English: Hyacinthoides non-scripta, Hyacinthaceae, Common Bluebell, flower. The fresh, blooming haulm is used in homeopathy as remedy: Agraphis nutans (Agra.)

Deutsch: Hyacinthoides non-scripta, Hyacinthaceae, Atlantisches Hasenglöckchen, Englisches Hasenglöckchen, Blüte. Das frische, blühende Kraut wird in der Homöopathie als Arzneimittel verwendet: Agraphis nutans (Agra.)
By H. Zell, via Wikimedia Commons.



English: Bluebell flowers, Hampshire, UK.
By Jim Champion, Southampton, UK, via Wikimedia Commons.


Form in Grass.

English: Common Bluebell (Hyacinthoides non-scripta), Wittgensdorf, Germany

Deutsch: Atlantisches Hasenglöckchen (Hyacinthoides non-scripta), Wittgensdorf, Deutschland.
By Jörg Hempel, via Wikimedia Commons.



English: Hyacinthoides non-scripta, Hyacinthaceae, Common Bluebell, habitus. The fresh, blooming haulm is used in homeopathy as remedy: Agraphis nutans (Agra.)

Deutsch: Hyacinthoides non-scripta, Hyacinthaceae, Atlantisches Hasenglöckchen, Englisches Hasenglöckchen, Habitus. Das frische, blühende Kraut wird in der Homöopathie als Arzneimittel verwendet: Agraphis nutans (Agra.)
By H. Zell, via Wikimedia Commons.


Flowers in Woodland.

Bluebells (Hyacinthoides non-scripta) are small flowers which carpet the ground in many woodland areas in Britain in the springtime.

• The photo was taken in the late afternoon in May.

• The avenue of trees in the bluebell woodlands makes for a pretty scene.

• The photo was taken in a patch of woodland called Dockey Wood between Hurst Farm and Ivinghoe Common (see link below to map) located about 1 mile from Ringshall on the north side of the road to Ivinghoe Beacon. It is just in Buckinghamshire.
By Keith Hulbert and Paul Zarucki, via Wikimedia Commons.



Hyacinthoides non-scripta (L.) Chouard ex Rothm., syn. Hyacinthus non-scriptus L.

Original Caption

Belgische Hyazinthe, Hyacinthus nonscriptus


Figure from Deutschlands Flora in Abbildungen at http://www.biolib.de
By Johann Georg Sturm (Painter: Jacob Sturm), via Wikimedia Commons.

Plant Name

Hyacinthoides non-scripta
(formerly Endymion non-scriptus or Scilla non-scripta)

Common Name

English Bluebell, Common Bluebell, Bluebell



Sun Aspect

Part Shade

Soil Moisture


Plant Type

Herbaceous Bulb

Height x Spread in inches (cms)
(1 inch = 2.5 cms,
12 inches = 1 foot = 30 cms,
24 inches = 2 feet)

12 x 3 (30 x 8)


Glossy Dark Green

Flower Colour in Month(s). Fruit

Scented Mid-Blue or White in April-May


Clump forming form. Bluebell is Native UK plant in the Lily Family. Grow in groups as underplanting in shrub border, or naturalized in grass or woodland garden. Self-seeds.


"Good in woodland in association with Red Campion and Greater Stitchwort." from Naturescape.


"Good companions
The handsome, upright crosiers of the male fern (Dryopteris filix-mas) unfurl just as the bluebells are in flower. Good forms include the smaller 'Crispa Cristata' (which has neatly crested fronds) and the larger, bushier 'Grandiceps Wills'. Himalayan forms of Dryopteris wallichiana (Wallich's fern) have black hairs that look sensational next to violet-blue bluebells. As the fronds mature they cover the foliage.
The nodding flowers of the geums usually flower at the same time. 'Herterton Primrose' is clear yellow, or you could use the softer, buff-coloured 'Beech House Apricot'. Both enjoy some shade.
The golden grass Milium effusum 'Aureum', called Bowles' golden grass, sends out beaded awns. This self-seeds and tolerates shade, but don't confuse it with Bowles' golden sedge (Carex elata 'Aurea') which needs a lot of moisture." from The Telegraph.


Woodland, hedgerows, shady banks, under bracken on coastal cliffs and uplands" from Kew Royal Botanic Gardens.


"In spring, H. non-scripta produces a nodding, one-sided inflorescence of 5–12 tubular, sweet-scented violet–blue flowers, with strongly recurved tepals, and 3–6 long, linear, basal leaves.
It produces 3–6 linear leaves, all growing from the base of the plant, and each 7–16 millimetres (0.28–0.63 in) wide.
Bluebells are a species of deciduous woodland over much of their range, flowering and leafing early before the canopy closes in late spring. They may also be found growing under bracken or Japanese knotweed, perennial plants which also form stands with a dense summer canopy. They are most successful on slightly acid soils; the same niche in alkaline conditions may be occupied by other species such as Mercurialis perennis. As a species adapted to woodlands, the young shoots are able to penetrate through a thick layer of leaf litter, and bluebells are often used as an indicator species to identify ancient woodland. Bluebells are also frequently found in hedgerows, and in the west of their range they can be found growing in open habitats, including coastal meadows. Bluebell flowers are rich in pollen and nectar, and are chiefly pollinated by bumblebees, although they are also visited by various other insects.
Bluebells are widely planted as garden plants, either among trees or in herbaceous borders. They flower at the same time as hyacinths, Narcissus and some tulips. Their ability to reproduce vegetatively, using bulb offsets and seed, means that they can spread rapidly, and may need to be controlled as weeds.
The bluebell may be regarded as the United Kingdom's "favourite flower". When the wild plant charity Plantlife organised a survey in 2004 to find a favourite flower for each county in the United Kingdom, it decided to ban voters from choosing the bluebell because it had been by far the top choice in an earlier poll for the nation's favourite flower. A stylised bluebell is used as the logo for the Botanical Society of Britain and Ireland." from Wikipedia.


