helleborusfloniger1

helleborusfolniger1

helleborusforniger1

Flower

Foliage

Form

helleboruspflos9nigerwikimediacommons

Flowers with Butterfly.

Deutsch: Admiral (Vanessa atalanta) auf der Blüte einer Christrose (Helleborus niger), fotografiert in Nordbaden (Baden-Württemberg, Deutschland) bei einer Außentemperatur von 13 Grad Celsius
By 4028mdk09, via Wikimedia Commons.

helleboruspflo9nigerwikimediacommons

Flower.

Helleborus niger

Български: черен кукуряк, коледна роза

Čeština: Čemeřice černá

Dansk: Almindelig Julerose

Deutsch: Christrose, Schneerose, Schwarze Nieswurz

English: Christmas rose, Black hellebore

Français : Rose de Noël

Italiano: Rosa di Natale, Elleboro nero, Erba rocca

Lietuvių: Baltažiedis eleboras

Nederlands: Kerstroos

Norsk bokmål: Julerose

Polski: ciemiernik biały

Svenska: Julros
By Wildfeuer, via Wikimedia Commons.

helleboruspfol9nigerwikimediacommons

Foliage.

English: Helloborus niger leaves. Taken in the Chernel arboretum, Kőszeg, Hungary

Magyar: Fekete hunyor levelei. A fotó a kőszegi Chernel arborétumban készült.
By Syp, via Wikimedia Commons.

helleboruspfrus9nigerwikimediacommons

FruitHead.

English: Helleborus niger, Ranunculaceae, Christmas Rose, Black Hellebore, infrutescence. The dried rootstock is used in homeopathy as remedy: Helleborus (Hell.)

Deutsch: Helleborus niger, Ranunculaceae, Schneerose, Christrose, Fruchtstand. Der getrocknete Wurzelstock wird in der Homöopathie als Arzneimittel verwendet: Helleborus (Hell.)
By H. Zell, via Wikimedia Commons.

helleboruspfig9nigerwikimediacommons

Figure.

Helleborus niger.

Original book source: Prof. Dr. Otto Wilhelm Thomé Flora von Deutschland, Österreich und der Schweiz 1885, Gera, Germany, via Wikimedia Commons.
The author died in 1925, so this work is in the public domain in its country of origin and other countries and areas where the copyright term is the author's life plus 80 years or less.

Plant Name

Helleborus niger

The genus name, Helleborus comes from the Greek elein, meaning "to injure" and bora, meaning "food" alluding to the plant's poisonous nature.

Common Name

Christmas Rose, Black Hellebore

Soil

Clay, Scree

Sun Aspect

Part Shade to Full Shade

Soil Moisture

Moist

Plant Type

Deciduous Rhizome

Height x Spread in inches (cms)
(1 inch = 2.5 cms,
12 inches = 1 foot = 30 cms,
24 inches = 2 feet)

12 x 18 (30 x 45)

Foliage

Dark Green

Flower Colour in Month(s). Fruit

White fading to blush pink with yellow stamens in February-May.

Comment

Clump-forming form. Grow in groups in mixed or shrub border, or naturalized in woodland garden. Mulch annually in autumn. Prevent soil from being dry or waterlogged.

 

"Hellebore is native to much of Europe and is commonly found in early spring and shade gardens in North America as well. The flowers have five petal-like sepals that surround a ring of cup-like nectaries (petals modified to hold nectar). These sepals stay on the plant sometimes for many months giving hellebores a long "blooming" time. They often flower in winter and early spring with some evergreen species and are shade and frost hardy, making them quite useful for problem garden areas.
Hellebore will brighten up the shady corners of your garden and perhaps discourage critters from raiding it. It is one of the earliest flowers to bloom in the spring.
Although Hellebore is extremely poisonous, it is also extremely unpleasant to put into one's mouth. Thus, it's not as dangerous as it could be. Animals and children who may put it in their mouth will likely spit it right back out. If this happens, they should see a doctor immediately because toxins can still be absorbed through the skin and mucus membranes. Always wear gloves when handling hellebore.
Hellebore will grow in any well-drained garden soil and is extremely shade tolerant. It is great for under plantings around shrubs and troublesome shady spots in the garden. Seedlings can be directly sowed or started indoors and transplanted no later than their second year. Sometimes it takes a few years for flowers to appear. Be patient and your Hellebore will bloom by its third year.
Divide as necessary in Mid to late summer once the root stock is big enough to be cut." from Witchipedia.

 

"This herbaceous or evergreen perennial is disliked by deer and other animal pests prone to munching on plants.
When planting from seed or division, place the hellebore into well-draining, organic soil in a filtered sun or shady location. The hellebore plant will return for many years; make sure the space will accommodate growth and has proper sunlight. Hellebores need no more than a few hours of dappled light and grow successfully in shady areas. Plant the hellebore under deciduous trees or scattered through a woodland garden or shaded natural area.
Plant hellebore seeds in the fall. A 60-day moist chilling period is needed when planting seeds of the hellebore plant. Planting seed in fall allows this to happen naturally in areas with cold winters. Wait three to four years for blooms on young plants grown from seed." from Gardening Know How.

 

"Best grown in moist, organically rich, humusy, neutral to alkaline, well-drained soils in part shade to full shade. Prefers light to moderate shade. Locate plants in sheltered locations in areas protected from cold winter winds. Plants usually take several years to establish. Clumps may be divided for propagation, but clumps never require division and will form and grow best when left undisturbed.
It features large, cup-shaped, rose-like white flowers (to 3" diameter) with crowns of conspicuously contrasting yellow stamens. Each flower has five large and showy petal-like sepals (petals are quite small and inconspicuous). Flowers usually appear singly on thick stems which usually do not rise above the foliage. This is an acaulescent species (without stems) which produces only basal leaves, each being palmate, deeply-lobed, somewhat waxy, and dark green with 7-9 leaflets.
Locate plants near a kitchen window, patio or walkway so that the winter bloom may be enjoyed to the fullest. Group in part shade locations under trees, large shrubs or in woodland gardens. May also be incorporated into naturalized areas where the clumps will slowly spread through self-seeding. Mass for an attractive year round ground cover." from Missouri Botanical Garden.

 

"Grows with:-
This is an adaptable plant, growing sometimes in woods and at other times out in the open on alpine slopes. Near Lake Bled in northern Yugoslavia it grows in pine or mixed woodland where it relishes a good depth of old leaf mould although it still may not grow all that vigorously. Higher up it grows in the open, possibly in areas where there was once tree cover. In this area Elizabeth Strangman has seen it in woods with Anemone nemerosa, A. trifolia, several different cardamines including C. kitaibelii, Crocus vernus subsp. albiflorus, Cyclamen purpurascens, Daphne mezereum, Epimedium alpinum, Galanthus nivalis, Gentiana asclepiadea and G. verna, Hacquetia epipactis, small flowered Hepatica nobilis in blue and pink, Omphalodes verna, Polygola chamaebuxus, Primula vulgaris, Pulmonaria officinalis and Veratrum nigrum.
In Croatia Elizabeth found this plant growing in thick leaf mould on limestone in woods made up of oak, pine and beech. It grew with Asarum europaeum, various cardamines, Epimedium alpinum, Gentiana asclepiadea, Geranium phaeum, Helleborus atrorubens, Hepatica nobilis, Lamium orvala, Omphalodes verna and Veratrum.

Cultivation
The Christmas rose likes nothing better than an old cottage garden or the corner of a kitchen garden, which has been regularly manured for decades; a deep leafy soil is also very suitable. Given that this is beyond most of us, we must adapt what we have. Although a heavy clay soil is not ideal, when improved with plenty of leaf mould or old garden compost you will have a better chance of growing good Christmas roses than if you start with gravel. A well drained soil can be improved, with even more buckets of compost, until the humus level has increased substantially. Whether you start with clay or gravel, the follow-up to thorough preparation should be the regular application of a leafy mulch.
Acid soils rarely produce good Christmas roses and keeping them going for more than few years is difficult. A soil which is naturally limy or which has been limed regularly and has a settled pH (that vegetable garden again), is preferable to one which has received a large dose immediately before planting. Regular mulches with mushrom compost or applications of lime will probably help keep the pH at the right level.
Although in the wild H. niger is found in both sun and shade, in gardens it is best in at least partial shade especially if the soil is not too retentive. A north facing site where the plants receive limited sunshine even in the height of summer seems to suit them well. In general, with a humus rich soil, dappled shade is probably ideal although in the hotter and sunnier southern areas heavier shade may be needed.
Christmas roses are best planted near to where you pass frequently in winter and where they will not be overwhelmed by nearby plantings. This is especially necessary if you wish to cover the plants with a cloche to prevent mud splashing up on to the flowers; as some forms flower on quite short stems this can improve their appearance enormously.
Perhaps the best companions for Christmas roses are self seeding bulbs and Cyclamen coum is ideal, flowering at the same time in mid winter. Snowdrops, scillas, Crocus tomassinianus, winter aconites, plus some of the smaller primulas of the 'Wanda' type would also be suitable neighbours. Planting in the lea of an evergreen shrub is also helpful, Pinus mugo, for example, sometimes a neighbour in the wild." from Graham Rice.

 

"Poisonous substances

Cardiac glycosides

• The primary cardiac glycoside present in Helleborus is bufadienole hellebrin.

• Hellebrigenin, the aglycone of hellebrin is more potent than the glycoside itself.

• Treatment for cardiac glycoside poisoning: atropine and activated charcoal, lidocaine for H. viridis.

Saponins

Ranunculosides

Symptoms

Hellebore poisoning is rare. Generally, the cardiac glycosides present are responsible for poisonings causing digitalis-like (ref. Digitalis purpurea , foxglove) effects: bradycardia, prolonged P-R interval, idioventicular rhythm, bundle-branch block, venticular fibrillation and asystole. H. viridis, the green hellebore and H. foetidus, the stinking hellebore (both used in garden settings) cause poisoning similar to that of H. niger. Some authors claim that the cardiac symptoms reported are likely to be caused by the other Helleborus species rather than by H. niger. Especially mixing of root preparatives with H. viridis is suggested.

The high amounts of ranunculin or protoanemonin in the leaves (presence agreed by all authors), stems and flowers of H. niger are responsible for the skin (dermatitis, following exposure to bruised root material, leaves, stems and flowers), eye (powdered root) and gastrointestinal irritations (following ingestion): salivation, mouth and throat tingling, abdominal pain, vomiting, purging, diarrhea.

Some authors describe symptoms following ingestion of Christmas rose such as slow, irregular pulse, weakness, labored breathing, irregular heart beat, convulsions, respiratory failure and nervous system disturbances such as delirium, convulsions and even death due to respiratory collapse." from Department of Animal Science - Plants Poisonous to Livestock of Cornell University College of Agriculture and Life Sciences.

 

See Gardenia with their pages on
plant combinations of Helleborus (Hellebores)
with other plants
.

 

Available from
RHS and
Plant World Seeds from UK with worldwide shipping and
Heritage Perennials in America.

