See photo from Gardening Express


See photo from Ashridge Trees


Click on photo from Landscaping by Bachman

Plant Name

Abies koreana

Common Name

Korean Fir


Acid Clay

Sun Aspect

Full Sun

Soil Moisture


Plant Type

Conical Conifer

Height x Spread in inches (cms)
(1 inch = 2.5 cms,
12 inches = 1 foot = 30 cms,
24 inches = 2 feet,
3 feet = 1 yard,
40 inches = 100 cms)

360 x 240 (900 x 600)


Shiny Dark Green, Silver beneath

Flower Colour in Month(s). Cone

Cylindrical Violet-Blue cones


"Best grown as a specimen tree, or in a bed - surrounded while small - with ornamental grasses and ground-hugging callunas, especially those with coloured foliage." from BBC.


Narrow Conical shape. Pruning Group 1.

"Small, slow growing conical fir with dark green, underside silvery, leaves and violet-blue cones, produced from an early age. A charming slender speciman which will never outgrow its welcome. Height 5m (15ft)." from R.V. Roger.

"Korean Fir is a very popular ornamental plant in gardens in cool climates, grown for its foliage but also for the abundant cone production even on young trees only 1-2 m tall. The cultivar 'Silberlocke' has gained the Royal Horticultural Society's Award of Garden Merit." from Wikipedia.

"Very rewarding slow growing conifer, with glossy green needles, silver-coloured on the underside. Even very young trees are adorned with pretty, violet-blue cones. Extremely elegant, pyramidal growing habit." from Gardening Express.

"After ten years it is usually not higher than 2.5 meters." from Voice of the Trees.

"Occurs in sub-alpine areas on shallow mountain soils poor in humus content. Its elevational range is between 1,000 m and 1,900 m asl. The climate is cool temperate, with a summer monsoon bringing the annual precipitation above 1,600 mm. Abies koreana grows in pure stands or mixed with Betula ermanii, Taxus cuspidata, Prunus maximowiczii, P. sargentii, Cornus kousa with an understory of Sasa quelpartensis on Cheju Island. On the mainland it is also mixed with Picea jezoensis, Pinus koraiensis, P. densiflora, Taxus cuspidata, Quercus mongolica var. mandshurica, Cornus controversa, Acer spp. Fraxinus sieboldiana, Magnolia sieboldii, Sorbus commixta, and several genera of low shrubs, e.g. Juniperus, Deutzia, Ribes and Rhododendron. The forest is usually open and essentially dominated by conifers, with A. koreana a minor component." from The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species.

Available from Gardening Express and Coblands Nurseries Ltd in the UK with Landscaping by Bachman in America.

Available also from R. V. Roger (open ground conifers dispatched between November and the following March).


Site Map of pages with content (o)


Variegated White
Variegated Yellow
Autumn Colour
4 Season Colour

Flattened Spherical
(o)Narrow Conical
(o)Broad Conical
Broad Ovoid
Narrow Vase-shape
Broad Fan-shape
Narrow Weeping
Broad Weeping








Height x Spread in feet (cms)

12 inches = 1 foot = 30 cms

Foliage Colour


Trunk Image

Shape Image

Foliage Image

Cones Image

Abies koreana
(Korean Fir)

30 x 20
(900 x 600)

Narrow Conical

After ten years it is usually not higher than 2.5 meters.

Dark Green, Silver beneath

Best grown as a specimen tree, or in a bed - surrounded while small - with ornamental grasses and ground-hugging callunas, especially those with coloured foliage.





Cryptomeria japonica
(Japanese Cedar, Japanese red cedar, Sugi (Japanese), Liu shan (Chinese).

80 x 20
(2400 x 600)

Narrow Conical

Mid to Deep Green

Good screening tree.
The Japanese cedar is the national tree of Japan and it is often planted near temples and shrines for symbolic reasons.
Although revered in its native Japan, it is not without its drawbacks, chief among them its pollen. When the male flowers shed their pollen from February, the incidence of hayfever increases dramatically and is also known to adversely affect asthma sufferers.





Cryptomeria japonica 'Elegans Compacta'
(Japanese Cedar)

9 x 6
(270 x 180)

Broad Conical

Juvenile Dark Green turning Bronze in Winter

Useful accent plant in bed of heathers and as screen





Juniperus communis
(Common Juniper)

10 x 10
(300 x 300)

Columnar - Because of its dense cover of prickly needles, juniper provides a good nesting site for birds such as the goldcrest (Regulus regulus) and the song thrush (Turdus philomelos), and it is also important in providing winter cover for the black grouse (Tetrao tetrix). The berries are eaten, and the seeds distributed, by birds such as the fieldfare (Turdus pilais), which is a seasonal migrant from Scandinavia, and the ring ouzel (Turdus torquatus).