"You’ll need about nine bulbs per square foot. (Square footage is determined multiplying the planting site’s length times its width.) In woodland settings, you can also scatter-plant the bulbs about for a more natural look. " from Van Engelen Inc Wholesale Flower Bulbs.


Available from

Clare Bulb Company in the Green (Many people prefer to plant snowdrops, aconites and bluebells in full leaf, i.e." in the green". What this means is that the bulbs are lifted in February until early May, whilst in full vigour of growth, and are then carefully wrapped by us to preserve moisture and quickly dispatched to customers, who should plant them as soon as possible after their receipt.),
Naturescape ,
British Wild Flower Plants and
R. V. Roger in the UK and
Brecks for the USA.


Part of an article from The Telegraph updated by Germain Greer on 3 March 2003:-

"The residents of Clent in Worcestershire have discovered that their parish council which spent £1,000 on a bluebell recovery project, planted 7,000 of the wrong bluebells. The parish council says, and I believe it, that it was assured that the bulbs, though bred in Holland, were British.

What this ought to mean is that they were assured that the bulbs were Hyacinthoides non-scripta, which is the botanical identity tag for the native English bluebell.

The plant-breeders know that Hyacinthoides non-scripta has a one-sided inflorescence, that is, the bells hang only on one side of the drooping stem; the bulbs the parish council believed to be the same sent up a perpendicular flower spike with bells hanging all around. The difference is so striking that you could see it at a distance even if the colour were not also different, being a much milder blue.

The native wild bluebell cannot easily be established outside its native habitat; the bluebell planted in error will grow anywhere. What is more, it will hybridise with the native wild bluebell, and, its traits being dominant, will breed it out of existence. Its botanical name is Hyacinthoides hispanica.

For some years now intermediate specimens representing hybrids of H. non-scripta and H. hispanica have turned up in wild bluebell woods. A Bluebell Biodiversity Action Project to assess the impact of the arrival in huge numbers of H. hispanica on the wild population is already under way, and has the merit of bringing a very real and present danger to the attention of the population at large."


"It is distinguished from the common bluebell by its paler and larger blue flowers, which are less pendulous and not all drooping to one side like the common bluebell; plus a more erect flower stem (raceme), broader leaves, blue anthers (where the common bluebell has creamy-white ones) and little or no scent compared to the strong fragrant scent of the northern species. Like Hyacinthoides non-scripta, both pink- and white-flowered forms occur.

The Spanish bluebell was introduced in the United Kingdom. Since then, it has hybridised frequently with the native common bluebell and the resulting hybrids are regarded as invasive. The resulting hybrid Hyacinthoides × massartiana and the Spanish bluebell both produce highly fertile seed but it is generally the hybrid that invades areas of the native common bluebell. This has caused the common bluebell to be viewed as a threatened species." from Wikipedia.


See more photos of The Bluebell and the problems facing it from the Spanish Bluebell.


"Bees, hoverflies, butterflies and other insects feed on the nectar of bluebell. Their flowers provide an important early source of nectar.
Bees can 'steal' the nectar from bluebells flowers by biting a hole in the bottom of the bell, reaching the nectar without pollinating the flower." from the Woodland Trust who own over 1,000 sites across the UK, many of which are fantastic bluebell hotspots.


R.V. Roger can supply the real native English Bluebell.

Available from
Harts Nursery in UK and
White Flower Farm in America


Site Map of pages with content (o)


(o)Unusual Colours

(o)Green 1
(o)Green 2
(o)Green 3
(o)Other Colour

(o)Seed Colour



Website Structure Explanation and User Guidelines









7 Flower Colours per Month in Colour Wheel below in BULB, CORM, RHIZOME and TUBER GALLERY.

Click on Black or White box in Colour of Month.