 

AUTUMN BULB, CORM, RHIZOME OR TUBER GALLERY PAGES
Site Map of pages with content (o)

Introduction

FLOWER COLOUR
Bicolour
(o)Blue
Green
(o)Orange
(o)Pink
Purple
(o)Red
(o)Unusual Colours
(o)White
(o)Yellow

FOLIAGE COLOUR
(o)Green 1
(o)Green 2
(o)Green 3
(o)Other Colour

SEED COLOUR
(o)Seed Colour

BED PICTURES
(o)Garden

FORM
(o)Mat-forming
Prostrate/Trailing
(o)Mound-forming
(o)Spreading
(o)Clump-forming
(o)Stemless
(o)Upright

Website Structure Explanation and User Guidelines

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

7 Flower Colours per Month in Colour Wheel below in BULB, CORM, RHIZOME and TUBER GALLERY.

Click on Black or White box in Colour of Month.

 

colormonthbulb9a1a1a

Besides the above Bulb Flower Colour Comparison Pages, you also have the following Comparison Pages:-
...Bulb Flower Shape -
7 pages of Number of Petals ...... 5 petals,
23 pages of Flower Shape ......... Stars and
7 pages of Natural Arrangements Drumstick

...Bulb Form
-
7 pages of Bulb Form ...Clump-forming
...Bulb Use
-
33 pages of Bulb Use ...Mass Planting,
Groundcover,
Grow in Patio Pot and
Use in Coastal Conditions
...Bulb Preferred Soil

5 pages of Soil preferred by Bulb ...Chalk

BULB, CORM, RHIZOME AND TUBER INDEX - There are over 700 bulbs in the bulb galleries. The respective flower thumbnail, months of flowering, height and width, foliage thumbnail, form thumbnail use and comments are in the relevant index page below:-
(o): A
(o): B
(o): C
(o): D
(o): E
(o): F
(o): G
(o): H
(o): I
....: J
....: K
(o): L
(o): M
(o): N
(o): O
(o): P
....: Q
....: R
(o): S
(o): T
....: U
(o): V
....: W
(o): XYZ

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Autumn Bulb Gallery INDEX link to Bulb Description Page

Flower Colour

Flower Thumbnail

Flowering Months

Form Thumbnail and

Mat,
Cushion,
Spreading,
Clump,
Stemless,
Upright
as its form

Foliage Thumbnail

Height x Width in inches (cms) -
1 inch = 2.5 cms,
12 inches = 1 foot,
36 inches = 3 feet = 1 yard,
40 inches = 100 cms

Seed Head Thumbnail

Comments

This is the Old Layout which is being changed plant by plant to

Autumn Bulb Gallery INDEX link to Bulb Description Page

Flower Colour with Flower Thumbnail

Flowering Months

Form Thumbnail and

Mat,
Cushion,
Spreading,
Clump,
Stemless,
Upright
as its form

Height x Width in inches (cms) -
1 inch = 2.5 cms,
12 inches = 1 foot,
36 inches = 3 feet = 1 yard,
40 inches = 100 cms

Seed Head Thumbnail

Foliage Colour with Foliage Thumbnail

Bulb Use

Comments

this New Layout starting in March 2020

A

Arisarum
proboscideum
(Mouse Plant - In spring cream and brown flowers are produced at ground level. They have a long, thin ‘tail’, making the flower look just like a mouse.

Dark Brown-Purple

arisarumcfloproboscideum
Flowers and foliage appear at the same time.

April, May

arisarumfortproboscideumroger

Cushion.
Hood shape bloom
 

6 x 10
(15 x 24)

Acidic Sand, Clay, Chalk
Part Shade
Moist

Glossy, Bright Green and arrow shaped

arisarumfol1proboscideumfoord
Foliage dies down in late summer

A woodland perennial with flowers lasting a long time in indoor arrange-ments. Foliage is groundcover until late summer. Mix with spring-flowering woodland bulbs.

Great Plant Combinations: Waldsteinia ternata, Asplenium scolopendrium, Cyclamen coum, Dryopteris crassirhizoma, Anenome nemorosa. Can be invasive.

Arum italicum
'Marmoratum'

Greenish-Yellow spathes with a yellow spadix followed by spikes of orange-red berries lasting all summer

June

arumfortitalicummarmoratumfoord

Mat, Erect

12 x 6
(30 x 15)

Well-drained Chalk, Sand
Part Shade
Dry

Mid-Green with Cream veins foliage from late autumn to mid spring

arumforitalicummarmoratum

Cottage Garden. Ground cover with hosta. Naturalizes in woodland. Spathes and berries suitable for flower arrangements. Use in patio pots.

Underplant roses, hostas, Hemerocallis, Iris and shrubs.

Aruncus dioicus
(Goatsbeard)

Creamy-White

aruncusdioicusflot9

June, July

aruncusdioicusfort9

Clump
Plume

72 x 48
(180 x 120)

Clay
Part Shade, Full Shade
Moist or Wet

Pinnately compound, Mid-Green

aruncusdioicusfolt9

Moist wood-lands. Good for cutting. Native garden, a specimen, or groups along stream or water gardens. Mass down a slope.

This plant demands space. Mix with gunneras and Campanula latifolia, which are also self-sowing. Border background plant.

C

"Dwarf Campanulas" by Graham Nicholls - from The Alpine Garden Society Bookshop.

Corydalis - "Bleeding Hearts, Corydalis, and their Relatives" by Mark C Tebbitt, Magnus Liden & Henrick Zetterlund - from the Alpine Garden Society Bookshop.

See Rock Garden Plant Index C for details on more campanulas, corydalis and cyclamen and
"The Cyclamen Society exists to encourage cultivation and conservation, and to disseminate and extend knowledge of the genus Cyclamen and its species, forms and cultivars. It combines scientific study with all the activities of a society for enthusiasts who cultivate the plants."
See Gardenia with their pages on plant combinations of Cyclamen with other plants.
Cyclamen species for the garden article
have flowers that almost span the year depending on the specie.

See Gardenia with their pages on plant combinations of Campanulas (Bellflowers) with other plants.

Campanula
glomerata
(Clustered bellflower from the Bellflower Wildflower Family.)

Violet-Purple

campanulaglomerataflot9

June, July, August

campanulataglomeratafort9

Clump.
Fragrant 5 Petalled, Bell-shape blooms on a Column

30 x 36
(75 x 90)

Chalk,
Full Sun, Part Shade
Moist

Light Green
campanulaglomeratafolt9a1

Houseplant, Woodland, Patio Pot. Grow in meadow on chalk soil.

Native UK plant.

This plant must be planted separate from other plants.

Campanula
persicifolia
(Peach-leaved bellflower, Harebell)

White to
Lilac-Blue

campanulapersicifoliaflot9

June, July

campanulapersicifoliafort9


Clump.
5 petalled,
Bell-shape blooms

36 x 12
(90 x 30)

Alkaline Clay, Chalk.
Full Sun, Part Shade.
Moist.
Appreciates afternoon shade in hot summer climates.

Narrow, toothed, leathery, Bright Green

campanulapersicifoliafolt9

Open light woodland. Pollinated by bees and self.
Naturalizes in Mountain meadows and woodland. Cottage Garden.
Cut flower.

Use as mound in middle of border. Mix with other plants in large pots.
Colonise with once-flowering roses, its blue colouring in ideal contrast to their pinks and crimsons.

Centaurea montana
(Perennial Cornflower, Mountain bluet, Perennial Bachelor's Button, Great Blue-bottle)

Blue

centaureamontanacflot1

June, July

centaurea montana form

Erect, Clump

18 x 24
(45 x 60)

Chalk
Full Sun
Moist soil, but well-drained as in a large Rock Garden. See plant combinations

Mid-Green, woolly beneath and densely woolly stems

centaurea montana foliage

Best massed in border fronts, cottage gardens or naturalized areas. Nectar attracts butterflies. Cut flower. Coastal conditions.

Native UK plant - from Kevock Garden. It prepares to flower while deciduous plants are bare. Grows in meadows and open woodland.

Cerato-stigma
plumbag-oides
(Plumbago, Blue Leadwort)

Brilliant Blue

ceratostigmaplumbagoidesflot9

August, September,
October

Upright, Mat
5 petalled, star shape in Cluster

18 x 8
(45 x 21)

Chalk, Sand, Clay
Full Sun
Moist

Bright Green in Spring and Summer. Rich Red in Autumn.
ceratostigmaplumbagoidesfolt9

Ground cover, Edging, Rock Garden. Compact, bushy habit in patio pots and border. Attracts butterflies.

Interplant with spring bulbs. Under-planting for shrubs. Deer, rabbit resistant. Establish in dry walling.

Corydalis lutea
(Golden Corydalis, yellow fumitory, yellow corydalis, Native UK plant)

Golden Yellow

corydalisluteaflot9b

May, June, July, August, September

corydalisluteafort9b

Cushion.
4 petals in tube-shape in sprays

16 x 12
(39 x 30)

Well-drained Chalk, Sand, Gravel
Full Sun, Part Shade, Full Shade
Moist - Wet soils in winter can be fatal

Finely cut, delicate-looking light-green to blue-green foliage

corydalisluteafolt9b

Shaded Rock Gardens, Edging. Cottage Garden. Naturalizes. Gravel gardens and in cracks within stone walls and dry walling, woodland

Commonly cultivated and naturalized on old walls near gardens scattered throughout the UK. It is toxic to horses.
It combines with Pulmonaria, Tiarella, Hosta, Ligularia, Paeonia.

Cyclamen
cilicium
(Sowbread, Turkish hardy cyclamen, Cicilian cylamen)

White
or
Pink
cyclamenciliciumflot9b

cyclamencflociliciumroger1b

August, September,
October, November

cyclamenpforciliciumgarnonswilliams2

Spreading.
Fragrant honey scent, 5 petalled

2 x 3
(6 x 8)

Chalk, Peaty, Scree, Sand.
Considering they grow in rocky/gravelly soil, good drainage will make all the difference and they do prefer a dryer spot in general.
Part Shade under trees or shrubs.
Dry.
 

Mid-Green above, Purplish beneath
cyclamenciliciumfolt9a1

The plant grows in a mound, 10 cm (3.9 in) tall and broad. The leaves are heart-shaped or oval and green, often patterned with silver

Cyclamen cilicium is hardy down to −5 °C (23 °F), so is best grown in a warm or coastal location. Pot plant in a cold greenhouse. Deciduous woodland.Shade in Rock Garden. Underplant roses. Mix with anemone, ranunculus, chionodoxa, crocus, scilla, galanthus, eranthis, primula, small ferns and hostas.

If not planted - corm should be just breaking surface and 2-3 inches apart - under trees, which provide fallen leaves in the autumn, then mulch with a little sifted leaf mould or peat moss in November. A little bonemeal added to the soil and used as a top dressing each spring will keep them happy.

Cyclamen
coum
(Eastern Sowbread)

White
or
Red

cyclamencoumalbumcflotfoord1a

cyclamencflocoumgarnonswilliams

March, April
March, April

cyclamenpfor2coumgarnonswilliams1b

Spreading.
5 Petals

2 x 4
(6 x 9)

Chalk, Peat, Sand
Part Shade under trees and shrubs
dry

Deep Green with Silver pattern
cyclamenpfor2coumgarnonswilliams3

These are fully hardy and are best planted under trees in well drained soil. Native to mountains and coastal areas. Among rocks and roots in unfertilized woodlands. Grow in pots.

