped, rose-like white flowers (to 3" diameter) with crowns of conspicuously contrasting yellow stamens. Each flower has five large and showy petal-like sepals (petals are quite small and inconspicuous). Flowers usually appear singly on thick stems which usually do not rise above the foliage. This is an acaulescent species (without stems) which produces only basal leaves, each being palmate, deeply-lobed, somewhat waxy, and dark green with 7-9 leaflets.
Locate plants near a kitchen window, patio or walkway so that the winter bloom may be enjoyed to the fullest. Group in part shade locations under trees, large shrubs or in woodland gardens. May also be incorporated into naturalized areas where the clumps will slowly spread through self-seeding. Mass for an attractive year round ground cover." from Missouri Botanical Garden.


"Grows with:-
This is an adaptable plant, growing sometimes in woods and at other times out in the open on alpine slopes. Near Lake Bled in northern Yugoslavia it grows in pine or mixed woodland where it relishes a good depth of old leaf mould although it still may not grow all that vigorously. Higher up it grows in the open, possibly in areas where there was once tree cover. In this area Elizabeth Strangman has seen it in woods with Anemone nemerosa, A. trifolia, several different cardamines including C. kitaibelii, Crocus vernus subsp. albiflorus, Cyclamen purpurascens, Daphne mezereum, Epimedium alpinum, Galanthus nivalis, Gentiana asclepiadea and G. verna, Hacquetia epipactis, small flowered Hepatica nobilis in blue and pink, Omphalodes verna, Polygola chamaebuxus, Primula vulgaris, Pulmonaria officinalis and Veratrum nigrum.
In Croatia Elizabeth found this plant growing in thick leaf mould on limestone in woods made up of oak, pine and beech. It grew with Asarum europaeum, various cardamines, Epimedium alpinum, Gentiana asclepiadea, Geranium phaeum, Helleborus atrorubens, Hepatica nobilis, Lamium orvala, Omphalodes verna and Veratrum.

The Christmas rose likes nothing better than an old cottage garden or the corner of a kitchen garden, which has been regularly manured for decades; a deep leafy soil is also very suitable. Given that this is beyond most of us, we must adapt what we have. Although a heavy clay soil is not ideal, when improved with plenty of leaf mould or old garden compost you will have a better chance of growing good Christmas roses than if you start with gravel. A well drained soil can be improved, with even more buckets of compost, until the humus level has increased substantially. Whether you start with clay or gravel, the follow-up to thorough preparation should be the regular application of a leafy mulch.
Acid soils rarely produce good Christmas roses and keeping them going for more than few years is difficult. A soil which is naturally limy or which has been limed regularly and has a settled pH (that vegetable garden again), is preferable to one which has received a large dose immediately before planting. Regular mulches with mushrom compost or applications of lime will probably help keep the pH at the right level.
Although in the wild H. niger is found in both sun and shade, in gardens it is best in at least partial shade especially if the soil is not too retentive. A north facing site where the plants receive limited sunshine even in the height of summer seems to suit them well. In general, with a humus rich soil, dappled shade is probably ideal although in the hotter and sunnier southern areas heavier shade may be needed.
Christmas roses are best planted near to where you pass frequently in winter and where they will not be overwhelmed by nearby plantings. This is especially necessary if you wish to cover the plants with a cloche to prevent mud splashing up on to the flowers; as some forms flower on quite short stems this can improve their appearance enormously.
Perhaps the best companions for Christmas roses are self seeding bulbs and Cyclamen coum is ideal, flowering at the same time in mid winter. Snowdrops, scillas, Crocus tomassinianus, winter aconites, plus some of the smaller primulas of the 'Wanda' type would also be suitable neighbours. Planting in the lea of an evergreen shrub is also helpful, Pinus mugo, for example, sometimes a neighbour in the wild." from Graham Rice.


"Poisonous substances

Cardiac glycosides

• The primary cardiac glycoside present in Helleborus is bufadienole hellebrin.

• Hellebrigenin, the aglycone of hellebrin is more potent than the glycoside itself.

• Treatment for cardiac glycoside poisoning: atropine and activated charcoal, lidocaine for H. viridis.




Hellebore poisoning is rare. Generally, the cardiac glycosides present are responsible for poisonings causing digitalis-like (ref. Digitalis purpurea , foxglove) effects: bradycardia, prolonged P-R interval, idioventicular rhythm, bundle-branch block, venticular fibrillation and asystole. H. viridis, the green hellebore and H. foetidus, the stinking hellebore (both used in garden settings) cause poisoning similar to that of H. niger. Some authors claim that the cardiac symptoms reported are likely to be caused by the other Helleborus species rather than by H. niger. Especially mixing of root preparatives with H. viridis is suggested.