Deep Green

Juniper foliage is eaten by mammals such as red deer (Cervus elaphus) and rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus), and the current excessive populations of both of these species has contributed to the current decline in juniper's distribution in the UK. The burning of moorland also limits the ability of juniper to regenerate.

Think twice about junipers if you or your neighbours grow pears. Juniper-Pear Rust is becoming a common fungus that switches between pears and junipers in alternate years. When it attacks pear leaves, they drop early and the yield of pears is reduced. In some pear-growing areas of the USA the planting of junipers is illegal.

Ground-cover. A small conical tree may make a good specimen tree but has also been known to make a good avenue.
Juniperus communis is used as an evergreen ornamental shrub in gardens.

"The colloquial name for gin - which is flavoured with juniper is 'Mother's Ruin' - is based on the juniper's ability to cause miscarriage." from The Poison Garden.





Juniperus recurva
(Himalayan weeping juniper, coffin juniper, drooping juniper, sacred juniper, chui zhi bai, chui zhu bai, xiao guo chui zhi bai, pama, pama, betar, guggal, thelu.)

30 x 15
(900 x 450)

Broad Conical


Ornamental tree valued for its drooping foliage.
The male and female forms of this species are very hardy in this country if sheltered from high winds, and succeed best in a rich, stiff, loamy soil, and in a slightly-shaded situation.





Juniperus recurva 'Densa'. Correct name is Juniperus squamata.
(Dwarf Himalayan weeping juniper, Singleseed Juniper.)

2 x 4
(60 x 90)

Narrow Conical

Dark Green

Ground-cover, container and hedges.
Junipers need little pruning.





Juniperus viginiana
(Eastern redcedar, Carolina cedar, cedar, cedar apple, evergreen, juniper, pencil cedar, red cedar, red juniper, red savin, savin, Virginia cedar.)

70 x 20
(2100 x 600)

Columnar - A tree shape designed by nature to be a haven for nesting birds.

Grey-Green with Bronze cast in Autumn

Windbreak, screen or speciman. Nesting and cover for wild animals and birds







Dobbies provides the following in its Easy Guide to growing Conifers (cannot find their advice page in September 2018):-

"Conifers come in a vast range of colours and many change shade during the year. Careful choice can give you a great splash of colour in autumn and winter when most other plants are dormant. Size is determined by variety and not by size at planting. Most plant labels carry a 10-year height as part of the description.


• [d] = dwarf, under 40cm in 10 years

• [s] = slow, under 1m in 10 years

• [m] = medium, up to 2m in 10 years

• [f] = fast, anything above that.

Growth rates vary: some grow quickly straight away (x Cupressocyparis leylandii) but then need to be kept in check; others are very slow for a time and then grow rapidly (Araucaria araucana – monkey puzzle); while some barely grow more than 2cm a year (Picea mariana ‘Nana’ – spruce).

Choosing & Planting

Conifers will tolerate most soils, but avoid planting in areas that waterlog regularly, except for Taxodium distichum (swamp cypress) and Metasequoia (dawn redwood). A very chalky soil will suit Taxus (yew), some junipers and pines. Local climate, such as areas of high or low rainfall, can affect height and spread.

Before planting, remove the tree from the pot and soak the rootball in a bucket of water for about 10 minutes. Clear the area of weeds.

Make the planting hole about twice the size of the rootball; the top of the rootball should be just 2.5cm below ground level.

Refill the planting hole with the original soil mixed with peat, coir or very well-rotted compost. Do not use nitrogenous fertilisers such as poultry or horse manure or bedding plant compost as this usually contains fast-release fertiliser, which can damage conifer roots.

One or two feeds with a slowrelease fertiliser will be quite enough to maintain growth.

Give enough water to keep the rootball moist but not waterlogged in the early years after planting.

Recommended Plants

There are well over 1,000 different conifer cultivars to choose from; if you cannot find a specific variety that you’re looking for, there will be alternatives. When choosing conifers for a certain position, it is easier to find them by height, colour and growth habit rather than trying to remember a long Latin name. New cultivars have much more user-friendly names! Below is a list of some of the more popular cultivars, although the choice is practically endless. For more varieties, take a trip to your local garden centre or nursery, or visit www.conifers.org.uk (this domain name is for sale in September 2018).