Varying in colour from white through to red, cyclamen coum flower March-April, at the same time that the leaves are produced as a winter groundcover.

Cyclamen coum
'Album'
(Sowbread)

White
cyclamencoumalbumcflotfoord2

March, April

cyclamencoumalbumfort9b

Spreading.
5 Petals
 

2 x 4
(6 x 9)

Chalk, Peat, Sand
Part Shade under trees and shrubs
dry

The green leaves may marked with silver. They are round in shape. It flowers best in poor soils, so do not dig in compost or to add fertiliser as this will provide leaves but few flowers.

These are fully hardy and are best planted under trees in good fertile, well drained soil. Native to mountains and coastal areas. Among rocks and roots in unfertilized woodlands. Grow in pots.

Each white cyclamen coum bloom has a dark red mouth and flowers from late winter through to early spring, at the same time that the leaves are produced as winter groundcover.

Cyclamen hederifolium
(Persian Violet, Syn. Cyclamen neapolitanum)

Pink flowers are produced before the leaves
cyclamencpflo49hederifoliumgarnonswilliams

November, December

cyclamenpfor4hederifoliumgarnonswilliams2

Spreading
Scented
5 Petals
 

5 x 6
(12 x 15)
Chalk, Peat, Sand
Part Shade under trees or shrubs
Dry

Ivy-shaped, mottled leaves are variably colored, but usually gray-green with silver and white marbling.
cyclamenpfol1hederifoliumgarnonswilliams2
 

Deciduous and coniferous Woodland. Shaded part of Rock Garden. Coastal conditions as well. Almost evergreen ground cover.
Houseplant and Pot plant. Mass in front of shrubs / trees.

Self-seeds freely. Rare native UK plant from the Primrose Family. Same cultivation techniques as for cyclamen cilicium. Very long lived.

F

See Rock Garden Plant Index F Page for further details of Fritillaria. The bulbs of all fritillaria are very fragile and must be handled with care.

The Fritillaria Group is a special interest group within the Alpine Garden Society.
See Gardenia with their pages on plant combinations of Fritillaria with other plants.

Fritillaria imperiallis
(Imperial fritillary, Crown Imperial, Crown Imperial fritillary)

Orange,
Yellow or
Red.

fritillariacfloimperiallis2

July
July
July

fritillariaimperialisfort9b

Mat
6 petall,
Bell-shape flowers in a whorl

60 x 12
(150 x 30)
Plants succeed in most fertile, well-drained, humus-rich soils, avoiding pure chalk, heavy clay and boggy sites. Sand, or raised scree.
Light woodland shade.
Dry

Lance-shaped, glossy, Light Green

fritillariaimperialisfolt9b

Use in sunny border or rock garden. Deer, squiirels and rodent resistant. Plant a low ground cover over bulbs to shade these bulbs from the sun. Grow in Pot, Coastal Conditions, Mass and speciman.

The bulbs have an unpleasant foxy odour. Prone to attack by lily beetles. Companion plants are Berberis thunbergii 'Atropurpurea' and the Lily family - see Companion Planting. Use in greenhouse. Cottage garden, Alpine House

Fritillaria imperiallis 'Lutea'

Bright Yellow.

fritillariaimperialisluteaflot9

July

fritillariaimperialisluteafort9

Mat
6 petal,
Bell-shape flowers in a whorl

60 x 12
(150 x 30)
Plants succeed in most fertile, well-drained, humus-rich soils, avoiding pure chalk, heavy clay and boggy sites. Sand, or raised scree.
Light woodland shade.
Dry

Light Green

fritillariaimperialisluteafolt9

Use in sunny border or rock garden. Deer, squiirels and rodent resistant. Plant a low ground cover over bulbs to shade these bulbs from the sun. Grow in Pot, Coastal Conditions, Mass and speciman.

The bulbs have an unpleasant foxy odour. Prone to attack by lily beetles. Companion plants are Berberis thunbergii 'Atropurpurea' and the Lily family - see Companion Planting. Use in greenhouse. Cottage garden, Alpine House

Fritillaria imperiallis
'Rubra Maxima'

Orange-Red.

fritillariaimperialisrubramaximaflot9

July

Mat
6 petal,
Bell-shape flowers in a whorl

48 x 12
(120 x 30)

Light Green

fritillariafolimperialisrubramaximaroger

Use in sunny border or rock garden.Deer, squiirels and rodent resistant. Plant a low ground cover over bulbs to shade these bulbs from the sun. Grow in Pot, Coastal Conditions, Mass and speciman.

The bulbs have an unpleasant foxy odour. Prone to attack by lily beetles. Companion plants are Berberis thunbergii 'Atropurpurea' and the Lily family. Use in greenhouse. Cottage garden, Alpine House

G

Galanthus.co.uk contains information on all aspects of snowdrops, their care and their cultivation; based on their experience.
See Gardenia with their pages on plant combinations of Galanthus (Snowdrops) with other plants.

There are another 207 Gladiolii detailed in the Gladiolus Photo Gallery.
See Gardenia with their pages on plant combinations of Gladiolus (Sword Lilies) with other plants.

Galanthus elwesii (Snowdrop)

White

galanthuselwesiicflotfoord

March

Mat.
Honey scented, 6 tepal, bell-shaped flowers in 2 whorls

galanthuselwesiicfort9a1

8 x 12
(21 x 30)

Chalk, Part Shade
Moist

2-3 narrow (to 1.25 inch wide), linear, basal glaucous green leaves (to 4 inch long at flowering)

galanthuselwesiicfolt9a1

Best massed in sweeping drifts in areas where they can naturalize, such as open woodland areas, woodland margins or in lawns under large deciduous trees. Rock Garden and Edging. Houseplant.

A giant-flowered snowdrop with honey-scented blooms, which have two delicate green marks on the petals. The leaves are grey-green in colour.

Gladiolus communis
subsp. byzantinus

(Byzantine gladiolus. Known as Jacks or Whistling Jacks in Isles of Scilly, Cornwall and Devon)

Deep Magenta

gladioluscommunisbyzantinusflot9a

June, July

Clump.
6 petal, trumpet shaped blooms in a spike

36 x 12
(90 x 30)

Well-drained Sand, Chalk
Full Sun
Dry - but do not allow soils to dry out during the growing season

Narrow sword-shaped basal mid green leaves in a fan of 3-5.

gladiolusfort1communisbyzantinus1

Use in middle of suuny bed, hedgerows, cottage garden. Good with Centaurea cyanus and Papaver rhoes 'Shirley'. Grow with border phloxes to cover its position later. Houseplant. Plants will naturalize in the garden over time by cormlets and self-seeding.

It is fully hardy but does not like wet winters. Mulch in winter with hay/straw or evergreen boughs. Weed in Australia. When foliage of any gladioli goes yellow, remove corm from pot or ground to dry before planting later in the year

Gladiolus papilio
'Butterfly'
(Butterfly sword lily)

Red, Yellow, Pink

gladiolusbutterflyflot9a1

July, August

Clump.
4 Ruffled petals of hooded funnel flowers in a spike

gladiolusfortbutterfly1a

24-36 x 6 (60-90 x 15)

Sand, Chalk
Full Sun
Dry

Narrow, Grey-Green

Use in Cottage/Informal Garden style beds and borders. Useful Cut Flower. Can be used in Poor Soil. Speciman.
Houseplant -
Gladioli can be forced.

Where the plants are to tower above a groundwork of other material such as Antirrhinums, 12 inches (30 cm) each way is the most satisfactory distance with yellow Antirrhinums and blue Gladioli, scarlet Antirrhinums and white Gladioli, and vice versa.

H

Helleborus are often very tolerant of dry shade conditions and associate beautifully with snowdrops, Erythronium, Primula, Pulmonaria and Tiarella. Which hellebore should you grow where?
See Gardenia with their pages on plant combinations of Helleborus (Hellebores) with other plants.

The sap of the English Bluebell (Hyacinthoides non-scripta) was used to glue feathers onto arrows in the Middle Ages and to stiffen ruffs in Tudor times.

Hedysarum
hedysaroides
(Alpine French Honeysuckle, Alpine Sainfoin)

Red-Violet

hedysarumhedysaoidesflot9

August, September

hedysarumhedysaoidesfort9

Clump.
Spike

24 x 36
(60 x 90)

Alkaline Sand
Full Sun
Dry

Mid-Green

hedysarumhedysaoidesfolt9

Attractive to Bees and suitable for a Rock Garden.

Native habitat of Alpine French Honeysuckle is gravel river bars, roadsides, rocky hills and meadows, 1200-2500 metres in the Alps.

Helleborus
foetidus
(Stinking Hellebore is in the Buttercup Wildflower Family, Bear's Foot, Dungwort, Stinkwort.

Green

helleborusfoetidusflot9garnonswilliams

February, March,
April, May

helleborusfoetidusfort9

Upright.
Terminal clusters of bell-shaped flowers

30 x 18
(75 x 45)

Chalk or well-drained Clay
Full Sun, but prefers Shade
Moist

Mulch annually in autumn. Prevent soil from being dry or water-logged.

Dark Grey, palmate, deeply cut leaves

helleborusfoetidusfolt9
 

Grow in groups in mixed or shrub border, or naturalized in woodland garden. Contrasts well with Hostas and Ferns.

A native UK plant in woods, and scrub on chalk and limestone. Plant at foot of deciduous shrubs, where it will show up strongly once the shrub's leaves have been shed.

Helleborus
niger
(Christmas Rose, Black Hellebore)

White

helleborusflot1nigerfoord

February, March,
April, May

helleborusnigerfort9

Clump.
5 Sepals, cup-shaped flower

12 x 18
(30 x 45)

Well-drained Clay, Scree.
Prefers Part Shade instead of Full Shade.
Moist

Dark Green

helleborusnigerfolt9
In woods mix with Anemone nemerosa, Anemone trifolia, Cyclamen purpurascens.

Grow in groups in mixed or shrub border, or naturalized in woodland garden. Deer resistant. Place patio pot near kitchen to enjoy the winter bloom.

Mulch the Christmas Rose annually in autumn. Prevent soil from being dry or waterlogged. Always wear gloves when handling hellebores due to its poison. Cottage garden.

Helleborus
orientalis

(Lenten Rose, Lenten Hellebore, Oriental Hellebore)

White or
Greenish Cream

helleborusflot1orientalisfoord

February, March,
April, May

helleborusorientalisfort9

Clump
5 Sepals, Cup-shaped flower

18 x 18
(45 x 45)

Well-drained Clay
Part Shade
Moist

Dark Green

helleborusorientalisfolt9

Grow Lenten Rose in groups in mixed or shrub border, or naturalized in deciduous woodland garden. Repels deer.

Mulch the Lenten Rose annually in autumn. Prevent soil from being dry or water-logged. Always wear gloves when handling hellebores due to its poison.

Helleborus orientalis
abchasicus
(Lenten Rose)

Pale Green tinted
Reddish-Purple

helleborusorientalisabchasicusflot9

February, March,
April, May

Clump
5 Sepals, cup-shaped flowers - Locate plants near a kitchen window, patio or walkway so that the early bloom may be enjoyed to the fullest.