The high amounts of ranunculin or protoanemonin in the leaves (presence agreed by all authors), stems and flowers of H. niger are responsible for the skin (dermatitis, following exposure to bruised root material, leaves, stems and flowers), eye (powdered root) and gastrointestinal irritations (following ingestion): salivation, mouth and throat tingling, abdominal pain, vomiting, purging, diarrhea.

Some authors describe symptoms following ingestion of Christmas rose such as slow, irregular pulse, weakness, labored breathing, irregular heart beat, convulsions, respiratory failure and nervous system disturbances such as delirium, convulsions and even death due to respiratory collapse." from Department of Animal Science - Plants Poisonous to Livestock of Cornell University College of Agriculture and Life Sciences.


See Gardenia with their pages on
plant combinations of Helleborus (Hellebores)
with other plants


Available from
RHS and
Plant World Seeds from UK with worldwide shipping and
Heritage Perennials in America.


Site Map of pages with content (o)


(o)Unusual Colours

(o)Green 1
(o)Green 2
(o)Green 3
(o)Other Colour

(o)Seed Colour



Website Structure Explanation and User Guidelines









7 Flower Colours per Month in Colour Wheel below in BULB, CORM, RHIZOME and TUBER GALLERY.

Click on Black or White box in Colour of Month.



Besides the above Bulb Flower Colour Comparison Pages, you also have the following Comparison Pages:-
...Bulb Flower Shape -
7 pages of Number of Petals ...... 5 petals,
23 pages of Flower Shape ......... Stars and
7 pages of Natural Arrangements Drumstick

...Bulb Form
7 pages of Bulb Form ...Clump-forming
...Bulb Use
33 pages of Bulb Use ...Mass Planting,
Grow in Patio Pot and
Use in Coastal Conditions
...Bulb Preferred Soil

5 pages of Soil preferred by Bulb ...Chalk

BULB, CORM, RHIZOME AND TUBER INDEX - There are over 700 bulbs in the bulb galleries. The respective flower thumbnail, months of flowering, height and width, foliage thumbnail, form thumbnail use and comments are in the relevant index page below:-
(o): A
(o): B
(o): C
(o): D
(o): E
(o): F
(o): G
(o): H
(o): I
....: J
....: K
(o): L
(o): M
(o): N
(o): O
(o): P
....: Q
....: R
(o): S
(o): T
....: U
(o): V
....: W
(o): XYZ








Autumn Bulb Gallery INDEX link to Bulb Description Page

Flower Colour

Flower Thumbnail

Flowering Months

Form Thumbnail and

as its form

Foliage Thumbnail

Height x Width in inches (cms) -
1 inch = 2.5 cms,
12 inches = 1 foot,
36 inches = 3 feet = 1 yard,
40 inches = 100 cms

Seed Head Thumbnail




Dark Brown-Purple


April, May




6 x 10 (15 x 24)

Mouse Plant - In late spring curious cream and brown flowers are produced at ground level. They have a long, thin ‘tail’, making the flower look just like a mouse, disappearing into the undergrowth.

Great Plant Combinations: Waldsteinia ternata, Asplenium scolopendrium, Cyclamen coum, Dryopteris crassirhizoma, Anenome nemorosa

Arum italicum







12 x 6 (30 x 15)

Green arum spears look striking with the big round purple leaves of Bergenia purpurascens, or the burnished leaves of evergreen epimediums.

Aruncus dioicus



June, July




72 x 48 (180 x 120)

This plant demands space. Plant in a moist, peaty soil, or even at the waterside. An excellent companion to summer-blooming shrub roses. Good for cutting.


"Dwarf Campanulas" by Graham Nicholls - from The Alpine Garden Society Bookshop.

Corydalis - "Bleeding Hearts, Corydalis, and their Relatives" by Mark C Tebbitt, Magnus Liden & Henrick Zetterlund - from the Alpine Garden Society Bookshop.

See Rock Garden Plant Index C for details on more campanulas, corydalis and cyclamen and
"The Cyclamen Society exists to encourage cultivation and conservation, and to disseminate and extend knowledge of the genus Cyclamen and its species, forms and cultivars. It combines scientific study with all the activities of a society for enthusiasts who cultivate the plants."




June, July, August




30 x 36 (75 x 90)

Clustered bellflower. Clump-forming form. Native UK plant.



White to


June, July




36 x 12 (90 x 30)

Peach-leaved bellflower

Centaurea montana


centaurea montana flower

June, July

centaurea montana form


centaurea montana foliage

18 x 24 (45 x 60)

Clump-forming form. Native UK plant. There are hundreds of species of Centaurea in Europe, so identification is often difficult - from Kevock Garden.