Chamaecyparis lawsoniana ‘Green Hedger’ [m], x Cupressocyparis leylandii [f], Taxus baccata [m], Thuja plicata ‘Atrovirens’[f], T. occidentalis Emerald [m] & ‘Brabant’ [f]


Chamaecyparis lawsoniana ‘Stardust’ [m], x Cupressocyparis leylandii ‘Castlewellan’[ f] & ‘Gold Rider’ [f], Cupressus macro carpa ‘Goldcrest’ [f], Taxus baccata golden varieties [m], Thuja occidentalis ‘Sunkist’ [m]


Chamaecyparis lawsoniana ‘Chilworth Silver’ [m] & ‘Pembury Blue’ [m], Cupressus arizonica ‘Blue Ice’ [f] & var. glabra [f]

  Variegated / White Tipped

Chamaecyparis lawsoniana ‘Summer Snow’ [m] & Argenteovariegata’[ m], x Cupressocyparis leylandii ‘Harlequin’ [f], Thuja plicata ‘Zebrina’ [m]

  Winter Color

Cryptomeria japonica Elegans Group [f] & Elegans Compacta [m]

Column (fastigiate)


hamaecyparis lawsoniana Ellwood’s Pillar [s], ‘Grayswood Feather’ [m], ‘Green Pillar’ [m], and ‘Little Spire’ [m], Cupressus sempervirens ‘Totem Pole’ [m], Taxus baccata ‘Fastigiata’ [m]


Chamaecyparis lawsoniana ‘Ellwood’s Gold’ [m], Cupressus macrocarpa ‘Wilma’ [m], C. sempervirens ‘Swanes Gold’ [s], Juniperus communis ‘Gold Cone’ [s], Taxus baccata ‘Standishi’ [s]


Chamaecyparis lawsoniana ‘Pelt’s Blue’ [f], Juniperus communis ‘Compressa’ [d], J. scopulorum ‘Blue Arrow’ [m], Pinus sylvestris Fastigiata Group [m]

  Variegated / White Tipped

Juniperus scopulorum ‘Silver Star’[m], Taxus baccata ‘Fastigiata Aureomarginata’ [s], ‘Icicle’ [d] & ‘Ivory Tower’ [s]

Conal (pyramidal)


Chamaecyparis lawsoniana ‘Ellwoodii’ m, x Cupressocyparis leylandii ‘Olive’s Green’ f, Picea glauca var. albertiana ‘Conica’ m & ‘Laurin’ d, Thuja occidentalis ‘Holmstrup’ m


Chamaecyparis lawsoniana ‘Minima Aurea’ [s], ‘Springtime’ [s] & ‘Yvonne’ [m], Thuja occidentalis ‘Yellow Ribbon’ [m]


Abies lasiocarpa ‘Compacta’ [m], Cupressus arizonica ‘Pyramidalis’ [m], Juniperus chinensis ‘Pyramidalis’ [m], Picea glauca Alberta Blue s & ‘Sanders Blue’ s, P. pungens ‘Hoopsii’ [m] & Glauca Group [m]

  Variegated / White Tipped

Chamaecyparis lawsoniana ‘Fleckellwood’ [m], ‘Snow White’ [m] & ‘Summer Snow’ [m], Juniperus chinensis ‘Variegata’ [m], Picea glauca ‘J. W. Daisy’s White’ [s]

  Bronze / Purple / Winter Color

Chamaecyparis thyoides ‘Ericoides’ [s], ‘Rubicon’ [s] & ‘Top Point’ [s]

Trimming & Pruning

Correctly chosen, most conifers only require a light clip in late summer with secateurs or shears to keep the shape correct. Despite popular myth, x Cupressocyparis leylandii only need one trim a year, preferably in July. Untrimmed fast-growing hedging plants are a social menace, so be a good neighbour and keep them in check. Junipers benefit from occasional radical pruning and most will reshoot from the old wood. However, as with most conifers, don’t let them get too large before pruning otherwise you will have unsightly brown wood for a year or two.



Abies balsamea Hudsonia Group d, Chamaecyparis obtusa ‘Nana Gracilis’ s, Pinus mugo varieties s, Tsuga canadensis ‘Jeddeloh’ s


Chamaecyparis obtusa ‘Fernspray Gold’ [m], ‘Nana’ [d], ‘Nana Aurea’ [s] & ‘Nana Lutea’ [s], C. pisifera ‘Filifera Nana’ [s] & ‘Sungold’ [s], Pinus densiflora ‘Alice Verkade’ [m], Thuja occidentalis ‘Rheingold’ [s], T. plicata ‘Whipcord’ [m]


Chamaecyparis pisifera ‘Boulevard’ [m] & ‘Squarrosa Lombarts’ [m], Juniperus ‘Grey Owl’ [m], J. squamata ‘Blue Star’ [d]