18 x 18
(45 x 45)
Clay. Shallow rocky soil. Very tolerant of most soils. They prefer a sheltered position in semi shade with a rich, moist free draining soil.

Dark Green. New leaves develop in April with a second generation in the autumn.
Remove old leaves in late December.

helleborusorientalisabchasicusfolt9

Grow in groups in mixed or shrub border, or naturalized in woodland garden. May also be massed to form an attractive ground cover.

Mulch the Lenten Rose annually in autumn. Prevent soil from being dry or water-logged. Always wear gloves when handling hellebores due to its poison.

Hyacinthoides hispanica
(Scilla hispanica, Scilla campanulata, Endymion hispanicus, Spanish Bluebell, Wood Hyacinth)

Blue

hyacinthoidesflothispanica

April, May

hyacinthoidesforthispanica

Clump.
6 petal, bell-shaped, not fragrant flowers in Spike

17 x 5
(42 x 12)

Chalk, Prefers Sand.
Part Shade
Moist

Resistant to deer and rodents

2-6 Glossy Dark Green strap-shaped

hyacinthoidesfolthispanica

Cut flower, bedding.

Grow in groups as underplanting in shrub border, or naturalized in grass or woodland garden. Edging and Rock Garden.

May be grown in pots/containers, alone or in combination with other spring flowering bulbs.
The Spanish Bluebell self-seeds.

Hyacinthoides
non-scripta
(formerly Endymion non-scriptus or Scilla non-scripta,
English Bluebell, Common Bluebell, Bluebell)

The English Bluebell is Native UK plant in the Lily Family.

Mid-Blue or
White

hyacinthoidesflotnonscripta

April, May
April, May

hyacinthoidesfortnonscripta

Clump
Scented, recurved tepal, tubular flowers in one-sided spike

12 x 3
(30 x 8)

Chalk,
Part Shade
Moist

Good in woodland in association with Red Campion and Greater Stitchwort.

Glossy Dark Green

hyacinthoidesfoltnonscripta
Plant them in pots and once they have flowered , replace the pots into the greenhouse until the following year, because of their dying foliage.

Grow in groups as under-planting in shrub border, or naturalized in grass or woodland garden.

Its natural Habitat is Woodland, hedgerows, shady banks, under bracken on coastal cliffs and uplands. Pollinated by bumblebees. They flower at the same time as hyacinths, Narcissus and some tulips.

I

The British Iris Society was founded in 1922 by iris enthusiasts whose interests were primarily to establish a forum for the exchange of views and knowledge of the genus.

Impatiens
tinctoria
(Balsam)

Scented White

impatiensflottinctoria

July, August,
September, October

The butterfly-shaped flowers appear at the tops of the branches most months of the year.  The spur-shaped blossoms are white with red streaks, and have a curved, red spur in back that's almost 5 inches long!  The blooms have a sweet aroma and are especially fragrant in the morning.

96 x 36
(240 x 90)

John Innes No. 2 for pots.
Full Sun - It prefers filtered sunlight, or bright shade with some morning sun.
Moderate to high humidity - over 40% is recommended.

Large, ovate-lanceolate, Green

Can be grown as houseplant in the UK, since it is frost tender.

The plant can be brought indoors over the winter, where it may stay evergreen and continue flowering.  It will need a very large pot - at least 15 gallons.  If the pot is too small, the tubers may break it!  It can be grown outdoors in the ground in the Isle of Wight and the Channel Islands if mulched heavily and given overhead protection. 

Impatiens tinctoria comes from higher elevations in central Africa, where the climate is relatively cool.  Ideally it prefers temperatures between about 50 and 80 degrees Centigrade.  It can tolerate temperatures in the 80s and even above, but it might decline in consistently hot temperatures, especially if nights are warm. Like most Impatiens, it enjoys moist, well draining soil and regular feeding. 

Iris
foetidissima
(Stinking Iris, Coral Fruit Iris, Gladwin Iris)

Roast-Beef Plant is a Native UK plant from the Iris Family.

Purple tinged
with Yellow

irisflotfoetidissima

iriscflot9foetidissima

June, July

irisfortfoetidissima
Stemless. Clump.

Good for seaside gardens and can be naturalized in hedge bottoms or wooded corners.

24 x 6
(60 x 15)

irisfrufoetidissimaseed

seed capsules.
Acidic Sand with leaf-mould.
Full Sun, Part Shade.
Dry

Dark Green, sword-shaped leaves, up to 30 inches (75 cm) long

irisfoltfoetidissima

Use a compost of equal parts light loam (sandy loam), leaf mould, and silver sand for pots inhouse.

Stinking gladwin is a species of iris found in open woodland, hedgebanks and sea-cliffs. The burst seedpods make good cuttings for bouquets. Grow in pots. Deer, Rabbit resistant. Pollinated by bumblebees.

Partially expose the rhizome when planting in groups of three; 6-12 inches apart. Mulch the Stinking Iris with organic matter in the Spring. After 4 years, divide and replant in fresh soil. Self-seeds.

Iris laevigata
(Japanese Water Iris, Rabbit-ear Iris, Kakitsubata, Kombirei )

The Species Iris Group of North America (SIGNA) has further details on this plant.

Purple-Blue

iriscflot9laevigata

May, June

irisfortlaevigata
Stemless.
6 petals in an umbel

30 x 6
(75 x 15)

Acidic Sand with composted organic material.
Full Sun
Wet - It is found growing in shallow waters and seems to prefer marshy and still ponds although it can also be grown in damp soil if conditions are right.

Mid Green, sword-shaped leaves

irisfoltlaevigata

Double-pot your plants for insulation from the sun’s radiant heat, also for decorative purposes and let them flower in a cold greenhouse

The Japanese Water Iris much prefers to be grown in water. Can be used in small water features as well as a marginal in ponds.

Recom-mended water depth over crown of plant:
0 - 10cm (0 - 4 inches)

Broad sword-shaped leaves with tall mid-blue iris flowers which have a narrow cream splash on the falls. For cultivation indoors of bulbous Irises, a compost of equal parts light loam (sandy loam), leaf mould, and silver sand

Iris pseudacorus
(Yellow Flag, Pale yellow iris, water flag)

Yellow Flag is a Native UK plant from the Iris Family.

Yellow

irisflotpseudacorus
3 large downward-spreading sepals and 3 smaller erect petals

August, September

irisfortpseudacorus
Stemless.

3 petals in star-shaped flower.

36-48 x 12 (90-120 x 30)

Acidic Sand.
Full Sun
Wet - Grows in water to 25 cm deep, or very near water, such as lakeside muds.

Grey-Green, sword-like

irisfoltpseudacorus

Mulch with organic matter in the Spring.

Yellow Flag can be invasive when planted as a marginal in a pond. Clumped distribution in grasslands, more linear growth in woodlands. Indoor plant within water.

Partially expose the rhizome when planting in groups of three 6-12 inches apart. After 4 years, divide and replant in fresh soil. It is a weed in New Zealand and prohibited in USA. It is used as an erosion control plant

M

Mitella breweri
(Bishop's Cap, Mitrewort)

Yellowish-Green

mitellaflobreweriformmay81

May, June, July

mitellabrewerifort

Clump.
5 petals in saucer-shaped flowers on a
Spike.

6 x 8
(15 x 21)

Leafy Acidic Sand.
Part Shade
Moist

Mid Green, shiny, hairy

mitellabrewerifolt

Use for groundcover in a woodland garden. Grows in moist meadows, moist woods, along streams and mountain forests. Suitable for containers.

Self-seeds freely. Very pretty tiny pale green flowers on many short flower spikes. It creeps to form dense carpets under trees and shrubs.

Mimulus
primuloides
(Erythranthe primuloides, Monkey Flower, Musk)
UK native plant Primrose Monkeyflower from the Figwort Family
 

Yellow with Red-spotted
throats

mimulusprimuloidesflot

July, August

mimulusprimuloidesfort

Moss-like Mat.
5 Sepal, tubular-shaped flower on a stem

4 x 8
(9 x 21)

Clay, Peaty.
Full Sun, Part Shade.
Very Moist - Native USA Plant in Western Mountains, Valleys, and Coast.

Light to Mid Green, lance-shaped leaves in a basal rosette.

mimulusprimuloidesfolt

Plant in damp section of rock garden. A ground cover for small, moist situations, creek side situations.

It grows in wet habitat in mountains and plateau areas, such as stream banks.
The plant forms like bulblets which go dormant in winter so it should emerge again in Spring.

O

Omphalodes
cappadocica
(Cappadocian Navelwort, Blue-eyed Mary)

White-eyed,
azure Blue

omphalodesflotcappadocicaformapr71

April

omphalodesfortcappadocicaformapr71

Clump.
5 petal, star-shaped flower on a spray

10 x 16
(24 x 39)

Chalk, Peaty.
Part Shade
Moist

The foliage is a very bright green and heart shaped, forming 40cm patches of tight rosettes all year round.

omphalodesfoltcappadocicaformapr71

Use Navelwort as groundcover in a moist, shady, border, rock garden or woodland garden to create a slowly creeping carpet of shiny leaves

Prefers areas with moist soil and dappled shade in the afternoon but can tolerate occasional periods of drought.
Native to woodland habitats in Turkey.

Ophiopogon
planiscapus
(Lilyturf, Mondo Grass)

Pale Purplish-White

ophiopogonplaniscapusflot

July, August

ophiopogonplaniscapusfort

Clump, Spreading.
5 petal, bell-shaped flowers on a spike

8 x 12
(21 x 30)

Acid Sand with Peaty.
Full Sun, Part Shade
Moist

The Japanese have been selecting new color forms, some may be grown by Plant Delights Nursery.

Tufts of grass-like, Dark Green leaves

ophiopogonplaniscapusfolt

Can be used as a turf subst-itute (no mowing though)

Grow as grassy groundcover, for border edging, in a rock garden, in pots, edging or peat bed. It is native to Japan, where it grows on open and forested slopes.

Top-dress annually with leaf mould in the autumn.
The plants spread by underground stolons with thick fleshy roots making fair sized colonies which can be separated by division in the spring.

Ophiopogon
planiscapus
'Nigrescens'
(Lilyturf, Mondo Grass)

Pale Purplish-White

ophiopogonplaniscapusnigrescensflot2

July, August

ophiopogonplaniscapusnigrescensfort2

Clump, stemless,
Spreading.
5 petal, bell-shaped flowers on a Short spike

8 x 12
(21 x 30)

ophiopogonplaniscapusnigrescensfrut2

seed capsules

Acid Sand with Peaty.
Full Sun, but prefers Part Shade.
Moist

Almost Black foliage

ophiopogonplaniscapusnigrescensfolt2

Can be used as a turf subst-itute (no mowing though)

Grow as grassy groundcover in raised beds, for border edging, in a rock garden or peat bed. Also alongside streams and pond margins. This may also be grown in containers and wintered indoors in a sunny window.

For growth as a ground cover, plants are best spaced 4” apart.
Top-dress annually with leaf mould in the autumn. Contrast this with yellow or grey-foliaged plants, such as Golden Creeping Jenny (Lysimachia nummularia ‘Aurea') or Creeping Lamium (Lamium maculatum).