Brilliant Blue


May, June, July
August, September,


18 x 8 (45 x 21)

Bright Green foliage in Spring and Summer. Rich Red in Autumn.

Corydalis lutea

Golden Yellow


May, June, July, August, September




16 x 12 (39 x 30)

Mound-forming form. Native UK plant. Commonly cultivated and naturalized on old walls near gardens scattered throughout the UK.


White or



October, November




2 x 3
(6 x 8)

If not planted - corm should be just breaking surface and 2-3 inches apart - under trees, which provide fallen leaves in the autumn, then mulch with a little sifted leaf mould or peat moss in November. A little bonemeal added to the soil and used as a top dressing each spring will keep them happy.


White or


March, April




2 x 4
(6 x 9)

Varying in colour from white through to red, cyclamen coum flower March-April, at the same time that the leaves are produced. The leaves may be plain green or sometimes marked with silver. These are fully hardy and are best planted under trees in good fertile, well drained soil.

Cyclamen coum



March, April




2 x 4
(6 x 9)

Each white cyclamen coum bloom has a dark red mouth and flowers from late winter through to early spring, at the same time that the leaves are produced. The leaves may be plain green or sometimes marked with silver. They are round in shape. These are fully hardy and are best planted under trees in good fertile, well drained soil.

Cyclamen hederifolium'



November, December




5 x 6
(12 x 15)


Spreading. Self-seeds freely. Rare native UK plant. Same cultivation techniques as for cyclamen cilicium


See Rock Garden Plant Index F Page for further details of Fritillaria. The bulbs of all fritillaria are very fragile and must be handled with care.

The Fritillaria Group is a special interest group within the Alpine Garden Society.

Fritillaria imperiallis

Yellow or






60 x 12 (150 x 30)

Use in sunny border or rock garden. The bulbs have an unpleasant foxy odour. Prone to attack by lily beetles. Companion plants are Berberis thunbergii 'Atropurpurea' and the Lily family - see Companion Planting.

Fritillaria imperiallis 'Lutea'

Bright Yellow






60 x 12 (150 x 30)


Use in sunny border or rock garden. The bulbs have an unpleasant foxy odour. Prone to attack by lily beetles. Companion plants are Berberis thunbergii 'Atropurpurea' and the Lily family - see Companion Planting.

Fritillaria imperiallis
'Rubra Maxima'






48 x 12 (120 x 30)

Mat-forming. Use in sunny border or rock garden.


Galanthus.co.uk contains information on all aspects of snowdrops, their care and their cultivation; based on their experience.

There are another 207 Gladiolii detailed in the Gladiolus Photo Gallery.

Galanthus elwesii

Honey scented White






8 x 12
(21 x 30)

A giant-flowered snowdrop with honey-scented blooms, which have two delicate green marks on the petals. The leaves are grey-green in colour.

Gladiolus communis
subsp. byzantinus

Deep Magenta


June, July




36 x 12 (90 x 30)

Spreads freely from cormlets. This is a bright, showy plant with rich, purple, trumpet shaped flowers held on tall flower spikes during late spring and early summer. It is fully hardy but does not like wet winters.

Gladiolus papilio

Red and Yellow


July, August




24-36 x 6 (60-90 x 15)

Use in Cottage/Informal Garden style beds and borders. Useful Cut Flower.


Helleborus are often very tolerant of dry shade conditions and associate beautifully with snowdrops, Erythronium, Primula, Pulmonaria and Tiarella. Which hellebore should you grow where?

The sap of the English Bluebell (Hyacinthoides non-scripta) was used to glue feathers onto arrows in the Middle Ages and to stiffen ruffs in Tudor times.





August, September




24 x 36 (60 x 90)

Attractive to Bees and suitable for a Rock Garden. This species has a symbiotic relationship with certain soil bacteria, these bacteria form nodules on the roots and fix atmospheric nitrogen. Some of this nitrogen is utilized by the growing plant but some can also be used by other plants growing nearby.




February, March,
April, May




30 x 18 (75 x 45)

Dark Grey foliage. Native UK plant in woods. Grow in groups in mixed or shrub border, or naturalized in woodland garden. Mulch annually in autumn. Prevent soil from being dry or waterlogged.




February, March,
April, May




12 x 18 (30 x 45)

Clump-forming form. Grow in groups in mixed or shrub border, or naturalized in woodland garden. Mulch annually in autumn. Prevent soil from being dry or waterlogged.


White or
Greenish Cream


February, March,
April, May




18 x 18 (45 x 45)

Grow Lenten Rose in groups in mixed or shrub border, or naturalized in woodland garden. Mulch annually in autumn. Prevent soil from being dry or water-logged.