  Variegated / White Tipped

Chamaecyparis lawsoniana ‘Nana Albospica’ [s], C. pisifera ‘Snowflake’ [d], Cryptomeria japonica ‘Sekkan-sugi’ [m], J. x pfitzeriana ‘Sulphur Spray’ [m]/[p]>

  Bronze / Purple / Winter Color

Cryptomeria japonica ‘Elegans Compacta [s], Juniperus horizontalis ‘Andorra Compact’ [d], Podocarpus ‘Blaze’ [d] & ‘County Park Fire’ [d], Platycladus orientalis ‘Rosedalis’ [s]

Ball (glubose)


Chamaecyparis lawsoniana ‘Gnome’ [d], ‘Green Globe’ [d] & ‘Minima Glauca’ [s], Picea abies ‘Little Gem’ [d], P. glauca ‘Alberta Globe’ [d], Thuja occidentalis ‘Danica’ [d]


Platycladus orientalis ‘Aurea Nana’ [s], Thuja occidentalis ‘Amber Glow’ [d], ‘Golden Globe’ [s] & ‘Golden Tuffet’ [d]


Chamaecyparis pisifera ‘Curly Tops’ [s], Picea mariana ‘Nana’ [d], P. pungens ‘Globosa’ [s]

  Variegated / White Tipped

Chamaecyparis lawsoniana ‘Pygmaea Argentea’ [d], C. pisifera ‘Nana Aureovariegata’ [d] & ‘Plumosa Compressa’ [d], Cryptomeria japonica ‘Golden Promise’ [d]

  Bronze / Purple / Winter Color

Cryptomeria japonica ‘Compressa’ [d] & ‘Vilmoriniana’ [d], Thuja occidentalis ‘Teddy’ [d]

Ground Cover (prostrate / semi-prostrate) -- Growth rates differ to width


Juniperus communis ‘Green Carpet’ [s], ‘Hornibrookii’ [m] & ‘Repanda’ [m], J. x pfitzeriana ‘Mint Julep’ [m], J. rigida subsp. conferta [m], J. sabina ‘Tamariscifolia’ [m]


Juniperus horizontalis ‘Golden Carpet’ [d], J. x pfitzeriana ‘Carberry Gold’ [m], ‘Gold Coast’ [m] & Golden Joy’ [s]


Cedrus deo ‘Feelin’ Blue’ [m], Juniperus horizontalis ‘Blue Chip’ [m] & Glauca Group [m], J. squamata ‘Blue Carpet’ [m]

  Variegated / White Tipped

Juniperus chinensis ‘Expansa Aureospicata’ [m], J. squamata ‘Holger’ [s], Taxus baccata ‘Repens Aurea’ [m]

  Bronze / Purple / Winter Color

Juniperus horizontalis ‘Andorra Compact’ [s] & ‘Winter Blue’ [m], Microbiota decussata [m], Taxus baccata ‘Corleys Coppertip’ [m]

Trimming & Pruning

Few gardens rely solely on flowers for year-round interest; they also need a structure of different plant shapes, colours and textures to provide a background and maintain year-round appeal. Conifers are ideal because they are available in so many forms, are hardy, easy to care for and long-living.

• Hedges in a variety of growth rates and colour give privacy, provide habitats for wildlife, absorb traffic noise and pollution, screen unsightly objects and create a backdrop for the garden (see our leaflet Making Gardens Beneficial to Wildlife for advice on planting a hedge).

• Ground cover can be provided by fast- or slow-growing prostrate conifers used to edge ponds, paths or borders; cover unsightly areas; and suppress weeds. They can act as a foil for bulbs, flowers and grasses.

• Specimens planted in the centre of a lawn, in a corner, in a tub or in a border or rockery can add structural interest to a garden.

• Containers: miniature and dwarf conifers suit container planting and will last five years or more in the same pot with a minimum of attention. Just water in summer, give an occasional trim and an annual feed of slow-release fertiliser. Low troughs can be underplanted with miniature bulbs and bedding plants. Plant a single conifer in patio planters to give height or a combination of different shapes, textures and colours for an all-round display. Use prostrate junipers in place of trailing plants.

• Borders can benefit from the graceful, arching foliage of pendulous conifers or upright-growing specimens. Plant with other shrubs, phormiums, heathers or grasses for a long-lasting border.

• Water features: conifers are excellent planted beside water as their strong shapes make wonderful reflections. They also hide the edges of pond liners and break up fixed lines of vision.

• Mixed plantings: conifers can be used with other plants to give year-round interest and colour: dwarf conifers live happily alongside other plants in containers, or by themselves as specimens. Try them with winter bedding and early spring bulbs and flowers, which can then be swapped for summer bedding. Heathers and hardy cyclamen also make a great combination."