S

Scilla siberica is 1 of the 4 scilla detailed in the Rock Garden Plant Index S Page, which can be used as an alpine in a rock garden.

Scilla siberica
(Siberian Squill, Wood Squill)
 

Bright Blue

scillapflo4sibericagarnonswilliams

April, May

scillapflo1sibericagarnonswilliams
Stemless, Erect.

6 Petal, star or bell-shaped flowers in a spike

6 x 6
(15 x 15)

Deep, fertile, well-drained Chalk or Sand.
Full Sun, Part Shade
Dry

Thin, sword-like, Mid Green leaves

scillapfol1sibericagarnonswilliams

Grow very well in the garden, thriving under trees or the open border.
Grow under edge of deciduous woodland and shrubs, naturalizes in grass or scattered in rock garden. Grow in pans in Alpine House

Plant 3-4 inches deep and 6-8 inches apart in grass, and it will spread by seed to form large colonies that go dormant by the time grass needs to be mowed. Keep dry during summer dormancy. To extend the spring floral show, mix scilla with other early spring bulbs that spread, such as  snowdrops and glory-of-the-snow, which bloom a little earlier. Or try planting them under the forsythia.

Scilla
peruviana
(Portuguese Squill, Giant Scilla)

Purplish-Blue or
White

scillaflotperuviana

Poisonous if ingested.

June
June

scillafortperuviana

Clump.

Up to 100 of
6 tepal,
star-shaped flowers within a 6 inch (15 cm) sphere

12 x 12
(30 x 30)

Deep fertile Chalk, but prefers Sand.
Full Sun, Part Shade.
Dry

24 inch
(60 cm) long green strap-shaped leaves develops in the autumn as old leaves fade.

scillafoltperuviana

Plant with neck at soil level and 6-8 inches apart.

Grow under deciduous trees and shrubs, or in grass.
Suitable for growing in sheltered gardens only, otherwise grow it in pots.
 

Completely unlike any of the other Scillas. Plant with neck at soil level and 6-8 inches apart. It mixes brightly with pinks and whites, and contrast crisply with yellows and golds - from Scilla Planting Guide

Symphytum
ibericum
(Symphytum grandiflorum of gardens, Comfrey, Dwarf Comfrey, Georgian Comfrey, Iberium Comfrey)

Pale Yellow

symphytumflotibericum

May, June

Upright Mounds.
Tubular flowers in a terminal spray

16 x 24
(39 x 60)

Fertile Chalk, Fertile Clay, or Sand with Peaty.
Full Sun, Part Shade
Moist

Hairy Mid Green

symphytumfoltibericum

Excellent ground-cover plant for a shady border or woodland garden, but they can be rampant. Attracts bees and butterflies. Suitable for coastal conditions.

Erect Form becomes Decumbent (Growing close to the ground but usually with upward-growing tips). Makes impenetrable weed-cover in shade - particularly beneath trees and shrubs where it is difficult to establish other plants.

T

Tricyrtis hirta
(Tricyrtis japonica, Toad Lily, Japanese Toad Lily)

Purple-spotted
White

tricyrtisflothirta

August, September,
October

Clump
6 tepal, star-shaped flowers in a bunch

30 x 24
(75 x 60)

Deep fertile humus in Chalk or prefers acidic Sand.
Part Shade, Full Shade.
Moist

Pale Green

tricyrtisfolthirta
 

Use Toad Lily in woodland garden, a shady border, naturalized or a peat bank. Useful cut flower, and in pots which never dry out.

Plant in areas where they can be easily observed at close range, because the beauty and detail of the small flowers becomes lost at a distance.
Plant it with Astilbes for a nice textural contrast, or with Cimifuga ‘Black Negligee’ to bring out the purple of the flowers.

Ivydene Horticultural Services logo with I design, construct and maintain private gardens. I also advise and teach you in your own garden. 01634 389677

 

Site design and content copyright ©January 2007.
Page structure amended November 2012.
Feet changed to inches (cms) July 2015.
Index structure changed and links from thumbnail to another bulb page changed from adding that bulb description page to changing page to that bulb description page November 2015.
Colour Wheel per Month and Index to other Bulbs in other Bulb Galleries added May 2017.
Bulb Description Pages updated April 2018.

Chris Garnons-Williams.

DISCLAIMER: Links to external sites are provided as a courtesy to visitors. Ivydene Horticultural Services are not responsible for the content and/or quality of external web sites linked from this site.  

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

There are other pages on Plants which bloom in each month of the year in this website:-

 

 

THE 2 EUREKA EFFECT PAGES FOR UNDERSTANDING SOIL AND HOW PLANTS INTERACT WITH IT OUT OF 15,000:-


Explanation of Structure of this Website with User Guidelines Page for those photo galleries with Photos
(of either ones I have taken myself or others which have been loaned only for use on this website from external sources)

-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Choose 1 of these different Plant selection Methods:-

1. Choose a plant from 1 of 53 flower colours in the Colour Wheel Gallery.

2. Choose a plant from 1 of 12 flower colours in each month of the year from 12 Bloom Colours per Month Index Gallery.

3. Choose a plant from 1 of 6 flower colours per month for each type of plant:-
Aquatic
Bedding
Bulb
Climber
Conifer
Deciduous Shrub
Deciduous Tree
Evergreen Perennial
Evergreen Shrub
Evergreen Tree
Hedging
Herbaceous Perennial
Herb
Odds and Sods
Rhododendron
Rose
Soft Fruit
Top Fruit
Wild Flower

4. Choose a plant from its Flower Shape:-
Shape, Form
Index

Flower Shape

5. Choose a plant from its foliage:-
Bamboo
Conifer
Fern
Grass
Vegetable

6. There are 6 Plant Selection Levels including Bee Pollinated Plants for Hay Fever Sufferers in
Plants Topic.

or

7. When I do not have my own or ones from mail-order nursery photos , then from March 2016, if you want to start from the uppermost design levels through to your choice of cultivated and wildflower plants to change your Plant Selection Process then use the following galleries:-

  • Create and input all plants known by Amateur Gardening inserted into their Sanders' Encyclopaedia from their edition published in 1960 (originally published by them in 1895) into these
    • Stage 1 - Garden Style Index Gallery,
      then
    • Stage 2 - Infill Plants Index Gallery being the only gallery from these 7 with photos (from Wikimedia Commons) ,
      then
    • Stage 3 - All Plants Index Gallery with each plant species in its own Plant Type Page followed by choice from Stage 4a, 4b, 4c and/or 4d REMEMBERING THE CONSTRAINTS ON THE SELECTION FROM THE CHOICES MADE IN STAGES 1 AND 2
    • Stage 4a - 12 Bloom Colours per Month Index Gallery,
    • Stage 4b - 12 Foliage Colours per Month Index Gallery with
    • Stage 4c - Cultivation, Position, Use Index Gallery and
    • Stage 4d - Shape, Form Index Gallery
    • Unfortunately, if you want to have 100's of choices on selection of plants from 1000's of 1200 pixels wide by up to 16,300 pixels in length webpages, which you can jump to from almost any of the pages in these 7 galleries above, you have to put up with those links to those choices being on
      • the left topic menu table,
      • the header of the middle data table and on
      • the page/index menu table on the right of every page of those galleries.

 

I like reading and that is shown by the index in my Library, where I provide lists of books to take you between designing, maintaining or building a garden and the hierarchy of books on plants taking you from

Functional combinations in the border from the International Flower Bulb Centre in Holland:-

"Here is a list of the perennials shown by research to be the best plants to accompany various flower bulbs. The flower bulbs were tested over a period of years in several perennial borders that had been established for at least three years.

In combination with hyacinths:

In combination with tulips:

In combination with narcissi:

For narcissi, the choice was difficult to make. The list contains only some of the perennials that are very suitable for combining with narcissi. In other words, narcissi can easily compete with perennials.

In combination with specialty bulbs:

 

Before reaching for the pesticides, here are a few alternative natural, non-toxic methods of slug control:  

• Watering Schedule - Far and away the best course of action against slugs in your garden is a simple adjustment in the watering schedule. Slugs are most active at night and are most efficient in damp conditions. Avoid watering your garden in the evening if you have a slug problem. Water in the morning - the surface soil will be dry by evening. Studies show this can reduce slug damage by 80%.

 

• Seaweed - If you have access to seaweed, it's well worth the effort to gather. Seaweed is not only a good soil amendment for the garden, it's a natural repellent for slugs. Mulch with seaweed around the base of plants or perimeter of bed. Pile it on 3" to 4" thick - when it dries it will shrink to just an inch or so deep. Seaweed is salty and slugs avoid salt. Push the seaweed away from plant stems so it's not in direct contact. During hot weather, seaweed will dry and become very rough which also deters the slugs.

 

• Copper - Small strips of copper can be placed around flower pots or raised beds as obstructions for slugs to crawl over. Cut 2" strips of thin copper and wrap around the lower part of flower pots, like a ribbon. Or set the strips in the soil on edge, making a "fence" for the slugs to climb. Check to make sure no vegetation hangs over the copper which might provide a 'bridge' for the slugs. Copper barriers also work well around wood barrels used as planters.
A non-toxic copper-based metallic mesh Slug Shield is available which can be wrapped around the stem of plants and acts as a barrier to slugs. When slugs come in contact with the mesh they receive an electric-like shock. The mesh also serves as a physical barrier. These slug shields are reusable, long-lasting and weather-proof.

 

• Diatomaceous Earth - Diatomaceous earth (Also known as "Insect Dust") is the sharp, jagged skeletal remains of microscopic creatures. It lacerates soft-bodied pests, causing them to dehydrate. A powdery granular material, it can be sprinkled around garden beds or individual plants, and can be mixed with water to make a foliar spray.
Diatomaceous earth is less effective when wet, so use during dry weather. Wear protective gear when applying, as it can irritate eyes and lungs. Be sure to buy natural or agricultural grade diatomaceous earth, not pool grade which has smoother edges and is far less effective. Click for more information or to purchase Food Grade Diatomaceous Earth.

 

• Electronic "slug fence" - An electronic slug fence is a non-toxic, safe method for keeping slugs out of garden or flower beds. The Slugs Away fence is a 24-foot long, 5" ribbon-like barrier that runs off a 9 volt battery. When a slug or snail comes in contact with the fence, it receives a mild static sensation that is undetectable to animals and humans. This does not kill the slug, it cause it to look elsewhere for forage. The battery will power the fence for about 8 months before needing to be replaced. Extension kits are availabe for increased coverage. The electronic fence will repel slugs and snails, but is harmless to people and pets.

 

• Lava Rock - Like diatomaceous earth, the abrasive surface of lava rock will be avoided by slugs. Lava rock can be used as a barrier around plantings, but should be left mostly above soil level, otherwise dirt or vegetation soon forms a bridge for slugs to cross.

• Salt - If all else fails, go out at night with the salt shaker and a flashlight. Look at the plants which have been getting the most damage and inspect the leaves, including the undersides. Sprinkle a bit of salt on the slug and it will kill it quickly. Not particularly pleasant, but use as a last resort. (Note: some sources caution the use of salt, as it adds a toxic element to the soil. This has not been our experience, especially as very little salt is used.)