Besides the above Bulb Flower Colour Comparison Pages, you also have the following Comparison Pages:-
...Bulb Flower Shape -
7 pages of Number of Petals ...... 5 petals,
23 pages of Flower Shape ......... Stars and
7 pages of Natural Arrangements Drumstick

...Bulb Form
7 pages of Bulb Form ...Clump-forming
...Bulb Use
33 pages of Bulb Use ...Mass Planting,
Grow in Patio Pot and
Use in Coastal Conditions
...Bulb Preferred Soil

5 pages of Soil preferred by Bulb ...Chalk

BULB, CORM, RHIZOME AND TUBER INDEX - There are over 700 bulbs in the bulb galleries. The respective flower thumbnail, months of flowering, height and width, foliage thumbnail, form thumbnail use and comments are in the relevant index page below:-
(o): A
(o): B
(o): C
(o): D
(o): E
(o): F
(o): G
(o): H
(o): I
....: J
....: K
(o): L
(o): M
(o): N
(o): O
(o): P
....: Q
....: R
(o): S
(o): T
....: U
(o): V
....: W
(o): XYZ








Autumn Bulb Gallery INDEX link to Bulb Description Page

Flower Colour

Flower Thumbnail

Flowering Months

Form Thumbnail and

as its form

Foliage Thumbnail

Height x Width in inches (cms) -
1 inch = 2.5 cms,
12 inches = 1 foot,
36 inches = 3 feet = 1 yard,
40 inches = 100 cms

Seed Head Thumbnail




Dark Brown-Purple


April, May




6 x 10 (15 x 24)

Mouse Plant - In late spring curious cream and brown flowers are produced at ground level. They have a long, thin ‘tail’, making the flower look just like a mouse, disappearing into the undergrowth.

Great Plant Combinations: Waldsteinia ternata, Asplenium scolopendrium, Cyclamen coum, Dryopteris crassirhizoma, Anenome nemorosa

Arum italicum







12 x 6 (30 x 15)

Green arum spears look striking with the big round purple leaves of Bergenia purpurascens, or the burnished leaves of evergreen epimediums.

Aruncus dioicus



June, July




72 x 48 (180 x 120)

This plant demands space. Plant in a moist, peaty soil, or even at the waterside. An excellent companion to summer-blooming shrub roses. Good for cutting.


"Dwarf Campanulas" by Graham Nicholls - from The Alpine Garden Society Bookshop.

Corydalis - "Bleeding Hearts, Corydalis, and their Relatives" by Mark C Tebbitt, Magnus Liden & Henrick Zetterlund - from the Alpine Garden Society Bookshop.

See Rock Garden Plant Index C for details on more campanulas, corydalis and cyclamen and
"The Cyclamen Society exists to encourage cultivation and conservation, and to disseminate and extend knowledge of the genus Cyclamen and its species, forms and cultivars. It combines scientific study with all the activities of a society for enthusiasts who cultivate the plants."




June, July, August




30 x 36 (75 x 90)

Clustered bellflower. Clump-forming form. Native UK plant.



White to


June, July




36 x 12 (90 x 30)

Peach-leaved bellflower

Centaurea montana


centaurea montana flower

June, July

centaurea montana form


centaurea montana foliage

18 x 24 (45 x 60)

Clump-forming form. Native UK plant. There are hundreds of species of Centaurea in Europe, so identification is often difficult - from Kevock Garden.


Brilliant Blue


May, June, July
August, September,


18 x 8 (45 x 21)

Bright Green foliage in Spring and Summer. Rich Red in Autumn.

Corydalis lutea

Golden Yellow


May, June, July, August, September




16 x 12 (39 x 30)

Mound-forming form. Native UK plant. Commonly cultivated and naturalized on old walls near gardens scattered throughout the UK.


White or



October, November




2 x 3
(6 x 8)

If not planted - corm should be just breaking surface and 2-3 inches apart - under trees, which provide fallen leaves in the autumn, then mulch with a little sifted leaf mould or peat moss in November. A little bonemeal added to the soil and used as a top dressing each spring will keep them happy.


White or


March, April




2 x 4
(6 x 9)

Varying in colour from white through to red, cyclamen coum flower March-April, at the same time that the leaves are produced. The leaves may be plain green or sometimes marked with silver. These are fully hardy and are best planted under trees in good fertile, well drained soil.

Cyclamen coum



March, April




2 x 4
(6 x 9)

Each white cyclamen coum bloom has a dark red mouth and flowers from late winter through to early spring, at the same time that the leaves are produced. The leaves may be plain green or sometimes marked with silver. They are round in shape. These are fully hardy and are best planted under trees in good fertile, well drained soil.

Cyclamen hederifolium'



November, December




5 x 6
(12 x 15)


Spreading. Self-seeds freely. Rare native UK plant. Same cultivation techniques as for cyclamen cilicium


See Rock Garden Plant Index F Page for further details of Fritillaria. The bulbs of all fritillaria are very fragile and must be handled with care.

The Fritillaria Group is a special interest group within the Alpine Garden Society.

Fritillaria imperiallis

Yellow or






60 x 12 (150 x 30)

Use in sunny border or rock garden. The bulbs have an unpleasant foxy odour. Prone to attack by lily beetles. Companion plants are Berberis thunbergii 'Atropurpurea' and the Lily family - see Companion Planting.

Fritillaria imperiallis 'Lutea'

Bright Yellow






60 x 12 (150 x 30)


Use in sunny border or rock garden. The bulbs have an unpleasant foxy odour. Prone to attack by lily beetles. Companion plants are Berberis thunbergii 'Atropurpurea' and the Lily family - see Companion Planting.