Ivydene Horticultural Services logo with I design, construct and maintain private gardens. I also advise and teach you in your own garden. 01634 389677



Site design and content copyright ©January 2007. Page structure amended November 2012. Completed change from adding a page to mapping and thus changing that page to the desired plant description page and index details, September 2018. Chris Garnons-Williams.

DISCLAIMER: Links to external sites are provided as a courtesy to visitors. Ivydene Horticultural Services are not responsible for the content and/or quality of external web sites linked from this site.  


Book preview by The Royal Horticultural Society:-

"Royal Horticultural Society Encyclopedia of Conifers: A Comprehensive Guide to Cultivars and Species by Aris G. Auders and Derek P. Spicer 2 volumes
ISBN 9781907057151 Published in July 2012

The Royal Horticultural Society encyclopedia is a much needed reference book on conifer cultivars and species, both hardy and tropical. The two volumes of this extensive and lavishly illustrated 1,500-page work feature about 8,000 cultivars, over 5,000 photographs and all of the world’s 615 conifer species, plus their subspecies and varieties."


A Tree a Day provides lists of trees ( click on name in each list to get details and photo ) suitable for:-

Topic - Over 1060 links in this table to a topic in a topic folder or page within that folder of this website
Case Studies
...Drive Foundations
Ryegrass and turf kills plants within Roadstone and in Topsoil due to it starving and dehydrating them.
CEDAdrive creates stable drive surface and drains rain into your ground, rather than onto the public road.
8 problems caused by building house on clay or with house-wall attached to clay.
Pre-building work on polluted soil.

Companion Planting
A ,B ,C ,D ,E ,
F ,G ,H ,I ,J ,K ,
L ,M ,N ,O ,P ,Q ,
R ,S ,T ,U ,V ,W ,
X, Y, Z
...Pest Control
...using Plants
to provide a Companion Plant to aid your selected plant or deter its pests


with ground drains
Garden Design
...How to Use the Colour Wheel Concepts for Selection of Flowers, Foliage and Flower Shape
...RHS Mixed

......Bedding Plants
......Her Perennials
......Other Plants
......Camera photos of Plant supports

Glossary with a tomato teaching cauliflowers
Library of over 1000 books
Offbeat Glossary with DuLally Bird in its flower clock.

...in Chalk
(Alkaline) Soil
......A-F1, A-F2,
......A-F3, G-L, M-R,
......M-R Roses, S-Z
...in Heavy
Clay Soil
......A-F, G-L, M-R,
...in Lime-Free
(Acid) Soil
......A-F, G-L, M-R,
...in Light
Sand Soil
......A-F, G-L, M-R,
...Poisonous Plants.
...Extra Plant Pages
with its 6 Plant Selection Levels

Interaction between 2 Quartz Sand Grains to make soil
How roots of plants are in control in the soil
Without replacing Soil Nutrients, the soil will break up to only clay, sand or silt
Subsidence caused by water in Clay
Use water ring for trees/shrubs for first 2 years.

Tool Shed with 3 kneeling pads
Useful Data with benefits of Seaweed

Topic -
Plant Photo Galleries
with Plant Botanical Index

...A, B, C, D, E,
...F, G, H, I, J, K,
...L, M, N, O, P, Q,
...R, S, T, U, V, W,
...X, Y, Z

If the plant type below has flowers, then the first gallery will include the flower thumbnail in each month of 1 of 6 or 7 flower colour comparison pages of each plant in its subsidiary galleries, as a low-level Plant Selection Process
...by Flower Shape

Bulb Index
A1, 2, 3, B, C1, 2,
D, E, F, G, Glad,
H, I, J, K, L1, 2,
M, N, O, P, Q, R,
S, T, U, V, W, XYZ
...Allium/ Anemone
...Colchicum/ Crocus
...Gladiolus with its 40 Flower Colours
......European A-E
......European F-M
......European N-Z
......Eur Non-classified
......American A
......American B
......American C
......American D
......American E
......American F
......American G
......American H
......American I
......American J
......American K
......American L
......American M
......American N
......American O
......American P
......American Q
......American R
......American S
......American T
......American U
......American V
......American W
......American XYZ
......Ame Non-classified
......Australia - empty
...Hippeastrum/ Lily
...Late Summer
...Each of the above ...Bulb Galleries has its own set of Flower Colour Pages
...Flower Shape
...Bulb Form

...Bulb Use

...Bulb in Soil

Further details on bulbs from the Infill Galleries:-
Hardy Bulbs



...Forcing Lily of the Valley



...Hyacinths in Pots


...Lilium in Pots
...Narcissi in Pots



Half-Hardy Bulbs



Uses of Bulbs:-
...for Bedding
...in Windowboxes
...in Border
...naturalized in Grass
...in Bulb Frame
...in Woodland Garden
...in Rock Garden
...in Bowls
...in Alpine House
...Bulbs in Greenhouse or Stove:-