Helleborus orientalis

Pale Green tinted


February, March,
April, May



18 x 18 (45 x 45)

Grow in groups in mixed or shrub border, or naturalized in woodland garden. Mulch annually in autumn. Prevent soil from being dry or waterlogged.

Hyacinthoides hispanica



April, May




17 x 5
(42 x 12)

Clump-forming form. Grow in groups as underplanting in shrub border, or naturalized in grass or woodland garden. Self-seeds.


Mid-Blue or


April, May




12 x 3
(30 x 8)

Clump forming form. Native UK plant. Grow in groups as under-planting in shrub border, or naturalized in grass or woodland garden. Self-seeds.


The British Iris Society was founded in 1922 by iris enthusiasts whose interests were primarily to establish a forum for the exchange of views and knowledge of the genus.


Scented White


July, August,
September, October


96 x 36 (240 x 90)

Impatiens tinctoria comes from higher elevations in central Africa, where the climate is relatively cool.  Ideally it prefers temperatures between about 50 and 80 degrees Centigrade.  It can tolerate temperatures in the 80s and even above, but it might decline in consistently hot temperatures, especially if nights are warm.  The plant can be brought indoors over the winter, where it may stay evergreen and continue flowering.  It will need a very large pot - at least 15 gallons.  If the pot is too small, the tubers may break it!  It can be grown outdoors in the ground in the Isle of Wight and the Channel Islands if mulched heavily and given overhead protection.  It prefers filtered sunlight, or bright shade with some morning sun.  Like most Impatiens, it enjoys moist, well draining soil and regular feeding.  Some humidity is needed - over 40% is recommended.


Purple tinged
with Yellow



June, July



24 x 6
(60 x 15)


seed capsules

Partially expose the rhizome when planting in groups of three; 6-12 inches apart. Mulch with organic matter in the Spring. After 4 years, divide and replant in fresh soil. Self-seeds.

Iris laevigata



May, June



30 x 6 (75 x 15)

The Japanese Water Iris much prefers to be grown in water. Broad sword-shaped leaves with tall mid-blue iris flowers which have a narrow cream splash on the falls. Can be used in small water features as well as a marginal in ponds.

Iris pseudacorus



August, September



36-48 x 12 (90-120 x 30)

Native UK plant. Partially expose the rhizome when planting in groups of three 6-12 inches apart. Mulch with organic matter in the Spring. After 4 years, divide and replant in fresh soil. Can be invasive when planted as a marginal in a pond.


Mitella breweri



May, June, July




6 x 8
(15 x 21)

Self-seeds freely. Use for groundcover in a woodland garden. Very pretty tiny pale green flowers on many short flower spikes.

Mimulus primuloides

Yellow with Red-spotted throats


July, August




4 x 8
(9 x 21)

It grows in wet habitat in mountains and plateau areas, such as stream banks. Plant in damp section of rock garden.




azure Blue






10 x 16 (24 x 39)

Use as groundcover in a border, rock garden or woodland garden.



Pale Purplish-White


July, August




8 x 12
(21 x 30)

Clump-forming spreading form. Grow as grassy groundcover, for border edging, in a rock garden or peat bed. Top-dress annually with leaf mould in the autumn.


Pale Purplish-White



July, August




8 x 12 (21 x 30)


seed capsules

Almost Black foliage. Grow as grassy groundcover, for border edging, in a rock garden or peat bed. Top-dress annually with leaf mould in the autumn.


Scilla siberica is 1 of the 4 scilla detailed in the Rock Garden Plant Index S Page, which can be used as an alpine in a rock garden.

Scilla siberica

Bright Blue


April, May



6 x 6
(15 x 15)

Erect Stemless Form. Keep dry during summer dormancy. One of the most popular choices for a spring garden. Has rich, bright blue, bell shaped flowers borne in loose clusters. Grow very well in the garden, thriving under trees or the open border.

Scilla peruviana

Purplish-Blue or






12 x 12 (30 x 30)

Clump-forming. Grow in pots, under deciduous trees and shrubs, or in grass.


Pale Yellow


May, June



16 x 24 (39 x 60)

Erect Form becomes Decumbent (Growing close to the ground but usually with upward-growing tips). Excellent ground-cover plant for a shady border or woodland garden, but they can be rampant.


Tricyrtis hirta



August, September,



30 x 24 (75 x 60)

Use Toad Lily in woodland garden, a shady border or a peat bank.