Fritillaria imperiallis
'Rubra Maxima'






48 x 12 (120 x 30)

Mat-forming. Use in sunny border or rock garden.


Galanthus.co.uk contains information on all aspects of snowdrops, their care and their cultivation; based on their experience.

There are another 207 Gladiolii detailed in the Gladiolus Photo Gallery.

Galanthus elwesii

Honey scented White






8 x 12
(21 x 30)

A giant-flowered snowdrop with honey-scented blooms, which have two delicate green marks on the petals. The leaves are grey-green in colour.

Gladiolus communis
subsp. byzantinus

Deep Magenta


June, July




36 x 12 (90 x 30)

Spreads freely from cormlets. This is a bright, showy plant with rich, purple, trumpet shaped flowers held on tall flower spikes during late spring and early summer. It is fully hardy but does not like wet winters.

Gladiolus papilio

Red and Yellow


July, August




24-36 x 6 (60-90 x 15)

Use in Cottage/Informal Garden style beds and borders. Useful Cut Flower.


Helleborus are often very tolerant of dry shade conditions and associate beautifully with snowdrops, Erythronium, Primula, Pulmonaria and Tiarella. Which hellebore should you grow where?

The sap of the English Bluebell (Hyacinthoides non-scripta) was used to glue feathers onto arrows in the Middle Ages and to stiffen ruffs in Tudor times.





August, September




24 x 36 (60 x 90)

Attractive to Bees and suitable for a Rock Garden. This species has a symbiotic relationship with certain soil bacteria, these bacteria form nodules on the roots and fix atmospheric nitrogen. Some of this nitrogen is utilized by the growing plant but some can also be used by other plants growing nearby.




February, March,
April, May




30 x 18 (75 x 45)

Dark Grey foliage. Native UK plant in woods. Grow in groups in mixed or shrub border, or naturalized in woodland garden. Mulch annually in autumn. Prevent soil from being dry or waterlogged.




February, March,
April, May




12 x 18 (30 x 45)

Clump-forming form. Grow in groups in mixed or shrub border, or naturalized in woodland garden. Mulch annually in autumn. Prevent soil from being dry or waterlogged.


White or
Greenish Cream


February, March,
April, May




18 x 18 (45 x 45)

Grow Lenten Rose in groups in mixed or shrub border, or naturalized in woodland garden. Mulch annually in autumn. Prevent soil from being dry or water-logged.

Helleborus orientalis

Pale Green tinted


February, March,
April, May



18 x 18 (45 x 45)

Grow in groups in mixed or shrub border, or naturalized in woodland garden. Mulch annually in autumn. Prevent soil from being dry or waterlogged.

Hyacinthoides hispanica



April, May




17 x 5
(42 x 12)

Clump-forming form. Grow in groups as underplanting in shrub border, or naturalized in grass or woodland garden. Self-seeds.


Mid-Blue or


April, May




12 x 3
(30 x 8)

Clump forming form. Native UK plant. Grow in groups as under-planting in shrub border, or naturalized in grass or woodland garden. Self-seeds.


The British Iris Society was founded in 1922 by iris enthusiasts whose interests were primarily to establish a forum for the exchange of views and knowledge of the genus.


Scented White


July, August,
September, October


96 x 36 (240 x 90)

Impatiens tinctoria comes from higher elevations in central Africa, where the climate is relatively cool.  Ideally it prefers temperatures between about 50 and 80 degrees Centigrade.  It can tolerate temperatures in the 80s and even above, but it might decline in consistently hot temperatures, especially if nights are warm.  The plant can be brought indoors over the winter, where it may stay evergreen and continue flowering.  It will need a very large pot - at least 15 gallons.  If the pot is too small, the tubers may break it!  It can be grown outdoors in the ground in the Isle of Wight and the Channel Islands if mulched heavily and given overhead protection.  It prefers filtered sunlight, or bright shade with some morning sun.  Like most Impatiens, it enjoys moist, well draining soil and regular feeding.  Some humidity is needed - over 40% is recommended.


Purple tinged
with Yellow



June, July



24 x 6
(60 x 15)


seed capsules

Partially expose the rhizome when planting in groups of three; 6-12 inches apart. Mulch with organic matter in the Spring. After 4 years, divide and replant in fresh soil. Self-seeds.

Iris laevigata



May, June



30 x 6 (75 x 15)

The Japanese Water Iris much prefers to be grown in water. Broad sword-shaped leaves with tall mid-blue iris flowers which have a narrow cream splash on the falls. Can be used in small water features as well as a marginal in ponds.

Iris pseudacorus



August, September



36-48 x 12 (90-120 x 30)

Native UK plant. Partially expose the rhizome when planting in groups of three 6-12 inches apart. Mulch with organic matter in the Spring. After 4 years, divide and replant in fresh soil. Can be invasive when planted as a marginal in a pond.


Mitella breweri



May, June, July




6 x 8
(15 x 21)

Self-seeds freely. Use for groundcover in a woodland garden. Very pretty tiny pale green flowers on many short flower spikes.