...Plant Bedding in

...Bulb houseplants flowering inside House during:-
...Bulbs and other types of plant flowering during:-
...Selection of the smaller and choicer plants for the Smallest of Gardens with plant flowering during the same 6 periods as in the previous selection

Climber in
3 Sector Vertical Plant System
Deciduous Shrub
...Shrubs - Decid
Deciduous Tree
...Trees - Decid
Evergreen Perennial
...P-Evergreen A-L
...P-Evergreen M-Z
...Flower Shape
Evergreen Shrub
...Shrubs - Evergreen
...Heather Shrub
...Heather Index
......Erica: Carnea
......Erica: Cinerea
......Erica: Others
Evergreen Tree
...Trees - Evergreen

...Diascia Photo Album,
...UK Peony Index

...P -Herbaceous
...Flower Shape
...RHS Wisley
......Mixed Border
......Other Borders
Odds and Sods

...RHS Wisley A-F
...RHS Wisley G-R
...RHS Wisley S-Z
...Rose Use - page links in row 6. Rose, RHS Wisley and Other Roses rose indices on each Rose Use page
...Other Roses A-F
...Other Roses G-R
...Other Roses S-Z
Pruning Methods
Photo Index
R 1, 2, 3
Peter Beales Roses
RV Roger

Soft Fruit
Top Fruit

Wild Flower and
Butterfly page links are in next row

Topic -
Butterflies in the UK mostly use native UK wildflowers.

Butterfly Species.

Egg, Caterpillar, Chrysalis and Butterfly Usage
of Plants.

Plant Usage by
Egg, Caterpillar, Chrysalis and Butterfly.

Wild Flower
with its
flower colour page,
Site Map page in its flower colour NOTE Gallery
...Blue Note
...Brown Botanical Names
...Cream Common Names
...Green Note
...Mauve Note
...Multi-Cols Note
...Orange Note
...Pink A-G Note
...Pink H-Z Note
...Purple Note
...Red Note
...White A-D Note
...White E-P Note
...White Q-Z Note
...Yellow A-G Note
...Yellow H-Z Note
...Shrub/Tree Note

Wildflower Plants.

You know its name, use
Wild Flower Plant Index a-h, i-p, q-z.
You know which habitat it lives in, use
Acid Soil,
(Chalk) Soil
Marine Soil,
Neutral Soil,
is a
is a
is a
Rush, or
is a
You have seen its flower, use Comparison Pages containing Wild Flower Plants and Cultivated Plants in the
Colour Wheel Gallery.

Each plant named in each of the 180 Wildflower Family Pages within their 23 Galleries may have a link to:-
1) its Plant Description Page in its Common Name column in one of those Wildflower Plant Galleries and will have links,
2) to external sites to purchase the plant or seed in its Botanical Name column,
3) to see photos in its Flowering Months column and
4) to read habitat details in its Habitat Column.

(o)Adder's Tongue
(o)Bog Myrtle
(o)Cornel (Dogwood)
(o)Crucifer (Cabbage/Mustard) 1
(o)Crucifer (Cabbage/Mustard) 2
(o)Daisy Cudweeds
(o)Daisy Chamomiles
(o)Daisy Thistle
(o)Daisy Catsears (o)Daisy Hawkweeds
(o)Daisy Hawksbeards
(o)Dock Bistorts
(o)Dock Sorrels
(o)Filmy Fern
(o)Royal Fern
(o)Figwort - Mulleins
(o)Figwort - Speedwells
(o)Grass 1
(o)Grass 2
(o)Grass 3
(o)Grass Soft
Bromes 1

(o)Grass Soft
Bromes 2

(o)Grass Soft
Bromes 3

(o)Jacobs Ladder
(o)Lily Garlic
(o)Marsh Pennywort
(o)Melon (Gourd/Cucumber)
(o)Orchid 1
(o)Orchid 2
(o)Orchid 3
(o)Orchid 4
Clover 1

Clover 2

Clover 3

(o)Peaflower Vetches/Peas
(o)Pink 1
(o)Pink 2
Rannock Rush
(o)Rose 1
(o)Rose 2
(o)Rose 3
(o)Rose 4
(o)Rush Woodrushes
(o)Saint Johns Wort
Saltmarsh Grasses
(o)Sea Lavender
(o)Sedge Rush-like
(o)Sedges Carex 1
(o)Sedges Carex 2
(o)Sedges Carex 3
(o)Sedges Carex 4
Tassel Pondweed
(o)Thyme 1
(o)Thyme 2
(o)Umbellifer 1
(o)Umbellifer 2
(o)Water Fern
(o)Water Milfoil
(o)Water Plantain
(o)Water Starwort