Ivydene Horticultural Services logo with I design, construct and maintain private gardens. I also advise and teach you in your own garden. 01634 389677


Site design and content copyright ©January 2007.
Page structure amended November 2012.
Feet changed to inches (cms) July 2015.
Index structure changed and links from thumbnail to another bulb page changed from adding that bulb description page to changing page to that bulb description page November 2015.
Colour Wheel per Month and Index to other Bulbs in other Bulb Galleries added May 2017.
Bulb Description Pages updated April 2018.

Chris Garnons-Williams.

DISCLAIMER: Links to external sites are provided as a courtesy to visitors. Ivydene Horticultural Services are not responsible for the content and/or quality of external web sites linked from this site.  








There are other pages on Plants which bloom in each month of the year in this website:-




Explanation of Structure of this Website with User Guidelines Page for those photo galleries with Photos
(of either ones I have taken myself or others which have been loaned only for use on this website from external sources)


Choose 1 of these different Plant selection Methods:-

1. Choose a plant from 1 of 53 flower colours in the Colour Wheel Gallery.

2. Choose a plant from 1 of 12 flower colours in each month of the year from 12 Bloom Colours per Month Index Gallery.

3. Choose a plant from 1 of 6 flower colours per month for each type of plant:-
Deciduous Shrub
Deciduous Tree
Evergreen Perennial
Evergreen Shrub
Evergreen Tree
Herbaceous Perennial
Odds and Sods
Soft Fruit
Top Fruit
Wild Flower

4. Choose a plant from its Flower Shape:-
Shape, Form

Flower Shape

5. Choose a plant from its foliage:-

6. There are 6 Plant Selection Levels including Bee Pollinated Plants for Hay Fever Sufferers in
Plants Topic.


7. When I do not have my own or ones from mail-order nursery photos , then from March 2016, if you want to start from the uppermost design levels through to your choice of cultivated and wildflower plants to change your Plant Selection Process then use the following galleries:-

  • Create and input all plants known by Amateur Gardening inserted into their Sanders' Encyclopaedia from their edition published in 1960 (originally published by them in 1895) into these
    • Stage 1 - Garden Style Index Gallery,
    • Stage 2 - Infill Plants Index Gallery being the only gallery from these 7 with photos (from Wikimedia Commons) ,
    • Stage 3 - All Plants Index Gallery with each plant species in its own Plant Type Page followed by choice from Stage 4a, 4b, 4c and/or 4d REMEMBERING THE CONSTRAINTS ON THE SELECTION FROM THE CHOICES MADE IN STAGES 1 AND 2
    • Stage 4a - 12 Bloom Colours per Month Index Gallery,
    • Stage 4b - 12 Foliage Colours per Month Index Gallery with
    • Stage 4c - Cultivation, Position, Use Index Gallery and
    • Stage 4d - Shape, Form Index Gallery
    • Unfortunately, if you want to have 100's of choices on selection of plants from 1000's of 1200 pixels wide by up to 16,300 pixels in length webpages, which you can jump to from almost any of the pages in these 7 galleries above, you have to put up with those links to those choices being on
      • the left topic menu table,
      • the header of the middle data table and on
      • the page/index menu table on the right of every page of those galleries.


I like reading and that is shown by the index in my Library, where I provide lists of books to take you between designing, maintaining or building a garden and the hierarchy of books on plants taking you from

Functional combinations in the border from the International Flower Bulb Centre in Holland:-

"Here is a list of the perennials shown by research to be the best plants to accompany various flower bulbs. The flower bulbs were tested over a period of years in several perennial borders that had been established for at least three years.

In combination with hyacinths:

In combination with tulips:

In combination with narcissi:

For narcissi, the choice was difficult to make. The list contains only some of the perennials that are very suitable for combining with narcissi. In other words, narcissi can easily compete with perennials.

In combination with specialty bulbs:


Before reaching for the pesticides, here are a few alternative natural, non-toxic methods of slug control:  

• Watering Schedule - Far and away the best course of action against slugs in your garden is a simple adjustment in the watering schedule. Slugs are most active at night and are most efficient in damp conditions. Avoid watering your garden in the evening if you have a slug problem. Water in the morning - the surface soil will be dry by evening. Studies show this can reduce slug damage by 80%.


• Seaweed - If you have access to seaweed, it's well worth the effort to gather. Seaweed is not only a good soil amendment for the garden, it's a natural repellent for slugs. Mulch with seaweed around the base of plants or perimeter of bed. Pile it on 3" to 4" thick - when it dries it will shrink to just an inch or so deep. Seaweed is salty and slugs avoid salt. Push the seaweed away from plant stems so it's not in direct contact. During hot weather, seaweed will dry and become very rough which also deters the slugs.