Mimulus primuloides

Yellow with Red-spotted throats


July, August




4 x 8
(9 x 21)

It grows in wet habitat in mountains and plateau areas, such as stream banks. Plant in damp section of rock garden.




azure Blue






10 x 16 (24 x 39)

Use as groundcover in a border, rock garden or woodland garden.



Pale Purplish-White


July, August




8 x 12
(21 x 30)

Clump-forming spreading form. Grow as grassy groundcover, for border edging, in a rock garden or peat bed. Top-dress annually with leaf mould in the autumn.


Pale Purplish-White



July, August




8 x 12 (21 x 30)


seed capsules

Almost Black foliage. Grow as grassy groundcover, for border edging, in a rock garden or peat bed. Top-dress annually with leaf mould in the autumn.


Scilla siberica is 1 of the 4 scilla detailed in the Rock Garden Plant Index S Page, which can be used as an alpine in a rock garden.

Scilla siberica

Bright Blue


April, May



6 x 6
(15 x 15)

Erect Stemless Form. Keep dry during summer dormancy. One of the most popular choices for a spring garden. Has rich, bright blue, bell shaped flowers borne in loose clusters. Grow very well in the garden, thriving under trees or the open border.

Scilla peruviana

Purplish-Blue or






12 x 12 (30 x 30)

Clump-forming. Grow in pots, under deciduous trees and shrubs, or in grass.


Pale Yellow


May, June



16 x 24 (39 x 60)

Erect Form becomes Decumbent (Growing close to the ground but usually with upward-growing tips). Excellent ground-cover plant for a shady border or woodland garden, but they can be rampant.


Tricyrtis hirta



August, September,



30 x 24 (75 x 60)

Use Toad Lily in woodland garden, a shady border or a peat bank.

Ivydene Horticultural Services logo with I design, construct and maintain private gardens. I also advise and teach you in your own garden. 01634 389677


Site design and content copyright ©January 2007.
Page structure amended November 2012.
Feet changed to inches (cms) July 2015.
Index structure changed and links from thumbnail to another bulb page changed from adding that bulb description page to changing page to that bulb description page November 2015.
Colour Wheel per Month and Index to other Bulbs in other Bulb Galleries added May 2017.
Bulb Description Pages updated April 2018.

Chris Garnons-Williams.

DISCLAIMER: Links to external sites are provided as a courtesy to visitors. Ivydene Horticultural Services are not responsible for the content and/or quality of external web sites linked from this site.  








There are other pages on Plants which bloom in each month of the year in this website:-




Explanation of Structure of this Website with User Guidelines Page for those photo galleries with Photos
(of either ones I have taken myself or others which have been loaned only for use on this website from external sources)


Choose 1 of these different Plant selection Methods:-

1. Choose a plant from 1 of 53 flower colours in the Colour Wheel Gallery.

2. Choose a plant from 1 of 12 flower colours in each month of the year from 12 Bloom Colours per Month Index Gallery.

3. Choose a plant from 1 of 6 flower colours per month for each type of plant:-
Deciduous Shrub
Deciduous Tree
Evergreen Perennial
Evergreen Shrub
Evergreen Tree
Herbaceous Perennial
Odds and Sods
Soft Fruit
Top Fruit
Wild Flower

4. Choose a plant from its Flower Shape:-
Shape, Form

Flower Shape

5. Choose a plant from its foliage:-

6. There are 6 Plant Selection Levels including Bee Pollinated Plants for Hay Fever Sufferers in
Plants Topic.


7. When I do not have my own or ones from mail-order nursery photos , then from March 2016, if you want to start from the uppermost design levels through to your choice of cultivated and wildflower plants to change your Plant Selection Process then use the following galleries:-

  • Create and input all plants known by Amateur Gardening inserted into their Sanders' Encyclopaedia from their edition published in 1960 (originally published by them in 1895) into these
    • Stage 1 - Garden Style Index Gallery,
    • Stage 2 - Infill Plants Index Gallery being the only gallery from these 7 with photos (from Wikimedia Commons) ,
    • Stage 3 - All Plants Index Gallery with each plant species in its own Plant Type Page followed by choice from Stage 4a, 4b, 4c and/or 4d REMEMBERING THE CONSTRAINTS ON THE SELECTION FROM THE CHOICES MADE IN STAGES 1 AND 2
    • Stage 4a - 12 Bloom Colours per Month Index Gallery,
    • Stage 4b - 12 Foliage Colours per Month Index Gallery with
    • Stage 4c - Cultivation, Position, Use Index Gallery and
    • Stage 4d - Shape, Form Index Gallery
    • Unfortunately, if you want to have 100's of choices on selection of plants from 1000's of 1200 pixels wide by up to 16,300 pixels in length webpages, which you can jump to from almost any of the pages in these 7 galleries above, you have to put up with those links to those choices being on
      • the left topic menu table,
      • the header of the middle data table and on
      • the page/index menu table on the right of every page of those galleries.


I like reading and that is shown by the index in my Library, where I provide lists of books to take you between designing, maintaining or building a garden and the hierarchy of books on plants taking you from

Functional combinations in the border from the International Flower Bulb Centre in Holland:-

"Here is a list of the perennials shown by research to be the best plants to accompany various flower bulbs. The flower bulbs were tested over a period of years in several perennial borders that had been established for at least three years.