Topic -
The following is a complete hierarchical Plant Selection Process

dependent on the Garden Style chosen
Garden Style
...Infill Plants
...12 Bloom Colours per Month Index
...12 Foliage Colours per Month Index
...All Plants Index
...Cultivation, Position, Use Index
...Shape, Form

Topic -
Flower/Foliage Colour Wheel Galleries with number of colours as a high-level Plant Selection Process

All Flowers 53 with
...Use of Plant and
Flower Shape
- page links in bottom row

All Foliage 53
instead of redundant
...(All Foliage 212)

All Flowers
per Month 12

Bee instead of wind pollinated plants for hay-fever sufferers
All Bee-Pollinated Flowers
per Month

Rock Garden and Alpine Flowers
Rock Plant Flowers 53
A, B, C, D, E, F,
G, H, I, J, K, L,
M, NO, PQ, R, S,
...Rock Plant Photos

Flower Colour Wheel without photos, but with links to photos
12 Bloom Colours
per Month Index

...All Plants Index

Topic -
Use of Plant in your Plant Selection Process

Plant Colour Wheel Uses
1. Perfect general use soil is composed of 8.3% lime, 16.6% humus, 25% clay and 50% sand, and
2. Why you are continually losing the SOIL STRUCTURE so your soil - will revert to clay, chalk, sand or silt.
Uses of Plant and Flower Shape:-
...Foliage Only
...Other than Green Foliage
...Trees in Lawn
...Trees in Small Gardens
...Wildflower Garden
...Attract Bird
...Attract Butterfly
, 2
...Climber on House Wall
...Climber not on House Wall
...Climber in Tree
...Pollution Barrier
...Part Shade
...Full Shade
...Single Flower provides Pollen for Bees
, 2, 3
...Covering Banks
...Patio Pot
...Edging Borders
...Back of Border
...Adjacent to Water
...Bog Garden
...Tolerant of Poor Soil
...Not Fragrant
...Standard Plant is 'Ball on Stick'
...Upright Branches or Sword-shaped leaves
...Plant to Prevent Entry to Human or Animal
...Coastal Conditions
...Tolerant on North-facing Wall
...Cut Flower
...Potted Veg Outdoors
...Potted Veg Indoors
...Raised Bed Outdoors Veg
...Grow in Alkaline Soil A-F, G-L, M-R,
...Grow in Acidic Soil
...Grow in Any Soil
...Grow in Rock Garden
...Grow Bulbs Indoors

Uses of Bedding
...Bedding Out
...Filling In
...Pots and Troughs
...Window Boxes
...Hanging Baskets
...Spring Bedding
...Summer Bedding
...Winter Bedding
...Foliage instead of Flower
...Coleus Bedding Photos for use in Public Domain 1

Uses of Bulb
...Other than Only Green Foliage
...Bedding or Mass Planting
...Tolerant of Shade
...In Woodland Areas
...Tolerant of Poor Soil
...Covering Banks
...In Water
...Beside Stream or Water Garden
...Coastal Conditions
...Edging Borders
...Back of Border or Back-ground Plant
...Fragrant Flowers
...Not Fragrant Flowers

...Grow in a Patio Pot
...Grow in an Alpine Trough
...Grow in an Alpine House
...Grow in Rock Garden
...Speciman Plant
...Into Native Plant Garden
...Naturalize in Grass
...Grow in Hanging Basket
...Grow in Window-box
...Grow in Green-house
...Grow in Scree
...Naturalized Plant Area
...Grow in Cottage Garden
...Attracts Butterflies
...Attracts Bees
...Resistant to Wildlife
...Bulb in Soil:-
......Lime-Free (Acid)

Uses of Rose
Rose Index

...Bedding 1, 2
...Climber /Pillar
...Cut-Flower 1, 2
...Exhibition, Speciman
...Grow In A Container 1, 2
...Hedge 1, 2
...Climber in Tree
...Edging Borders
...Tolerant of Poor Soil 1, 2
...Tolerant of Shade
...Back of Border
...Adjacent to Water

Topic -
Camera Photo Galleries showing all 4000 x 3000 pixels of each photo on your screen that you can then click and drag it to your desktop as part of a Plant Selection Process:-

RHS Garden at Wisley

Plant Supports -
When supporting plants in a bed, it is found that not only do those plants grow upwards, but also they expand their roots and footpad sideways each year. Pages
, 2, 3, 8, 11,
12, 13,
Plants 4, 7, 10,
Bedding Plants 5,
Plant Supports for Unknown Plants 5
Clematis Climbers 6,
the RHS does not appear to either follow it's own pruning advice or advice from The Pruning of Trees, Shrubs and Conifers by George E. Brown.
ISBN 0-571-11084-3 with the plants in Pages 1-7 of this folder. You can see from looking at both these resources as to whether the pruning carried out on the remainder of the plants in Pages 7-15 was correct.