• Beer - Slugs are attracted to beer. Set a small amount of beer in a shallow wide jar buried in the soil up to its neck. Slugs will crawl in and drown. Take the jar lid and prop it up with a small stick so rain won't dilute the beer. Leave space for slugs to enter the trap.

• Overturned Flowerpots, Grapefruit Halves, Board on Ground - Overturned flowerpots, with a stone placed under the rim to tilt it up a bit, will attract slugs. Leave overnight, and you'll find the slugs inside in the morning. Grapefruit halves work the same way, with the added advantage of the scent of the fruit as bait.
Another trap method, perhaps the simplest of all, is to set a wide board on the ground by the affected area. Slugs will hide under the board by day. Simply flip the board over during the day to reveal the culprits. Black plastic sheeting also works the same way.

 

• Garlic-based slug repellents
Laboratory tests at the University of Newcastle-Upon-Tyne (UK) revealed that a highly refined garlic product (ECOguard produced by ECOspray Ltd, a British company that makes organic pesticides) was an effective slug killer. Look for garlic-based slug deterrents which will be emerging under various brand names, as well as ECOguard.

• Coffee grounds; new caffeine-based slug/snail poisons - Coffee grounds scattered on top of the soil will deter slugs. The horticultural side effects of using strong grounds such as espresso on the garden, however, are less certain. When using coffee grounds, moderation is advised.
A study in June 2002 reported in the journal Nature found that slugs and snails are killed when sprayed with a caffeine solution, and that spraying plants with this solution prevents slugs from eating them. The percentage of caffeine required in a spray (1 - 2%) is greater than what is found in a cup of coffee (.05 - 07%), so homemade sprays are not as effective. Look for new commercial sprays which are caffeine-based.

 

If you want to read some light relief material about plants visit Plants are the Strangest People.

White Flower Farm's list of Deer-and-Rodent-Resistant Bulbs.

 

The following details come from Cactus Art:-

"A flower is the the complex sexual reproductive structure of Angiosperms, typically consisting of an axis bearing perianth parts, androecium (male) and gynoecium (female).    

Bisexual flower show four distinctive parts arranged in rings inside each other which are technically modified leaves: Sepal, petal, stamen & pistil. This flower is referred to as complete (with all four parts) and perfect (with "male" stamens and "female" pistil). The ovary ripens into a fruit and the ovules inside develop into seeds.

Incomplete flowers are lacking one or more of the four main parts. Imperfect (unisexual) flowers contain a pistil or stamens, but not both. The colourful parts of a flower and its scent attract pollinators and guide them to the nectary, usually at the base of the flower tube.

partsofaflowersmallest

 

Androecium (male Parts or stamens)
It is made up of the filament and anther, it is the pollen producing part of the plant.
Anther This is the part of the stamen that produces and contains pollen. 
Filament This is the fine hair-like stalk that the anther sits on top of.
Pollen This is the dust-like male reproductive cell of flowering plants.

Gynoecium (female Parts or carpels or pistil)
 It is made up of the stigma, style, and ovary. Each pistil is constructed of one to many rolled leaflike structures.
Stigma
This is the part of the pistil  which receives the pollen grains and on which they germinate. 
Style
This is the long stalk that the stigma sits on top of ovary. 
Ovary
The part of the plant that contains the ovules. 
Ovule
The part of the ovary that becomes the seeds. 

Petal 
The colorful, often bright part of the flower (corolla). 
Sepal 
The parts that look like little green leaves that cover the outside of a flower bud (calix). 
(Undifferentiated "Perianth segment" that are not clearly differentiated into sepals and petals, take the names of tepals.)"

 

 

 

The following details come from Nectary Genomics:-

"NECTAR. Many flowering plants attract potential pollinators by offering a reward of floral nectar. The primary solutes found in most nectars are varying ratios of sucrose, glucose and fructose, which can range from as little a 8% (w/w) in some species to as high as 80% in others. This abundance of simple sugars has resulted in the general perception that nectar consists of little more than sugar-water; however, numerous studies indicate that it is actually a complex mixture of components. Additional compounds found in a variety of nectars include other sugars, all 20 standard amino acids, phenolics, alkaloids, flavonoids, terpenes, vitamins, organic acids, oils, free fatty acids, metal ions and proteins.

NECTARIES. An organ known as the floral nectary is responsible for producing the complex mixture of compounds found in nectar. Nectaries can occur in different areas of flowers, and often take on diverse forms in different species, even to the point of being used for taxonomic purposes. Nectaries undergo remarkable morphological and metabolic changes during the course of floral development. For example, it is known that pre-secretory nectaries in a number of species accumulate large amounts of starch, which is followed by a rapid degradation of amyloplast granules just prior to anthesis and nectar secretion. These sugars presumably serve as a source of nectar carbohydrate.

WHY STUDY NECTAR? Nearly one-third of all worldwide crops are dependent on animals to achieve efficient pollination. In addition, U.S. pollinator-dependent crops have been estimated to have an annual value of up to $15 billion. Many crop species are largely self-incompatible (not self-fertile) and almost entirely on animal pollinators to achieve full fecundity; poor pollinator visitation has been reported to reduce yields of certain species by up to 50%."

BULB FLOWER SHAPE GALLERY PAGES

lessershapemeadowrue2a1a1a

alliumcflohaireasytogrowbulbs1

berberisdarwiniiflower10h3a14c2a

irisflotpseudacorus1a

aethionemacfloarmenumfoord1

anemonecflo1hybridafoord1

anemonecflo1blandafoord1

Number of Flower Petals

Petal-less

1

2

3

4

5

Above 5

anthericumcfloliliagofoord1a

alliumcflo1roseumrvroger1

geraniumflocineremuballerina1a1a1a1a

paeoniamlokosewitschiiflot1a

paeoniaveitchiiwoodwardiiflot1

acantholimoncfloglumaceumfoord1a

stachysflotmacrantha1a

Flower Shape - Simple

Stars with Single Flowers

Bowls

Cups and Saucers

Globes

Goblets and Chalices

Trumpets

Funnels

 

digitalismertonensiscflorvroger1

fuchsiaflotcalicehoffman1a

ericacarneacflosspringwoodwhitedeeproot1a1

phloxflotsubulatatemiskaming1a

 

 

 

Flower Shape - Simple

Bells

Thimbles

Urns

Salverform

 

 

 

 

prunellaflotgrandiflora1

aquilegiacfloformosafoord1

acanthusspinosuscflocoblands1

lathyrusflotvernus1

anemonecflo1coronariastbrigidgeetee1

echinaceacflo1purpurealustrehybridsgarnonswilliams1

centaureacfloatropurpureakavanagh1

Flower Shape - Elabor-ated

Tubes, Lips and Straps

Slippers, Spurs and Lockets

Hats, Hoods and Helmets

Stan-dards, Wings and Keels

Discs and Florets

Pin-Cushions

Tufts and Petal-less Cluster

 

androsacecforyargongensiskevock1

androsacecflorigidakevock1

argyranthemumflotcmadeiracrestedyellow1

armeriacflomaritimakevock1

anemonecflonemerosaalbaplenarvroger1

 

 

Flower Shape - Elabor-ated

Cushion

Umbel

Buttons with Double Flowers

Pompoms

Stars with Semi-Double Flowers

 

 

 

bergeniamorningredcforcoblands1a

ajugacfloreptansatropurpurea1

lamiumflotorvala2a

astilbepurplelancecflokevock1a

berberisdarwiniiflower10h3a1433a1a1a

berberisdarwiniiflower10h3a1434a1a1a

androsacecfor1albanakevock1

Natural Arrange-ments

Bunches, Posies and Sprays (Group)

Columns, Spikes and Spires

Whorls, Tiers and Cande-labra

Plumes and Tails

Chains and Tassels

Clouds, Garlands and Cascades

Sphere, Dome (Clusters), Drumstick and Plate

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

BULB
FORM, BULB USE AND BULB IN SOIL GALLERY PAGES


Bulbs in Cultivation
including vital bulb soil preparation from

Bulbs for Small Garden by E.C.M. Haes. Published by Pan Books in 1967:-

Bulbs in the Small Garden with Garden Plan and its different bulb sections

A choice of Outdoor Bulbs

False Bulbs

Bulbs Indoors

Bulb Calendar

Planting Times and Depth

Composts

Bulb Form

Mat-Forming

Prostrate or Trailing

Cushion or Mound-forming

Spreading or Creeping

Clump-forming

Stemless. Sword-shaped Leaves

Erect or Upright

Bulb Use

Other than Only Green Foliage

Bedding or Mass Planting

Ground-Cover

Cut-Flower
1
, 2

Tolerant of Shade

In Woodland Areas

Under-plant

Tolerant of Poor Soil

Covering Banks

In Water

Beside Stream or Water Garden

Coastal Conditions

Edging Borders

Back of Border or Back-ground Plant

Fragrant Flowers

Not Fragrant Flowers

Indoor House-plant

Grow in a Patio Pot
1
, 2

Grow in an Alpine Trough

Grow in an Alpine House

Grow in Rock Garden

Speciman Plant

Into Native Plant Garden

Naturalize in Grass

Grow in Hanging Basket

Grow in Window-box

Grow in Green-house

Grow in Scree

 

 

Natural-ized Plant Area

Grow in Cottage Garden

Attracts Butter-flies

Attracts Bees

Resistant to Wildlife

Bulb in Soil

Chalk 1, 2

Clay

Sand 1, 2

Lime-Free (Acid)

Peat

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Bulb Height from Text Border

Brown= 0-12 inches (0-30 cms)

Blue = 12-24 inches (30-60 cms)

Green= 24-36 inches (60-90 cms)

Red = 36+ inches (90+ cms)

Bulb Soil Moisture from Text Background

Wet Soil

Moist Soil

Dry Soil

Flowering months range abreviates month to its first 3 letters (Apr-Jun is April, May and June).

Click on thumbnail to change this comparison page to the Plant Description Page of the Bulb named in the Text box below that photo.
The Comments Row of that Plant Description Page links to where you personally can purchase that bulb via mail-order.

Topic
Case Studies
...Drive Foundations with 8 problems caused by clay, ryegrass (kills plants) in Roadstone and CedarGravel creates stable drive surface.
Companion Planting
...A, B, C, D, E,
...F, G, H, I, J, K,
...L, M, N, O, P, Q,
...R, S, T, U, V, W,
...X, Y, Z
...Pest Control
...using Plants

Garden
Construction

with ground drains
Garden Design
...How to Use the Colour Wheel Concepts for Selection of Flowers, Foliage and Flower Shape
...RHS Mixed
Borders

......Bedding Plants
......Her Perennials
......Other Plants
......Camera photos of Plant supports
Garden
Maintenance

Glossary with a tomato teaching cauliflowers
Home
Library of over 1000 books
Offbeat Glossary with DuLally Bird in its flower clock.
Plants
...in Chalk (Alkaline) Soil
......A-F1, A-F2,
......A-F3, G-L, M-R,
......M-R Roses, S-Z
...in Heavy Clay Soil
......A-F, G-L, M-R,
......S-Z
...in Lime-Free
(Acid) Soil
......A-F, G-L, M-R,
......S-Z
...in Light Sand Soil
......A-F, G-L, M-R,
......S-Z
...Poisonous Plants
...Extra Plant Pages

Soil
...
Interaction between 2 Quartz Sand Grains to make soil
...
How roots of plants are in control in the soil
...
Without replacing Soil Nutrients, the soil will break up to only clay, sand or silt
...
Subsidence caused by water in Clay
...Use water ring for trees/shrubs for first 2 years

Tool Shed with 3 kneeling pads
Useful Data with benefits of Seaweed

................