In combination with hyacinths:

In combination with tulips:

In combination with narcissi:

For narcissi, the choice was difficult to make. The list contains only some of the perennials that are very suitable for combining with narcissi. In other words, narcissi can easily compete with perennials.

In combination with specialty bulbs:


Before reaching for the pesticides, here are a few alternative natural, non-toxic methods of slug control:  

• Watering Schedule - Far and away the best course of action against slugs in your garden is a simple adjustment in the watering schedule. Slugs are most active at night and are most efficient in damp conditions. Avoid watering your garden in the evening if you have a slug problem. Water in the morning - the surface soil will be dry by evening. Studies show this can reduce slug damage by 80%.


• Seaweed - If you have access to seaweed, it's well worth the effort to gather. Seaweed is not only a good soil amendment for the garden, it's a natural repellent for slugs. Mulch with seaweed around the base of plants or perimeter of bed. Pile it on 3" to 4" thick - when it dries it will shrink to just an inch or so deep. Seaweed is salty and slugs avoid salt. Push the seaweed away from plant stems so it's not in direct contact. During hot weather, seaweed will dry and become very rough which also deters the slugs.


• Copper - Small strips of copper can be placed around flower pots or raised beds as obstructions for slugs to crawl over. Cut 2" strips of thin copper and wrap around the lower part of flower pots, like a ribbon. Or set the strips in the soil on edge, making a "fence" for the slugs to climb. Check to make sure no vegetation hangs over the copper which might provide a 'bridge' for the slugs. Copper barriers also work well around wood barrels used as planters.
A non-toxic copper-based metallic mesh Slug Shield is available which can be wrapped around the stem of plants and acts as a barrier to slugs. When slugs come in contact with the mesh they receive an electric-like shock. The mesh also serves as a physical barrier. These slug shields are reusable, long-lasting and weather-proof.


• Diatomaceous Earth - Diatomaceous earth (Also known as "Insect Dust") is the sharp, jagged skeletal remains of microscopic creatures. It lacerates soft-bodied pests, causing them to dehydrate. A powdery granular material, it can be sprinkled around garden beds or individual plants, and can be mixed with water to make a foliar spray.
Diatomaceous earth is less effective when wet, so use during dry weather. Wear protective gear when applying, as it can irritate eyes and lungs. Be sure to buy natural or agricultural grade diatomaceous earth, not pool grade which has smoother edges and is far less effective. Click for more information or to purchase Food Grade Diatomaceous Earth.


• Electronic "slug fence" - An electronic slug fence is a non-toxic, safe method for keeping slugs out of garden or flower beds. The Slugs Away fence is a 24-foot long, 5" ribbon-like barrier that runs off a 9 volt battery. When a slug or snail comes in contact with the fence, it receives a mild static sensation that is undetectable to animals and humans. This does not kill the slug, it cause it to look elsewhere for forage. The battery will power the fence for about 8 months before needing to be replaced. Extension kits are availabe for increased coverage. The electronic fence will repel slugs and snails, but is harmless to people and pets.


• Lava Rock - Like diatomaceous earth, the abrasive surface of lava rock will be avoided by slugs. Lava rock can be used as a barrier around plantings, but should be left mostly above soil level, otherwise dirt or vegetation soon forms a bridge for slugs to cross.

• Salt - If all else fails, go out at night with the salt shaker and a flashlight. Look at the plants which have been getting the most damage and inspect the leaves, including the undersides. Sprinkle a bit of salt on the slug and it will kill it quickly. Not particularly pleasant, but use as a last resort. (Note: some sources caution the use of salt, as it adds a toxic element to the soil. This has not been our experience, especially as very little salt is used.)

• Beer - Slugs are attracted to beer. Set a small amount of beer in a shallow wide jar buried in the soil up to its neck. Slugs will crawl in and drown. Take the jar lid and prop it up with a small stick so rain won't dilute the beer. Leave space for slugs to enter the trap.

• Overturned Flowerpots, Grapefruit Halves, Board on Ground - Overturned flowerpots, with a stone placed under the rim to tilt it up a bit, will attract slugs. Leave overnight, and you'll find the slugs inside in the morning. Grapefruit halves work the same way, with the added advantage of the scent of the fruit as bait.
Another trap method, perhaps the simplest of all, is to set a wide board on the ground by the affected area. Slugs will hide under the board by day. Simply flip the board over during the day to reveal the culprits. Black plastic sheeting also works the same way.


• Garlic-based slug repellents
Laboratory tests at the University of Newcastle-Upon-Tyne (UK) revealed that a highly refined garlic product (ECOguard produced by ECOspray Ltd, a British company that makes organic pesticides) was an effective slug killer. Look for garlic-based slug deterrents which will be emerging under various brand names, as well as ECOguard.