• Copper - Small strips of copper can be placed around flower pots or raised beds as obstructions for slugs to crawl over. Cut 2" strips of thin copper and wrap around the lower part of flower pots, like a ribbon. Or set the strips in the soil on edge, making a "fence" for the slugs to climb. Check to make sure no vegetation hangs over the copper which might provide a 'bridge' for the slugs. Copper barriers also work well around wood barrels used as planters.
A non-toxic copper-based metallic mesh Slug Shield is available which can be wrapped around the stem of plants and acts as a barrier to slugs. When slugs come in contact with the mesh they receive an electric-like shock. The mesh also serves as a physical barrier. These slug shields are reusable, long-lasting and weather-proof.


• Diatomaceous Earth - Diatomaceous earth (Also known as "Insect Dust") is the sharp, jagged skeletal remains of microscopic creatures. It lacerates soft-bodied pests, causing them to dehydrate. A powdery granular material, it can be sprinkled around garden beds or individual plants, and can be mixed with water to make a foliar spray.
Diatomaceous earth is less effective when wet, so use during dry weather. Wear protective gear when applying, as it can irritate eyes and lungs. Be sure to buy natural or agricultural grade diatomaceous earth, not pool grade which has smoother edges and is far less effective. Click for more information or to purchase Food Grade Diatomaceous Earth.


• Electronic "slug fence" - An electronic slug fence is a non-toxic, safe method for keeping slugs out of garden or flower beds. The Slugs Away fence is a 24-foot long, 5" ribbon-like barrier that runs off a 9 volt battery. When a slug or snail comes in contact with the fence, it receives a mild static sensation that is undetectable to animals and humans. This does not kill the slug, it cause it to look elsewhere for forage. The battery will power the fence for about 8 months before needing to be replaced. Extension kits are availabe for increased coverage. The electronic fence will repel slugs and snails, but is harmless to people and pets.


• Lava Rock - Like diatomaceous earth, the abrasive surface of lava rock will be avoided by slugs. Lava rock can be used as a barrier around plantings, but should be left mostly above soil level, otherwise dirt or vegetation soon forms a bridge for slugs to cross.

• Salt - If all else fails, go out at night with the salt shaker and a flashlight. Look at the plants which have been getting the most damage and inspect the leaves, including the undersides. Sprinkle a bit of salt on the slug and it will kill it quickly. Not particularly pleasant, but use as a last resort. (Note: some sources caution the use of salt, as it adds a toxic element to the soil. This has not been our experience, especially as very little salt is used.)

• Beer - Slugs are attracted to beer. Set a small amount of beer in a shallow wide jar buried in the soil up to its neck. Slugs will crawl in and drown. Take the jar lid and prop it up with a small stick so rain won't dilute the beer. Leave space for slugs to enter the trap.

• Overturned Flowerpots, Grapefruit Halves, Board on Ground - Overturned flowerpots, with a stone placed under the rim to tilt it up a bit, will attract slugs. Leave overnight, and you'll find the slugs inside in the morning. Grapefruit halves work the same way, with the added advantage of the scent of the fruit as bait.
Another trap method, perhaps the simplest of all, is to set a wide board on the ground by the affected area. Slugs will hide under the board by day. Simply flip the board over during the day to reveal the culprits. Black plastic sheeting also works the same way.


• Garlic-based slug repellents
Laboratory tests at the University of Newcastle-Upon-Tyne (UK) revealed that a highly refined garlic product (ECOguard produced by ECOspray Ltd, a British company that makes organic pesticides) was an effective slug killer. Look for garlic-based slug deterrents which will be emerging under various brand names, as well as ECOguard.

• Coffee grounds; new caffeine-based slug/snail poisons - Coffee grounds scattered on top of the soil will deter slugs. The horticultural side effects of using strong grounds such as espresso on the garden, however, are less certain. When using coffee grounds, moderation is advised.
A study in June 2002 reported in the journal Nature found that slugs and snails are killed when sprayed with a caffeine solution, and that spraying plants with this solution prevents slugs from eating them. The percentage of caffeine required in a spray (1 - 2%) is greater than what is found in a cup of coffee (.05 - 07%), so homemade sprays are not as effective. Look for new commercial sprays which are caffeine-based.


If you want to read some light relief material about plants visit Plants are the Strangest People.

White Flower Farm's list of Deer-and-Rodent-Resistant Bulbs.


The following details come from Cactus Art:-

"A flower is the the complex sexual reproductive structure of Angiosperms, typically consisting of an axis bearing perianth parts, androecium (male) and gynoecium (female).    

Bisexual flower show four distinctive parts arranged in rings inside each other which are technically modified leaves: Sepal, petal, stamen & pistil. This flower is referred to as complete (with all four parts) and perfect (with "male" stamens and "female" pistil). The ovary ripens into a fruit and the ovules inside develop into seeds.