Topic - Plant Photo Galleries

Topic - Plant with Photo Index of Ivydene Gardens with
Camera Photo Galleries are in the last row


Bulb with its 7 Flower Colours per Month Comparison Pages
...Allium/ Anemone
...Autumn
...Colchicum/ Crocus
...Dahlia
...Gladiolus
......European A-E
......European F-M
......European N-Z
......Eur Non-classified
......American A
......American B
......American C
......American D
......American E
......American F
......American G
......American H
......American I
......American J
......American K
......American L
......American M
......American N
......American O
......American P
......American Q
......American R
......American S
......American T
......American U
......American V
......American W
......American XYZ
......Ame Non-classified
......Australia - empty
......India

......Lithuania
...Hippeastrum/ Lily
...Late Summer
...Narcissus
...Spring
...Tulip
...Winter
...Each of the above ...Bulb Galleries has its own set of Flower Colour Pages
...Flower Shape
...Bulb Form

...Bulb Use

...Bulb in Soil

Further details on bulbs from the Infill Galleries:-
Hardy Bulbs
...Aconitum
...Allium
...Alstroemeria
...Anemone

...Amaryllis
...Anthericum
...Antholyzas
...Apios
...Arisaema
...Arum
...Asphodeline

...Asphodelus
...Belamcanda
...Bloomeria
...Brodiaea
...Bulbocodium

...Calochorti
...Cyclobothrias
...Camassia
...Colchicum
...Convallaria 
...Forcing Lily of the Valley
...Corydalis
...Crinum
...Crosmia
...Montbretia
...Crocus

...Cyclamen
...Dicentra
...Dierama
...Eranthis
...Eremurus
...Erythrnium
...Eucomis

...Fritillaria
...Funkia
...Galanthus
...Galtonia
...Gladiolus
...Hemerocallis

...Hyacinth
...Hyacinths in Pots
...Scilla
...Puschkinia
...Chionodoxa
...Chionoscilla
...Muscari

...Iris
...Kniphofia
...Lapeyrousia
...Leucojum

...Lilium
...Lilium in Pots
...Malvastrum
...Merendera
...Milla
...Narcissus
...Narcissi in Pots

...Ornithogalum
...Oxalis
...Paeonia
...Ranunculus
...Romulea
...Sanguinaria
...Sternbergia
...Schizostylis
...Tecophilaea
...Trillium

...Tulip
...Zephyranthus

Half-Hardy Bulbs
...Acidanthera
...Albuca
...Alstroemeri
...Andro-stephium
...Bassers
...Boussing-aultias
...Bravoas
...Cypellas
...Dahlias
...Galaxis,
...Geissorhizas
...Hesperanthas

...Gladioli
...Ixias
...Sparaxises
...Babianas
...Morphixias
...Tritonias

...Ixiolirions
...Moraeas
...Ornithogalums
...Oxalises
...Phaedra-nassas
...Pancratiums
...Tigridias
...Zephyranthes
...Cooperias


Uses of Bulbs:-
...for Bedding
...in Windowboxes
...in Border
...naturalized in Grass
...in Bulb Frame
...in Woodland Garden
...in Rock Garden
...in Bowls
...in Alpine House
...Bulbs in Greenhouse or Stove:-
...Achimenes
...Alocasias
...Amorpho-phalluses
...Arisaemas
...Arums
...Begonias
...Bomareas
...Caladiums

...Clivias
...Colocasias
...Crinums
...Cyclamens
...Cyrtanthuses
...Eucharises
...Urceocharis
...Eurycles

...Freesias
...Gloxinias
...Haemanthus
...Hippeastrums

...Lachenalias
...Nerines
...Lycorises
...Pencratiums
...Hymenocallises
...Richardias
...Sprekelias
...Tuberoses
...Vallotas
...Watsonias
...Zephyranthes

...Plant Bedding in
......Spring

......Summer
...Bulb houseplants flowering inside House during:-
......January
......February
......March
......April
......May
......June
......July
......August
......September
......October
......November
......December
...Bulbs and other types of plant flowering during:-
......Dec-Jan
......Feb-Mar
......Apr-May
......Jun-Aug
......Sep-Oct
......Nov-Dec
...Selection of the smaller and choicer plants for the Smallest of Gardens with plant flowering during the same 6 periods as in the previous selection


........

If the plant type below has flowers, then the first gallery will include the flower thumbnail in each month of 1 of 6 flower colour comparison pages of each plant in its subsidiary galleries
Aquatic
Bamboo
Bedding
...by Flower Shape

Climber in
3 Sector Vertical Plant System
...Clematis
...Climbers
Conifer
Deciduous Shrub
...Shrubs - Decid
Deciduous Tree
...Trees - Decid
Evergreen Perennial
...P-Evergreen A-L
...P-Evergreen M-Z
...Flower Shape
Evergreen Shrub
...Shrubs - Evgr
...Heather Shrub
Evergreen Tree
...Trees - Evgr
Fern
Grass
Hedging
Herbaceous
Perennial

...P -Herbaceous
...Peony
...Flower Shape
...RHS Wisley
......Mixed Border
......Other Borders
Herb
Odds and Sods
Rhododendron
Rose
...RHS Wisley A-F
...RHS Wisley G-R
...RHS Wisley S-Z
...Rose Use with 3 separate rose indices on each usage of rose page
...Other Roses A-F
...Other Roses G-R
...Other Roses S-Z
Soft Fruit
Top Fruit
...Apple

...Cherry
...Pear
Vegetable

Wild Flower is below

The following is a complete hierarchical Plant Selection Process
dependent on the Garden Style chosen

Garden Style
...
Infill Plants
...12 Bloom Colours per Month Index
...
12 Foliage Colours per Month Index
...
All Plants Index
...
Cultivation, Position, Use Index
...
Shape, Form
Index

or
use the choices in the following Flower/Foliage Colour
Colour Wheel Galleries

you could use these Flower Colour Wheels with number of colours
All Flowers 53

All Flowers per Month 12 - My Gas Service Engineer found Flow and Return pipes incorrectly positioned on gas boilers and customers had refused to have positioning corrected in 2020, followed by this Website
...User Guidelines
or
Bee instead of wind pollinated plants for hay-fever sufferers
All Bee-Pollinated Flowers per Month 12
...Index
or
Rock Garden and Alpine Flower Colour Wheel with number of colours
Rock Plant Flowers 53

...Rock Plant Photos
or
A Foliage Colour Wheel using 212 web-safe colours instead of the best Colour Wheel of 2058 colours in the Pantone Goe System
All Foliage 212

or
Flower Colour Wheel without photos, but with links to photos
12 Bloom Colours per Month Index
...All Plants Index

Topic - Butterfly Wildlife on Plant Photo Gallery
Butterfly
Usage of Plants
by Egg, Caterpillar, Chrysalis and Butterfly

Egg, Caterpillar, Chrysalis and Butterfly usage of
Plant A-C
Plant C-M
Plant N-W
Butterfly usage of Plant

Wild Flower
with its
flower colour page,
space,
Site Map page in its flower colour
NOTE Gallery
...Blue Note
...Brown Note
...Cream Note
...Green Note
...Mauve Note
...Multi-Cols Note
...Orange Note
...Pink A-G Note
...Pink H-Z Note
...Purple Note
...Red Note
...White A-D Note
...White E-P Note
...White Q-Z Note
...Yellow A-G Note
...Yellow H-Z Note
...Shrub/Tree Note

Poisonous
Wildflower Plants

You can find the wild flower in one of the 23 Wild Flower Galleries or the Colour Wheel
Gallery

If
you know its name, use
Wild Flower Plant Index a-h,
Wild Flower Plant Index i-p or
Wild Flower Plant Index q-z

you know which habitat it lives in,
use
Wild Flowers on
Acid Soil
Habitat Table,
on Calcareous
(Chalk) Soil
,
on Marine Soil,
on Neutral Soil,
is a Fern,
is a Grass,
is a Rush, or
is a Sedge

you know which family it belongs to, use
Wild Flower Family Pages menu above and right

you have seen its flower or seed, use
Comparison Pages
in Wild Flower
Gallery
to identify it or

you have seen its flower, use Comparison Pages containing Wild Flower Plants and Cultivated Plants in the Colour Wheel Gallery

followed by all the Wild Flower Family Pages:-

There are 180 families in the Wildflowers of the UK and they have been split up into 22 Galleries to allow space for up to 100 plants per gallery.

Each plant named in each of the Wildflower Family Pages may have a link to:-

its Plant Description Page in its Common Name in one of those Wildflower Plant Galleries and will have links

to external sites to purchase the plant or seed in its Botanical Name,

to see photos in its Flowering Months and

to read habitat details in its Habitat Column.

WILD FLOWER FAMILY
PAGE MENU 1
(o)Adder's Tongue
Amaranth
(o)Arrow-Grass
(o)Arum
(o)Balsam
Bamboo
(o)Barberry
(o)Bedstraw
(o)Beech
(o)Bellflower
(o)Bindweed
(o)Birch
(o)Birds-Nest
(o)Birthwort
(o)Bogbean
(o)Bog Myrtle
(o)Borage
(o)Box
(o)Broomrape
(o)Buckthorn
(o)Buddleia
(o)Bur-reed
(o)Buttercup
(o)Butterwort
(o)Cornel (Dogwood)
(o)Crowberry
(o)Crucifer (Cabbage/Mustard) 1
(o)Crucifer (Cabbage/Mustard) 2
Cypress
(o)Daffodil
(o)Daisy
(o)Daisy Cudweeds
(o)Daisy Chamomiles
(o)Daisy Thistle
(o)Daisy Catsears (o)Daisy Hawkweeds
(o)Daisy Hawksbeards
(o)Daphne
(o)Diapensia
(o)Dock Bistorts
(o)Dock Sorrels

WILD FLOWER FAMILY
PAGE MENU 2
(o)Clubmoss
(o)Duckweed
(o)Eel-Grass
(o)Elm
(o)Filmy Fern
(o)Horsetail
(o)Polypody
Quillwort
(o)Royal Fern
(o)Figwort - Mulleins
(o)Figwort - Speedwells
(o)Flax
(o)Flowering-Rush
(o)Frog-bit
(o)Fumitory
(o)Gentian
(o)Geranium
(o)Glassworts
(o)Gooseberry
(o)Goosefoot
(o)Grass 1
(o)Grass 2
(o)Grass 3
(o)Grass Soft Bromes 1
(o)Grass Soft Bromes 2
(o)Grass Soft Bromes 3
(o)Hazel
(o)Heath
(o)Hemp
(o)Herb-Paris
(o)Holly
(o)Honeysuckle
(o)Horned-Pondweed
(o)Hornwort
(o)Iris
(o)Ivy
(o)Jacobs Ladder
(o)Lily
(o)Lily Garlic
(o)Lime
(o)Lobelia
(o)Loosestrife
(o)Mallow
(o)Maple
(o)Mares-tail
(o)Marsh Pennywort
(o)Melon (Gourd/Cucumber)