• Coffee grounds; new caffeine-based slug/snail poisons - Coffee grounds scattered on top of the soil will deter slugs. The horticultural side effects of using strong grounds such as espresso on the garden, however, are less certain. When using coffee grounds, moderation is advised.
A study in June 2002 reported in the journal Nature found that slugs and snails are killed when sprayed with a caffeine solution, and that spraying plants with this solution prevents slugs from eating them. The percentage of caffeine required in a spray (1 - 2%) is greater than what is found in a cup of coffee (.05 - 07%), so homemade sprays are not as effective. Look for new commercial sprays which are caffeine-based.


If you want to read some light relief material about plants visit Plants are the Strangest People.

White Flower Farm's list of Deer-and-Rodent-Resistant Bulbs.


The following details come from Cactus Art:-

"A flower is the the complex sexual reproductive structure of Angiosperms, typically consisting of an axis bearing perianth parts, androecium (male) and gynoecium (female).    

Bisexual flower show four distinctive parts arranged in rings inside each other which are technically modified leaves: Sepal, petal, stamen & pistil. This flower is referred to as complete (with all four parts) and perfect (with "male" stamens and "female" pistil). The ovary ripens into a fruit and the ovules inside develop into seeds.

Incomplete flowers are lacking one or more of the four main parts. Imperfect (unisexual) flowers contain a pistil or stamens, but not both. The colourful parts of a flower and its scent attract pollinators and guide them to the nectary, usually at the base of the flower tube.



Androecium (male Parts or stamens)
It is made up of the filament and anther, it is the pollen producing part of the plant.
Anther This is the part of the stamen that produces and contains pollen. 
Filament This is the fine hair-like stalk that the anther sits on top of.
Pollen This is the dust-like male reproductive cell of flowering plants.

Gynoecium (female Parts or carpels or pistil)
 It is made up of the stigma, style, and ovary. Each pistil is constructed of one to many rolled leaflike structures.
This is the part of the pistil  which receives the pollen grains and on which they germinate. 
This is the long stalk that the stigma sits on top of ovary. 
The part of the plant that contains the ovules. 
The part of the ovary that becomes the seeds. 

The colorful, often bright part of the flower (corolla). 
The parts that look like little green leaves that cover the outside of a flower bud (calix). 
(Undifferentiated "Perianth segment" that are not clearly differentiated into sepals and petals, take the names of tepals.)"




The following details come from Nectary Genomics:-

"NECTAR. Many flowering plants attract potential pollinators by offering a reward of floral nectar. The primary solutes found in most nectars are varying ratios of sucrose, glucose and fructose, which can range from as little a 8% (w/w) in some species to as high as 80% in others. This abundance of simple sugars has resulted in the general perception that nectar consists of little more than sugar-water; however, numerous studies indicate that it is actually a complex mixture of components. Additional compounds found in a variety of nectars include other sugars, all 20 standard amino acids, phenolics, alkaloids, flavonoids, terpenes, vitamins, organic acids, oils, free fatty acids, metal ions and proteins.

NECTARIES. An organ known as the floral nectary is responsible for producing the complex mixture of compounds found in nectar. Nectaries can occur in different areas of flowers, and often take on diverse forms in different species, even to the point of being used for taxonomic purposes. Nectaries undergo remarkable morphological and metabolic changes during the course of floral development. For example, it is known that pre-secretory nectaries in a number of species accumulate large amounts of starch, which is followed by a rapid degradation of amyloplast granules just prior to anthesis and nectar secretion. These sugars presumably serve as a source of nectar carbohydrate.

WHY STUDY NECTAR? Nearly one-third of all worldwide crops are dependent on animals to achieve efficient pollination. In addition, U.S. pollinator-dependent crops have been estimated to have an annual value of up to $15 billion. Many crop species are largely self-incompatible (not self-fertile) and almost entirely on animal pollinators to achieve full fecundity; poor pollinator visitation has been reported to reduce yields of certain species by up to 50%."

Case Studies

Companion Planting
...A, B, C, D, E,
...F, G, H, I, J, K,
...L, M, N, O, P, Q,
...R, S, T, U, V, W,
...X, Y, Z
...Pest Control
...using Plants

Garden Construction
Garden Design
...How to Use the Colour Wheel Concepts for Selection of Flowers, Foliage and Flower Shape
...RHS Mixed Borders
......Bedding Plants
......Her Perennials
......Other Plants Garden Maintenance
Offbeat Glossary
...in Chalk (Alkaline) Soil
......A-F1, A-F2,
......A-F3, G-L, M-R,
......M-R Roses, S-Z
...in Heavy Clay Soil
......A-F, G-L, M-R,
...in Lime-Free (Acid) Soil
......A-F, G-L, M-R,
...in Light Sand Soil
......A-F, G-L, M-R,
...Poisonous Plants
...Soil Nutrients
Tool Shed
Useful Data


Topic - Plant Photo Galleries
Plant with Photo Index of Ivydene Gardens
A 1, Photos
B 1, Photos
C 1, Photos
D 1, Photos
E 1, Photos
F 1, Photos
G 1, Photos
H 1, Photos
I 1, Photos
J 1, Photos
K 1, Photos
L 1, Photos
M 1, Photos
N 1, Photos
O 1, Photos
P 1, Photos
Q 1, Photos
R 1, Photos
S 1, Photos
T 1, Photos
U 1, Photos
V 1, Photos
W 1, Photos
X 1 Photos
Y 1, Photos
Z 1 Photos
Articles/Items in Ivydene Gardens
Flower Shape and Plant Use of
Evergreen Perennial
Herbaceous Perennial