Incomplete flowers are lacking one or more of the four main parts. Imperfect (unisexual) flowers contain a pistil or stamens, but not both. The colourful parts of a flower and its scent attract pollinators and guide them to the nectary, usually at the base of the flower tube.



Androecium (male Parts or stamens)
It is made up of the filament and anther, it is the pollen producing part of the plant.
Anther This is the part of the stamen that produces and contains pollen. 
Filament This is the fine hair-like stalk that the anther sits on top of.
Pollen This is the dust-like male reproductive cell of flowering plants.

Gynoecium (female Parts or carpels or pistil)
 It is made up of the stigma, style, and ovary. Each pistil is constructed of one to many rolled leaflike structures.
This is the part of the pistil  which receives the pollen grains and on which they germinate. 
This is the long stalk that the stigma sits on top of ovary. 
The part of the plant that contains the ovules. 
The part of the ovary that becomes the seeds. 

The colorful, often bright part of the flower (corolla). 
The parts that look like little green leaves that cover the outside of a flower bud (calix). 
(Undifferentiated "Perianth segment" that are not clearly differentiated into sepals and petals, take the names of tepals.)"




The following details come from Nectary Genomics:-

"NECTAR. Many flowering plants attract potential pollinators by offering a reward of floral nectar. The primary solutes found in most nectars are varying ratios of sucrose, glucose and fructose, which can range from as little a 8% (w/w) in some species to as high as 80% in others. This abundance of simple sugars has resulted in the general perception that nectar consists of little more than sugar-water; however, numerous studies indicate that it is actually a complex mixture of components. Additional compounds found in a variety of nectars include other sugars, all 20 standard amino acids, phenolics, alkaloids, flavonoids, terpenes, vitamins, organic acids, oils, free fatty acids, metal ions and proteins.

NECTARIES. An organ known as the floral nectary is responsible for producing the complex mixture of compounds found in nectar. Nectaries can occur in different areas of flowers, and often take on diverse forms in different species, even to the point of being used for taxonomic purposes. Nectaries undergo remarkable morphological and metabolic changes during the course of floral development. For example, it is known that pre-secretory nectaries in a number of species accumulate large amounts of starch, which is followed by a rapid degradation of amyloplast granules just prior to anthesis and nectar secretion. These sugars presumably serve as a source of nectar carbohydrate.

WHY STUDY NECTAR? Nearly one-third of all worldwide crops are dependent on animals to achieve efficient pollination. In addition, U.S. pollinator-dependent crops have been estimated to have an annual value of up to $15 billion. Many crop species are largely self-incompatible (not self-fertile) and almost entirely on animal pollinators to achieve full fecundity; poor pollinator visitation has been reported to reduce yields of certain species by up to 50%."

Case Studies

Companion Planting
...A, B, C, D, E,
...F, G, H, I, J, K,
...L, M, N, O, P, Q,
...R, S, T, U, V, W,
...X, Y, Z
...Pest Control
...using Plants

Garden Construction
Garden Design
...How to Use the Colour Wheel Concepts for Selection of Flowers, Foliage and Flower Shape
...RHS Mixed Borders
......Bedding Plants
......Her Perennials
......Other Plants Garden Maintenance
Offbeat Glossary
...in Chalk (Alkaline) Soil
......A-F1, A-F2,
......A-F3, G-L, M-R,
......M-R Roses, S-Z
...in Heavy Clay Soil
......A-F, G-L, M-R,
...in Lime-Free (Acid) Soil
......A-F, G-L, M-R,
...in Light Sand Soil
......A-F, G-L, M-R,
...Poisonous Plants
...Soil Nutrients
Tool Shed
Useful Data


Topic - Plant Photo Galleries
Plant with Photo Index of Ivydene Gardens
A 1, Photos
B 1, Photos
C 1, Photos
D 1, Photos
E 1, Photos
F 1, Photos
G 1, Photos
H 1, Photos
I 1, Photos
J 1, Photos
K 1, Photos
L 1, Photos
M 1, Photos
N 1, Photos
O 1, Photos
P 1, Photos
Q 1, Photos
R 1, Photos
S 1, Photos
T 1, Photos
U 1, Photos
V 1, Photos
W 1, Photos
X 1 Photos
Y 1, Photos
Z 1 Photos
Articles/Items in Ivydene Gardens
Flower Shape and Plant Use of
Evergreen Perennial
Herbaceous Perennial

...by Flower Shape

Bulb with its 7 Flower Colours per Month Comparison Pages
...Allium/ Anemone
...Autumn *
...Colchicum/ Crocus