WILD FLOWER FAMILY
PAGE MENU 3
(o)Mesem-bryanthemum
(o)Mignonette
(o)Milkwort
(o)Mistletoe
(o)Moschatel
Naiad
(o)Nettle
(o)Nightshade
(o)Oleaster
(o)Olive
(o)Orchid 1
(o)Orchid 2
(o)Orchid 3
(o)Orchid 4
(o)Parnassus-Grass
(o)Peaflower
(o)Peaflower Clover 1
(o)Peaflower Clover 2
(o)Peaflower Clover 3
(o)Peaflower Vetches/Peas
Peony
(o)Periwinkle
Pillwort
Pine
(o)Pink 1
(o)Pink 2
Pipewort
(o)Pitcher-Plant
(o)Plantain
(o)Pondweed
(o)Poppy
(o)Primrose
(o)Purslane
Rannock Rush
(o)Reedmace
(o)Rockrose
(o)Rose 1
(o)Rose 2
(o)Rose 3
(o)Rose 4
(o)Rush
(o)Rush Woodrushes
(o)Saint Johns Wort
Saltmarsh Grasses
(o)Sandalwood
(o)Saxifrage

WILD FLOWER FAMILY
PAGE MENU 4
Seaheath
(o)Sea Lavender
(o)Sedge Rush-like
(o)Sedges Carex 1
(o)Sedges Carex 2
(o)Sedges Carex 3
(o)Sedges Carex 4
(o)Spindle-Tree
(o)Spurge
(o)Stonecrop
(o)Sundew
(o)Tamarisk
Tassel Pondweed
(o)Teasel
(o)Thyme 1
(o)Thyme 2
(o)Umbellifer 1
(o)Umbellifer 2
(o)Valerian
(o)Verbena
(o)Violet
(o)Water Fern
(o)Waterlily
(o)Water Milfoil
(o)Water Plantain
(o)Water Starwort
Waterwort
(o)Willow
(o)Willow-Herb
(o)Wintergreen
(o)Wood-Sorrel
(o)Yam
(o)Yew

Topic - Camera Photo Galleries showing all 4000 x 3000 pixels of each photo on your screen that you can then click and drag to your desktop:-

RHS Garden at Wisley
Plant Supports -
When supporting plants in a bed, it is found that not only do those plants grow upwards, but also they expand their roots and footpad sideways each year. Pages
1
, 2, 3, 8, 11,
12, 13,
Plants 4, 7, 10,
Bedding Plants 5,
Plant Supports for Unknown Plants 5
,
Clematis Climbers 6,
the RHS does not appear to either follow it's own pruning advice or advice from The Pruning of Trees, Shrubs and Conifers by George E. Brown.
ISBN 0-571-11084-3 with the plants in Pages 1-7 of this folder. You can see from looking at both these resources as to whether the pruning carried out on the remainder of the plants in Pages 7-15 was correct.
Narcissus (Daffodil) 9,
Phlox Plant Supports 14, 15

Coleus Bedding Foliage Trial - Pages
1, 2, 3, 4, 5,
6, 7, 8, 9, 10,
11, 12, 13, 14, 15,
16, 17, 18, 19, 20,
21, 22, 23, 24, 25,
26, 27, 28, 29, 30,
31, 32
,
Index

National Trust Garden at Sissinghurst Castle
Plant Supports -
Pages for Gallery 1
with Plant Supports
1
, 5, 10
Plants
2
, 3, 4, 6, 7, 8, 9,
11, 12
Recommended Rose Pruning Methods 13
Pages for Gallery 2
with Plant Supports
2
,
Plants 1, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7

Dry Garden of
RHS Garden at
Hyde Hall
Plants - Pages
without Plant Supports
Plants 1
, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9

Nursery of
Peter Beales Roses
Display Garden
Roses Pages
1
, 2, 3, 4, 5,
6, 7, 8, 9, 10,
11, 12, 13

Nursery of
RV Roger
Roses - Pages
A1,A2,A3,A4,A5,
A6,A7,A8,A9,A10,
A11,A12,A13,A14,
B15,
B16,B17,B18,B19,
B20,
B21,B22,B23,B24,
B25,
B26,B27,B28,B29,
B30,
C31,C32,C33,C34,
C35,
C36,C37,C38,C39,
C40,
C41,CD2,D43,D44,
D45,
D46,D47,D48,D49,
E50,
E51,E52
,F53,F54,
F55,
F56,F57,G58,G59,
H60,
H61,I62,K63,L64,
M65,
M66,N67,P68,P69,
P70,

R71,R72,S73,S74,
T75,
V76,Z77, 78,

Damage by Plants in Chilham Village - Pages
1
, 2, 3, 4

Pavements of Funchal, Madeira
Damage to Trees - Pages
1
, 2, 3, 4, 5,
6, 7, 8, 9, 10,
11, 12, 13
for trees 1-54
,
14, 15,
16, 17, 18, 19, 20,
21, 22, 23, 24, 25,
for trees 55-95,
26
, 27, 28, 29, 30,
31, 32, 33, 34, 35,
36, 37,
for trees 95-133,
38
, 39, 40,
41, 42, 43, 44, 45,
for trees 133-166


Chris Garnons-Williams
Work Done - Pages
1, 2, 3, 4, 5,
6, 7, 8, 9, 10,
11, 12, 13

Identity of Plants
Label Problems - Pages
1, 2, 3, 4, 5,
6, 7, 8, 9, 10,
11

Ron and Christine Foord
Garden Flowers - Pages
A1, 2, 3, 4,
5,
6, 7, 8, 9,
10,
11, 12, 13,

The plant with photo in the above Camera Photo Galleries
join

the plants with photos in the other Plant Photo Galleries below in

Plant with Photo Index of Ivydene Gardens
A 1, Photos
B 1, Photos
C 1, Photos
D 1, Photos
E 1, Photos
F 1, Photos
G 1, Photos
H 1, Photos
I 1, Photos
J 1, Photos
K 1, Photos
L 1, Photos
M 1, Photos
N 1, Photos
O 1, Photos
P 1, Photos
Q 1, Photos
R 1, Photos
S 1, Photos
T 1, Photos
U 1, Photos
V 1, Photos
W 1, Photos
X 1 Photos
Y 1, Photos
Z 1 Photos
Articles/Items in Ivydene Gardens

Flower Colour, Number of Petals, Shape and
Plant Use of:-

Rock Garden
...within linked page


Bedding

...Bedding Out
...Filling In
...Screen-ing
...Pots and Troughs
...Window Boxes
...Hanging Baskets
...Spring Bedding
...Summer Bedding
...Winter Bedding
...Foliage instead of Flower
...
Coleus Bedding Photos for use in Public Domain 1

Bulb
...Other than Only Green Foliage
...Bedding or Mass Planting
...Ground-Cover
...Cut-Flower
...Tolerant of Shade
...In Woodland Areas
...Under-plant
...Tolerant of Poor Soil
...Covering Banks
...In Water
...Beside Stream or Water Garden
...Coastal Conditions
...Edging Borders
...Back of Border or Back-ground Plant
...Fragrant Flowers
...Not Fragrant Flowers
...Indoor
House-plant

...Grow in a Patio Pot
...Grow in an Alpine Trough
...Grow in an Alpine House
...Grow in Rock Garden
...Speciman Plant
...Into Native Plant Garden
...Naturalize in Grass
...Grow in Hanging Basket
...Grow in Window-box
...Grow in Green-house
...Grow in Scree
...Naturalized Plant Area
...Grow in Cottage Garden
...Attracts Butterflies
...Attracts Bees
...Resistant to Wildlife
...Bulb in Soil:-
......Chalk
......Clay
......Sand
......Lime-Free (Acid)
......Peat

Rose
...
Bedding
...
Climber /Pillar
...
Cut-Flower
...
Exhibition, Speciman
...
Ground-Cover

...
Grow In A Container
...
Hedge
...
Climber in Tree
...
Woodland
...
Edging Borders
...
Tolerant of Poor Soil
...
Tolerant of Shade
...
Back of Border
...
Adjacent to Water
...
Page for rose use as ARCH ROSE, PERGOLA ROSE, COASTAL CONDITIONS ROSE, WALL ROSE, STANDARD ROSE, COVERING BANKS or THORNLESS ROSES.
...
FRAGRANT ROSES
...
NOT FRAGRANT ROSES

and

Plant Colour Wheel Uses
with
1. Perfect general use soil is composed of 8.3% lime, 16.6% humus, 25% clay and 50% sand, and
2. Why you are continually losing the SOIL STRUCTURE so your soil - will revert to clay, chalk, sand or silt.

Uses of Plant and Flower Shape:-
...Foliage Only
...Other than Green Foliage
...Trees in Lawn
...Trees in Small Gardens
...Wildflower Garden
...Attract Bi
rd
...Attract Butterfly
1
, 2
...Climber on House Wall

...
Climber not on House Wall
...Climber in Tree
...Rabbit-Resistant
...Woodland
...Pollution Barrier
...Part Shade
...Full Shade
...Single Flower provides Pollen for Bees
1
, 2, 3
...Ground-Cover
<60
cm
60-180cm
>
180cm
...Hedge
...Wind-swept
...Covering Banks
...Patio Pot
...Edging Borders
...Back of Border
...Poisonous

...Adjacent to Water
...Bog Garden
...Tolerant of Poor Soil
...Winter-Flowering
...Fragrant
...Not Fragrant
...Exhibition

...
Standard Plant
is 'Ball on Stick'
...
Upright Branches or Sword-shaped leaves
...
Plant to Prevent Entry to Human or Animal
...
Coastal Conditions
...
Tolerant on North-facing Wall
...
Cut Flower
...
Potted Veg Outdoors
...
Potted Veg Indoors
...
Thornless
...
Raised Bed Outdoors Veg
...
Grow in Alkaline Soil A-F
, G-L, M-R,
S-Z
...
Grow in Acidic Soil
...
Grow in Any Soil
...
Grow in Rock Garden
...
Grow Bulbs Indoors

Fragrant Plants:-
Sense of Fragrance from Roy Genders

Fragrant Plants:-
Trees and Shrubs with Scented Flowers
1
, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6
Shrubs bearing Scented Flowers for an Acid Soil
1
, 2, 3, 4
Shrubs bearing Scented Flowers for a
Chalky or Limestone Soil
1
, 2, 3, 4
Shrubs bearing Scented leaves for a
Sandy Soil
1
, 2, 3
Herbaceous Plants with Scented Flowers
1
, 2, 3
Annual and Biennial Plants with Scented Flowers or Leaves
1
, 2
Bulbs and Corms with Scented Flowers
1
, 2, 3, 4, 5
Scented Plants of Climbing and Trailing Habit
1
, 2, 3
Winter-flowering Plants with Scented Flowers
1
, 2
Night-scented Flowering Plants
1
, 2

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