Narcissus (Daffodil) 9,
Phlox Plant Supports 14, 15

Coleus Bedding Foliage Trial - Pages
1, 2, 3, 4, 5,
6, 7, 8, 9, 10,
11, 12, 13, 14, 15,
16, 17, 18, 19, 20,
21, 22, 23, 24, 25,
26, 27, 28, 29, 30,
31, 32, Index

National Trust Garden at Sissinghurst Castle
Plant Supports -
Pages for Gallery 1

with Plant Supports
1, 5, 10
2, 3, 4, 6, 7, 8, 9,
11, 12
Recommended Rose Pruning Methods 13
Pages for Gallery 2
with Plant Supports
Plants 1, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7

Dry Garden of
RHS Garden at
Hyde Hall

Plants - Pages
without Plant Supports
Plants 1
, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9

Nursery of
Peter Beales Roses
Display Garden

Roses Pages
1, 2, 3, 4, 5,
6, 7, 8, 9, 10,
11, 12, 13

Nursery of
RV Roger

Roses - Pages
V76,Z77, 78,

Damage by Plants in Chilham Village - Pages
1, 2, 3, 4

Pavements of Funchal, Madeira
Damage to Trees - Pages
1, 2, 3, 4, 5,
6, 7, 8, 9, 10,
11, 12, 13
for trees 1-54,
14, 15,
16, 17, 18, 19, 20,
21, 22, 23, 24, 25,
for trees 55-95,
26, 27, 28, 29, 30,
31, 32, 33, 34, 35,
36, 37,
for trees 95-133,
38, 39, 40,
41, 42, 43, 44, 45,
for trees 133-166

Chris Garnons-Williams
Work Done - Pages
1, 2, 3, 4, 5,
6, 7, 8, 9, 10,
11, 12, 13

Identity of Plants
Label Problems - Pages
1, 2, 3, 4, 5,
6, 7, 8, 9, 10,

Ron and Christine Foord - 1036 photos only inserted so far - Garden Flowers - Start Page of each Gallery
AB1 ,AN14,BA27,

Plant with Photo Index of Ivydene Gardens - 1187
A 1, 2, Photos - 43
B 1, Photos - 13
C 1, Photos - 35
D 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7,
Photos - 411
with Plants causing damage to buildings in Chilham Village and Damage to Trees in Pavements of Funchal
E 1, Photos - 21
F 1, Photos - 1
G 1, Photos - 5
H 1, Photos - 21
I 1, Photos - 8
J 1, Photos - 1
K 1, Photos - 1
L 1, Photos - 85
with Label Problems
M 1, Photos - 9
N 1, Photos - 12
O 1, Photos - 5
P 1, Photos - 54
Q 1, Photos -
R 1, 2, 3,
Photos - 229
S 1, Photos - 111
T 1, Photos - 13
U 1, Photos - 5
V 1, Photos - 4
W 1, Photos - 100
with Work Done by Chris Garnons-Williams
X 1 Photos -
Y 1, Photos -
Z 1 Photos -
Articles/Items in Ivydene Gardens - 88
Flower Colour, Num of Petals, Shape and
Plant Use of:-
Rock Garden
within linked page


Topic -
Fragrant Plants as a Plant Selection Process for your sense of smell:-

Sense of Fragrance from Roy Genders

Fragrant Plants:-
Trees and Shrubs with Scented Flowers
, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6
Shrubs bearing Scented Flowers for an Acid Soil
, 2, 3, 4
Shrubs bearing Scented Flowers for a
Chalky or Limestone Soil
, 2, 3, 4
Shrubs bearing Scented leaves for a
Sandy Soil
, 2, 3
Herbaceous Plants with Scented Flowers
, 2, 3
Annual and Biennial Plants with Scented Flowers or Leaves
, 2
Bulbs and Corms with Scented Flowers
, 2, 3, 4, 5
Scented Plants of Climbing and Trailing Habit
, 2, 3
Winter-flowering Plants with Scented Flowers
, 2
Night-scented Flowering Plants
, 2

Topic -
Website User Guidelines

My Gas Service Engineer found Flow and Return pipes incorrectly positioned on gas boilers and customers had refused to have positioning corrected in 2020.