......European A-E
......European F-M
......European N-Z
......Eur Non-classified
......American A
......American B
......American C
......American D
......American E
......American F
......American G
......American H
......American I
......American J
......American K
......American L
......American M
......American N
......American O
......American P
......American Q
......American R
......American S
......American T
......American U
......American V
......American W
......American XYZ
......Ame Non-classified
......Australia - empty


...Hippeastrum/ Lily
...Late Summer
...Each of the above ...Bulb Galleries has its own set of Flower Colour Pages
...Flower Shape
...Bulb Form

...Bulb Use

...Bulb in Soil

Further details on bulbs from the Infill Galleries:-
Hardy Bulbs



...Forcing Lily of the Valley



...Hyacinths in Pots


...Lilium in Pots
...Narcissi in Pots



Half-Hardy Bulbs



Uses of Bulbs:-
...for Bedding
...in Windowboxes
...in Border
...naturalized in Grass
...in Bulb Frame
...in Woodland Garden
...in Rock Garden
...in Bowls
...in Alpine House
...Bulbs in Greenhouse or Stove:-




...Plant Bedding in

...Bulb houseplants flowering inside House during:-
...Bulbs and other types of plant flowering during:-
...Selection of the smaller and choicer plants for the Smallest of Gardens with plant flowering during the same 6 periods as in the previous selection

Deciduous Shrub
...Shrubs - Decid
Deciduous Tree
...Trees - Decid
Evergreen Perennial
...P-Evergreen A-L
...P-Evergreen M-Z
...Flower Shape
Evergreen Shrub
...Shrubs - Evgr
...Heather Shrub
Evergreen Tree
...Trees - Evgr
Herbaceous Perennial
...P -Herbaceous
...RHS Wisley
...Flower Shape
Odds and Sods
...RHS Wisley A-F
...RHS Wisley G-R
...RHS Wisley S-Z
...Rose Use
...Other Roses A-F
...Other Roses G-R
...Other Roses S-Z
Soft Fruit
Top Fruit


Wild Flower
with its
flower colour page,
Site Map page in its flower colour
NOTE Gallery
...Blue Note
...Brown Note
...Cream Note
...Green Note
...Mauve Note
...Multi-Cols Note
...Orange Note
...Pink A-G Note
...Pink H-Z Note
...Purple Note
...Red Note
...White A-D Note
...White E-P Note
...White Q-Z Note
...Yellow A-G Note
...Yellow H-Z Note
...Shrub/Tree Note
Wildflower Plants


Topic - Flower/Foliage Colour
Colour Wheel Galleries

Following your choice using Garden Style then that changes your Plant Selection Process
Garden Style
...Infill Plants
...12 Bloom Colours per Month Index
...12 Foliage Colours per Month Index
...All Plants Index
...Cultivation, Position, Use Index
...Shape, Form

you could use these Flower Colour Wheels with number of colours
All Flowers 53

All Flowers per Month 12
with its
Explanation of
Structure of this Website with

...User Guidelines
All Bee-Pollinated Flowers per Month 12
Rock Garden and Alpine Flower Colour Wheel with number of colours
Rock Plant Flowers 53

...Rock Plant Photos

these Foliage Colour Wheels structures, which I have done but until I can take the photos and I am certain of the plant label's validity, these may not progress much further
All Foliage 212

All Spring Foliage 212
All Summer Foliage 212
All Autumn Foliage 212
All Winter Foliage 212

Flower Colour Wheel without photos, but with links to photos
12 Bloom Colours per Month Index
...All Plants Index


Topic - Wildlife on Plant Photo Gallery
Usage of Plants
by Egg, Caterpillar, Chrysalis and Butterfly

Egg, Caterpillar, Chrysalis and Butterfly usage of
Plant A-C
Plant C-M
Plant N-W
Butterfly usage of Plant


It is worth remembering that especially with roses that the colour of the petals of the flower may change - The following photos are of Rosa 'Lincolnshire Poacher' which I took on the same day in R.V. Roger's Nursery Field:-


Closed Bud


Opening Bud


Juvenile Flower


Older Juvenile Flower


Middle-aged Flower - Flower Colour in Season in its
Rose Description Page is
"Buff Yellow, with a very slight pink tint at the edges in May-October."


Mature Flower


Juvenile Flower and Dying Flower


Form of Rose Bush

There are 720 roses in the Rose Galleries; many of which have the above series of pictures in their respective Rose Description Page.

So one might avoid the disappointment that the 2 elephants had when their trunks were entwined instead of them each carrying their trunk using their own trunk, and your disappointment of buying a rose to discover that the colour you bought it for is only the case when it has its juvenile flowers; if you look at all the photos of the roses in the respective Rose Description Page!!!!


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