...by Flower Shape

Bulb with its 7 Flower Colours per Month Comparison Pages
...Allium/ Anemone
...Autumn *
...Colchicum/ Crocus

......European A-E
......European F-M
......European N-Z
......Eur Non-classified
......American A
......American B
......American C
......American D
......American E
......American F
......American G
......American H
......American I
......American J
......American K
......American L
......American M
......American N
......American O
......American P
......American Q
......American R
......American S
......American T
......American U
......American V
......American W
......American XYZ
......Ame Non-classified
......Australia - empty


...Hippeastrum/ Lily
...Late Summer
...Each of the above ...Bulb Galleries has its own set of Flower Colour Pages
...Flower Shape
...Bulb Form

...Bulb Use

...Bulb in Soil

Further details on bulbs from the Infill Galleries:-
Hardy Bulbs



...Forcing Lily of the Valley



...Hyacinths in Pots


...Lilium in Pots
...Narcissi in Pots



Half-Hardy Bulbs



Uses of Bulbs:-
...for Bedding
...in Windowboxes
...in Border
...naturalized in Grass
...in Bulb Frame
...in Woodland Garden
...in Rock Garden
...in Bowls
...in Alpine House
...Bulbs in Greenhouse or Stove:-




...Plant Bedding in

...Bulb houseplants flowering inside House during:-
...Bulbs and other types of plant flowering during:-
...Selection of the smaller and choicer plants for the Smallest of Gardens with plant flowering during the same 6 periods as in the previous selection

Deciduous Shrub
...Shrubs - Decid
Deciduous Tree
...Trees - Decid
Evergreen Perennial
...P-Evergreen A-L
...P-Evergreen M-Z
...Flower Shape
Evergreen Shrub
...Shrubs - Evgr
...Heather Shrub
Evergreen Tree
...Trees - Evgr
Herbaceous Perennial
...P -Herbaceous
...RHS Wisley
...Flower Shape
Odds and Sods
...RHS Wisley A-F
...RHS Wisley G-R
...RHS Wisley S-Z
...Rose Use
...Other Roses A-F
...Other Roses G-R
...Other Roses S-Z
Soft Fruit
Top Fruit


Wild Flower
with its
flower colour page,
Site Map page in its flower colour
NOTE Gallery
...Blue Note
...Brown Note
...Cream Note
...Green Note
...Mauve Note
...Multi-Cols Note
...Orange Note
...Pink A-G Note
...Pink H-Z Note
...Purple Note
...Red Note
...White A-D Note
...White E-P Note
...White Q-Z Note
...Yellow A-G Note
...Yellow H-Z Note
...Shrub/Tree Note
Wildflower Plants


Topic - Flower/Foliage Colour
Colour Wheel Galleries

Following your choice using Garden Style then that changes your Plant Selection Process
Garden Style
...Infill Plants
...12 Bloom Colours per Month Index
...12 Foliage Colours per Month Index
...All Plants Index
...Cultivation, Position, Use Index
...Shape, Form

you could use these Flower Colour Wheels with number of colours
All Flowers 53

All Flowers per Month 12
with its
Explanation of
Structure of this Website with

...User Guidelines
All Bee-Pollinated Flowers per Month 12
Rock Garden and Alpine Flower Colour Wheel with number of colours
Rock Plant Flowers 53

...Rock Plant Photos

these Foliage Colour Wheels structures, which I have done but until I can take the photos and I am certain of the plant label's validity, these may not progress much further
All Foliage 212

All Spring Foliage 212
All Summer Foliage 212
All Autumn Foliage 212
All Winter Foliage 212

Flower Colour Wheel without photos, but with links to photos
12 Bloom Colours per Month Index
...All Plants Index


Topic - Wildlife on Plant Photo Gallery
Usage of Plants
by Egg, Caterpillar, Chrysalis and Butterfly

Egg, Caterpillar, Chrysalis and Butterfly usage of
Plant A-C
Plant C-M
Plant N-W
Butterfly usage of Plant


It is worth remembering that especially with roses that the colour of the petals of the flower may change - The following photos are of Rosa 'Lincolnshire Poacher' which I took on the same day in R.V. Roger's Nursery Field:-


Closed Bud


Opening Bud


Juvenile Flower


Older Juvenile Flower


Middle-aged Flower - Flower Colour in Season in its
Rose Description Page is
"Buff Yellow, with a very slight pink tint at the edges in May-October."


Mature Flower


Juvenile Flower and Dying Flower


Form of Rose Bush

There are 720 roses in the Rose Galleries; many of which have the above series of pictures in their respective Rose Description Page.

So one might avoid the disappointment that the 2 elephants had when their trunks were entwined instead of them each carrying their trunk using their own trunk, and your disappointment of buying a rose to discover that the colour you bought it for is only the case when it has its juvenile flowers; if you look at all the photos of the roses in the respective Rose Description Page!!!!


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